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Sample records for alkaline spray generator

  1. Study on a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization with multifluid alkaline spray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.G.; Zhang, M.C.; Wang, D.F.; Wang, L.

    2005-11-09

    The advantages and disadvantages of the typical semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are analyzed, and a novel semidry FGD process with multifluid alkaline spray generator is first proposed to improve the colliding contact efficiency between sorbent particles and spray water droplets, and to form a large amount of aqueous lime slurry. The experimental results show that the colliding contact efficiency between lime particles and water droplets in the prefix alkaline spray generator may reach about 70%, which is significantly higher than the colliding contact efficiency of 25% in duct sorbent injection. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can reach 64.5% when the Ca/S molar ratio is 1.5, the approach to the saturation temperature is 10.3{sup o}C, and the flue gas residence time is 2.25 s. It is higher than that of in-duct sorbent injection under similar conditions, and the sorbent utilization is improved to 43%. Therefore, the FGD process with a prefix alkaline spray generator can greatly improve SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization and it will be a new, simple and efficient semidry FGD process for industrial application in the future.

  2. Numerical simulation of multiphase flow and collision humidification in the multifluid alkaline spray generator for a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.G.; Cao, W.C.; Wang, L.; Zhang, M.C.

    2008-07-15

    A hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model was developed to simulate gas-droplet-particle multiphase flow and the collision humidification between sorbent particles and spray droplets in the confined multifluid alkaline spray generator for a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization system. In this model, the motions of discrete phases were tracked simultaneously by using a stochastic trajectory approach, and a probability model of droplets catching particles was presented to judge whether sorbent particles were caught with direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Numerical humidification efficiency of sorbent particles is validated by the experimental one deduced from the measured desulfurization efficiency. The effects of flue gas flow rate, spray droplet diameter, sorbent particle diameter, and particle injection location on the humidification efficiency were optimized. Numerical results show that the collision humidification efficiency of sorbent particles increases significantly at the axial distance of 1.67 times the generator diameter from the nozzle tip and reaches 78.5% without recirculation flow in the alkaline spray generator when the ratio of flue gas mass flow rate to spray water mass flow rate is 6.7. Moreover, there is an optimal droplet diameter ranging from 125 to 150 {mu} m and an optimal particle injection location corresponding to the maximum humidification efficiency in this paper.

  3. Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems

    DOEpatents

    Sibley, Howard W.

    1979-06-19

    A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

  4. Measurement Of Water Sprays Generated By Airplane Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental investigation conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to measure rate of flow and trajectory of water spray generated by tire operating on flooded runway. Potential application to both aircraft and automotive industries, with particular application to manufacturers of tires.

  5. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  6. Alkaline static feed electrolyzer based oxygen generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, L. D.; Kovach, A. J.; Fortunato, F. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Grigger, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    In preparation for the future deployment of the Space Station, an R and D program was established to demonstrate integrated operation of an alkaline Water Electrolysis System and a fuel cell as an energy storage device. The program's scope was revised when the Space Station Control Board changed the energy storage baseline for the Space Station. The new scope was aimed at the development of an alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer for use in an Environmental Control/Life Support System as an oxygen generation system. As a result, the program was divided into two phases. The phase 1 effort was directed at the development of the Static Feed Electrolyzer for application in a Regenerative Fuel Cell System. During this phase, the program emphasized incorporation of the Regenerative Fuel Cell System design requirements into the Static Feed Electrolyzer electrochemical module design and the mechanical components design. The mechanical components included a Pressure Control Assembly, a Water Supply Assembly and a Thermal Control Assembly. These designs were completed through manufacturing drawing during Phase 1. The Phase 2 effort was directed at advancing the Alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer database for an oxygen generation system. This development was aimed at extending the Static Feed Electrolyzer database in areas which may be encountered from initial fabrication through transportation, storage, launch and eventual Space Station startup. During this Phase, the Program emphasized three major areas: materials evaluation, electrochemical module scaling and performance repeatability and Static Feed Electrolyzer operational definition and characterization.

  7. Singlet-Oxygen Generation in Alkaline Periodate Solution.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-12-15

    A nonphotochemical generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) using potassium periodate (KIO4) in alkaline condition (pH > 8) was investigated for selective oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. The generation of (1)O2 was initiated by the spontaneous reaction between IO4(-) and hydroxyl ions, along with a stoichiometric conversion of IO4(-) to iodate (IO3(-)). The reactivity of in-situ-generated (1)O2 was monitored by using furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a model substrate. The formation of (1)O2 in the KIO4/KOH system was experimentally confirmed using electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements in corroboration with quenching studies using azide as a selective (1)O2 scavenger. The reaction in the KIO4/KOH solution in both oxic and anoxic conditions initiated the generation of superoxide ion as a precursor of the singlet oxygen (confirmed by using superoxide scavengers), and the presence of molecular oxygen was not required as a precursor of (1)O2. Although hydrogen peroxide had no direct influence on the FFA oxidation process, the presence of natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids, enhanced the oxidation efficiency. Using the oxidation of simple organic diols as model compounds, the enhanced (1)O2 formation is attributed to periodate-mediated oxidation of vicinal hydroxyl groups present in humic and fulvic constituent moieties. The efficient and simple generation of (1)O2 using the KIO4/KOH system without any light irradiation can be employed for the selective oxidation of aqueous organic compounds under neutral and near-alkaline conditions. PMID:26594871

  8. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  9. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y. H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2015-06-09

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  10. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  11. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOEpatents

    Pui, David Y. H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2009-03-03

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  17. Computer-Aided Robot Trajectory Auto-generation Strategy in Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Liang, Hong; Quan, Shuhai; Deng, Sihao; Zeng, Chunnian; Zhang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with a new methodology which is designed to auto-generate the robotic trajectory for thermal spraying process. Based on it, a software package named Thermal Spray Toolkit is developed and integrated in the main frame of off-line programming software RobotStudio™ (Product of ABB Company, Sweden). This toolkit implements the robotic trajectory planning in an interactive manner between RobotStudio™ and the finite element analysis software (FES). It allows rearranging the imported node index created on the surface of workpiece by FES and in turn generating the thermal spraying needed robot trajectories. Several parameters in thermal spraying, such as scanning step and torch-substrate relative velocity which have major influence on the coating deposition, are considered in the trajectory generation process. Experiment is carried out to check the reliability of the generated robot trajectory.

  18. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Mlkvik, Marek; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  19. Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-03-01

    Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

  20. Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

    2013-06-01

    Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

  1. Laser-induced plasma generation and evolution in a transient spray.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuya; Tomita, Eiji

    2014-01-13

    The behaviors of laser-induced plasma and fuel spray were investigated by visualizing images with an ultra-high-speed camera. Time-series images of laser-induced plasma in a transient spray were visualized using a high-speed color camera. The effects of a shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma on the evaporated spray behavior were investigated. The interaction between a single droplet and the laser-induced plasma was investigated using a single droplet levitated by an ultrasonic levitator. Two main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: (1) the fuel droplets in the spray were dispersed by the shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma; and (2) the plasma position may have shifted due to breakdown of the droplet surface and the lens effect of droplets. PMID:24921999

  2. Trajectory Generation and Coupled Numerical Simulation for Thermal Spraying Applications on Complex Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candel, A.; Gadow, R.

    2009-12-01

    For high process reproducibility and optimized coating quality in thermal spray applications on complex geometries, atmospheric plasma spraying and high-velocity oxygen fuel torches are guided by advanced robot systems. The trajectory of the torch, the spray angle, and the relative speed between torch and component are crucial factors which affect the coating microstructure, properties, and, especially, the residual stress distribution. Thus, the requirement of high-performance thermally sprayed coatings with narrow dimensional tolerances leads to challenges in the field of robot-assisted handling, and software tools for efficient trajectory generation and robot programming are demanded. By appropriate data exchange, the automatically generated torch trajectory and speed profile can be integrated in finite element method models to analyze their influence on the heat and mass transfer during deposition. Coating experiments assisted by online diagnostics were performed to validate the developed software tools.

  3. High performance nickel-palladium nanocatalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline hydrous hydrazine at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Debaleena; Mandal, Kaustab; Dasgupta, Subrata

    2015-08-01

    Room temperature synthesized highly active bimetallic Ni60Pd40 nanocatalyst with large surface area (150 m2g-1) exerts 100% selectivity towards hydrogen generation (3 equivalents of gas in 60 min) from hydrous hydrazine under alkaline and ambient reaction conditions. This low noble metal content catalyst offers a new prospect for on-board hydrogen production system.

  4. A laboratory study of spray generation in high winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Mehta, S.; Laxague, N. J. M.

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the vertical distribution of large spray particles (i.e., spume) in high wind conditions is necessary for better understanding of the development of the atmospheric boundary layer in extreme conditions. To this end a laboratory experiment was designed to observe the droplet concentration in the air above actively breaking waves. The experiments were carried out in hurricane force conditions (U 10 equivalent wind speed of 36 to 54 m/s) and using both fresh water and salt water. While small differences between fresh and salt water were observed in profiles of radius-integrated spray volume fraction, the profiles tend to converge as the wind forcing increases. This supports the assumption that the physical mechanism for spume production is not sensitive to salinity and its corresponding link to the bubble size distribution.

  5. External total alkalinity loads versus internal generation: The influence of nonriverine alkalinity sources in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Erik; Wällstedt, Teresia; Humborg, Christoph; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we first present updated riverine total alkalinity (TA) loads to the various Baltic Sea sub-basins, based on monthly measurements in 82 of the major rivers that represent 85% of the total runoff. Simulations in the coupled physical-biogeochemical BALTSEM (BAltic sea Long-Term large Scale Eutrophication Model) model show that these river loads together with North Sea water inflows are not sufficient to reproduce observed TA concentrations in the system, demonstrating the large influence from internal sources. Budget calculations indicate that the required internal TA generation must be similar to river loads in magnitude. The nonriverine source in the system amounts to about 2.4 mmol m-2 d-1 on average. We argue here that the majority of this source is related to denitrification together with unresolved sediment processes such as burial of reduced sulfur and/or silicate weathering. This hypothesis is supported by studies on sediment processes on a global scale and also by data from sediment cores in the Baltic Sea. In a model simulation with all internal TA sources and sinks switched on, the net absorption of atmospheric CO2 increased by 0.78 mol C m-2 yr-1 compared to a simulation where TA was treated as a passive tracer. Our results clearly illustrate how pelagic TA sources together with anaerobic mineralization in coastal sediments generate a significant carbon sink along the aquatic continuum, mitigating CO2 evasions from coastal and estuarine systems.

  6. Spray generator of singlet oxygen with a centrifugal separation of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špalek, Otomar; Jirásek, Vít; Censký, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila; Picková, Irena

    2008-10-01

    A new spray-type generator of singlet oxygen, O2(1Δ), with a following centrifugal separation of depleted liquid was studied. This generator was developed to fulfill following requirements suitable for an advanced Chemical Oxygen- Iodine Laser (COIL): (i) a high-pressure operation, (ii) a single pass of reaction liquid, (iii) an efficient disengagement of gas/liquid mixture, and (iv) a scalability for airborne and mobile application. The generator design takes advantage of very high g/l interfacial surface area of a fine spray produced by a two-phase nozzle and a very fast liquid separation by applying a high centrifugal force.

  7. Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.

  8. Reactive uptake of HOCl to laboratory generated sea salt particles and nascent sea-spray aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, N. R.; Ryder, O. S.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Field observations suggest that the reactive uptake of HOCl on marine aerosol particles is an important source of chlorine radicals, particularly under low NOx conditions. However to date, laboratory measurements disagree on the magnitude of the reactive uptake coefficient for HOCl by a factor of 5 (γ(HOCl) ranges between 0.0004 and 0.0018), and there are no measurements of γ(HOCl) on nascent sea-spray aerosol. Here, we present measurements of the reactive uptake of HOCl to laboratory generated sodium chloride and sea-spray aerosol particles generated in a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART), coupled to an entrained aerosol flow reactor and Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Measurements of γ(HOCl) retrieved here are compared against those in the literature, and the role of organic coatings on nascent sea-spray aerosol is explored.

  9. MeV negative ion generation from ultra-intense laser interaction with a water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.; Ehrentraut, L.; Steinke, S.; Sandner, W.; Schnuerer, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2011-08-01

    MeV negative oxygen ions are obtained from a water spray target irradiated by high intensity (5 x 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) and ultrashort (50 fs) laser pulses. Generation of negative ions is ascribed to electron-capture processes that the laser-accelerated high-energy positive ion experiences when it interacts with atoms in the spray. This mechanism implies the existence of a large number of MeV neutral oxygen atoms, which is consistent with indirect experimental evidence.

  10. Next generation barrier CMP slurry with novel weakly alkaline chelating agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, Fan; Yuling, Liu; Ming, Sun; Jiying, Tang; Chenqi, Yan; Hailong, Li; Shengli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    To strengthen the device performance with the pattern wafer by enhancing the Cu polishing rate and improve the surface roughness with the Cu lines, a new weakly alkaline chelating agent with a barrier slurry is developed to meet the process demand of the advanced barrier chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). This new chelating agent has a stronger chelating ability and a lower pH value than the previous generation-FA/O I chelating agent researched before. Without an unstable oxidant agent added in the polishing slurry, it is difficult to enhance the copper polishing rate during the barrier CMP. The stronger chelating ability of the new chelating agent could increase the copper polishing rate along with controlling the Cu/Ta/TEOS removal rate selectivity to meet the requirements of the IC fabrication process. Thus it has solved the problem of excessive roughness due to the lower polishing rate, avoiding reducing the device performance with the pattern wafer. The new chelating agent with its lower pH value could make it possible to protect the low-k dielectric under the barrier layer from structurally breaking. The CMP experiment was performed on the 12 inch MIT 854 pattern wafers with the barrier slurry containing the new weakly alkaline chelating agent. By the DOE optimization, the results indicate that as the new chelating agent concentration in the slurry was up to 2.5 mL/L, the copper polishing rate is about 31.082 nm/min. Meanwhile, the wafer surface has a rather low roughness value of 0.693 nm (10 × 10 μm), the correction ability with the above slurry is adapted to the next generation barrier CMP and the k value of the low-k dielectric seems to have no k-shift. All the results presented show that the new weakly alkaline chelating agent with its superior performance can be used for the advanced barrier CMP.

  11. Laboratory investigation of spray generation mechanism in wind-wave interaction under strong wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the reduction of sea surface aerodynamic drag coefficient at hurricane conditions [1]. In this paper the mechanism of generation of spray in the near-surface layer of the atmosphere in a strong wind through the mechanism of «bag-breakup instability» was investigated in laboratory conditions with the help of high-speed video shooting. The laboratory experiments were performed on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Channel of the IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) [2]. Experiments were carried out for the wind speeds from 14 to 22 m/s. In this range spray generation characteristics change dramatically from almost no spray generation to so called catastrophic regime with multiple cascade breakups on each crest. Shooting was performed with High-speed digital camera NAC Memrecam HX-3 in two different setups to obtain both statistical data and detailed spray generation mechanism overview. In first setup bright LED spotlight with mate screen the side of a channel was used for horizontal shadow-method shooting. Camera was placed in semi-submerged box on the opposite side of the channel. Shooting was performed at the distance of 7.5 m from the beginning of the working section. Series of short records of the surface evolution were made at 10 000 fps with 55 to 119 µm/px scale revealed the dominant mechanism of spray generation - bag-breakup instability. Sequences of high resolution images allowed investigating the details of this "bags" evolution. Shadow method provided better image quality for such conditions than side illumination and fluorescence methods. To obtain statistical data on "bags" sizes and densities vertical shadow method was used. Submerged light box was created with two 300 W underwater lamps and mate screen places at the fetch of 6.5 m. Long records (up to 8 seconds) were made with 4500 fps at 124-256 µm/px scales. Specially developed software

  12. Investigation of Vortex Clouds and Droplet Sizes in Heated Water Spray Patterns Generated by Axisymmetric Full Cone Nozzles

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2013-01-01

    The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm), these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD) of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. PMID:24307881

  13. Investigation of vortex clouds and droplet sizes in heated water spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Sulaiman, S A; Ariwahjoedi, B; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2013-01-01

    The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm), these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD) of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. PMID:24307881

  14. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  15. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST--An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Zhao, Cui-E; Zhang, Qichun; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Yang, Liang; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T), which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline-saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0-11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl). Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline-saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline-saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH. PMID:26171779

  16. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10−2 hr−1 (SE±2.9×10−3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  17. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 × 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE ± 2.9 × 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  18. The effect of process parameters on the Liquid Flame Spray generated titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aromaa, Mikko; Keskinen, Helmi; Mäkelä, Jyrki M

    2007-11-01

    Nanoparticles have become important in many applications. It is essential to be able to control the particle size because the properties of nanoparticles change dramatically with particle size. An efficient way to generate nanoparticles is via aerosol processes. In this study we used Liquid Flame Spray consisting of liquid precursor droplets sprayed into a high-speed hydrogen/oxygen flame where they evaporate, vapours react and nucleate to form titania nanoparticles. Using flame methods, also dopants and sensitizers can easily be introduced in order to, e.g. improve the photocatalytic activity of the nanomaterial. To obtain a practical guideline in order to tailor the final nanoparticle size in the process, we have systematically studied the effects of different process parameters on the particle size of titania. Titania is used, e.g. as a photocatalyst, and then both particle size and crystal structure are important when looking at the efficiency. In this work, the generated nanoparticle size has been measured by aerosol instrumentation and the particle morphology has been verified with transmission electron microscopy. In Liquid Flame Spray method, there are several adjustable parameters such as precursor feed rate into the flame; concentration of the precursor; precursor material itself as well as solvent used in the precursor; mass flow of combustion gases and also the mechanical design of the torch used. We used metal organic based titanium precursors in alcohol solvents, predominantly ethanol and 2-propanol. Large differences in particle production between the precursors were found. Differences could also be seen for various solvents. As for precursor feed in the flame, the more mass is introduced the larger the nanoparticles are, i.e. precursor concentration and precursor feed rate have an impact on particle size. A similar phenomenon can be discovered for the combustion gas flow rates. Torch design also plays an important role in controlling the particle

  19. Generation of the first layers of a zirconia plasma sprayed coating: Correlation between splat layering and spraying parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Haddadi, A.; Nardou, F.; Grimaud, A.; Fauchais, P.

    1995-12-31

    Fused and crushed partially stabilized zirconia particles (8 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were plasma sprayed with an Ar-H{sub 2} plasma jet (45 slm Ar, 15 slm H{sub 2}, 600 A, nozzle i.d. 7 mm, internal injection). The study was devoted to the splat, beads and passes (maximum 8 passes) formation. The particles were sprayed on cast iron or stainless steel substrates at which temperature was kept as constant as possible either at 75 or at 350 C with the help of air jets either blown orthogonally to the plasma jet or to the substrate surface. The splat shape and morphology was examined by OM and image analysis, the beads and passes cross sections as well as fractured sections were examined by SEM and their phases determined by XRD. These examinations have shown the drastic influence of the substrate temperature on the splat shapes and contacts with underlying layers, columnar structure growth within one bead or one pass and macrocracks network within the beads and passes.

  20. Room-Temperature Fabrication of a Flexible Thermoelectric Generator Using a Dry-Spray Deposition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae-Seob; Choi, Jung-Oh; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    We present a flexible thermoelectric (TE) generator with titanium dioxide (TiO2), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te) powders fabricated by a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS). NPDS is a novel low-energy consumption dry-spray method that enables the deposition of inorganic materials on substrates at room temperature and under low vacuum. TiO2 nanopowders were dispersed on a TE powder for improved adhesion between TE films and the substrate. Film morphologies were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and the phase structure was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. A TE leg, deposited with 3 wt.% TiO2 content, had the largest Seebeck coefficient of approximately 160 μV/K. The prototype TE generator consisted of 16 TE legs linked by silver interconnects over an area of 20 mm × 60 mm. The prototype produced a voltage of 48.91 mV and a maximum power output of 0.18 μW from a temperature gradient of 20 K. The values are comparable to that of conventional methods. These results suggest that flexible TE generators can be fabricated by energy efficient methods, although internal and contact resistances must be decreased.

  1. Transition metal associations with primary biological particles in sea spray aerosol generated in a wave channel.

    PubMed

    Guasco, Timothy L; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A; Pedler, Byron E; Ault, Andrew P; Collins, Douglas B; Zhao, Defeng; Kim, Michelle J; Ruppel, Matthew J; Wilson, Scott C; Pomeroy, Robert S; Grassian, Vicki H; Azam, Farooq; Bertram, Timothy H; Prather, Kimberly A

    2014-01-21

    In the ocean, breaking waves generate air bubbles which burst at the surface and eject sea spray aerosol (SSA), consisting of sea salt, biogenic organic species, and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). Our overall understanding of atmospheric biological particles of marine origin remains poor. Here, we perform a control experiment, using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer to measure the mass spectral signatures of individual particles generated by bubbling a salt solution before and after addition of heterotrophic marine bacteria. Upon addition of bacteria, an immediate increase occurs in the fraction of individual particle mass spectra containing magnesium, organic nitrogen, and phosphate marker ions. These biological signatures are consistent with 21% of the supermicrometer SSA particles generated in a previous study using breaking waves in an ocean-atmosphere wave channel. Interestingly, the wave flume mass spectral signatures also contain metal ions including silver, iron, and chromium. The nascent SSA bioparticles produced in the wave channel are hypothesized to be as follows: (1) whole or fragmented bacterial cells which bioaccumulated metals and/or (2) bacteria-derived colloids or biofilms which adhered to the metals. This study highlights the potential for transition metals, in combination with specific biomarkers, to serve as unique indicators for the presence of marine PBAP, especially in metal-impacted coastal regions. PMID:24328130

  2. Experiments and modeling of discharge characteristics in water-mist sprays generated by pressure-swirl atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, Paolo E.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure-swirl atomizers are often employed to generate a water-mist spray, typically employed in fire suppression. In the present study, an experimental characterization of dispersion (velocity and cone angle) and atomization (drop-size axial evolution) was carried out following a previously developed methodology, with specific reference to the initial region of the spray. Laser-based techniques were used to quantitatively evaluate the considered phenomena: velocity field was reconstructed through a Particle Image Velocimetry analysis; drop-size distribution was measured by a Malvern Spraytec device, highlighting secondary atomization and subsequent coalescence along the spray axis. Moreover, a comprehensive set of relations was validated as predictive of the involved parameters, following an inviscid-fluid approach. The proposed model pertains to early studies on pressure-swirl atomizers and primarily yields to determine both initial velocity and cone angle. The spray thickness is also predicted and a classic correlation for Sauter Mean Diameter is shown to provide good agreement with experimental results. The analysis was carried out at the operative pressure of 80 bar; two injectors were employed featuring different orifice diameters and flow numbers, as a sort of parametric approach to this spray typology.

  3. New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1995-01-01

    Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based ceramics in aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with dramatically improved properties. The new coating exhibits excellent adherence and crack resistance under thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 to 1400 C. Preliminary tests showed good resistance to Na2CO3-induced hot corrosion.

  4. Emissions and Characteristics of Ice Nucleating Particles Associated with Laboratory Generated Nascent Sea Spray Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, C. S.; Hill, T. C. J.; Beall, C.; Sultana, C. M.; Moore, K.; Cornwell, G.; Lee, C.; Al-Mashat, H.; Laskina, O.; Trueblood, J.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate emission rates and activity spectra of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) are required for proper representation of aerosol-cloud interactions in atmospheric modeling studies. However, few investigations have quantified or characterized oceanic INP emissions. In conjunction with the Center for Aerosol Impacts on the Climate and the Environment, we have directly measured changes in INP emissions and properties of INPs from nascent sea spray aerosol (SSA) through the evolution of phytoplankton blooms. Multiple offline and online instruments were used to monitor aerosol chemistry and size, and bulk water characteristics during two phytoplankton bloom experiments. Two methods were utilized to monitor the number concentrations of INPs from 0 to -34 °C: The online CSU continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) and collections processed offline using the CSU ice spectrometer. Single particle analyses were performed on ice crystal residuals downstream of the CFDC, presumed to be INPs, via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Raman microspectroscopy. Preliminary results indicate that laboratory-generated nascent SSA corresponds to number concentrations of INPs that are generally consistent with open ocean regions, based on current knowledge. STEM analyses revealed that the sizes of ice crystal residuals that were associated with nascent SSA ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of 1 μm sized residuals found a variety of INP identities, including long chain organics, diatom fragments and polysaccharides. Our data suggest that biological processes play a significant role in ocean INP emissions by generating the species and compounds that were identified during these studies.

  5. Acclimatization of microbial consortia to alkaline conditions and enhanced electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enren; Zhai, Wenjing; Luo, Yue; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2016-07-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), obtained by inoculating with an aerobic activated sludge, were activated over a one month period, at pH 10.0, to obtain alkaline MFCs. The alkaline MFCs produced stable power of 118mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 213mWm(-2) at pH 10.0, using glucose as substrate. The performance of the MFCs was enhanced to produce a stable power of 140mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 235mWm(-2) by increasing pH to 11.0. This is the highest pH for stably operating MFCs reported in the literature. Power production was found to be suppressed at higher pH (12.0) and lower pH (9.0). Microbial analysis indicated that Firmicutes phylum was largely enriched in the anodic biofilms (88%), within which Eremococcus genus was the dominant group (47%). It is the first time that Eremococcus genus was described in bio-electrochemical systems. PMID:27061261

  6. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200 °C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. We stress that our results were obtained using coastal seawater and they can't necessarily

  7. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200°C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s0 to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. Further studies with a variety of different seawaters are required to better quantify how

  8. Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST - An Alkaliphilic Halotolerant Bacterium Capable of Electricity Generation under Alkaline-Saline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Victor Bochuan; Zhao, Cui-E; Zhang, Qichun; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Yang, Liang; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge in wastewater bioremediation is the sustained activity of viable microorganisms, which can contribute to the breakdown of waste contaminants, especially in alkaline pH conditions. Identification of extremophiles with bioremediation capability can improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. Here, we report the discovery of an electrochemically active alkaliphilic halotolerant bacterium, Anditalea andensis ANESC-ST (=CICC10485T=NCCB 100412T), which is capable of generating bioelectricity in alkaline–saline conditions. A. andensis ANESC-ST was shown to grow in alkaline conditions between pH 7.0–11.0 and also under high salt condition (up to 4 wt% NaCl). Electrical output was further demonstrated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with an average current density of ~0.5 µA/cm2, even under the harsh condition of 4 wt% NaCl and pH 9.0. Subsequent introduction of secreted extracellular metabolites into MFCs inoculated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded enhanced electrical output. The ability of A. andensis ANESC-ST to generate energy under alkaline–saline conditions points towards a solution for bioelectricity recovery from alkaline–saline wastewater. This is the first report of A.andensis ANESC-ST producing bioelectricity at high salt concentration and pH. PMID:26171779

  9. Recycling of chemicals from alkaline waste generated during preparation of UO 3 microspheres by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Vittal Rao, T. V.; Mukerjee, S. K.; Vaidya, V. N.

    2006-05-01

    Internal gelation process, one of the sol-gel processes for nuclear fuel fabrication, offers many advantages over conventional powder pellet route. However, one of the limitation of the process is generation of large volume of alkaline liquid waste containing hexamethylenetetramine, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide etc. Presence of ammonium nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine and urea presents a fire hazard which prevents direct disposal of the waste as well as its recycle by evaporation. The paper describes the studies carried out to suitably process the waste. Nitrate was removed from the waste by passing through Dowex 1 × 4 anion exchange resin in OH - form. 1.0 M NaOH was used to regenerate the resin. The nitrate-free waste was further treated to recover and recycle hexamethylenetetramine, urea and ammonium hydroxide for preparation of UO 3 microspheres. The quality of the microspheres obtained was satisfactory. An optimized flow sheet for processing of the waste solution has been suggested.

  10. In situ generated highly active copper oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction at low overpotential in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Cui, Shengsheng; Qian, Manman; Sun, Zijun; Du, Pingwu

    2016-04-25

    Developing efficient water oxidation catalysts made up of earth-abundant elements has attracted much attention as a step toward for future clean energy production. Herein we report a simple one-step method to generate a low cost copper oxide catalyst film in situ from a copper(ii) ethylenediamine complex. The resulting catalyst has excellent activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solutions. A catalytic current density of 1.0 mA cm(-2) and 10 mA cm(-2) for the catalyst film requires the overpotentials of only ∼370 mV and ∼475 mV in 1.0 M KOH, respectively. This catalytic performance shows that the new catalyst is one of the best Cu-based heterogeneous OER catalysts to date. PMID:27020763

  11. A Strongly Calc-alkaline Suite in the Midst of the Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province: Implications for Generating the Calc-alkaline Trend Without Subduction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-Miocene lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics (SV), distributed over 3,400 km2 in NE Oregon, comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The volcanic suite is mainly composed of calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, yet tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The SV lies in the heart of nearly coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province of the Pacific Northwest. The unique combination of strongly CA rocks of the SV in a non-subduction setting provide an excellent opportunity to study controls on inducing CA evolution in the midst of a TH province and independent of processes taking places at an active subduction zone. New 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate CA basaltic andesites to andesites of the SV erupted at least from 14.78±0.13 Ma to 12.44±0.12 Ma demonstrating that CA magmatism of the SV was ongoing during the eruptions of the tholeiitic Wanapum Basalt member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). This range will likely be extended to even older ages in the future because existent age dates did not include samples from near the base of the SV. Thickness of intermediate lavas flows of the SV range from 15 m to as thin as 2 m and lavas are characterized by mostly phenocryst poor lithologies. When phenocrysts are abundant they are very small suggesting growth late during eruption. Single lava flow sections can include on the order of 30 conformable flows, testifying to a vigorous eruption history. The thickest andesitic sections are located in the glacially carved mountains of the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness (i.e. Strawberry Mountain, High Lake, and Slide Lake) where several vent complexes are exposed, which are delineated by dikes and plugs with finely interlocking plutonic textures, cross-cutting SV lava flows. Dikes generally strike NW-SE. Subtle variations in major and trace element compositions exist between TH and CA lavas of the SV. The CA lavas of the SV are

  12. Charge generation associated with liquid spraying in tank cleaning and comparable processes - preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Carsten; Losert, Oswald F. J.

    2015-10-01

    The BG RCI has initiated investigations in order to improve the data basis for assessing the ignition hazard by electrostatic charging processes associated with the spraying of liquids. On the base of preliminary experiments, we established procedures for measurements of electric field strength and charging current in the presence of aerosol particles. Results obtained with three different nozzle types, variation of pressure and with built-in deflecting plate are presented.

  13. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  14. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  15. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Generation of stable multi-jets by flow-limited field-injection electrostatic spraying and their control via I-V characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, W.; Heil, P. E.; Choi, H.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    The I-V characteristics of flow-limited field-injection electrostatic spraying (FFESS) were investigated, exposing a new way to predict and control the specific spraying modes from single-jet to multi-jet. Monitoring the I-V characteristics revealed characteristic drops in the current upon formation of an additional jet in the multi-jet spraying mode. For fixed jet numbers, space-charge-limited current behaviour was measured which was attributed to space charge in the dielectric liquids between the needle electrode and the nozzle opening. The present work establishes that FFESS can, in particular, generate stable multiple jets and that their control is possible through monitoring the I-V characteristics. This can allow for automatic control of the FFESS process and expedite its future scientific and industrial applications.

  16. Versatile and Amplified Biosensing through Enzymatic Cascade Reaction by Coupling Alkaline Phosphatase in Situ Generation of Photoresponsive Nanozyme.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu-Yi; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Gen-Xia; Wang, Guang-Li

    2015-10-20

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) biocatalysis followed by the in situ enzymatic generation of a visible light responsive nanozyme is coupled to elucidate a novel amplification strategy by enzymatic cascade reaction for versatile biosensing. The enzymatic hydrolysis of o-phosphonoxyphenol (OPP) to catechol (CA) by ALP is allowed to coordinate on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) due to the specificity and high affinity of enediol ligands to Ti(IV). Upon the stimuli by CA generated from ALP, the inert TiO2 NPs is activated, which demonstrates highly efficient oxidase mimicking activity for catalyzing the oxidation of the typical substrate of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) under visible light (λ ≥ 400 nm) irradiation utilizing dissolved oxygen as an electron acceptor. On the basis of the cascade reaction of ALP and the nanozyme of CA coordinated TiO2 (TiO2-CA) NPs, we design exquisitely colorimetric biosensors for probing ALP activity and its inhibitor of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DA). Quantitative probing of ALP activity in a wide linear range from 0.01 to 150 U/L with the detection limit of 0.002 U/L is realized, which endows the methodology with sufficiently high sensitivity for potentially practical applications in real samples of human serum (ALP level of 40-190 U/L for adults). In addition, a novel immunoassay protocol by taking mouse IgG as an example is validated using the ALP/nanozyme cascade amplification reaction as the signal transducer. A low detection limit of 2.0 pg/mL is attained for mouse IgG, which is 4500-fold lower than that of the standard enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Although only mouse IgG is used as a proof-of-concept in our experiment, we believe that this approach is generalizable to be readily extended to other ELISA systems. This methodology opens a new horizon for amplified and versatile biosensing including probing ALP activity and following ALP-based ELISA immunoassays. PMID:26419907

  17. Sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  18. GENERATION AND SIMULATION OF METALLIC PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS BY ELECTRIC ARC SPRAYING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of efforts to provide a generated output with an appropriate mass and concentration of fresh, dry, fine metal oxide particles for bench or pilot scale fine particulate collection research and development work. The work involved two electric arc aerosol ge...

  19. Antistatic sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic sprays from several different manufacturers are examined. The sprays are examined for contamination potential (i.e., outgassing and nonvolatile residue), corrosiveness on an aluminum mirror surface, and electrostatic effectiveness. In addition, the chemical composition of the antistatic sprays is determined by infrared spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results show that 12 of the 17 antistatic sprays examined have a low contamination potential. Of these sprays, 7 are also noncorrosive to an aluminum surface. And of these, only 2 demonstrate good electrostatic properties with respect to reducing voltage accumulation; these sprays did not show a fast voltage dissipation rate however. The results indicate that antistatic sprays can be used on a limited basis where contamination potential, corrosiveness, and electrostatic effectiveness is not critical. Each application is different and proper evaluation of the situation is necessary. Information on some of the properties of some antistatic sprays is presented in this document to aid in the evaluation process.

  20. CO2-Free Power Generation on an Iron Group Nanoalloy Catalyst via Selective Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol to Oxalic Acid in Alkaline Media

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Kitano, Sho; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-01-01

    An Fe group ternary nanoalloy (NA) catalyst enabled selective electrocatalysis towards CO2-free power generation from highly deliverable ethylene glycol (EG). A solid-solution-type FeCoNi NA catalyst supported on carbon was prepared by a two-step reduction method. High-resolution electron microscopy techniques identified atomic-level mixing of constituent elements in the nanoalloy. We examined the distribution of oxidised species, including CO2, produced on the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst in the EG electrooxidation under alkaline conditions. The FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst exhibited the highest selectivities toward the formation of C2 products and to oxalic acid, i.e., 99 and 60%, respectively, at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), without CO2 generation. We successfully generated power by a direct EG alkaline fuel cell employing the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst and a solid-oxide electrolyte with oxygen reduction ability, i.e., a completely precious-metal-free system. PMID:25004118

  1. Generating power from cellulose in an alkaline fuel cell enhanced by methyl viologen as an electron-transfer catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Miaoqing; Liu, Xianhua; Feng, Mengnan; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we developed a single-compartment direct cellulose alkaline fuel cell by using nickel foam as the anode and methyl viologen as an electron transfer catalyst. The maximum power density of the fuel cell at optimal conditions is 450 mW m-2. High-performance liquid chromatography detected short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids in the oxidation products. Using common reed and red algae as fuels, the fuel cell achieved maximum power densities of 295 mW m-2 and 154 mW m-2, respectively.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  3. Direct aerosol chemical composition measurements to evaluate the physicochemical differences between controlled sea spray aerosol generation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Zhao, D. F.; Ruppel, M. J.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Modini, R. L.; Stokes, M. D.; Russell, L. M.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Deane, G. B.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-11-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of sea spray aerosol (SSA) must be under-pinned by a physically and chemically accurate representation of the bubble-mediated production of nascent SSA particles. Bubble bursting is sensitive to the physico-chemical properties of seawater. For a sample of seawater, any important differences in the SSA production mechanism are projected into the composition of the aerosol particles produced. Using direct chemical measurements of SSA at the single-particle level, this study presents an intercomparison of three laboratory-based, bubble-mediated SSA production schemes: gas forced through submerged sintered glass filters ("frits"), a pulsed plunging-waterfall apparatus, and breaking waves in a wave channel filled with natural seawater. The size-resolved chemical composition of SSA particles produced by breaking waves is more similar to particles produced by the plunging waterfall than those produced by sintered glass filters. Aerosol generated by disintegrating foam produced by sintered glass filters contained a larger fraction of organic-enriched particles and a different size-resolved elemental composition, especially in the 0.8-2 μm dry diameter range. Interestingly, chemical differences between the methods only emerged when the particles were chemically analyzed at the single-particle level as a function of size; averaging the elemental composition of all particles across all sizes masked the differences between the SSA samples. When dried, SSA generated by the sintered glass filters had the highest fraction of particles with spherical morphology compared to the more cubic structure expected for pure NaCl particles produced when the particle contains relatively little organic carbon. In addition to an intercomparison of three SSA production methods, the role of the episodic or "pulsed" nature of the waterfall method on SSA composition was under-taken. In organic-enriched seawater, the continuous

  4. Direct aerosol chemical composition measurements to evaluate the physicochemical differences between controlled sea spray aerosol generation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, D. B.; Zhao, D. F.; Ruppel, M. J.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Modini, R. L.; Stokes, M. D.; Russell, L. M.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Deane, G. B.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    Controlled laboratory studies of the physical and chemical properties of sea spray aerosol (SSA) must be underpinned by a physically and chemically accurate representation of the bubble mediated production of nascent SSA particles. Since bubble bursting is sensitive to the physicochemical properties of seawater, any important differences in the SSA production mechanism are projected into SSA composition. Using direct chemical measurements of SSA at the single-particle level, this study presents an inter-comparison of three laboratory-based, bubble-mediated SSA production schemes: gas forced through submerged sintered glass filters ("frits"), a pulsed plunging waterfall apparatus, and breaking waves in a wave channel filled with natural seawater. The size-resolved chemical composition of SSA particles produced by breaking waves is more similar to particles produced by the plunging waterfall than sintered glass filters. Aerosol generated by disintegrating foam produced by sintered glass filters contained a larger fraction of organic enriched particles and a different size-resolved elemental composition, especially in the 0.8-2 μm size range. These particles, when dried, had more spherical morphologies compared to the more cubic structure expected for pure NaCl particles, which can be attributed to the presence of additional organic carbon. In addition to an inter-comparison of three SSA production methods, the role of the episodic or "pulsed" nature of the waterfall method utilized in this study on SSA composition was undertaken. In organic-enriched seawater, the continuous operation of the plunging waterfall mechanism resulted in the accumulation of surface foam and an over-expression of organic matter in SSA particles compared to pulsed plunging waterfall. Throughout this set of experiments, comparative differences in the SSA number size distribution were coincident with differences in aerosol composition, indicating that the production mechanism of SSA exerts

  5. The impact of marine surface organic enrichment on the measured hygroscopicity parameter of laboratory generated sea-spray aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, S.; Novak, G.; Zimmermann, K.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean serves as a major source for atmospheric aerosol particles, yet the chemicophysical properties of sea spray aerosol to date are not well characterized. Understanding the transfer of organic compounds, present in the sea surface microlayer (SSML), to sea-spray particles and their resulting impact on cloud formation is important for predicting aerosol impact on climate in remote marine environments. Here, we present a series of laboratory experiments designed to probe the fractionation of select organic molecules during wave breaking. We use a representative set of organic mimics (e.g. sterols, sugars, lipids, proteins, fatty acids) to test a recent physically based model of organic enrichment in sea-spray aerosol [Burrows et al., 2014] that is based on Langmuir absorption equilibria. Experiments were conducted in the UCSD Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) permitting accurate representation of wave breaking processes in the laboratory. We report kappa values for the resulting sea-spray aerosols and compare them to a predictions made using Kappa-Köhler Theory driven by a linear combination of the pure component kappa values. Hygroscopicity determinations made using the model systems are discussed within the context of measurements of CCN activity made using natural, coastal water.

  6. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Afrin® Nasal Spray ... Anefrin® Nasal Spray ... Dristan® Nasal Spray ... Mucinex® Nasal Spray ... Nostrilla® Nasal Spray ... Vicks Sinex® Nasal Spray ... Zicam® Nasal Spray ... Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to ...

  7. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater. PMID:21322643

  8. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  9. Electrosonic spray ionization. A gentle technique for generating folded proteins and protein complexes in the gas phase and for studying ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Takáts, Zoltán; Wiseman, Justin M; Gologan, Bogdan; Cooks, R Graham

    2004-07-15

    Electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI), a variant on electrospray ionization (ESI), employs a traditional micro ESI source with supersonic nebulizing gas. The high linear velocity of the nebulizing gas provides efficient pneumatic spraying of the charged liquid sample. The variable electrostatic potential can be tuned to allow efficient and gentle ionization. This ionization method is successfully applied to aqueous solutions of various proteins at neutral pH, and its performance is compared to that of the nanospray and micro ESI techniques. Evidence for efficient desolvation during ESSI is provided by the fact that the peak widths for various multiply charged protein ions are an order of magnitude narrower than those for nanospray. Narrow charge-state distributions compared to other ESI techniques are observed also; for most of the proteins studied, more than 90% of the protein ions can be accumulated in one charge state using ESSI when optimizing conditions. The fact that the abundant charge state is normally as low or lower than that recorded by ESI or nanospray indicates that folded protein ions are generated. The sensitivity of the ionization technique to high salt concentrations is comparable to that of nanospray, but ESSI is considerably less sensitive to high concentrations of organic additives such as glycerol or 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris base). Noncovalent complexes are observed in the case of myoglobin, protein kinase A/ATP complex, and other proteins. The extent of dissociation of protein ions in ESSI is comparable to or even smaller than that in the case of nanospray, emphasizing the gentle nature of the method. The unique features of ESSI are ascribed to very efficient spraying and the low internal energy supplied to the ions. Evidence is provided that the method is capable of generating fully desolvated protein ions at atmospheric pressure. This allows the technique to be used for the study of ion-molecule reactions at atmospheric

  10. Evaluation of electricity generation from ultrasonic and heat/alkaline pretreatment of different sludge types using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Eun; Yoon, Joung Yee; Gurung, Anup; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of different sludge pretreatment methods (ultrasonic vs. combined heat/alkali) with varied sources of municipal sewage sludge (primary sludge (PS), secondary excess sludge (ES), anaerobic digestion sludge (ADS)) on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Introduction of ultrasonically pretreated sludge (PS, ES, ADS) to MFCs generated maximum power densities of 13.59, 9.78 and 12.67mW/m(2) and soluble COD (SCOD) removal efficiencies of 87%, 90% and 57%, respectively. The sludge pretreated by combined heat/alkali (0.04N NaOH at 120°C for 1h) produced maximum power densities of 10.03, 5.21 and 12.53mW/m(2) and SCOD removal efficiencies of 83%, 75% and 74% with PS, ES and ADS samples, respectively. Higher SCOD by sludge pretreatment enhanced performance of the MFCs and the electricity generation was linearly proportional to the SCOD removal, especially for ES. PMID:24684816

  11. Nitroglycerin Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... attacks. Your doctor will probably tell you to sit down and use one dose of nitroglycerin when ... dose.To use the spray, follow these steps: Sit down if possible, and hold the container without ...

  12. Degradation behavior of Ni3Al plasma-sprayed boiler tube steels in an energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2005-06-01

    Boiler steels, namely, low-C steel, ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22) were plasma sprayed with Ni3Al. The alloy powder was prepared by mixing Ni and Al in the stoichiometric ratio of 3 to 1. The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was used as a bond coat, with a 150 µm thick layer sprayed onto the surface before applying the 200 µm coating of Ni3Al. Exposure studies have been performed in the platen superheater zone of a coal-fired boiler at around 755 °C for 10 cycles, each of 100 h duration. The protection to the base steel was minimal for the three steels. Scale spallation and the formation of a porous and nonadherent NiO scale were probably the main reasons for the lack of protection. In the case of T22-coated steel, cracks in the coatings have been observed after the first 100 h exposure cycle.

  13. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  14. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  15. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  16. Nitroglycerin Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the hole, the container will no longer dispense full doses of medication. Do not try to open the container of nitroglycerin spray. This product may catch fire, so do not use near an open flame, and do not allow the container to be burned after use.

  17. The variable role of slab-derived fluids in the generation of a suite of primitive calc-alkaline lavas from the Southernmost Cascades, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borg, L.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Bullen, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    The compositional continuum observed in primitive calc-alkaline lavas erupted from small volcanoes across the southernmost Cascade arc is produced by the introduction of a variable proportion of slab-derived fluid into the superjacent peridotite layer of the mantle wedge. Magmas derived from fluid-rich sources are erupted primarily in the forearc and are characterized by Sr and Pb enrichment (primitive mantle-normalized Sr/P > 5.5), depletions of Ta and Nb, low incompatible-element abundances, and MORB-like Sr and Pb isotopic ratios. Magmas derived from fluid-poor sources are erupted primarily in the arc axis and behind the arc, and are characterized by weak enrichment in Sr [1.0 < (Sr/P)N < 1.3], weak depletions in Ta and Nb, higher incompatible-element abundances, and OIB-like Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic ratios. Fluxing the mantle wedge above the subducting slab with H2O-rich fluid stabilizes amphibole and enriches the wedge peridotites in incompatible elements, particularly unradiogenic Sr and Pb. The hydrated amphibole-bearing portion of the mantle wedge is downdragged beneath the forearc, where its solidus is exceeded, yielding melts that are enriched in Sr and Pb, and depleted in Ta and Nb (reflecting both high Sr and Pb relative to Ta and Nb in the fluid, and the greater compatibility of Ta and Nb in amphibole compared to other silicate phases in the wedge). A steady decrease of the fluid-contributed geochemical signature away from the trench is produced by the progressive dehydration of the downdragged portion of the mantle wedge with depth, resulting from melt extraction and increased temperature at the slab-wedge interface. Inverse correlation between incompatible-element abundances and the size of the fluid-contributed geochemical signature is generated by melting of more depleted peridotites, rather than by significant differences in the degree of melting. High-(Sr/P)N lavas of the forearc are generated by melting of a MORB-source-like peridotite that has

  18. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  19. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  20. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  1. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  2. Pliocene-Quaternary basalts from the Harrat Tufail, western Saudi Arabia: Recycling of ancient oceanic slabs and generation of alkaline intra-plate magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Rami A.

    2015-12-01

    Harrat Tufail represents a Caenozoic basalt suite at the western margin of the Arabian plate. This rift-related suite includes voluminous Quaternary non-vesicular basalt (with fragments of earlier Pliocene vesicular flow) that forms a cap sheet over Miocene rhyolite and minor vesicular basalt. The contact between rhyolite and the basaltic cap is erosional with remarkable denudations indicating long time gap between the felsic and mafic eruptions. The geochemical data prove alkaline, sodic and low-Ti nature of the olivine basalt cap sheet. The combined whole-rock and mineral spot analyses by the electron microprobe (EMPA) suggest magma generation from low degree of partial melting (∼5%) from spinel- and garnet-lherzolite mantle source. Derivation from a mantle source is supported by low Na content in clinopyroxene (ferroan diopside) whereas high Mg content in ilmenite is an evidence of fractional crystallization trajectory. Accordingly, the Pliocene basaltic cap of Harrat Tufail is a product of mantle melt that originates by recycling in the asthenosphere during subduction of ancient oceanic slab(s). The whole-rock chemistry suggests an ancient ocean island basaltic slab (OIB) whereas the EMPA of Al-rich spinel inclusions in olivine phenocrysts are in favour of a mid-ocean ridge basaltic source (MORB). Calculations of oxygen fugacity based on the composition of co-existing Fe-Ti oxide suggest fluctuation from highly to moderately oxidizing conditions with propagation of crystallization (log10 fO2 from -22.09 to -12.50). Clinopyroxene composition and pressure calculation indicates low-pressure (0.4-2 kbar). Cores of olivine phenocrysts formed at highest temperature (1086-1151 °C) whereas the rims and olivine micro-phenocrysts formed at 712-9-796 °C which is contemporaneous to formation of clinopyroxene at 611-782 °C. Fe-Ti oxides crystallized over a long range (652-992 °C) where it started to form at outer peripheries of olivine phenocrysts and as interstitial

  3. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve sneezing and a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Olopatadine is ... comes as a liquid to spray in the nose. Olopatadine nasal spray is usually sprayed in each ...

  4. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  5. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  6. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-04-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  7. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  8. A laser tomographic investigation of liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yule, A. J.; Ahseng, C.; Felton, P.; Ungut, A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    A light scattering technique is combined with a tomographic transformation to convert line of sight integrated data, measured in sprays, to measurements of droplet size and concentration in volume elements within the spray. The technique is developed and assessed by systematic experiments in axisymmetric sprays generated by twin-fluid atomisers. The good agreement found shows that, provided certain conditions are satisfied by the local spray structure, the technique provides information on spray structure, similar in detail and extent to that derived by photography, but with reduced experimental time. The technique is applied to an investigation of a kerosene spray vaporizing in a hot gas stream.

  9. Direct and non-destructive proof of authenticity for the 2nd generation of Brazilian real banknotes via easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Franco, Marcos Fernando; Regino, Karen Gomes; Lehmann, Eraldo Luiz; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Using a desorption/ionization technique, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), documents related to the 2nd generation of Brazilian Real currency (R$) were screened in the positive ion mode for authenticity based on chemical profiles obtained directly from the banknote surface. Characteristic profiles were observed for authentic, seized suspect counterfeit and counterfeited homemade banknotes from inkjet and laserjet printers. The chemicals in the authentic banknotes' surface were detected via a few minor sets of ions, namely from the plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), most likely related to the official offset printing process, and other common quaternary ammonium cations, presenting a similar chemical profile to 1st-generation R$. The seized suspect counterfeit banknotes, however, displayed abundant diagnostic ions in the m/z 400-800 range due to the presence of oligomers. High-accuracy FT-ICR MS analysis enabled molecular formula assignment for each ion. The ions were separated by 44 m/z, which enabled their characterization as Surfynol® 4XX (S4XX, XX=40, 65, and 85), wherein increasing XX values indicate increasing amounts of ethoxylation on a backbone of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (Surfynol® 104). Sodiated triethylene glycol monobutyl ether (TBG) of m/z 229 (C10H22O4Na) was also identified in the seized counterfeit banknotes via EASI(+) FT-ICR MS. Surfynol® and TBG are constituents of inks used for inkjet printing. PMID:25498934

  10. Evidence of the Generation of Isosaccharinic Acids and Their Subsequent Degradation by Local Microbial Consortia within Hyper-Alkaline Contaminated Soils, with Relevance to Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Garratt, Eva J.; Laws, Andrew P.; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

  11. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

  12. Spatial distribution visualization of PWM continuous variable-rate spray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical application is a dynamic spatial distribution process, during which spray liquid covers the targets with certain thickness and uniformity. Therefore, it is important to study the 2-D and 3-D (dimensional) spray distribution to evaluate spraying quality. The curve-surface generation methods ...

  13. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  14. One-step spray-coating process for the fabrication of colorful superhydrophobic coatings with excellent corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wu, Runni; Jing, Zhijiao; Yan, Long; Zha, Fei; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method was used to generate colorful hydrophobic stearate particles via chemical reactions between inorganic salts and sodium stearate. Colored self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were prepared through a facile one-step spray-coating process by spraying the stearate particle suspensions onto stainless steel substrates. Furthermore, the colorful superhydrophobic coating maintains excellent chemical stability under both harsh acidic and alkaline circumstances. After being immersed in a 3.5 wt % NaCl aqueous solution for 1 month, the as-prepared coatings remained superhydrophobic; however, they lost their self-cleaning property with a sliding angle of about 46 ± 3°. The corrosion behavior of the superhydrophobic coatings on the Al substrate was characterized by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical corrosion test results indicated that the superhydrophobic coatings possessed excellent corrosion resistance, which could supply efficient and long-term preservation for the bare Al substrate. PMID:26365307

  15. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  16. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    A ground test facility is being established at NASA Lewis Research Center to simulate the environmental and flight conditions needed to study adverse weather effects. One of the most important components is the water spray system which consists of many nozzles fitted on spray bars. Water is injected through air-assisted atomizers to generate uniform size drops to simulate icing in clouds. The primary objective is to provide experimental data on drop size distribution over a wide range of operating conditions. Correlation equations for mean drop size and initial injection parameters are being determined to assist in the design and modification of the Altitude Wind Tunnel. Special emphasis is being placed on the study of the aerodynamic structure of the air-assisted atomizer sprays. Detailed measurements of the variation of drop size distribution and velocity as a function of time and space are being made. Accurate initial and boundary conditions are being provided for computer model evaluation.

  17. Visual characterization of heated water spray jet breakup induced by full cone spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Zilati, K.

    2015-03-01

    The present work with specific objectives places a greater emphasis on measurements of the breakup lengths and phenomenological analysis of a hot water jet under reduced pumping pressures in still environment. Therefore, visual and comparative studies are conducted on full cone jet disintegration of heated water for low pumping pressures. A further analysis of the grabbed images confirms the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It is also predicted that the heated liquids generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing partial evaporation of the spraying medium. The radial spray cone width and angle do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases, leading to enhanced macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity are significantly influenced by the load pressure, but less affected by the temperature. The fine scale image analysis also predicts toroidal-shaped vortex formation in the spray structure near the water boiling point.

  18. Chemical characteristics of the volcanic gases from Nyiragongo lava lake and the generation of CH 4-rich fluid inclusions in alkaline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, T. M.

    1980-10-01

    Methods used previously to remove compositional modifications from volcanic gas analyses for Mount Etna and Erta'Ale lava lake have bean employed to estimate the gas phase composition at Nyiragongo lava lake, based on samples obtained in 1959. H 2O data were not reported in 11 of the 13 original analyses. The restoration methods have been used to estimate the H 2O contents of the samples and to correct the analyses for atmospheric contamination, loss of sulfur and for pre- and pest-collection oxidation of H 2S, S 2, and H 2. The estimated gas compositions are relatively CO 2-rich, low in total sulfur and reduced. They contain approximately 35-50% CO 2 45-55% H 2O, 1-2% SO 2, 1-2% H 2., 2-3% CO, 1.5-2.5% H 2S, 0.5% S 2 and 0.1% COS over,he collection temperature range 102° to 960° C. The oxygen fugacities of the gases are consistently about half an order of magnitude below quartz-magnetite-fayalite. The low total sulfur content and resulting low atomic S/C of the Nyiragongo gases appear to be related to the relatively low fO 2 of the crystallizing lava. At temperatures above 800°C and pressures of 1-1.5 k bar, the Nyiragongo gas compositions resemble those observed in primary fluid inclusions believed to have formed at similar temperatures and pressures in nephelines of intrusive alkaline rocks. Cooling to 300°C, with fO 2 buffered by the rock, results in gas compositions very rich in CH 4 (50-70%) and resembling secondary fluid inclusions formed at 200-500°C in alkaline rocks. Below 600°C the gases become supersaturated in carbon as graphite. These inferences are corroborated by several reports of hydrocarbons in plutonic alkaline rocks, and by the presence of CH 4-rich waters in Lake Kivu — a lake on the flanks of Nyiragongo volcano.

  19. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  20. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  1. Delayed efficacy of Beauveria bassiana foliar spray applications against Colorado potato beetle: impacts of number and timing of applications on larval and next-generation adult populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray programs comprising multiple or single foliar applications of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Bb) made during morning (AM) vs. evening (PM) hours were tested against Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (CPB) in small research plots of potatoes over multiple fiel...

  2. HVOF-Sprayed Nano TiO2-HA Coatings Exhibiting Enhanced Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. S.; Dimitrievska, S.; Bureau, M. N.; Marple, B. R.; Petit, A.; Mwale, F.; Antoniou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical thermal spray coatings produced via high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) from nanostructured titania (n-TiO2) and 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HA) (n-TiO2-10wt.%HA) powders have been engineered as possible future alternatives to HA coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS). This approach was chosen due to (i) the stability of TiO2 in the human body (i.e., no dissolution) and (ii) bond strength values on Ti-6Al-4V substrates more than two times higher than those of APS HA coatings. To explore the bioperformance of these novel materials and coatings, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured from 1 to 21 days on the surface of HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2 and n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings. APS HA coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates were employed as controls. The profiles of the hMSCs were evaluated for (i) cellular proliferation, (ii) biochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) cytoskeleton organization (fluorescent/confocal microscopy), and (iv) cell/substrate interaction via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biochemical analysis indicated that the hMSCs cultured on n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings exhibited superior levels of bioactivity than hMSCs cultured on APS HA and pure n-TiO2 coatings. The cytoskeleton organization demonstrated a higher degree of cellular proliferation on the HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2-10wt.%HA coatings when compared to the control coatings. These results are considered promising for engineering improved performance in the next generation of thermally sprayed biomedical coatings.

  3. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  4. Mafic enclaves in the Wilson Ridge Pluton, northwestern Arizona: Implications for the generation of a calc-alkaline intermediate pluton in an extensional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Lance L.; Smith, Eugene I.

    1990-10-01

    The Wilson Ridge pluton is an epizonal calc-alkaline pluton that formed about 13.5 Ma during a period of mid-Miocene extension. Faulting and erosional dissection provide a cross section of the pluton. The apex of the pluton, in the Boulder Wash area, Nevada, is composed of hypabyssal quartz monzonite and dacite. The base of the pluton is 20 km to the south where quartz monzodiorite, monzodiorite, and diorite are in low-angle intrusive contact with Precambrian basement. The pluton was separated from cogenetic volcanic rocks in the River Mountains by movement along the Saddle Island detachment fault at about 13.4 Ma. The River Mountains now lie 20 km to the west of the pluton. The Wilson Ridge pluton is composed of the Teakettle Pass suite consisting of foliated monzodiorite and quartz monzodiorite and unfoliated quartz monzonite and the older Horsethief Canyon diorite. Rocks of the pluton contain 2-4 modal percent sphene. Intermediate rocks of the Teakettle Pass suite contain abundant basaltic and diorite enclaves. Basaltic enclaves are lensoidal and pillow-like and commonly have crenulate and fine-grained margins. Enclaves are chemically similar to mafic dikes of the Wilson Ridge pluton and to cogenetic alkali basalt flows in the River Mountains. They probably represent blobs of mafic liquid that commingled and mechanically mixed with felsic magma to produce the intermediate rocks of the pluton. Basaltic enclaves commonly occur as inclusion-rich zones that represent synplutonic mafic dikes that were injected into a quartz monzonite host. Mafic magma was entrained and mechanically broken down by magmatic flow shear. A continuum in shape exists from enclaves that are bulbous and ellipsoidal to those that are thin, tabular mafic selvages and schlieren and ultimately to the mafic component in foliated quartz monzodiorite and monzodiorite. Diorite enclaves have angular contacts with host rocks and are interpreted as xenoliths. Field evidence and major and trace element

  5. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  6. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide nasal spray is used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... Ciclesonide comes as a solution (liquid) to spray in the nose. It is usually sprayed in each nostril once daily. Use ciclesonide at around the same time every day. Follow the ...

  7. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  8. Carbon quantum dots directly generated from electrochemical oxidation of graphite electrodes in alkaline alcohols and the applications for specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengli; Xu, Yuanhong; Niu, Fushuang; Gooding, J Justin; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-04-25

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are attracting tremendous interest owing to their low toxicity, water dispersibility, biocompatibility, optical properties and wide applicability. Herein, CQDs with an average diameter of (4.0 ± 0.2) nm and high crystallinity were produced simply from the electrochemical oxidation of a graphite electrode in alkaline alcohols. The as-formed CQDs dispersion was colourless but the dispersion gradually changed to bright yellow when stored in ambient conditions. Based on UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), this colour change appeared to be due to oxygenation of surface species over time. Furthermore, the CQDs were used in specific and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) with broad linear ranges of 10-200 μM with a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). The application of the CQDs for Fe(3+) detection in tap water was demonstrated and the possible mechanism was also discussed. Finally, based on their good characteristics of low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the CQDs were successfully applied to cell imaging. PMID:26878217

  9. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  10. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  11. Study of the production of alkaline keratinases in submerged cultures as an alternative for solid waste treatment generated in leather technology.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Chesini, Mariana; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2013-01-01

    Six nonpathogenic fungal strains isolated from alkaline soils of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus sidowii, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Neurospora tetrasperma, Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), and Westerdikella dispersa) were tested for their ability to produce keratinolytic enzymes. Strains were grown on feather meal agar as well as in solid-state and submerged cultures, using a basal mineral medium and "hair waste" as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. All the tested fungi grew on feather meal agar, but only three of them were capable of hydrolyzing keratin, producing clear zones. Among these strains, P. lilacinum produced the highest proteolytic and keratinolytic activities, both in solid-state and submerged fermentations. The medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by P. lilacinum were optimized. Addition of glucose (5 g/l) and yeast extract (2.23 g/l) to the basal hair medium increased keratinases production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for the enzyme production were 28℃ and 6.0, respectively. A beneficial effect was observed when the original concentration of four metal ions, present in the basal mineral medium, was reduced up to 1:10. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 15.96 Uc/ml in the optimal hair medium; this value was about 6.5-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. These results suggest that keratinases from P. lilacinum can be useful for biotechnological purposes such as biodegradation (or bioconversion) of hair waste, leading to a reduction of the environmental pollution caused by leather technology with the concomitant production of proteolytic enzymes and protein hydrolyzates. PMID:23711525

  12. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  13. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year. PMID:24527646

  14. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  15. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  16. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  17. SPRAY ATOMIZATION MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop protection product labels are now being written with spray droplet spectra classification terms that have specific definitions. Some of these terms are the same as previously used for generic descriptions such as fine or coarse sprays, but these terms used on new product labels have very speci...

  18. Spray momentum measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    Technique enables accurate prediction of erosion and cavitation produced by fluid spray. Method measures high velocity sprays produced by small orifices. Originally designed to determine oxidizer-injection patterns of liquid fueled rocket engines, technique is used with other liquids, or, with appropriate modification, with gases.

  19. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  20. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P.

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  1. An overview of spray drift reduction testing of spray nozzles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of the development and testing of drift reduction technologies (DRTs) is increasing. Common spray drift reduction technologies include spray nozzles and spray adjuvants. Following draft procedures developed for a DRT program, three spray nozzles were tested under high air speed cond...

  2. Measuring droplet size of agriuclutral spray nozzles - Measurement distance and airspeed effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With a number of new spray testing laboratories going into operation within the U.S. and each gearing up to measure spray atomization from agricultural spray nozzles using laser diffraction, establishing and following a set of scientific standard procedures is crucial to long term data generation an...

  3. Development of a system for determining collection efficiency of spray samplers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low speed spray dispersion tunnel was constructed and evaluated for use in passive spray collector efficiency studies. The dispersion tunnel utilizes an air-assisted nozzle to generate a spray cloud with a volume median diameter of about 20 um. The air velocities in the testing section of the di...

  4. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  5. Effects of sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating on intensity and structure of tropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoping; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Zheng, Jing

    2012-07-01

    To examine effects of sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating on structure and intensity of a real tropical cyclone, the sea spray flux parameterization scheme was incorporated into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Sensitivity tests were performed with varying the spray source function intensities and with and without dissipation heating. The numerical results indicate that sea spray evaporation increases the interfacial sensible heat flux, which is increased by 16% for the moderate spray and 47% for the heavy spray, but has little effect on the interfacial latent heat flux. The net effect of sea spray evaporation is to decrease the total sensible heat flux and to increase the total latent heat flux. The total enthalpy flux is increased by 1% and 12% with moderate and strong spray amounts, respectively. Consistent with these results, the intensity of the tropical cyclone is increased by 5% and 16% in maximum 10-m wind speed, respectively, due to sea spray evaporation. Sea spray evaporation and dissipative heating modify the tropical cyclone structure in important but complex ways. The effect of sea spray on the near-surface temperature and moisture depends on the spray amounts and its location within the tropical cyclone. Within the high-wind region of a tropical cyclone, the lower atmosphere becomes cooler and moister due to the evaporation of sea spray. However, the dissipative heating offsets the cooling due to sea spray evaporation, which makes the lower atmosphere warmer.

  6. Influence of drop size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiroutu, Sridhar Venkatabojji

    Premixed spray combustion is affected by fuel and oxidizer properties, mixture equivalence ratio and spray quality. The spray quality is characterized by a mean droplet diameter (SMD) and a droplet size distribution (DSD). Prior experimental studies have considered only the influence of SMD, in part due to the difficulty in controlling the DSD independently. The present work provides experimental evidence demonstrating the effect of the fuel droplet size distribution and fuel vapor fraction on premixed spray combustion. Combustion experiments were performed in a pilot-ignited, continuous flow, tubular, vertical test rig wherein fuel sprays were injected into an air stream. A novel twin-atomizer technique that allowed control over overall equivalence ratio, SMD, DSD, and fuel vapor fraction of the premixed spray was used to generate test sprays. A line-of-sight, infrared (IR) extinction technique was developed to quantify the fuel vapor fraction in premixed sprays. Radial distributions of fuel vapor were evaluated using an 'onion peeling' deconvolution technique. Combustion of test sprays indicated flame propagation among regions of high fuel vapor fraction to generate a high rate of combustion. In lean premixed sprays, the presence of a low fuel vapor concentration does not impact the combustion process. Experimental evidence demonstrating the enhancement of flame propagation velocity for optimal SMDs of ethanol sprays has been found. It was observed that test sprays with narrower DSDs have faster burning rates and more complete combustion. The DSD of the sprays were characterized with a droplet surface-area-based standard deviation of the DSD.

  7. Spray drift mitigation with spray mix adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  8. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  9. Plasma Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Computer aided, fully-automatic TRW system sprays very hot plasma onto a turbine blade. Composed of gas into which metallic and ceramic powders have been injected, the plasma forms a two-layer coating which insulates the blade. Critical part of operation is controlling the thickness of the deposit which is measured in thousandths of an inch. This is accomplished by an optical detector which illuminates spots at various locations on the blade and determines thickness by measuring the light reflections. Optical sensor monitors spraying process until precise thickness is attained, then computer halts the spraying.

  10. Measurement of spray combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Arman, E. F.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Farmer, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

  11. Warm Spray Forming of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molak, R. M.; Araki, H.; Watanabe, M.; Katanoda, H.; Ohno, N.; Kuroda, S.

    2014-01-01

    Warm spray (WS) is a modification of high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying, in which the temperature of the supersonic gas flow generated by the combustion of kerosene and oxygen is controlled by diluting the combustion flame with an inert gas such as nitrogen. The inert gas is injected into the mixing chamber placed between the combustion chamber and the powder feed ports, thus the temperature of the propellant gas can be controlled from ~700 to 2,000 K. Since WS allows for higher particle temperatures in comparison to cold spray, warm sprayed particles are more softened upon impact, thus resulting in greater deformation facilitating the formation of shear instability for bonding. Recently, the combustion pressure of WS has been increased from 1 (low-pressure warm spray) to 4 MPa (high-pressure warm spray) in order to increase the velocity of sprayed particles. Effects of spray parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties, and splats formation of Ti-6Al-4V were systematically studied. Obtained coatings were examined by analyzing the coating cross-section images, microhardness as well as oxygen content. In addition, flattening ratio of splats was calculated as a function of nitrogen flow rate. It was found that the increased particle velocity caused by the increased combustion pressure had significant beneficial effects in terms of improving density and controlling the oxygen level in the sprayed Ti-6Al-4V coatings.

  12. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  13. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  14. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... death. References Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ...

  15. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, stuffy, runny, itchy nose) caused by the common cold. Mometasone nasal spray is in a class of ... taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  16. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray ...

  17. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to relieve sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused ... treat symptoms (e.g., sneezing, stuffy, runny, itchy nose) caused by the common cold. Budesonide nasal spray ...

  18. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve symptoms of sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It ... nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose). Mometasone nasal spray should not be used to ...

  19. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Olopatadine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stuffy, runny or itchy nose caused by allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Olopatadine is in a class of ... Olopatadine nasal spray controls the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, but does not cure these condition. Continue to ...

  1. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergic rhinitis symptoms , such as congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching, or swelling of the nasal passageway Nasal ... Repeat these steps for the other nostril. Avoid sneezing or blowing your nose right after spraying.

  2. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottle in front of a tissue or paper towel. Pump the spray bottle six to eight times ... up the spill immediately with a cloth or paper towel. Avoid touching the liquid. Throw away the used ...

  3. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lining of the nose) after nasal polyp removal surgery. Beclomethasone nasal spray should not be used ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  4. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms of seasonal (occurs only at certain times of the year), and perennial ( ... prescribed by your doctor.Ciclesonide nasal spray is only for use in the nose. Do not swallow ...

  5. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  6. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  7. Spray applicator for spraying coatings and other fluids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Lausten, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained spray application is developed for one handed operation in a zero gravity vacuum environment by a free flying astronaut not attached to any spacecraft. This spray applicator eliminates contamination of the operator by back spray. This applicator includes a rigid accumulator containment of a fluid within a flexible bladder the fluid being urged out of the accumulator under pressure through a spray gun. The spray gun includes a spring loaded lockable trigger which controls a valve. When in an open position, the fluid passes through the valve into the ambient environment in the form of a spray. A spray shield is provided which directs the flow of the spray from the applicator by trapping errant particles of spray yet allowing the passage of escaping gases through its material.

  8. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  9. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  10. Directed spray mast

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Siddall, Alvin A.; Cheng, William Y.; Counts, Kevin T.

    2005-05-10

    Disclosed is an elongated, tubular, compact high pressure sprayer apparatus for insertion into an access port of vessels having contaminated interior areas that require cleaning by high pressure water spray. The invention includes a spray nozzle and a camera adjacent thereto with means for rotating and raising and lowering the nozzle so that areas identified through the camera may be cleaned with a minimum production of waste water to be removed.

  11. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  12. Thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, D.J.; Blann, G.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Standardization of specimen preparation for microstructural evaluation of thermally sprayed coatings is considered. Metallographic specimen preparation procedures including sectioning, encapsulation, planar grinding, and power lapping of thermally sprayed coatings are described. A Co-Ni-Cr-W coating on an AISI 410 stainless steel substrate is used as a control sample. Specimen-preparation techniques have been evaluated through scanning electron microscopy for determining the percentage of apparent porosity and energy dispersive spectroscopy for determining elemental composition.

  13. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  14. Paint spray tests for respirators: aerosol characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ackley, M W

    1980-05-01

    Liquid paint is sprayed from an atomizing nozzle to form an aerosol for testing paint spray respirators. The generated aerosol conditions are dependent upon liguid properties, spray-nozzle flow conditions and droplet evaporation. A technique was developed for controlling the aerosol concentrations reliably. Particle-size distributions of lacquer and enamel have been measured. The lacquer distribution was found to be multi-modal. Aerosol concentration dradients arise when the nozzle is not properly positioned. Filter loading resistance is significantly affected by these concentration variations. With regard to selection of standard aerosol test be improved by modifying the current NIOSH criteria to include a description of the particle-size distribution, a more precise definition of the paint and paint thinner chemical compositions, and a narrower concentration range. PMID:6932174

  15. High velocity pulsed wire-arc spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor); Kincaid, Russell W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Wire arc spraying using repetitively pulsed, high temperature gas jets, usually referred to as plasma jets, and generated by capillary discharges, substantially increases the velocity of atomized and entrained molten droplets. The quality of coatings produced is improved by increasing the velocity with which coating particles impact the coated surface. The effectiveness of wire-arc spraying is improved by replacing the usual atomizing air stream with a rapidly pulsed high velocity plasma jet. Pulsed power provides higher coating particle velocities leading to improved coatings. 50 micron aluminum droplets with velocities of 1500 m/s are produced. Pulsed plasma jet spraying provides the means to coat the insides of pipes, tubes, and engine block cylinders with very high velocity droplet impact.

  16. Spray nozzle designs for agricultural aviation applications. [relation of drop size to spray characteristics and nozzle efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. W.; Putnam, A. A.; Gieseke, J. A.; Golovin, M. N.; Hale, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques of generating monodisperse sprays and information concerning chemical liquids used in agricultural aviation are surveyed. The periodic dispersion of liquid jet, the spinning disk method, and ultrasonic atomization are the techniques discussed. Conceptually designed spray nozzles for generating monodisperse sprays are assessed. These are based on the classification of the drops using centrifugal force, on using two opposing liquid laden air jets, and on operating a spinning disk at an overloaded flow. Performance requirements for the designs are described and estimates of the operational characteristics are presented.

  17. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  18. Experimental testing of spray dryer for control of incineration emissions.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Wu, H Y; Tseng, H H; Chen, J C

    2003-05-01

    The research investigated the absorption/adsorption efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO2), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different Ca-based sorbents in a spray dryer during incineration process. For further improving the adsorption capacity of Ca-based sorbents, different spraying pressure and additives were carried out in this study. Experimental results showed that CaO could be used as an alternative sorbent in the spray dryer at an optimal initial particle size distribution of spraying droplet. In the spray dryer, Ca-based sorbents provided a lot of sites for heavy metals and PAHs condensing and calcium and alkalinity to react with metals to form merged species. As a result, heavy metals and PAHs could be removed from the flue gas simultaneously by condensation and adsorption. The additions of additives NaHCO3, SiO2, and KMnO4 were also found to be effective in improving the removal efficiency of these air pollutants. PMID:12744446

  19. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  20. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  1. Thermal spray processing

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-03-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  2. Thermal spray processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  3. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  4. Acoustic effects of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Maciej Z.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

    1994-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, it has been known that realistic combustion models for liquid fuel rocket engines should contain at least a rudimentary treatment of atomization and spray physics. This is of particular importance in transient operations. It has long been recognized that spray characteristics and droplet vaporization physics play a fundamental role in determining the stability behavior of liquid fuel rocket motors. This paper gives an overview of work in progress on design of a numerical algorithm for practical studies of combustion instabilities in liquid rocket motors. For flexibility, the algorithm is composed of semi-independent solution modules, accounting for different physical processes. Current findings are report and future work is indicated. The main emphasis of this research is the development of an efficient treatment to interactions between acoustic fields and liquid fuel/oxidizer sprays.

  5. Spray combustion experiments and numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, Edward J.; Bulzan, Daniel L.; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of commercial aircraft will include turbofan engines with performance significantly better than those in the current fleet. Control of particulate and gaseous emissions will also be an integral part of the engine design criteria. These performance and emission requirements present a technical challenge for the combustor: control of the fuel and air mixing and control of the local stoichiometry will have to be maintained much more rigorously than with combustors in current production. A better understanding of the flow physics of liquid fuel spray combustion is necessary. This paper describes recent experiments on spray combustion where detailed measurements of the spray characteristics were made, including local drop-size distributions and velocities. Also, an advanced combustor CFD code has been under development and predictions from this code are compared with experimental results. Studies such as these will provide information to the advanced combustor designer on fuel spray quality and mixing effectiveness. Validation of new fast, robust, and efficient CFD codes will also enable the combustor designer to use them as additional design tools for optimization of combustor concepts for the next generation of aircraft engines.

  6. Controlled overspray spray nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A spray system for a multi-ingredient ablative material wherein a nozzle A is utilized for suppressing overspray is described. The nozzle includes a cyclindrical inlet which converges to a restricted throat. A curved juncture between the cylindrical inlet and the convergent portion affords unrestricted and uninterrupted flow of the ablative material. A divergent bell-shaped chamber and adjustable nozzle exit B is utilized which provides a highly effective spray pattern in suppressing overspray to an acceptable level and producing a homogeneous jet of material that adheres well to the substrate.

  7. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results concerning high pressure droplet gasification model, droplet turbulent dispersion model, and spray atomization model will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines.

  8. New techniques for spraying dust

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S.K.

    1984-06-01

    Two recent developments for reducing airborne dust on longwall faces are described. One flushes foam through the drums of a shearer and also sprays foam onto the cutting drum. The other modifies the spray-head to produce different water spray patterns on continuous miners.

  9. Programable Plasma-Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.; Toth, I.

    1982-01-01

    NASA-funded research led to development of automated plasma-spray system programable and reproducible. System utilizes standard plasma-spray equipment with noncoherent light-measuring system and microprocessor. System monitors and controls surface contours and coating thickness. Other advantages of system are consistant coating reproducibility, exact blending and feathering operations, ability to handle complex shapes and ease of changing spray parameters.

  10. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  11. Low-voltage electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray drying of respirable particles.

    PubMed

    Lastow, Orest; Andersson, Jenny; Nilsson, Alexander; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is a widely used process to produce pharmaceutical powders. In traditional spray drying, the particle size distribution is wide and not well controlled. Using EHD atomization for spray drying offers a possibility to tailor the particle size and morphology. In conventional EHD spray drying, the generated particles are charged and need to be discharged to avoid Rayleigh breakup. Discharging adds complexity to the process and eliminates the possibility to collect the powder using an electric field. The present work describes a novel EHD spray drying setup based on a low-voltage nozzle. The low-voltage nozzle imparts moderate charge to the droplets, which makes discharging unnecessary. The charged particles can be controlled and collected by using an auxiliary electric field. The EHD spray dryer has been characterized in terms of particle size, particle morphology, process output, and yield. The size distribution of the generated particles is very narrow. Both porous and completely spherical particles can be produced. The yield of small-scale bench-top equipment was 20%, which is similar to the yield of a small-scale conventional spray dryer. The effective output with five nozzles was 75 mg/hr of dry powder. Because of the repelling forces associated with the unipolarly charged droplets, the number of nozzles can be increased without risking coalescence. PMID:17510889

  12. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  13. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  14. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  15. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  16. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is recommended by a doctor. Children 6 to 12 years of age should use oxymetazoline nasal spray carefully and under adult supervision. Oxymetazoline is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages.

  17. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... improve. Follow the directions on your prescription or product label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to ... ingredients in fluticasone nasal spray. Check the package label for a list of the ... and herbal products you are taking, or have recently taken, or ...

  18. Titanium Cold Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaja, Jihane; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard; Yue, Stephen; Rezaeian, Ahmad; Wong, Wilson; Irissou, Eric; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel

    Titanium Cold Spray Coatings Cold Spray is an emerging technology used for the deposition of coatings for many industries including aerospace. This technique allows the deposition of metallic materials at low temper-atures below their melting point. The aim of this research was to develop a test technique that can measure the degree to which a cold spray coating achieves mechanical properties similar to a traditional bulk material. Vickers hardness testing and nanoindentation were used as micro-and nano-scale measurement techniques to characterize the mechanical properties of titanium coatings, deposited at different deposition conditions, and bulk Ti. The mechanical properties of bulk titanium and titanium coatings were measured over a range of length scales, with the indentation size effect examined with Meyer's law. Hardness measurements are shown to be affected by material porosity, microstructure and coating particle bonding mechanism. Hard-ness measurements showed that Ti coatings deposited at higher gas pressures and temperatures demonstrate an indentation load response similar to bulk Ti. Key words: titanium, cold spray, Vickers hardness, nanoindentation, indentation size effect, microstructure, mechanical properties

  19. Picosecond imaging of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

  20. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... diarrhea and stomach pain caused by decreased blood flow to the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to use zolmitriptan nasal spray.tell your doctor if you smoke or are overweight; if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, or liver or ...

  1. Naloxone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms, he or she should give you your first naloxone dose and then call 911 immediately. After receiving the naloxone nasal spray, ... the person on their side (recovery position) and call for emergency medical ... after giving the first naloxone dose. If the person does not respond ...

  2. Further evaluation of spray characterization of sprayers typically used in vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Droplet size spectra from different sprayers used to generate sprays for controlling insects that may vector diseases were measured by a laser diffraction instrument. The objective of this work was to measure the droplet size generated by different sprayers with water- and oil-based spray solutions...

  3. Comparison of two lab-made spray chambers based on MSIS™ for simultaneous metal determination using vapor generation-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Cid, A; Villanueva-Alonso, J; Peña-Vázquez, E; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2012-10-24

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of two lab-made systems based on the Multimode Introduction System (MSIS™) and the modified MSIS™, to generate and introduce vapors of Ag, Cu, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Zn, and also Au in the ICP torch. An univariate procedure was used to select the optimized working conditions (Ar flow, sample, reductant and waste flows, and reagent concentrations). Optimum conditions for working with modified MSIS were: nitric acid concentration 0.35 M, 8-hydroxyquinoline concentration: 40 mg L(-1), sodium borohydride concentration: 1.75% (w/v)+0.4% (w/v) NaOH, argon purge flow to sweep the vapors to the torch: 1.2 L min(-1), sample flow and sodium borohydride flows: 2.3 L min(-1); waste flow: 7.7 mL min(-1). For the optimum working conditions for lab-made MSIS in dual mode the concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline was 225 mg L(-1), the Ar purge flow was 0.75 L min(-1), and the conventional nebulization flow was 2.3 L min(-1). The sensitivity obtained was higher using the lab-made MSIS than using the lab-made modified MSIS or a forced outlet gas-liquid separator. The limits of detection were better for Au, Cd, Sn than those obtained using conventional nebulization; the measurements were precise (RSDs≤5% in dual mode) and a good accuracy was obtained in the determination of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in a wastewater reference material using aqueous calibration and the lab-made MSIS in dual mode. PMID:23036464

  4. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  5. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm. PMID:15151329

  6. Microstructure of Kinetic Spray Coatings: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changhee; Kim, Jaeick

    2015-04-01

    Kinetic spray process has been applied to various industrial fields such as automotive, aviation, and defense industries due to its availability to produce high-performing coating layer. However, since the properties of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are significantly affected by the microstructures of deposit, the microstructures of the deposit should be controlled to acquire advanced coating layer and, accordingly, deep understanding of microstructural evolution must be achieved before controlling the microstructure of the coating layer. This paper gives an overview of contents related to the microstructure of kinetic-sprayed deposition. The most powerful influencing factors in microstructural evolution of kinetic-sprayed coating layer are instant generation of thermal energy and high-strain, high-strain-rate plastic deformation at the moment of particle impact. A high-density coating layer with low porosity can be produced, although some micro-cracks are occasionally induced at the interparticle boundary or at the inner region of the particles. Also, a microstructure which is distinct from the inner particle region is created in the vicinity of the particle-particle or particle-substrate interface region. However, almost no crystal phase transformation or chemical reaction is induced since the deposited particles are not heated directly by a thermal energy source.

  7. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOEpatents

    Byrnes, Larry Edward; Kramer, Martin Stephen; Neiser, Richard A.

    2003-08-26

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  8. Thermal sprayed composite melt containment tubular component and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Besser, Matthew F.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Sordelet, Daniel J.; Anderson, Iver E.

    2002-03-19

    A tubular thermal sprayed melt containment component for transient containment of molten metal or alloy wherein the tubular member includes a thermal sprayed inner melt-contacting layer for contacting molten metal or alloy to be processed, a thermal sprayed heat-generating layer deposited on the inner layer, and an optional thermal sprayed outer thermal insulating layer. The thermal sprayed heat-generating layer is inductively heated as a susceptor of an induction field or electrical resistively heated by passing electrical current therethrough. The tubular thermal sprayed melt containment component can comprise an elongated melt pour tube of a gas atomization apparatus where the melt pour tube supplies molten material from a crucible to an underlying melt atomization nozzle.

  9. Effects of different additives on the performance of spray dryer system during incineration process.

    PubMed

    Wey, M Y; Peng, C Y; Wu, H Y; Chiang, B C; Liu, Z S

    2002-06-01

    The spray dryer system was conventionally employed to remove the SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas. However, the removal efficiency of acid gas in the practical incineration flue gas, which contains dust, heavy metals, and acid gas itself, was seldom mentioned in the literature. The alkaline sorbents possess large specific surface that was a main factor on the adsorption of heavy metals and acid gas. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was focused on the effect of different additives on the removal efficiency of acid gas and heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The mass and element size distribution of heavy metals in fly ash under different additives were also investigated. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of HCl in the spray dryer system was higher than 97.8%. The effects of additives on the removal efficiency of HCl, however, were undistinguished. In the desulfurization process, the highest removal efficiency was 71.3% when the additive of amorphous SiO2 was added in the spray dryer system. The removal efficiency was 66.0% with the additive of CaCl2 and 63.1% without any additives, respectively. It was also found that the spray dryer system could decrease the concentration of metal in fly ash but increase the amount of fly ash. In addition, amorphous SiO2 in the alkaline sorbent tended to increase the adsorption of heavy metal on reactant, because it could enhance the dispersion of alkaline sorbent. PMID:12118621

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurements of a water spray upstream and downstream of a spray nozzle exit orifice.

    PubMed

    Mastikhin, Igor; Arbabi, Aidin; Bade, Kyle M

    2016-05-01

    Sprays are dynamic collections of droplets dispersed in a gas, with many industrial and agricultural applications. Quantitative characterization is essential for understanding processes of spray formation and dynamics. There exists a wide range of measurement techniques to characterize sprays, from direct imaging to phase Doppler interferometry to X-rays, which provide detailed information on spray characteristics in the "far-nozzle" region (≫10 diameters of the nozzle). However, traditional methods are limited in their ability to characterize the "near-nozzle" region where the fluid may be inside the nozzle, optically dense, or incompletely atomized. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) presents potential as a non-invasive technique that is capable of measuring optically inaccessible fluid in a quantitative fashion. In this work, MRI measurements of the spray generated by ceramic flat-fan nozzles were performed. A wide range of flow speeds in the system (0.2 to >25m/s) necessitated short encoding times. A 3D Conical SPRITE and motion-sensitized 3D Conical SPRITE were employed. The signal from water inside the nozzle was well-characterized, both via proton density and velocity measurements. The signal outside the nozzle, in the near-nozzle region, was detectable, corresponding to the expected flat-fan spray pattern up to 3mm away. The results demonstrate the potential of MRI for measuring spray characteristics in areas inaccessible by other methods. PMID:26999032

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurements of a water spray upstream and downstream of a spray nozzle exit orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastikhin, Igor; Arbabi, Aidin; Bade, Kyle M.

    2016-05-01

    Sprays are dynamic collections of droplets dispersed in a gas, with many industrial and agricultural applications. Quantitative characterization is essential for understanding processes of spray formation and dynamics. There exists a wide range of measurement techniques to characterize sprays, from direct imaging to phase Doppler interferometry to X-rays, which provide detailed information on spray characteristics in the "far-nozzle" region (≫10 diameters of the nozzle). However, traditional methods are limited in their ability to characterize the "near-nozzle" region where the fluid may be inside the nozzle, optically dense, or incompletely atomized. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) presents potential as a non-invasive technique that is capable of measuring optically inaccessible fluid in a quantitative fashion. In this work, MRI measurements of the spray generated by ceramic flat-fan nozzles were performed. A wide range of flow speeds in the system (0.2 to >25 m/s) necessitated short encoding times. A 3D Conical SPRITE and motion-sensitized 3D Conical SPRITE were employed. The signal from water inside the nozzle was well-characterized, both via proton density and velocity measurements. The signal outside the nozzle, in the near-nozzle region, was detectable, corresponding to the expected flat-fan spray pattern up to 3 mm away. The results demonstrate the potential of MRI for measuring spray characteristics in areas inaccessible by other methods.

  12. Flame spraying of polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-08-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs.

  13. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  14. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  15. Collection efficiency of various airborne spray flux samplers used in aerial application research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low air speed, spray dispersion tunnel was constructed and used to evaluate the collection efficiency of passive spray flux collectors. The dispersion tunnel utilizes an air-assisted nozzle to generate a spray cloud with a DV0.5 of 18.5 (±0.4) µm at air speeds ranging from 0.45-4.0 m/sec. A samp...

  16. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  17. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    PubMed

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  18. Monodispersed Spray Generation from Convex Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroff, Shilpa; Liepmann, Dorian

    1999-11-01

    Flow of a fluid sheet over a concave surface has been found to amplify streamwise vorticity leading to a new mechanism for droplet formation. An instability leading to waves that travel in the streamwise direction is also observed. The resultant grid-like structure produces monodispersed droplets at the intersections of the two instabilities as the flow develops. The presentation will focus on the dominant physics associated with the interaction between the solid surface and the fluid sheet and discuss how these control the formation of the droplets. The cross-stream ridges result from a wave instability that depends on the curvature of the bed and the Froude Number. There has been some analytical work done on determining the stability characteristic of flow in curved beds by Eagles, which indicates a weak instability even at Reynolds numbers approaching zero. The possibility of streamwise vortices was also investigated as the source of the streamwise ridges. This vorticity may be introduced into the flow by the angle between the jet and the sheet during the initial contact. An analytic model as well as experimental work has been developed to determine the physical phenomena that influence the dynamics of this flow. In addition, work has been done to identify important scaling parameters, especially those that control the development of the surface deformation and droplet formation.

  19. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  20. Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1934-01-01

    A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.

  1. Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.

    2016-08-01

    Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.

  2. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  3. Spray-formed tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  4. Spray-formed tooling

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be de signed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  5. A New Way to Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A NASA SBIR contract provided the funding for a new nozzle shape to be used in plasma spray techniques. The new design, a bell shape, reduces overspray. The result is a significant decrease in the cost of plasma spraying and a higher quality, more pure coating.

  6. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  7. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  8. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  9. Isolation of alkaline mutagens from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the preparative-scale enrichment of alkaline mutagens from complex natural and anthropogenic mixtures is described. Mutagenic alkaline fractions were isolated from cigarette smoke, crude petroleum, and petroleum substitutes derived from coal and shale.

  10. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. PMID:27130966

  11. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  12. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  13. Molecular modeling of human alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Panneer Selvam; Olubiyi, Olujide; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Strodel, Birgit; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase, which is expressed in the human intestine and hydrolyses sphingomyelin, is a component of the plasma and the lysosomal membranes. Hydrolase of sphingomyelin generates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate that have regulatory effects on vital cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The enzyme belongs to the Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase family and it differs in structural similarity with acidic and neutral sphingomyelinase. In the present study we modeled alkaline sphingomyelinase using homology modeling based on the structure of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase from Xanthomonas axonopodis with which it shares 34% identity. Homology modeling was performed using Modeller9v7. We found that Cys78 and Cys394 form a disulphide bond. Further analysis shows that Ser76 may be important for the function of this enzyme, which is supported by the findings of Wu et al. (2005), that S76F abolishes the activity completely. We found that the residues bound to Zn(2+) are conserved and geometrically similar with the template. Molecular Dynamics simulations were carried out for the modeled protein to observe the effect of Zinc metal ions. It was observed that the metal ion has little effect with regard to the stability but induces increased fluctuations in the protein. These analyses showed that Zinc ions play an important role in stabilizing the secondary structure and in maintaining the compactness of the active site. PMID:21544170

  14. A fluorescent tracer method for evaluating spray transport and fate of field and laboratory spray applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory testing spray nozzles and application systems use spray collectors to assess where the spray deposits once it leaves the spray system. Tracer materials, such as oil and water soluble fluorescent dyes, can be mixed into spray solutions in small amounts with minimal impact on the...

  15. INEL spray-forming research

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  16. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  17. Air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for nanoparticles synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shirley C.; Song, Yu L.; Chen, C. Y.; Tseng, T. K.; Tsai, Chen S.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents new findings regarding the effects of precursor drop size and concentration on product particle size and morphology in ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of zirconium hydroxyl acetate solutions. Large precursor drops (diameter >30μm) generated by ultrasonic atomization at 120kHz yielded particles with holes. Precursor drops 6-9 μm in diameter, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer at 1.65MHz and 23.5W electric drive power, yielded uniform spherical particles 150nm in diameter under proper control of heating rate and precursor concentration. Moreover, air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at 120kHz and 2.3W yielded spherical particles of which nearly half were smaller than those produced by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of the 6-9 μm precursor drops, desprite the much larger precursor drop sizes (28 μm peak diameter versus 7 μm mean diameter). These particles are much smaller than those predicted by the conventional one particle per drop mechanism, suggesting that a vapor condensation mechanism may also be involved in spray pyrolysis. It may be concluded that through this new mechanism air-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can become a viable process for mass production of nanoparticles.

  18. Fuel spray diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Several laser measurement methods are being studied to provide the capability to make droplet size and velocity measurements under a variety of spray conditions. The droplet sizing interferometer (DSI) promises to be a successful technique because of its capability for rapid data acquisition, compilation and analysis. Its main advantage is the ability to obtain size and velocity measurements in air-fuel mixing studies and hot flows. The existing DSI at NASA Lewis is a two-color, two-component system. Two independent orthogonal measurements of size and velocity components can be made simultaneously. It also uses an off-axis large-angle light scatter detection. The fundamental features of the system are optics, signal processing and data management system. The major component includes a transmitter unit, two receiver units, two signal processors, two data management systems, two Bragg cell systems, two printer/plotters, a laser, power supply and color monitor.

  19. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Pattie Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Zinc primer systems are currently used across NASA and AFSPC for corrosion protection of steel. AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of Thermal Spray Coatings (TSCs) as an environmentally preferable alternative. TSCs are approved in NASA-STD-5008 and AFSPC and KSC is currently looking for additional applications in which TSC can be used. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS, also known as Cold Spray) is being evaluated as a means of repairing TSCs and for areas such as corners and edges where TSCs do not work as well. Other applications could include spot repair/maintenance of steel on structures, facilities, and ground support equipment.

  20. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  1. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  2. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  3. Exposure of spray-men to dieldrin in residual spraying

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, T. E.; Press, J. M.; Wilson, D. Bagster

    1959-01-01

    A study of the exposure of spray-men to dieldrin was made in a pilot scheme of residual spraying in the Taveta-Pare area of East Africa. A detailed work study was completed on the operators, and sources of contamination were enumerated. Filter paper pads were placed on the skin and outside clothing and the pick-up was estimated chemically. A spray-man, while using the daily average of 2.12 kg (4.7 pounds) of dieldrin and observing the protective measures laid down, received a dermal exposure of 1.8 mg of dieldrin per kg of body-weight per day. This was possibly reduced somewhat by washing with soap and water upon completion of each day's work. The sixteen spray-men and assistants were exposed for 180 days per year and there was an interim period of 2 months between spray cycles. No clinical symptoms of poisoning were observed. Comparison is made with certain programmes where dieldrin poisoning has occurred. Attention is drawn to the reduced time of exposure in the Taveta-Pare scheme, personal washing, the great value of protective clothing and of its daily washing in soap and water and the need to use a dilute suspension of wettable powder for spraying. Imagesp16-a PMID:13638786

  4. Convective Evaporation Of Sprayed Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical model developed to analyze behavior of both dense and dilute clusters of evaporating liquid drops in gas flows. Particularly useful in search for methods of controlling evaporation, ignition, and combustion of fuel sprays.

  5. Spray nozzle for fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavergos, Panayiotis G.

    1990-09-01

    The design of a spray nozzle for fire control is described. It produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross section and it comprises a mixing chamber with an oval transverse cross section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment the mixing chamber is toroidal. The spray nozzle produces an oval spray pattern for more efficient wetting of narrow passages and is suitable for fire control systems in vehicles or other confined spaces. Vehicles to which this invention may be applied include trains, armoured vehicles, ships, hovercraft, submarines, oil rigs, and most preferably, aircraft.

  6. Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

  7. Fluorescent photography of spray droplets using a laser light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J.; Hiroyasu, H.; Sowls, R.

    1969-01-01

    Monochromatic laser emission transformed by a fluorescent process into droplet emission over a wavelength band provides high light intensities for obtaining adequate time resolution to stop droplet motion in photographic spray studies. Experiments showed that the Q-switched laser-optical harmonic generator combination produced sharp, well-exposed droplet images.

  8. LIME SPRAY DRYER FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION COMPUTER MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a lime spray dryer/baghouse (FORTRAN) computer model that simulates SO2 removal and permits study of related impacts on design and economics as functions of design parameters and operating conditions for coal-fired electric generating units. The model allows ...

  9. Alkaline Electrolysis Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    RIchard Bourgeois; Steven Sanborn; Eliot Assimakopoulos

    2006-07-13

    In this project, GE developed electrolyzer stack technologies to meet DOE’s goals for low cost electrolysis hydrogen. The main barrier to meeting the targets for electrolyzer cost was in stack assembly and construction. GE’s invention of a single piece or “monolithic” plastic electrolyzer stack reduces these costs considerably. In addition, GE developed low cost cell electrodes using a novel application of metal spray coating technology. Bench scale stack testing and cost modeling indicates that the DOE targets for stack capital cost and efficiency can be met by full-scale production of industrial electrolyzers incorporating GE’s stack technology innovations.

  10. LN2 spray droplet size measurement via ensemble diffraction technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, N. H.; Chato, D. J.; Jurns, J.

    1991-01-01

    The size of subcooled liquified nitrogen droplets are measured with a 5 mW He-Ne laser as a function of pressure difference (delta P) across flat spray and full cone pressure atomizing nozzles. For delta P's of 3 to 30 psid, the spray sauter mean diameter (SMD) ranged between 250 to 50 microns. The pressure range tested is representative of those expected during cryogenic fluid transfer operations in space. The droplet sizes from the flat spray nozzles were greater than those from the full cone nozzle. A power function of the form, SMD varies as delta P(exp a), describes the spray SMD as a function of the delta P very well. The values of a were -0.36 for the flat spray and -0.87 for the full cone. The reduced dependence of the flat spray SMD on the delta P was probably because of: (1) the absence of a swirler that generates a turbulence within the nozzle to enhance atomization, and (2) a possible increase in shearing stress resulting from the delayed atomization due to the absence of turbulence. The nitrogen quality, up to 1.5 percent is based on isenthalpic expansion, did not have a distinct and measurable effect on the spray SMD. Both bimodal and monomodal droplet size population distributions were measured. In the bimodal distribution, the frequency of the first mode was much greater than the frequency of the second mode. Also, the frequency of the second mode was low enough such that a monomodal approximation probably would give reasonable results.

  11. LN2 spray droplet size measurement via ensemble diffraction technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, N. H.; Jurns, J.; Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The size of subcooled liquified nitrogen droplets are measured with a 5 mW He-Ne laser as a function of pressure difference (delta P) across flat spray and full cone pressure atomizing nozzles. For delta P's of 3 to 30 psid, the spray sauter mean diameter (SMD) ranged between 250 to 50 microns. The pressure range tested is representative of those expected during cryogenic fluid transfer operations in space. The droplet sizes from the flat spray nozzles were greater than those from the full cone nozzle. A power function of the form, SMD varies as delta P(exp a), describes the spray SMD as a function of the delta P very well. The values of a were -0.36 for the flat spray and -0.87 for the full cone. The reduced dependence of the flat spray SMD on the delta P was probably because of: (1) the absence of a swirler that generates turbulence within the nozzle to enhance atomization, and (2) a possible increase in shearing stress resulting from the delayed atomization due to the absence of turbulence. The nitrogen quality, up to 1.5 percent is based on isenthalpic expansion, did not have a distinct and measurable effect on the spray SMD. Both bimodal and monomodal droplet size population distributions were measured. In the bimodal distribution, the frequency of the first mode was much greater than the frequency of the second mode. Also, the frequency of the second mode was low enough such that a monomodal approximation probably would give reasonable results.

  12. Towards fully spray coated organic light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilissen, Koen; Stryckers, Jeroen; Manca, Jean; Deferme, Wim

    2014-10-01

    Pi-conjugated polymer light emitting devices have the potential to be the next generation of solid state lighting. In order to achieve this goal, a low cost, efficient and large area production process is essential. Polymer based light emitting devices are generally deposited using techniques based on solution processing e.g.: spin coating, ink jet printing. These techniques are not well suited for cost-effective, high throughput, large area mass production of these organic devices. Ultrasonic spray deposition however, is a deposition technique that is fast, efficient and roll to roll compatible which can be easily scaled up for the production of large area polymer light emitting devices (PLEDs). This deposition technique has already successfully been employed to produce organic photovoltaic devices (OPV)1. Recently the electron blocking layer PEDOT:PSS2 and metal top contact3 have been successfully spray coated as part of the organic photovoltaic device stack. In this study, the effects of ultrasonic spray deposition of polymer light emitting devices are investigated. For the first time - to our knowledge -, spray coating of the active layer in PLED is demonstrated. Different solvents are tested to achieve the best possible spray-able dispersion. The active layer morphology is characterized and optimized to produce uniform films with optimal thickness. Furthermore these ultrasonic spray coated films are incorporated in the polymer light emitting device stack to investigate the device characteristics and efficiency. Our results show that after careful optimization of the active layer, ultrasonic spray coating is prime candidate as deposition technique for mass production of PLEDs.

  13. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  14. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  15. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  16. Characterization of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, B.S.; Stein, K.J.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-02-01

    The ability to characterize fully the microstructure of a coating is paramount for understanding the in-service properties and eventual optimization of the coating. This article discusses sample preparation and subsequent analytical techniques (LOM, SEM, XRD, WDS, and QIA) for several cermet thermal spray coatings and provides a detailed analysis of as-sprayed microstructures in addition to processing trends for several FeCrAIY-carbide coatings. It was found that the splats produced in these high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings tended to exhibit a predominantly dendritic structure most likely retained from the gas atomization process that produced the original powder. Chemical analysis showed that the carbides tend to break down during spraying producing a complex mixture of oxides and various carbides. Finally, image analysis revealed that as the carbides in the pre-sprayed powder were increased, more carbides and oxides with less FeCrAIY and thinner coatings were found. These techniques allow the thorough characterization of thermal spray cermet coatings, which in turn should further the understanding of the thermal spray processes and help provide superior coatings in the future.

  17. Monitoring of isothiocyanates emanating from Arabidopsis thaliana upon paraquat spraying.

    PubMed

    Vercammen, J; Pham-Tuan, H; Arickx, I; Van der Straeten, D; Sandra, P

    2001-03-30

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were sprayed with the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat. The headspace of sprayed plants was characterized by a number of compounds, which were absent in the headspace of untreated plants. They were identified as isothiocyanates (ITCs) with 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate as main compound. After identification, a GC-system, based on PDMS sorption, was used to continuously monitor the ITC emissions. The specificity of isothiocyanate emission was also determined by subjecting the Arabidopsis thaliana plants to in vitro mechanical wounding. Again, 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate was the main component, but the emission profile was completely different since the compound was emitted immediately, i.e., during wounding itself. PMID:11307975

  18. CFD Modeling of Superheated Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of fuel atomization and vaporization behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA aeronautics initiative, we have undertaken an assessment study to establish baseline accuracy of existing CFD models used in the evaluation of a ashing jet. In a first attempt towards attaining this goal, we have incorporated an existing superheat vaporization model into our spray solution procedure but made some improvements to combine the existing models valid at superheated conditions with the models valid at stable (non-superheat) evaporating conditions. Also, the paper reports some validation results based on the experimental data obtained from the literature for a superheated spray generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle. The predicted profiles for both gas and droplet velocities show a reasonable agreement with the measured data and exhibit a self-similar pattern similar to the correlation reported in the literature. Because of the uncertainty involved in the specification of the initial conditions, we have investigated the effect of initial droplet size distribution on the validation results. The predicted results were found to be sensitive to the initial conditions used for the droplet size specification. However, it was shown that decent droplet size comparisons could be achieved with properly selected initial conditions, For the case considered, it is reasonable to assume that the present vaporization models are capable of providing a reasonable qualitative description for the two-phase jet characteristics generated by a ashing jet. However, there remains some uncertainty with regard to the specification of certain initial spray conditions and there is a need for experimental data on separate gas and liquid temperatures in order to validate the vaporization models based on the Adachi correlation for a liquid involving R134A.

  19. Image processing system to analyze droplet distributions in sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertollini, Gary P.; Oberdier, Larry M.; Lee, Yong H.

    1987-01-01

    An image processing system was developed which automatically analyzes the size distributions in fuel spray video images. Images are generated by using pulsed laser light to freeze droplet motion in the spray sample volume under study. This coherent illumination source produces images which contain droplet diffraction patterns representing the droplets degree of focus. The analysis is performed by extracting feature data describing droplet diffraction patterns in the images. This allows the system to select droplets from image anomalies and measure only those droplets considered in focus. Unique features of the system are the totally automated analysis and droplet feature measurement from the grayscale image. The feature extraction and image restoration algorithms used in the system are described. Preliminary performance data is also given for two experiments. One experiment gives a comparison between a synthesized distribution measured manually and automatically. The second experiment compares a real spray distribution measured using current methods against the automatic system.

  20. Spray characterization with a nonintrusive technique using absolute scattered light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, C. F.; Espinosa, V. E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique to measure the size and velocity of particles is discussed, and results are presented. In this technique two small laser beams of one color identify the center of a laser beam of a different color. This defines a region of almost uniform intensity where the light scattered by the individual particles can be related to their sizes. A variation of this technique that uses two polarizations of the same color of laser beam is also presented. Results are presented for monodisperse, bimodal, trimodal, and polydisperse sprays produced by the Berglund-Liu droplet generator and a pressure nozzle. Size distributions obtained at three different ranges for the same spray show excellent self-consistency in the overlapping regions. Measurements of a spray of known characteristics exhibit errors in the order of 10 percent.

  1. Impact of Sea Spray on Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Mueller, James

    2013-11-01

    The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. Funded by grants OCE-0850663 and OCE-0748767 from the National Science Foundation.

  2. Accurate analysis of multicomponent fuel spray evaporation in turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Bastian; Calabria, Raffaela; Chiariello, Fabio; Le Clercq, Patrick; Massoli, Patrizio; Rachner, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to perform an accurate analysis of the evaporation of single component and binary mixture fuels sprays in a hot weakly turbulent pipe flow by means of experimental measurement and numerical simulation. This gives a deeper insight into the relationship between fuel composition and spray evaporation. The turbulence intensity in the test section is equal to 10%, and the integral length scale is three orders of magnitude larger than the droplet size while the turbulence microscale (Kolmogorov scales) is of same order as the droplet diameter. The spray produced by means of a calibrated droplet generator was injected in a gas flow electrically preheated. N-nonane, isopropanol, and their mixtures were used in the tests. The generalized scattering imaging technique was applied to simultaneously determine size, velocity, and spatial location of the droplets carried by the turbulent flow in the quartz tube. The spray evaporation was computed using a Lagrangian particle solver coupled to a gas-phase solver. Computations of spray mean diameter and droplet size distributions at different locations along the pipe compare very favorably with the measurement results. This combined research tool enabled further investigation concerning the influencing parameters upon the evaporation process such as the turbulence, droplet internal mixing, and liquid-phase thermophysical properties.

  3. Crystallization Evolution of Cold-Sprayed Pure Ni Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cold spraying is a coating technology on the basis of aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. Spray particles (usually 1-50 μm in diameter) are accelerated to high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (preheated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval type nozzle. The coating forms through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on the substrate at temperatures well below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper, the main processing parameters affecting the crystallization behavior of pure Ni cold spray deposits on IN718 alloy are described. Various experimental conditions have been analyzed: gas temperature and pressure, nozzle to substrate distance. In particular, the study deals with those conditions leading to a strong grain refinement, with an acceptable level of the deposits mechanical properties. In precise spray conditions, a shift toward amorphous phases has been observed and studied. A systematic analysis of microstructural evolution, performed through TEM observations, as a function of processing parameters is presented.

  4. Wear mechanisms in thermally-sprayed Mo-based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, S. F.; Sampath, S.; Anand, V.

    1994-07-01

    The successful development of advanced diesel engines relies heavily on piston ring coating materials which can withstand elevated temperatures and reduce friction. Traditional hard chrome plating and flame-sprayed Mo-wire materials have reached their potential in the diesel engine environment, and alternatives are needed. Thermally-sprayed Mo-based alloys and composites are being evaluated for applications as next-generation ring-face coatings. The alloy development task of producing complex Mo-based alloy powders for use as thermally-sprayed coating materials requires an understanding of their wear resistance under contact stress conditions. In this paper, the wear behavior of Mo and Mo + NiCrBSi thermally sprayed coatings is exmined by pin-on-disc and single-point scratch-test methods. Microstructural analysis beneath worn regions have revealed that fracture of splats and their decohesion constitute the mode of failure. Improved wear resistance and stability of low friction coefficient was obtained by prealloying Mo with NiCrBSi prior to thermal spraying.

  5. Crystallization Evolution of Cold-Sprayed Pure Ni Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2016-07-01

    Cold spraying is a coating technology on the basis of aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. Spray particles (usually 1-50 μm in diameter) are accelerated to high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (preheated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval type nozzle. The coating forms through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on the substrate at temperatures well below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper, the main processing parameters affecting the crystallization behavior of pure Ni cold spray deposits on IN718 alloy are described. Various experimental conditions have been analyzed: gas temperature and pressure, nozzle to substrate distance. In particular, the study deals with those conditions leading to a strong grain refinement, with an acceptable level of the deposits mechanical properties. In precise spray conditions, a shift toward amorphous phases has been observed and studied. A systematic analysis of microstructural evolution, performed through TEM observations, as a function of processing parameters is presented.

  6. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  7. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. PMID:27070613

  8. Anode conductor for alkaline cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenk, D.J.; Murphy, P.E.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprised of an anode comprised of zinc; a cathode; and alkaline electrolyte; and a current collector comprised of a silicon bronze alloy that is comprised of 85-98% by weight copper and 1-5% by weight silicon with the remainder being comprised of at least one of manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum, tin, lead, or mixtures thereof; and a strip of metal tab stock welded to the current collector, the tab stock being a metal other than silicon bronze alloy.

  9. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  10. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  11. High-K, calc-alkaline I-type granitoids from the composite Yozgat batholith generated in a post-collisional setting following continent-oceanic island arc collision in central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boztuğ, D.; Arehart, G. B.; Platevoet, B.; Harlavan, Y.; Bonin, B.

    2007-11-01

    The composite Yozgat batholith consists of a S-I-A-type granitoid association intruding the supra-subduction zone-type (SSZ-type) central Anatolian ophiolite and medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the central Anatolian crystalline complex. These rocks are unconformably covered by Palaeocene to Early Eocene sedimentary rocks. The I-type granitoids are the most common rock association of this huge batholith. In an area between the towns of Şefaatli and Yerköy, the southwestern part of the batholith can be subdivided into five mappable units: the Akçakoyunlu quartz monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling ages of 77.6-79.3 Ma); the Cankılı monzodiorite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 71.1 Ma); the Adatepe quartz monzonite (mafic; hornblende K-Ar cooling age of 68.0 Ma); the Yassıağıl monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 69.9-79.8 Ma) and the Karakaya monzogranite (felsic; hornblende + biotite K-Ar cooling ages of 71.3-77.0 Ma). All the lithological units, except the Karakaya monzogranite, include large K-feldspar megacrysts and various types of mafic microgranular enclaves in field outcrops, indicating mingling and mixing. In addition, microscopic textures showing the hybridization between the coeval mafic and felsic magma sources are present. Whole-rock major element geochemistry shows a high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type composition with an aluminium saturation index (ASI) less than 1.10 and with CIPW diopside content in all the lithological units. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE), some high field strength elements (HFSE) (except Nb) enrichments and significant crustal contribution revealed by the oxygen and sulphur stable isotope compositions in the mafic and felsic I-type granitoid units are consistent with mafic lower crustal and metasomatized mantle sources the latter of which were metasomatized by earlier supra subduction zone (SSZ)-derived fluids during the

  12. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  13. Nozzleless Spray Cooling Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Kar Man; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Due to its reliability and portability, surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomization is an attractive approach for the generation of monodispersed microdroplets in microfluidics devices. Here, we present a nozzleless spray cooling technique via SAW atomization with key advantage of downward scalability by simply increasing the excitation frequency. With generation of micron size droplets through surface destabilization using SAW, the clogging issues commonly encountered by spraying nozzle can be neutralized. Using deionised water, cooling is improved when the atomization rate is increased and the position of the device is optimized such that the atomized droplets can be easily seeded into the upstream of the flow circulation. Cooling is further improved with the use of nanofluids; a suspension of nanoparticles in water. By increasing nanoparticle mass concentration from 1% to 3%, cooling is enhanced due to the deposition and formation of nanoparticle clusters on heated surface and eventually increase the surface area. However, further increase the concentration to 10% reduces the cooling efficiency due to drastic increase in viscosity μ that leads to lower atomization rate which scales as ṁ ~μ - 1 / 2 .

  14. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  15. When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. R.; Frölicher, T. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Rodgers, K. B.; Slater, R. D.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We use a large initial condition suite of simulations (30 runs) with an Earth system model to assess the detectability of biogeochemical impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the marine alkalinity distribution from decadally repeated hydrographic measurements such as those produced by the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Detection of these impacts is complicated by alkalinity changes from variability and long-term trends in freshwater and organic matter cycling and ocean circulation. In our ensemble simulation, variability in freshwater cycling generates large changes in alkalinity that obscure the changes of interest and prevent the attribution of observed alkalinity redistribution to OA. These complications from freshwater cycling can be mostly avoided through salinity normalization of alkalinity. With the salinity-normalized alkalinity, modeled OA impacts are broadly detectable in the surface of the subtropical gyres by 2030. Discrepancies between this finding and the finding of an earlier analysis suggest that these estimates are strongly sensitive to the patterns of calcium carbonate export simulated by the model. OA impacts are detectable later in the subpolar and equatorial regions due to slower responses of alkalinity to OA in these regions and greater seasonal equatorial alkalinity variability. OA impacts are detectable later at depth despite lower variability due to smaller rates of change and consistent measurement uncertainty.

  16. Flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the risks associated with wet runway aircraft operation is the ingestion of water spray produced by an aircraft's tires into its engines. This problem can be especially dangerous at or near rotation speed on the takeoff roll. An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Hydrodynamics Research Facility to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft nose tire operating on a flooded runway. The effects of various parameters on the spray patterns including distance aft of nosewheel, speed, load, and water depth were evaluated. Variations in the spray pattern caused by the airflow about primary structure such as the fuselage and wing are discussed. A discussion of events in and near the tire footprint concerning spray generation is included.

  17. Measuring densities of high-velocity metallic sprays using piezoelectric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C. E.; Proud, W. G.

    2007-12-12

    Recent research efforts in large-scale hydrodynamic experiments have concentrated on the possibility of using piezoelectric sensors to study the evolution of ejecta. Ejecta are small (<100 m diameter) particulates that are ejected at high velocity (>1 km s{sup -1}) from a shocked surface. This paper investigates whether Dynasen PZT piezoelectric sensors are reliable and robust enough to measure accurate time-resolved stresses and densities in high-velocity metallic sprays. The sprays are assumed to have similar characteristics to ejecta sprays, and are generated by a gas gun and in a safe and reproducible manner. A complimentary diagnostic technique, utilising high-speed photography and fast x-radiography, measures the densities of the sprays independently, allowing the accuracy of the sensors to be assessed. The Dynasen sensors have been shown to perform relatively well in spray environments. Their accuracy can be improved by taking their mechanical impedance characteristics into account.

  18. Alkaline Phosphatase, Soluble Extracellular Adenine Nucleotides, and Adenosine Production after Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jesse A.; Urban, Tracy; Tong, Suhong; Twite, Mark; Woodruff, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Decreased alkaline phosphatase activity after infant cardiac surgery is associated with increased post-operative cardiovascular support requirements. In adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, alkaline phosphatase infusion may reduce inflammation. Mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored but may include decreased conversion of extracellular adenine nucleotides to adenosine. Objectives 1) Evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase activity and serum conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine after infant cardiac surgery; 2) assess if inhibition/supplementation of serum alkaline phosphatase modulates this conversion. Methods and Research Pre/post-bypass serum samples were obtained from 75 infants <4 months of age. Serum conversion of 13C5-adenosine monophosphate to 13C5-adenosine was assessed with/without selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase and CD73. Low and high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (simulating normal/stress concentrations) were used. Effects of alkaline phosphatase supplementation on adenosine monophosphate clearance were also assessed. Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were strongly correlated with changes in 13C5-adenosine production with or without CD73 inhibition (r = 0.83; p<0.0001). Serum with low alkaline phosphatase activity (≤80 U/L) generated significantly less 13C5-adenosine, particularly in the presence of high concentration 13C5-adenosine monophosphate (10.4μmol/L vs 12.9μmol/L; p = 0.0004). Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase led to a marked decrease in 13C5-adenosine production (11.9μmol/L vs 2.7μmol/L; p<0.0001). Supplementation with physiologic dose human tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase or high dose bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase doubled 13C5-adenosine monophosphate conversion to 13C5-adenosine (p<0.0001). Conclusions Alkaline phosphatase represents the primary serum ectonucleotidase after infant cardiac surgery and low post

  19. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  20. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  1. Investigations of some aspects of the spray process in a single wire arc plasma spray system using high speed camera.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, N; Sahasrabudhe, S N; Tak, A K; Barve, D N; Das, A K

    2012-02-01

    A high speed camera has been used to record and analyze the evolution as well as particle behavior in a single wire arc plasma spray torch. Commercially available systems (spray watch, DPV 2000, etc.) focus onto a small area in the spray jet. They are not designed for tracking a single particle from the torch to the substrate. Using high speed camera, individual particles were tracked and their velocities were measured at various distances from the spray torch. Particle velocity information at different distances from the nozzle of the torch is very important to decide correct substrate position for the good quality of coating. The analysis of the images has revealed the details of the process of arc attachment to wire, melting of the wire, and detachment of the molten mass from the tip. Images of the wire and the arc have been recorded for different wire feed rates, gas flow rates, and torch powers, to determine compatible wire feed rates. High speed imaging of particle trajectories has been used for particle velocity determination using time of flight method. It was observed that the ripple in the power supply of the torch leads to large variation of instantaneous power fed to the torch. This affects the velocity of the spray particles generated at different times within one cycle of the ripple. It is shown that the velocity of a spray particle depends on the instantaneous torch power at the time of its generation. This correlation was established by experimental evidence in this paper. Once the particles leave the plasma jet, their forward speeds were found to be more or less invariant beyond 40 mm up to 500 mm from the nozzle exit. PMID:22380128

  2. Ocean alkalinity and the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldeira, K. G.; Rampino, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    A biogeochemical cycle model resolving ocean carbon and alkalinity content is applied to the Maestrichtian and Danian. The model computes oceanic concentrations and distributions of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sigma-CO2. From these values an atmospheric pCO2 value is calculated, which is used to estimate rates of terrestrial weathering of calcite, dolomite, and calcium and magnesium silicates. Metamorphism of carbonate rocks and the subsequent outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere are parameterized in terms of carbonate rock reservoir sizes, total land area, and a measure of overall tectonic activity, the sea-floor generation rate. The ocean carbon reservoir computed by the model is used with Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) C-13 data to estimate organic detrital fluxes under a variety of ocean mixing rate assumptions. Using Redfield ratios, the biogenic detrital flux estimate is used to partition the ocean carbon and alkalinity reservoirs between the mixed layer and deep ocean. The calcite flux estimate and carbonate ion concentrations are used to determine the rate of biologically mediated CaCO3 titration. Oceanic productivity was severely limited for approximately 500 kyr following the K/T boundary resulting in significant increases in total ocean alkalinity. As productivity returned to the ocean, excess carbon and alkalinity was removed from the ocean as CaCO3. Model runs indicate that this resulted in a transient imbalance in the other direction. Ocean chemistry returned to near-equilibrium by about 64 mybp.

  3. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  4. Preparation of Y2O3 particles by flame spray pyrolysis with emulsion.

    PubMed

    Song, Shin Ae; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Park, Seung Bin

    2009-04-01

    Y2O3 particles of various sizes have been prepared by flame spray pyrolysis using water-in-oil emulsion precursor solutions. We found that by varying the emulsion droplet size, the particle size of the prepared Y2O3 powder can easily be varied from 30 to 700 nm. In conventional spray pyrolysis, each droplet generated by the atomizer is converted to one particle. Thus, particle size can only be controlled by varying the concentration of the precursor, which results in a decrease in the generation rate. As in conventional spray pyrolysis, the flame spray pyrolysis of the emulsions was found to result in the conversion of one emulsion droplet to one particle. Control of particle size was achieved by varying the emulsion droplet size, which results in no decrease in the particle generation rate. PMID:19708237

  5. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  6. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  7. Interlayer spray ionization mass spectrometry for the simple direct analysis of low amounts of sample.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Tang, Fei; Guo, Cheng'an; Huo, Xinming; Zhang, Sichun; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-07-01

    Interlayer spray is proposed as a convenient ionization source for direct analysis by mass spectrometry. Two slices of non-absorbent substrate hold the liquid sample to form a sandwich structure. By applying a high voltage to the sample, spray is generated at the tip of the substrate. The sampling procedure can be operated easily in an open condition and the spray is processed in a semi-enclosed condition, which leads to a relatively stable process. An ultralow amount (<2 μL) of the liquid sample can be analyzed without dilution, which ensures that the natural concentration and properties of the target are maintained. Less influence from the substrate is achieved compared with the spray methods based on porous absorbent materials, which results in a sensitivity enhancement of large molecule samples. It is demonstrated that the interlayer spray is applicable for the analysis of various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, peptides, and proteins. Good linearity can be obtained at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL in the quantitative analysis for imatinib. We also show the ability to identify the chemical residuals on surfaces with high sensitivity by the "wipe-spray" method, which is useful for the fast screening of illicit substances. Interlayer spray working with mass spectrometry provides a promising method for direct analysis in an ambient environment. Graphical Abstract The schematic of the interlayer spray ionization source. PMID:27173393

  8. Air and spray mixture temperature effects on atomization of agricultural sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drift associated with agrochemical operations is highly dependent upon the physical properties of the spray solution with respect to how they influence atomization. This study examined effects on spray atomization with two spray solutions across a wide range of solution temperatures for two n...

  9. Effects of Spray Adjuvants on Spray Droplet Size from a Rotary Atomizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotary atomizers are used in a number of aerial applications, such as forest pest spraying and mosquito control sprays. These types of atomizers have a rotating cage at speeds of 2,000 to 10,000 rpm through which a spray is emitted and atomized. Many applicators routinely add spray adjuvants to ch...

  10. Properties of ``Sonarc`` sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Steffens, H.D.; Wilden, J.; Nassenstein, K.

    1995-12-31

    The combination of electric arc and HVOF-spraying offers a lot of opportunities to enlarge the field of application for thermal spray technology. If hard material powders are processed by HVOF and simultaneously metal wires by arc spraying, metal matrix composites (MMC) can be formed out. NiCr8020 and aluminum coatings were reinforced by applying various contents of SiC and tested by a taber abraser device. Beside the investigations of the microstructure and the determination of the volume percentage of the hard particle content bond strength tests according European standard EN 582 were carried out. Furthermore, the coatings were tested by corrosion tests. The results are compared to other coating systems and discussed in relation to the obtained microstructure.

  11. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  12. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  13. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  14. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  15. Spray combustion models - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Due to recent theoretical and experimental advances, modeling spray combustion can be contemplated as a means of supplementing traditional cut and try combustor development methods. This review describes spray models that are currently being developed and their validation. The review is limited to steady, turbulent two- and three-dimensional systems typified by furnaces and gas turbine combustors. Both locally homogeneous flow models, where the phases are assumed to be in kinematic and thermodynamic equilibrium at each point in the flow, and more complete two-phase flow models, which allow for finite rate processes between the phases, are considered.

  16. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  17. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  18. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  19. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  20. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a few times. Hold the bottle with your thumb at the bottom and the first two fingers at the top on either side of the nozzle. Tilt your head slightly forward. Gently insert the ...

  1. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  2. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray...

  3. 21 CFR 524.2482 - Triamcinolone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triamcinolone spray. 524.2482 Section 524.2482... Triamcinolone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 0.15 milligrams triamcinolone...) Amount. Apply sufficient pump sprays to uniformly and thoroughly wet the affected areas while...

  4. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision...

  5. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  6. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration Project Management. Joint Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are sUbject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GOS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) was evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GOS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs. The aim was that successful completion of this project would result in approval of GDS technology as a repair method for TSCs at AFSPC and NASA installations to improve corrosion protection at critical systems, facilitate easier maintenance activity, extend maintenance cycles, eliminate flight hardware contamination, and reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  7. Effectiveness of spray adjuvants on reduction of spray drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  8. Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

  9. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  10. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  11. Compositional Development as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.

    2015-02-01

    Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. Part 2 of this article series investigated the effect of spray distance on the compositional development in Cr3C2-NiCr coatings during high-energy plasma spraying. The coating compositions were analyzed in detail and quantified through Rietveld fitting of the coating XRD patterns. Coating microstructural features were correlated with the observed variations in composition. The effect of the spray parameters and spray distance on the equilibrium coating compositions is discussed.

  12. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  13. Sprayer technology: reduce spray drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing environmental quality and sustaining the economic viability of food production are keys to sustainable agriculture. Modern vegetable production uses a variety of materials to manage pest problems. Selecting the proper spray nozzle for the application of liquid products is critical to red...

  14. Spray pyrolysis of CZTS nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Exarhos, S; Bozhilov, K N; Mangolini, L

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that copper-zinc-tin-sulphide nanoplatelets can be directly grown onto a molybdenum-coated substrate using spray pyrolysis starting from a mixture of metal thiocarbamates precursors. The structure and phase purity of the nanoplatelets is discussed in detail. PMID:25119262

  15. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  16. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  17. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  18. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  19. The future of thermal spray technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W. ); Fast, R.D. )

    1994-07-01

    Thermal spray technology is emerging as an important processing tool for both surface protection and advanced materials forming. Despite the technology having been in use for over 100 years, much of its advancement, driven by aerospace applications, has occurred in the past 15 years. Increased understanding of process/structure/property relationships has resulted in the growing application of thermal spray coating technology resulting in new processes; for example, low-pressure plasma spray, high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spray and reactive plasma spray. New equipment, automation and materials have been introduced. This article reviews many of the commercial thermal spray processes, borrowing from educational programs at ASM International and the Hobart Institute of Welding Technology, and reviews the applications and growth potential for emerging thermal spray processing technologies. A review of the needs in education and standardization and comparisons to programs on other countries is also presented.

  20. Experimental study of flash boiling spray vaporization through quantitative vapor concentration and liquid temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaoming; Hung, David L. S.; Xu, Min

    2014-08-01

    Flash boiling sprays of liquid injection under superheated conditions provide the novel solutions of fast vaporization and better air-fuel mixture formation for internal combustion engines. However, the physical mechanisms of flash boiling spray vaporization are more complicated than the droplet surface vaporization due to the unique bubble generation and boiling process inside a superheated bulk liquid, which are not well understood. In this study, the vaporization of flash boiling sprays was investigated experimentally through the quantitative measurements of vapor concentration and liquid temperature. Specifically, the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was applied to distinguish the liquid and vapor distributions. Quantitative vapor concentration was obtained by correlating the intensity of vapor-phase fluorescence with vapor concentration through systematic corrections and calibrations. The intensities of two wavelengths were captured simultaneously from the liquid-phase fluorescence spectra, and their intensity ratios were correlated with liquid temperature. The results show that both liquid and vapor phase of multi-hole sprays collapse toward the centerline of the spray with different mass distributions under the flash boiling conditions. Large amount of vapor aggregates along the centerline of the spray to form a "gas jet" structure, whereas the liquid distributes more uniformly with large vortexes formed in the vicinity of the spray tip. The vaporization process under the flash boiling condition is greatly enhanced due to the intense bubble generation and burst. The liquid temperature measurements show strong temperature variations inside the flash boiling sprays with hot zones present in the "gas jet" structure and vortex region. In addition, high vapor concentration and closed vortex motion seem to have inhibited the heat and mass transfer in these regions. In summary, the vapor concentration and liquid temperature provide detailed information

  1. Petrogenesis of coeval silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence from the Saima alkaline complex, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ji-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages, mineral chemistry, whole-rock elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes was carried out for the Saima alkaline complex in the northeastern China, in order to investigate the source and petrogenesis of coeval silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks. The Saima alkaline complex consists of nepheline syenites, quartz-bearing syenites and alkaline volcanic rocks (i.e., phonolite and trachyte), with minor mafic dikes and carbonatitic veins. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating gives consistent ages of 230-224 Ma for these rocks, suggesting that they are coeval. All alkaline rocks in the Saima complex are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. Geochemical data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the various alkaline rocks were all derived from partial melting of an ancient, re-enriched lithospheric mantle in the garnet stability field, but experienced variable siliceous- or carbonate-rich crustal contamination. Based on petrographic evidence, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemical data, two distinct magmatic evolutionary trends are proposed to explain the coeval emplacement of the various rock types within the Saima alkaline complex. The silica-undersaturated rocks (nepheline syenites and phonolites) result from alkali feldspar + apatite + titanite crystal fractionation of an alkaline mafic parental melt combined with assimilation of marine carbonate host rocks. In contrast, the generation of silica-saturated rocks (quartz-bearing syenites and trachytes) may be attributed to subsequent and continued clinopyroxene + apatite + biotite crystal fractionation coupled with assimilation of siliceous sediments.

  2. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  3. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  4. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions to reduce carcass bacterial contamination was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Campylobacter coli. In one trial, in...

  5. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Wind and Sprayer Type on Spray Distribution in Different Orchard Training Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duga, Ashenafi T.; Dekeyser, Donald; Ruysen, Kris; Bylemans, Dany; Nuyttens, David; Nicolai, Bart M.; Verboven, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of airflow and spray application in orchards was validated using field trials and used to assess the effect of wind and sprayer type on spray distribution in different orchard training systems. Three air-assisted orchard sprayer designs (a cross-flow sprayer, an axial sprayer and a sprayer with individual spouts) and four different training systems of apple and pear trees were used for this analysis. The CFD model integrates the tree architecture into the model geometry, rather than using a generalized canopy profile approach. Predicted vertical on-tree deposition profiles agreed well with measurements. The lower airflow rate generated by the sprayer with individual spouts resulted in a significantly larger deflection of the spray particles under the same wind conditions. A detailed assessment was made on the most common axial sprayer. An increase in the magnitude of the wind speed for flow across the tree row resulted in an increase in the amount of spray detected in the air around the trees and in the ground deposition in front of the tree row. Environmental airflow in the direction of spraying gave the largest deposition on the tree, constraining the spray in the canopy region. A wind direction opposite to the spraying direction, however, resulted in an increase of the ground deposition and the amount of spray remaining in air. The model can be used to analyze the effects of implementation of more sustainable spray application procedures taking into account wind conditions, tree and machine characteristics.

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  10. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  11. Combustion characteristics in the transition region of liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Namer, I.; Tidona, R. J.; Sarv, H.

    1984-01-01

    A monodisperse aerosol generator was modified to study ignition requirements, flammability limits, and flame speeds in the transition region. An ignition system was developed and tested. The fabrication of an optical drop sizing system is nearly complete. Preliminary measurements of droplet size effects on the minimum ignition energy for n-heptane sprays performed. Parameteric studies of droplet size effects on minimum ignition energies of various fuels including alcohols are in progress.

  12. Spray combustion at normal and reduced gravity in counterflow and co-flow configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Alessandro; Chen, Gung

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuel dispersion in practical systems is typically achieved by spraying the fuel into a polydisperse distribution of droplets evaporating and burning in a turbulent gaseous environment In view of the nearly insurmountable difficulties of this two-phase flow, a systematic study of spray evaporation and burning in configurations of gradually increasing levels of complexity, starting from laminar sprays to fully turbulent ones, would be useful. A few years ago we proposed to use an electrostatic spray of charged droplets for this type of combustion experiments under well-defined conditions. In the simplest configuration, a liquid is fed into a small metal tube maintained at several kilovolts relative to a ground electrode few centimeters away. Under the action of the electric field, the liquid meniscus at the outlet of the capillary takes a conical shape, with a thin jet emerging from the cone tip (cone-jet mode). This jet breaks up farther downstream into a spray of charged droplets - the so-called ElectroSpray (ES). Several advantages distinguish the electrospray from alternative atomization techniques: (1) it can produce quasi-monodisperse droplets over a phenomenal size range; (2) the atomization, that is strictly electrostatic, is decoupled from gas flow processes, which provides some flexibility in the selection and control of the experimental conditions; (3) the Coulombic repulsion of homopolarly charged droplets induces spray self-dispersion and prevents droplet coalescence; (4) the ES provides the opportunity of studying regimes of slip between droplets and host gas without compromising the control of the spray properties; and (5) the compactness and potential controllability of this spray generation system makes it appealing for studies in reduced-gravity environments aimed at isolating the spray behavior from natural convection complications. With these premises, in March 1991 we initiated a series of experiments under NASA sponsorship (NAG3-1259 and

  13. Mechanical, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Biological Properties of Plasma Sprayed Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Coating

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A.; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Implant related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. In order to reduce bacterial adhesion, silver (Ag) / silver oxide (Ag2O) doping was used in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt% Ag, heat treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/Dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Present results suggest that the plasma sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  14. Mechanical, in vitro antimicrobial, and biological properties of plasma-sprayed silver-doped hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-03-01

    Implant-related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. To reduce bacterial adhesion, we used silver (Ag)/silver oxide (Ag(2)O) doping in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 wt % Ag, heat-treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Our results suggest that the plasma-sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag-doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  15. Behavior of thermal spray aluminum coating in wet H{sub 2}S environments

    SciTech Connect

    Joia, C.; Berrera, P.; Kane, R.D.

    1999-11-01

    Sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and hydrogen induced cracking can cause severe damage in steel equipment exposed to wet H{sub 2}S environments. Metallic thermal spray coatings based on aluminum protect carbon steel from the corrosive media, when wet H{sub 2}S environments are a concern. In this program, a series of electrochemical tests were conducted. These tests involved exposure of coated samples to various environments containing H{sub 2}S, ammonia, chloride and cyanide to study the behavior of the aluminum coating associated with a stainless steel interlayer both applied by thermal spray. Results showed that the aluminum layer was corroded rapidly in solutions with pH higher than 11. In alkaline solutions with pH lower than 9 a protective aluminum layer and the corrosion rate was very low.

  16. Evaluation of aerial spray technologies for adult mosquito control applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray droplet size has long been recognized as an important variable that applicators of vector control sprays must be aware of to make the most effective spray applications. Researchers and applicators have several different techniques available to assess spray droplet size from spray nozzles. The...

  17. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  18. Identification of Active Radical Species in Alkaline Persulfate Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Lei, Jung-Hsuan

    2015-07-01

    A proposed mechanism for alkaline activation of persulfate involves generation of sulfate (SO(4)(-)), hydroxyl (HO·), and superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)). The present study investigated the feasibility of chloroform (CF) degradation using alkaline activated persulfate and identified the active radical species using a radical inhibition technique. 2-propanol (PrOH) (preferentially reacted with HO·), phenol (preferentially reacted with both HO· and SO(4)(-)), and carbon tetrachloride (CT) (preferentially reacted with O(2)(-)) were used to inhibit the degradation of CF, and the extent of inhibited degradation was used to indicate the predominant radical species. Additions of PrOH and phenol appeared to significantly scavenge SO(4)(-) and HO· and resulted in inhibited CF degradation. Here, the authors demonstrated that SO(4)(-) and HO· were predominant radicals in the alkaline activated persulfate system. The presence of O(2)(-) scavengers (i.e., CT) resulted in a partial inhibition of CF degradation and, hence, one can speculate that O(2)(-) is a minor radical species. PMID:26163502

  19. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Song, Chen

    2013-03-05

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated spray releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from a range of prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to very large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the aerosol generation rate increases with increasing the orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size.

  20. High power density spray cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Donald E.; Pais, Martin R.; Chow, Louis C.

    1989-07-01

    The research reported describes experimental and theoretical investigations of high power density evaporative spray cooling. Preliminary experiments demonstrating heat fluxes greater than 1,000 W/sq cm were conducted. Extensive laser phase Doppler measurements of spray characteristics were also taken. These measurements provided valuable insight into the heat transfer process. An in-depth analysis was conducted to determine the mechanisms responsible for critical heat flux. Theoretical modeling was also conducted to determine the most desirable heat transfer conditions. After analysis of these results, an improved experimental apparatus was designed and fabricated. The new apparatus provided greater experimental control and improve accuracy. New tests were conducted in which the critical heat flux was increased, and the heat transfer efficiency was greatly improved. These results are compared to those of previous researchers, and indicated substantial improvement.

  1. Effects of sea spray geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

  2. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  3. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  4. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  5. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  6. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  7. Variable Gravity Effects on the Cooling Performance of a Single Phase Confined Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalak, Travis; Yerkes, Kirk; Baysinger, Karri; McQuillen, John

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the testing of a spray cooling experiment designed to be flown on NASA's KC-135 Reduced Gravity Testing Platform. Spray cooling is an example of a thermal management technique that may be utilized in high flux heat acquisition and high thermal energy transport concepts. Many researchers have investigated the utility of spray cooling for the thermal management of devices generating high heat fluxes. However, there has been little research addressing the physics and ultimate performance of spray cooling in a variable gravity environment. An experimental package, consisting of a spray chamber coupled to a fluid delivery loop system, was fabricated for variable gravity flight tests. The spray chamber contains two opposing nozzles spraying on target Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) heaters. These heaters are mounted on glass pedestals, which are part of a sump system to remove unconstrained liquid from the test chamber. Liquid is collected in the sumps and returned to the fluid delivery loop. Thermocouples mounted in and around the pedestals are used to determine both the heat loss through the underside of the IT0 heater and the heat extracted by the spray. A series of flight tests were carried out aboard the KC-135, utilizing the ability of the aircraft to produce various gravity conditions. During the flight tests, for a fixed flow rate, heat input was varied at 20, 30, 50, and 80W with variable gravities of 0.01, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.8g. Flight test data was compared to terrestrial baseline data in addition to analytical and numerical solutions to evaluate the heat transfer in the heater and support structure . There were significant differences observed in the spray cooling performance as a result of variable gravity conditions and heat inputs. In general, the Nussult number at the heater surface was found to increase with decreasing gravity conditions for heat loads greater than 30W.

  8. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models. PMID:27340414

  9. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  10. Plasma spray processing of TBC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effectively apply TBC`s for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by vacuum plasma spray or HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Therefore, although the plasma spray of TBCs has been largely successful, it is clear that a major step forward in terms of reliability and performance can be gained by a fundamental understanding of the TBC microstructure with respect to the processing technology and operating environment.

  11. Thermal Spraying Coatings Assisted by Laser Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fenineche, N. E.; Cherigui, M.

    2008-09-23

    Coatings produced by air plasma spraying (APS) are widely used to protect components against abrasive wear and corrosion. However, APS coatings contain porosities and the properties of these coatings may thereby be reduced. To improve these properties, various methods could be proposed, including post-laser irradiation [1-4]. Firstly, PROTAL process (thermal spraying assisted by laser) has been developed as a palliative technique to degreasing and grit-blasting prior to thermal spraying. Secondly, thermal spray coatings are densified and remelted using Laser treatment. In this study, a review of microstructure coatings prepared by laser-assisted air plasma spraying will be presented. Mechanical and magnetic properties will be evaluated in relation to changes in the coating microstructure and the properties of such coatings will be compared with those of as-sprayed APS coatings.

  12. Structural and optical characterization of InAs nanocrystals deposited by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A. M. Mohammed, M. A.; Kadhim, R.

    2015-03-30

    4-5 nm size InAs nanocrystals were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates from alkaline solution containing InCl{sub 3} and As{sub 2}O. X-Ray diffraction and absorption spectra suggested that the deposition conditions (deposition time and temperature) had a profound influence on the structure and thickness of deposited layers. The optical absorption band edges shifted to lower energy when increasing the thickness with respect to the bulk material. The marked blue shift of the optical absorption edge indicated a strong quantum confinement effect in InAs films.

  13. Spray-coating route for highly aligned and large-scale arrays of nanowires.

    PubMed

    Assad, Ossama; Leshansky, Alexander M; Wang, Bin; Stelzner, Thomas; Christiansen, Silke; Haick, Hossam

    2012-06-26

    Technological implementation of nanowires (NWs) requires these components to be organized with controlled orientation and density on various substrates. Here, we report on a simple and efficient route for the deposition of highly ordered and highly aligned NW arrays on a wide range of receiver substrates, including silicon, glass, metals, and flexible plastics with controlled density. The deposition approach is based on spray-coating of a NW suspension under controlled conditions of the nozzle flow rate, droplet size of the sprayed NWs suspension, spray angle, and the temperature of the receiver substrate. The dynamics of droplet generation is understood by a combined action of shear forces and capillary forces. Provided that the size of the generated droplet is comparable to the length of the single NW, the shear-driven elongation of the droplets results presumably in the alignment of the confined NW in the spraying direction. Flattening the droplets upon their impact with the substrate yields fast immobilization of the spray-aligned NWs on the surface due to van der Waals attraction. The availability of the spray-coating technique in the current microelectronics technology would ensure immediate implementation in production lines, with minimal changes in the fabrication design and/or auxiliary tools used for this purpose. PMID:22554272

  14. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  15. Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

  16. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  17. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  19. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, H.; Braeckman, U.; Le Guitton, M.; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2016-02-01

    It has been previously proposed that alkalinity release from sediments can play an important role in the carbonate dynamics on continental shelves, lowering the pCO2 of seawater and hence increasing the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. To test this hypothesis, sedimentary alkalinity generation was quantified within cohesive and permeable sediments across the North Sea during two cruises in September 2011 (basin-wide) and June 2012 (Dutch coastal zone). Benthic fluxes of oxygen (O2), alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined using shipboard closed sediment incubations. Our results show that sediments can form an important source of alkalinity for the overlying water, particularly in the shallow southern North Sea, where high AT and DIC fluxes were recorded in near-shore sediments of the Belgian, Dutch and German coastal zone. In contrast, fluxes of AT and DIC are substantially lower in the deeper, seasonally stratified, northern part of the North Sea. Based on the data collected, we performed a model analysis to constrain the main pathways of alkalinity generation in the sediment, and to quantify how sedimentary alkalinity drives atmospheric CO2 uptake in the southern North Sea. Overall, our results show that sedimentary alkalinity generation should be regarded as a key component in the CO2 dynamics of shallow coastal systems.

  20. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  1. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  2. Liquid rocket spray combustion stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    A computational approach to the analysis of spray combustion stability in liquid rocket combustors is proposed which is based on the unsteady quasi-two-dimensional Euler equations with interphase source terms derived from a Lagrangian treatment of the combusting spray. Based on a preliminary evaluation, the computational methodology presented here is a promising research tool and a potential design/development aid for investigating the stability characteristics of liquid rocket engines. The method is characterized by low numerical noise; the Lagrangian treatment of the spray offers improved flexibility for the direct modeling of spray combustion.

  3. Reactive spraying of nickel-aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deevi, S. C.; Sikka, V. K.; Swindeman, C. J.; Seals, R. D.

    1997-09-01

    Reactive spraying of nickel aluminides was accomplished via reaction synthesis techniques in which nickel and aluminum powders were fed through a direct- current plasma torch onto carbon steel substrates. The as- sprayed coatings obtained by reactive spraying were characterized by x- ray diffraction and microscopic techniques. Reactive spraying of nickel and aluminum resulted in coatings consisting of Ni, Al, Ni 3Al, NiAl3, Ni5Al3, NiAl, and Al2O3, depending on the experimental conditions. Nickel aluminide phases observed in plasma spray depositions were compared with the phases obtained by combustion synthesis techniques, and the formation of phases in reactive spraying was attributed to the exothermic reaction between splats of aluminum and nickel. Primary and secondary reactions leading to the formation of nickel aluminides were also examined. The splat thickness and the reaction layer suppressed the formation of desired equilibrium phases such as Ni3Al and NiAl. As- sprayed coatings were annealed to enhance the diffusional reactions between the product phases and aluminum and nickel. Coatings obtained by reactive spraying of elemental powders were compared with as- sprayed and annealed coatings obtained with a bond coat material in which nickel was deposited onto aluminum particles.

  4. Alkaline earth alkyl insertion chemistry of in situ generated aminoboranes.

    PubMed

    Bellham, Peter; Hill, Michael S; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Liptrot, David J

    2013-01-21

    Reactions of equimolar quantities of secondary amine boranes, R(2)NH·BH(3), with the homoleptic group 2 alkyl compounds [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)] (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) provide the alkyl group 2 amido borane derivatives [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}{NR(2)BH(3)}(THF)](2). While the strontium derivatives of reactions with dimethylamine and pyrrolidine borane are stable and isolable compounds, the analogous magnesium and calcium compounds are found to be unstable at room temperature. Studies of the thermolysis of the alkylstrontium derivatives have allowed this instability to be rationalised as a result of β-hydride elimination, the facility of which varies with changing M(2+) charge density, to form the products of M-C insertion of H(2)B=NR(2). Subsequent to this process, alkylaminoboranes, [HB(NR(2)){CH(SiMe(3))(2)}], are observed to form through a further suggested β-hydride elimination reaction. This chemistry is also extended to the reaction of the primary amine borane (t)BuNH(2)·BH(3) with [Sr{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)]. In this case the crystal structure of a heteroleptic species, which may be considered as a tetrameric aggregate of two [Sr{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}{(NH(t)Bu)BH(3)}(2)] anions and two cationic [Sr{(NH(t)Bu)(BH(3))}(THF)(2)] components, has been determined. Kinetic studies of the reactions of [M{CH(SiMe(3))(2)}(2)(THF)(2)] (M = Mg, Ca, Sr) with dimethylamine borane have also been undertaken and describe a complex mechanism in which the barriers to formation of the various intermediate species are a consequence of M(2+) radius and resultant charge density as well as the steric demands of the coordinated amidoborane ligands. PMID:23070304

  5. Studies of the chemical mixing state of sea spray aerosol and associated climate relevant properties (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Collins, D. B.; Ault, A. P.; Ruppel, M. J.; Axson, J. L.; Ryder, O. S.; Schill, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ocean plays a large but highly uncertain role in affecting clouds and climate, generating sea spray aerosols that can directly impact climate by scattering solar radiation and indirectly through nucleating clouds. A tremendous amount has been learned about these interactions over decades of marine studies, however the goal of establishing robust relationships between seawater composition and sea spray climate properties has remained elusive. Much of the impediment stems from difficulties associated with unraveling the impacts of nascent sea spray and background marine aerosols which have been shown to dominate field measurements. In an effort to advance our understanding of nascent sea spray properties, we have developed a new approach for studying this issue in a newly developed ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with breaking waves. After establishing extremely low background aerosol concentrations (< 1 per cc), studies have probed the size distribution and chemical mixing state of sea spray aerosols produced by breaking waves in natural seawater. The critical importance of using bubble size distributions representative of real breaking waves to generate sea spray aerosol (SSA) is discussed. Using a combination of techniques probing individual particle composition and morphology including aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), scanning tunnel x-ray microscopy (STXM), and electron microscopy, four major sea spray particle types are prevalent in all studies, consisting of sea salt, mixed sea salt and biogenic organic species, biogenic organic species, and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). Results from studies aimed at probing how changes in seawater composition due to biological activity impact sea spray aerosol composition and climate properties will be discussed.

  6. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite & Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.; HEY, B.E.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

  7. Origin and evolution of overlapping calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas: The Late Palaeozoic post-collisional igneous province of Transbaikalia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinovsky, B. A.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Katzir, Y.; Be'eri-Shlevin, Y.

    2011-08-01

    The Late Palaeozoic voluminous magmatism in Transbaikalia, Russia (a territory of > 600,000 km 2 to the east of Lake Baikal) is highly diverse and complex. Of special interest are (1) the significant overlap in time between magmatic suites commonly ascribed to post-collisional and within-plate settings and (2) the provenance of the coeval, but distinct, granitoid magmas that are closely spaced within a large region. Magmatic activity lasted almost continuously from ~ 330 Ma to ~ 275 Ma and included five igneous suites occupying a total area of ~ 200,000 km 2: (1) the Barguzin suite of high-K calc-alkaline granite (330-310 Ma); (2 and 3) the coeval Chivyrkui suite of low-silica calc-alkaline granitoids and the Zaza suite of high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granite and quartz syenite which were emplaced between 305 and 285 Ma; and (4 and 5) the partially overlapped in time Lower-Selenga monzonite-syenite suite (285-278 Ma) and the Early-Kunalei suite of alkali-feldspar and peralkaline quartz syenite and granite (281-275 Ma). The overall increase in alkalinity of the granitoids with time reflects the progress from post-collisional to within-plate settings. However, a ~ 20 m.y. long transitional period during which both calc-alkaline and alkaline granitoids were emplaced indicates the coexistence of thickened (batholiths) and thinned (rift) crustal tracts. Sr-Nd-O isotope and elemental geochemical data suggest that the relative contribution of mantle-derived components to the generation of silicic magmas progressively increased with time. The high-K calc-alkaline granite magmas that formed the Angara-Vitim batholith were generated by high degree melting of supracrustal metamorphic rocks [ɛNd(t) = - 5.7 to - 7.7; δ 18O(Qtz) = 12‰], with minor contribution of H 2O and K from the underplated mafic magma (the convective diffusion model). The coeval calc-alkaline Chivyrkui suite and the transitional to alkaline Zaza suite formed as a result of mixing of crustal silicic

  8. Evaluation of human osteoblastic cell response to plasma-sprayed silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings over titanium substrates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pedro S; Botelho, Cláudia; Lopes, Maria A; Santos, José D; Fernandes, Maria H

    2010-08-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings have been plasma sprayed over titanium substrates (Ti-6Al-4V) aiming to improve the bioactivity of the constructs for bone tissue repair/regeneration. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coatings has shown that, previous to the thermal deposition, no secondary phases were formed due to the incorporation of 0.8 wt % Si into HA crystal lattice. Partial decomposition of hydroxyapatite, which lead to the formation of the more soluble phases of alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate and calcium oxide, and increase of amorphization level only occurred following plasma spraying. Human bone marrow-derived osteoblastic cells were used to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the constructs. Cells attached and grew well on the Si-HA coatings, putting in evidence an increased metabolic activity and alkaline phosphatase expression comparing to control, i.e., titanium substrates plasma sprayed with hydroxyapatite. Further, a trend for increased differentiation was also verified by the upregulation of osteogenesis-related genes, as well as by the augmented deposition of globular mineral deposits within established cell layers. Based on the present findings, plasma spraying of Si-HA coatings over titanium substrates demonstrates improved biological properties regarding cell proliferation and differentiation, comparing to HA coatings. This suggests that incorporation of Si into the HA lattice could enhance the biological behavior of the plasma-sprayed coating. PMID:20574971

  9. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Meirans, L.

    1998-05-01

    The phase-out of the ozone-depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as the ozone-depleting solvents in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. Key to the project`s success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned.

  10. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  11. Spheroidized Hydroxyapatite (HA) Powders Plasma Spraying of Combustion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.; Wang, Y.; Cheang, P.

    1998-06-01

    Tailoring powder characteristics to suit the plasma spray process can alleviate difficulties associated with the preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Commercial HA feedstock normally exhibit an angular morphology and a wide particle size range that present difficulties in powder transport from the powder hopper to the plasma spray gun and in nonuniform melting of the powders in the plasma flame. Hence, combustion flame spheroidized hydroxyapatite (SHA) was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying. Spherical particles within a narrow particle size range are found to be more effective for the plasma spray processes. Results show coatings generated from spheroidized HA powders have unique surface and microstructure characteristics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the coating surface revealed well-formed splats that spread and flatten into disc configurations with no disintegration, reflecting adequate melting of the HA in the plasma and subsequent deposition consistency. The surface topography is generally flat with good overlapping of subsequent spreading droplets. Porosity in the form of macropores is substantially reduced. The cross-section microstructure reveals a dense coating comprised of randomly stacked lamellae. The tensile bond strengths of the SHA coatings, phase composition, and characteristics of the coatings generated with different particle sizes (125 to 75 µm, 45 to 75 µm, 20 to 45 µm, and 5 to 20 µm) showed that a high bond strength of ˜16 MPa can be obtained with SHA in the size range from 20 to 45 µm. This can be improved further by a postspray treatment by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). However, larger particle size ranges exhibited higher degrees of crystallinity and relatively higher HA content among the various calcium phosphate phases found in the coatings.

  12. Atomistic Simulation of Sea Spray Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2012-12-01

    Particles generated by ocean wave spray play an important role in many atmospheric processes such as cloud condensation, cycling of elements like chlorine, and scattering of sunlight reaching the ocean surface [1-2]. Indeed, artificially spraying droplets of seawater to the atmosphere by marine vessels roaming the ocean has been suggested as a geoengineering method to combat global warming [3]. One of the interesting aspects of ocean spray particles is that they include dissolved salt ions. Typically a liter of seawater contains about 3.5 g of salt which is mostly sodium chloride. Hydrated salt ions of the particle create a molecular structure which is different from that of pure water. An objective of this research is to investigate the influence of the dissolved ions on the properties of the particles by using first principle quantum mechanical calculations. Another objective is to probe the interaction of carbon dioxide (CO2) with such particles to understand whether the ions might enhance the absorption of atmospheric CO2 into the particles. Atomic models used in the calculations consist of a salt ion, for example sodium (Na+) ion surrounded by water molecules. Calculations are performed by using the DFT method with B3LYP hybrid functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Results of the calculations indicate that average binding energy of water molecules nearest to the ion is 0.7 eV per molecule for Na+ and 0.5 eV per molecule for Cl-. Water molecules are bound to the ion with significantly greater energy than that of the hydrogen bond (~0.2 eV) which is the binding mechanism of pure water. Higher binding energy of the particles explains why they serve well as condensation nuclei. As expected, binding energy decreases with increasing distance from the ion. It becomes comparable to that of the hydrogen bond at a distance of about 2 nm which corresponds to approximately 7 layers of water molecules surrounding the ion

  13. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  14. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  15. Injection of household spray insecticide.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, L H; Shupp, D; Weitz, H H; Zeccardi, J A

    1982-11-01

    During a three-week period, two patients who had attempted suicide by injecting themselves with commercially available household spray insecticides were seen in our emergency department. Both presented with cellulitis at and adjacent to the injection sites, and both were admitted for intravenous antibiotics, warm soaks, and elevation. In both patients abscesses subsequently developed in the areas of cellulitis. It is not clear whether the pathologic processes in these two patients were primarily due to inoculation of microorganisms or to the effects of the insecticide per se. PMID:7137672

  16. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  17. Monitoring Coating Thickness During Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution video measures thickness accurately without interfering with process. Camera views cylindrical part through filter during plasma spraying. Lamp blacklights part, creating high-contrast silhouette on video monitor. Width analyzer counts number of lines in image of part after each pass of spray gun. Layer-by-layer measurements ensure adequate coat built up without danger of exceeding required thickness.

  18. Plasma Spraying Of Dense, Rough Bond Coats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Edmonds, Brian J.; Leissler, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Simple modification of plasma torch facilitates spraying of coarse powders. Shape of nozzle changed to obtain decrease in velocity of gas and consequent increase in time particles spend in flame before impact on substrate. Increased residence time allows melting of coarser powders, spraying of which results in rougher bond surfaces.

  19. Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

  20. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  1. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  2. Spray Drift Issues and Technologies for Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide-induced plant damage due to off-target spray drift has become a major problem in some regions prompting States to take regulatory action regarding drift mitigation. For example, the Arkansas Plant Board has proposed new regulations regarding spray of Glyphosate and 2, 4-D. These regulation...

  3. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  4. Simulation of preburner sprays, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under the present contract a study was made on the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. The technical effort was performed primarily by Imperial College of Science and Technology and the details of this effort are contained in the accompanying technical report by Hardalupas and Whitelaw, which forms Vol. 2 of the report. The role of Scientific Research Associates was review of material, initial direction of the technical effort and review of all reports. The study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Imperial College considered the following: first, measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. Second, examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. Third, quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. Fourth, quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Fifth, study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single

  5. Simulation of preburner sprays, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-05-01

    Under the present contract a study was made on the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. The technical effort was performed primarily by Imperial College of Science and Technology and the details of this effort are contained in the accompanying technical report by Hardalupas and Whitelaw, which forms Vol. 2 of the report. The role of Scientific Research Associates was review of material, initial direction of the technical effort and review of all reports. The study considered characteristics of sprays under a variety of conditions. Control of these sprays is important as the spray details can control both rocket combustion stability and efficiency. Imperial College considered the following: first, measurement of the size and rate of spread of the sprays produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles with axial gaseous stream. The local size, velocity and flux characteristics for a wide range of gas and liquid flowrates were measured and the results were correlated with the conditions of the spray at the nozzle exit. Second, examination of the effect of the geometry of single coaxial airblast atomizers on spray characteristics. The gas and liquid tube diameters were varied over a range of values, the liquid tube recess was varied and the shape of the exit of the gaseous jet was varied from straight to converging. Third, quantification of the effect of swirl in the gaseous stream on the spray characteristics produced by single coaxial airblast nozzles. Fourth, quantification of the effect of reatomization by impingement of the spray on a flat disc positioned around 200 mm from the nozzle exit. This models spray impingement on the turbopump dome during the startup process of the preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Fifth, study of the interaction between multiple sprays without and with swirl in their gaseous stream. The spray characteristics of single

  6. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide. PMID:27341285

  7. Fusion neutron yield from a laser-irradiated heavy-water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Busch, S.; Nickles, P.V.; Sandner, W.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion neutron yield from a laser-irradiated heavy-water (D{sub 2}O) spray target was studied. Heavy-water droplets of about 150 nm diameter in the spray were exposed to 35 fs laser pulses at an intensity of 1x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Due to the 10-50 times bigger size of the spray droplets compared to usual cluster sizes, deuterons are accelerated to considerably higher kinetic energies of up to 1 MeV. Neutrons are generated by the deuterons escaping from the plasma and initiating a fusion reaction within the surrounding cold plume of the spray jet. For each 0.6 J of laser pulse energy, 6x10{sup 3} neutrons are produced by about 10{sup 11} accelerated deuterons. This corresponds to a D(d,n) reaction probability of about 6x10{sup -8}. Compared to cluster targets, the reaction probability in the spray target is found to be two orders of magnitude larger. This finding apparently is due to both the considerably higher deuteron energies and the larger effective target thickness in the spray target. The measured neutron yield per accelerated deuteron [i.e., the D(d,n) reaction probability], is employed to compare and extrapolate the neutron emission characteristics from different target arrangements.

  8. Laser ultrasound technique applied in material characterization of thermally sprayed nickel aluminum coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Yang, C. H.; Hsiao, W. T.; Su, C.-Y.

    2012-05-01

    Thermal spraying processing usually uses a nickel-aluminum alloy system as the major powder due to its strong adhesion to substrates. The contents of powder material and the processing parameters used in the spraying process cause material properties of coatings exhibiting a wide variation. This research aims at nondestructive characterization of thermal spraying coatings. A laser-generation/laser-detection laser ultrasound technique (LUT) is used for the measurements of dispersion spectra of surface waves propagating along the coated surfaces. Theoretical model for surface waves propagating along a multi-layered structure with coating and substrate is used to model the sprayed coatings. An inversion algorithm based on Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) is used to extract mechanical properties from the measured dispersion spectra cooperating with theoretical model. Three coatings with different sprayed powders and powder processing are investigated. Results indicate that substantial linear scatterings are observed for the inverted properties due to the measured dispersion spectra with limited bandwidth inherited from the relatively high attenuations. The slope of linear scattering can be used to distinguish the coating properties. The ANiBNb sample with ball-milled coating has the best properties based on its highest velocity and least attenuation. This method is potentially useful to characterize the mechanical properties of thermally spraying coating in a nondestructive way.

  9. Experimental Studies of Spray Deposition on a Flat Surface in a Vacuum Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Yao, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cooling of spacecraft components in the space environment is an on-going research effort. The electronics used in modern spacecraft are always changing and the heat flux is increasing. New, one-of-a-kind missions require new approaches to thermal control. In this research, under vacuum conditions, a pulsed water spray impinged on a small disc, while a high speed data acquisition system recorded the temperature histories of this copper disc. The water droplets froze quickly and accumulated on the disc as the spray continued. After the spray stopped, the frozen water that remained on the disc then sublimated into the vacuum environment and cooled the disc. This paper examines two important aspects of this process: 1) the difference in spray start up and shutdown in a vacuum environment versus in a standard atmospheric pressure environment, and 2) the water utilization efficiency in a vacuum environment due to the effects of drop trajectories and drop bouncing on the surface. Both phenomena play a role during spray cooling in a vacuum. This knowledge should help spacecraft designers plan for spray cooling as an option to cool spacecraft electronics, human metabolic generated heat, and heat from other sources.

  10. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  11. New trends in the kitchen: propellants assessment of edible food aerosol sprays used on food.

    PubMed

    Varlet, V; Smith, F; Augsburger, M

    2014-01-01

    New products available for food creations include a wide variety of "supposed" food grade aerosol sprays. However, the gas propellants used cannot be considered as safe. The different legislations available did not rule any maximum residue limits, even though these compounds have some limits when used for other food purposes. This study shows a preliminary monitoring of propane, butane and dimethyl ether residues, in cakes and chocolate after spraying, when these gases are used as propellants in food aerosol sprays. Release kinetics of propane, butane and dimethyl ether were measured over one day with sprayed food, left at room temperature or in the fridge after spraying. The alkanes and dimethyl ether analyses were performed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/thermal conductivity detection, using monodeuterated propane and butane generated in situ as internal standards. According to the obtained results and regardingthe extrapolations of the maximum residue limits existing for these substances, different delays should be respected according to the storage conditions and the gas propellant to consume safely the sprayed food. PMID:24001847

  12. Characterization of modified tapioca starch solutions and their sprays for high temperature coating applications.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Sulaiman, S A; Ariwahjoedi, B; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  13. Fusion neutron yield from a laser-irradiated heavy-water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnürer, M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Busch, S.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion neutron yield from a laser-irradiated heavy-water (D2O) spray target was studied. Heavy-water droplets of about 150nm diameter in the spray were exposed to 35fs laser pulses at an intensity of 1×1019W/cm2. Due to the 10-50 times bigger size of the spray droplets compared to usual cluster sizes, deuterons are accelerated to considerably higher kinetic energies of up to 1MeV. Neutrons are generated by the deuterons escaping from the plasma and initiating a fusion reaction within the surrounding cold plume of the spray jet. For each 0.6J of laser pulse energy, 6×103 neutrons are produced by about 1011 accelerated deuterons. This corresponds to a D(d ,n) reaction probability of about 6×10-8. Compared to cluster targets, the reaction probability in the spray target is found to be two orders of magnitude larger. This finding apparently is due to both the considerably higher deuteron energies and the larger effective target thickness in the spray target. The measured neutron yield per accelerated deuteron [i.e., the D(d ,n) reaction probability], is employed to compare and extrapolate the neutron emission characteristics from different target arrangements.

  14. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  15. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Takeuchi, D; Challoner, K

    2000-05-01

    Pepper spray containing oleoresin capsicum is used by law enforcement and the public as a form of nonlethal deterrent. Stimulated by the identification of a case of a corneal abrasion associated with pepper spray exposure, a descriptive retrospective review of a physician-maintained log of patients presenting to a jail ward emergency area over a 3-year period was performed. The objective was to give some quantification to the frequency with which an emergency physician could expect to see corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Of 100 cases of pepper spray exposure identified, seven patients had sustained corneal abrasions. We conclude that corneal abrasions are not rare events when patients are exposed to pepper spray and that fluorescein staining and slit lamp or Wood's lamp examination should be performed on all exposed patients in whom corneal abrasions cannot be excluded on clinical grounds. PMID:10830682

  16. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  17. Alkaline Band Formation in Chara corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the transport system responsible for the establishment of alkaline bands on cells of Chara corallina was investigated. The transport process was found to be insensitive to external pH, provided the value was above a certain threshold. At this threshold (pH 5.1 to 4.8) the transport process was inactivated. Transport function could be recovered by raising the pH value of the external solution. The fastest rate of recovery was always obtained in the presence of exogenous HCO3−. Experiments in which plasmalemma integrity was modified using 10 millimolar K+ treatment were also performed. Alkaline band transport was significantly reduced in the presence of 10 millimolar K+, but the system did not recover, following return to 0.2 millimolar K+ solutions, until the transport site was reexposed to exogenous HCO3−. The influence of presence and absence of various cations on both alkaline band transport and total H14CO3− assimilation was examined. No specific cation requirement (mono- or divalent) was found for either process, except the previously established role of Ca2+ at the HCO3− transport site. The alkaline band transport process exhibited a general requirement for cations. This transport system could be partially or completely stalled in low cation solutions, or glass-distilled water, respectively. The results indicate that no cationic flux occurs across the plasmalemma in direct association with either the alkaline band or HCO3− transport systems. It is felt that the present results offer support for the hypothesis that an OH− efflux transport system (rather than a H+ influx system) is responsible for alkaline band development in C. corallina. The results support the hypothesis that OH− efflux is an electrogenic process. This OH− transport system also appears to contain two allosteric effector sites, involving an acidic group and a HCO3− ion. PMID:16660706

  18. Factors influencing the airborne capture of respirable charged particles by surfactants in water sprays.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Mei W; Raynor, Peter C; Keating-Klika, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    This research measured the effects of particle diameter, surfactant-containing spray solution, and particle charge on the capture of respirable particles by surfactant-containing water spray droplets. Polystyrene latex particles with diameters of 0.6, 1.0, or 2.1 μm were generated in a wind tunnel. Particles were given either a neutralized, unneutralized, net positive, or net negative charge, and then were captured as they passed through sprays containing anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactant. The remaining particles were sampled, charge-separated, and counted with the sprays on and off at varying voltage levels to assess collection efficiency. Overall efficiencies were measured for particles with all charge levels, as well as efficiencies for particles with specific charge levels. The overall collection efficiency significantly increased with increasing particle diameter. Collection efficiencies of 21.5% ± 9.0%, 58.8% ± 12.5%, and 86.6% ± 43.5% (Mean ± SD) were observed for particles 0.6, 1.0, and 2.1 μm in diameter, respectively. The combination of surfactant classification and concentration also significantly affected both overall spray collection efficiency and collection efficiency for particles with specific charge levels. Ionic surfactant-containing sprays had the best performance for charged particles with the opposite sign of charge but the worst performance for charged particles with the same sign of charge, while nonionic surfactant-containing spray efficiently removed particles carrying relatively few charges. Particle charge level impacted the spray collection efficiency. Highly charged particles were removed more efficiently than weakly charged particles. PMID:24479508

  19. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  20. Joint Test Plan for Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2008-01-01

    Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA have similar missions, facilities, and structures located in similar harsh environments. Both are responsible for a number of facilities/structures with metallic structural and non-structural components in highly and moderately corrosive environments. Regardless of the corrosivity of the environment, all metals require periodic maintenance activity to guard against the insidious effects of corrosion and thus ensure that structures meet or exceed design or performance life. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the use of an applied coating system. Current coating systems used across AFSPC and NASA contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These coatings are subject to environmental regulations at the Federal and State levels that limit their usage. In addition, these coatings often cannot withstand the high temperatures and exhaust that may be experienced by AFSPC and NASA structures. In response to these concerns, AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of thermal spray coatings (TSCs). Thermal spray coatings are extremely durable and environmentally friendly coating alternatives, but utilize large cumbersome equipment for application that make the coatings difficult and time consuming to repair. Other concerns include difficulties coating complex geometries and the cost of equipment, training, and materials. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS) technology (also known as Cold Spray) will be evaluated as a smaller, more maneuverable repair method as well as for areas where thermal spray techniques are not as effective. The technology can result in reduced maintenance and thus reduced hazardous materials/wastes associated with current processes. Thermal spray and GDS coatings also have no VOCs and are environmentally preferable coatings. To achieve a condition suitable for the application of a coating system, including GDS coatings, the substrate must

  1. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  2. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  3. Degradation of halogenated carbons in alkaline alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    2002-02-01

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane, 1,2-dibromo-tetrafluoroethane, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole were dissolved in alkaline isopropyl alcohol and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after purged with pure nitrogen gas. The concentration of the hydroxide ions and the parent molecules decreased with the dose, while that of the halide ions and the organic products, with less halogen atoms than the parent, increased. Chain degradation will occur in alkaline isopropyl alcohol.

  4. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  5. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  6. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  7. Tapered plug foam spray apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A two-component foam spray gun is readily disassembled for cleaning. It includes a body (1) with reactant (12, 14) and purge gas (16) inlet ports. A moldable valve packing (32) inside the body has a tapered conical interior surface (142), and apertures which match the reactant ports. A valve/tip (40) has a conical outer surface (48) which mates with the valve packing (32). The valve/tip (40) is held in place by a moldable packing washer (34), held at non-constant pressure by a screw (36, 38). The interior of the valve/tip (40) houses a removable mixing chamber (50). The mixing chamber (50) has direct flow orifices (60) and an auxiliary flow path (58, 60) which ameliorate pressure surges. The spray gun can be disassembled for cleaning without disturbing the seal, by removing the valve/tip (40) to the rear, thereby breaking it free of the conical packing. Rotation of the valve/tip (40) relative to the body (1) shuts off the reactant flow, and starts the purge gas flow.

  8. Carbon electrochemistry in alkaline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.; Zuckerbrod, D.

    1983-08-01

    The electrochemical activity of a high surface area furnace black, Black Pearls 2000 and an acetylene black, Shawinigan Black, were studied in 25% KOH at temperatures from 45/sup 0/C to -15/sup 0/C. A relationship was found between the graphitic character of the carbons and their activities for oxygen formation and surface oxide formation, the furnace black being more active for surface oxide formation and the acetylene black being more active for oxygen generation. The carbons behaved similarly in the cathodic region, exhibiting two distinct peaks apparently related to the reduction of oxygen or of surface oxides.

  9. Thermal spray and cold spray analysis of density, porosity, and tensile Specimens for use with LIGA applications

    SciTech Connect

    DECKER,MERLIN K.; SMITH,MARK F.

    2000-02-01

    This analysis provides a preliminary investigation into using Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray and Cold Spray as material deposition processes for LIGA applications. These spray material processes were studied to make an initial determination of their potential as alternatives to producing mechanical parts via the electroplating process. Three materials, UltraMachinable{reg_sign} Stainless Steel, BondArc{reg_sign}, and aluminum, were sprayed using Thermal Spray. Only aluminum was sprayed using the Cold Spray process. Following the spray procedure, the test specimens were released from a copper mold and then tested. Three tests, density, tensile strength, and porosity, were performed on the specimens to determine the spray effect on material properties. Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray did not demonstrate adequate deposition properties and does not appear to be a good process candidate for LIGA. However, Cold Spray yielded better density results and warrants further investigation to analyze the minimum feature size produced by the process.

  10. Assessment of Some Atomization Models Used in Spray Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a validation study undertaken as a part of the NASA s fundamental aeronautics initiative on high altitude emissions in order to assess the accuracy of several atomization models used in both non-superheat and superheat spray calculations. As a part of this investigation we have undertaken the validation based on four different cases to investigate the spray characteristics of (1) a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from cylindrical nozzle, (2) a liquid jet atomizing in a subsonic cross flow, (3) a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, and (4) a single-element Lean Direct Injector (LDI) combustor experiment. These cases were chosen because of their importance in some aerospace applications. The validation is based on some 3D and axisymmetric calculations involving both reacting and non-reacting sprays. In general, the predicted results provide reasonable agreement for both mean droplet sizes (D32) and average droplet velocities but mostly underestimate the droplets sizes in the inner radial region of a cylindrical jet.

  11. Zero Volt Paper Spray Ionization and Its Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wleklinski, Michael; Li, Yafeng; Bag, Soumabha; Sarkar, Depanjan; Narayanan, Rahul; Pradeep, T; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-07-01

    The analytical performance and a suggested mechanism for zero volt paper spray using chromatography paper are presented. A spray is generated by the action of the pneumatic force of the mass spectrometer (MS) vacuum at the inlet. Positive and negative ion signals are observed, and comparisons are made with standard kV paper spray (PS) ionization and nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI). While the range of analytes to which zero volt PS is applicable is very similar to kV PS and nESI, differences in the mass spectra of mixtures are interpreted in terms of the more significant effects of analyte surface activity in the gentler zero volt experiment than in the other methods due to the significantly lower charge. The signal intensity of zero volt PS is also lower than in the other methods. A Monte Carlo simulation based on statistical fluctuation of positive and negative ions in solution has been implemented to explain the production of ions from initially uncharged droplets. Uncharged droplets first break up due to aerodynamics forces until they are in the 2-4 μm size range and then undergo Coulombic fission. A model involving statistical charge fluctuations in both phases predicts detection limits similar to those observed experimentally and explains the effects of binary mixture components on relative ionization efficiencies. The proposed mechanism may also play a role in ionization by other voltage-free methods. PMID:26024306

  12. Automated spray cleaning using flammable solvents in a glovebox environment

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.; Meirans, L.; Watterberg, P.; Drotning, W.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments that have phased out the use of ozone depleting solvents (ODS) have given the precision cleaning industry a challenge that they must respond to if they are to continuously and economically improve quality of service. The phase out of the ozone depleting solvents has forced industry to look to solvents such as alcohol, terpenes and other flammable solvents to perform the critical cleaning processes. These solvents are not as efficient as their ODS counterparts in terms of soil loading, cleaning time and drying when used in standard cleaning processes such as manual sprays or ultrasonic baths. They also require special equipment designs to meet part cleaning specifications and operator safety requirements. This paper describes a cleaning system that incorporates the automated spraying of flammable solvents to effectively perform precision cleaning processes. The prototype workcell under development uses a robot that sprays Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and terpene at pressures ranging to 600 psi in a glovebox environment. Key to the projects success was the development of software that controls the robotic system and automatically generates robotic cleaning paths from three dimensional CAD models of the items to be cleaned. Also key to the success of this prototype development is FM approval of the process and associated hardware which translates directly into operator and facilities safety.

  13. Thermoelectric Device Fabrication Using Thermal Spray and Laser Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Fu, Gaosheng; Hwang, David J.; Zuo, Lei; Sampath, Sanjay; Longtin, Jon P.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are used in many engineering applications such as vehicle and industrial waste-heat recovery systems to provide electrical power, improve operating efficiency and reduce costs. State-of-art TEG manufacturing is based on prefabricated materials and a labor-intensive process involving soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping for assembly. This reduces their durability and raises costs. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as thermal spray, present opportunities to overcome these challenges. In this work, TEGs have been fabricated for the first time using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The TEGs are fabricated directly onto engineering component surfaces. First, current fabrication techniques of TEGs are presented. Next, the steps required to fabricate a thermal spray-based TEG module, including the formation of the metallic interconnect layers and the thermoelectric legs are presented. A technique for bridging the air gap between two adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer using a sacrificial filler material is also demonstrated. A flat 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm TEG module is fabricated using this method and its performance is experimentally characterized and found to be in agreement with expected values of open-circuit voltage based on the materials used.

  14. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  15. Arc-sprayed Coatings for High Temperature Reactors in Titanium Sponge Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Gong, X.; Zhang, N. N.

    2015-07-01

    An arc-sprayed composite coating consisted of an under coat Fe25Cr5Al and a top coat Al5Si was sprayed on the reactor wall surface, which is made of mild steel and used for batch production of titanium sponges. After a trial for 15 production cycles, the morphology of the sprayed coating changed greatly into somewhat like a thermal barrier coating. A large number of composite oxides containing aluminum and chromium had been generated in situ within the protective coatings, especially close to the coating/substrate interface. The oxides generated at the interface could improve the bonding of the coating to the steel substrate together with the surface alumina on the coating surface may provide an effective and long-term protection to the steel substrate of reactor at high temperatures.

  16. Passive Wireless Hermetic Environment Monitoring System for Spray Painting Workshop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Jingjing; Huang, Yan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Qing-An

    2016-01-01

    Passive wireless sensors have the advantages of operating without a power supply and remote sensing capability. Hence, they are very suitable for some harsh environments, such as hermetic environments, rotating parts, or very high temperature environments. The spray painting workshop is such a harsh environment, containing a large amount of flammable paint mist and organic gas. Aiming at this special environment of spray painting workshop, a passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. The proposed system is composed of a transponder and a reader, and the circuit design of each part is given in detail in this paper. The power and the data transmission between the transponder and the reader are realized by the inductive coupling mechanism. Utilizing the back scatter modulation and channel multiplexing, the frequency signals generated by three different environmental sensors-together with their interfaces in the transponder-are wirelessly read out by the reader. Because of the harsh environment of the spray painting room, the package of the monitoring system is quite important. Three different kinds of filter films for the system package were compared. The experimental results show that the composite filter film aluminum anodic oxide/polytetrafluoroethylene (AAO/PTFE) has the best performance. After fabrication, the measured temperature, humidity, and pressure sensitivities were measured and found to be 180 Hz/°C in the range of 0~60 °C, 100 Hz/%RH in the range of 15~95 %RH, and 42 Hz/hPa in the range of 600~1100 hPa, respectively. Additionally, the remote sensing distance of the monitoring system reaches 4 cm. Finally, the passive wireless hermetic environment monitoring system was installed on the glass wall of the spray painting workshop and was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27490546

  17. Spray drift reduction techniques for vineyards in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Otto, S; Loddo, D; Baldoin, C; Zanin, G

    2015-10-01

    In intensive agricultural systems spray drift is one of the major potential diffuse pollution pathways for pesticides and poses a risk to the environment. There is also increasing concern about potential exposure to bystanders and passers-by, especially in fragmented landscapes like the Italian pre-Alps, where orchards and vineyards are surrounded by residential houses. There is thus an urgent need to do field measurements of drift generated by air-blast sprayer in vineyards, and to develop measures for its reduction (mitigation). A field experiment with an "event method" was conducted in north-eastern Italy in no-wind conditions, in the hilly area famed for Prosecco wine production, using an air-blast sprayer in order to evaluate the potential spray drift from equipment and the effectiveness of some practical mitigation measures, either single or in combination. A definition of mitigation is proposed, and a method for the calculation of total effectiveness of a series of mitigation measures is applied to some what-if scenarios of interest. Results show that low-drift equipment reduced potential spray drift by 38% and that a fully developed vine curtain mitigated it by about 70%; when the last row was treated without air-assistance mitigation was about 74%; hedgerows were always very effective in providing mitigation of up to 98%. In conclusion, spray drift is not inevitable and can be markedly reduced using a few mitigation measures, most already available to farmers, that can be strongly recommended for environmental regulatory schemes and community-based participatory research. PMID:26265598

  18. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  19. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  20. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems. PMID:11563378

  1. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  2. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  3. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  4. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  5. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    PubMed

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  6. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  7. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  8. 40 CFR 158.1100 - Spray drift data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray drift data requirements table...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Spray Drift § 158.1100 Spray drift data requirements... spray drift data requirements for a particular pesticide product. Notes that apply to an individual...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044f - Gentamicin and betamethasone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. 524.1044f... § 524.1044f Gentamicin and betamethasone spray. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of spray contains... depress the sprayer head twice. Administer two spray actuations two to four times daily for 7 days....

  10. DRIFTSIM, A Computer Program for Estimating Spray Drift Distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the severe problems with spraying pesticides is the spray drift. Drift is a problem if chemicals are sprayed too close to residential areas, livestock facilities, bodies of water, or sensitive crops. Complaints regarding spray drift are routinely brought to state departments of agriculture,...

  11. Correction of spray concentration and bioassay cage penetration data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted to demonstrate the need for correcting sampled spray concentration data for sampler collection efficiencies and estimated spray exposure levels in mosquito bioassays for cage interference effects. A large spray block was targeted with aerial spray treatments of etofenpro...

  12. A portable scanning system for evaluation of spray deposit distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventing over- or under–spray applications on intended targets require a system to rapidly measure spray coverage and provide spray quality feedback information. A portable scanning system was developed that could quickly evaluate spray deposit distribution and coverage area on deposit collectors ...

  13. Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

    2014-10-01

    Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques. PMID:24735991

  14. Development of anion-conducting ionomer binder solutions for electrodes of solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mun-Sik; Kang, Moon-Sung; Park, Jin-Soo

    2014-10-01

    For solid alkaline fuel cell applications, membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) should be prepared. Thus, in this study, anion-conducting ionomer binder was prepared for electrodes of MEAs. Specifically, we synthesized water soluble anionic binder solutions based on quaternized chitosan derivatives (QCDs) and cross-linked QCDs and prepared a novel electrode. The electrochemical and physicochemical properties of ionomer binder and electrode were investigated by FT-IR, NMR and ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of these cross-linked QCDs was 9.7 x 10(-3) S cm(-1) in deionized water at room temperature. The membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared by a spray method and were investigated in terms of cyclic voltammetry, impedance and fuel cell performance. The MEA with the 35 wt% QCD ionomer showed the highest performance and confirmed the successful formation of ionomer binder at the electrode of the MEA by the on-site crosslinking reaction. PMID:25942868

  15. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  16. Adhesion of plasma sprayed zirconia splats on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, Srinivasan

    2000-10-01

    Thermal spray technology is an alternative material fabrication technique to the traditional solidification and powder processing methods for producing thick coatings and bulk free-forms. Extensive research has enabled the extension of this technique to a wider range of material classes including polymers, bioceramics and functionally gradient materials. A key area of application of thermal spraying is the formation of thermal barrier coatings for turbine components used in power generation and propulsion. Continuing research intends to improve the quality of coatings produced by this technique to compete with other technologies like physical vapor deposition to make use of some of the advantages like higher throughput that thermal spraying affords. Understanding the adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings is essential to improving the service life of coated components. Progressively research has focussed on the nature of the unique building blocks of plasma sprayed coatings called splats. The current research intends to characterize the microadhesion at the splat substrate interface using nondestructive methods based on the analysis of images obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A model system of yttria stabilized zirconia, a traditional thermal barrier material, on steel substrate is chosen for the study. Two techniques are developed based on the analysis of through thickness crack distribution and fragmentation of thin brittle films on ductile substrates and that based on the analysis of interface cracking. A novel imaging technique is used to determine the extent of interface cracking from the contrast observed in SEM images. Based on the understanding of ceramic splat formation on metal substrates a shear lag theory of tensile residual stress generation is used to explain the fragmentation observed in splats. An earlier analysis of cracking in brittle films due to uniaxial stress is extended to the present case of equibiaxial thermal residual

  17. Thermal sprayed zirconium coatings for corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bamola, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) is conducted in inert reduced pressures. This results in higher particle velocities than in atmospheric plasma spraying. Reverse arc sputter cleaning and pre-heating of the workpiece lead to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, allowing sintering of the coating and, thus, enhanced densities and bond strengths. Inert Environment Electric Arc Spraying (IEAS) is performed in inert gas chambers, utilizing wire as the feedstock. This leads to lower gas content in the coating, since the initial gas content in wire is lower than that of the powder feedstock used in VPS. Controlled atmosphere sprayed zirconium coatings had inferior mechanical and corrosion properties when compared with bulk zirconium. The VPS coatings displayed higher bond strengths and better cavitation erosion resistance than did the IEAS coatings. The IEAS coatings had lower gas content and showed better electrochemical and corrosion behavior. The lower gas content for IEAS was due to a lower initial gas level in the wire feedstock used in this process. Also, scanning electron microscopy revealed that larger particles result in the IEAS process. Thus, a smaller surface-area-to-volume ratio is available for gas-metal reactions to occur. Improvements in mechanical and corrosion properties for the IEAS coatings were due to elevated substrate temperatures during deposition. Compressive surface stresses induced by post-spray shot-peening enhanced corrosion and cavitation resistance of IEAS coatings. Coating porosity caused failure during immersion testing. Therefore, it was concluded that controlled environment thermal spraying of zirconium is not suitable for forming corrosion resistant coatings on steel. ZrN coatings were formed by electric arc spraying using a nitrogen shroud and post-spray nitriding. Two phases; ZrN and zirconium solid solution, exist in the as-sprayed coating. Nitriding increases the proportion of ZrN.

  18. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  19. Spray characterization of thermal fogging equipment typically used in vector control.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W C; Walker, T W; Fritz, B K; Gwinn, T; Smith, V L; Szumlas, D; Quinn, B; Lan, Y; Huang, Y; Sykes, D

    2008-12-01

    Droplet size spectra from different sprayers used to generate insecticide-laden fogs for controlling flying insects were measured by a laser diffraction instrument and Teflon-coated slides. The objectives of this work were to present not only information on spray-system droplet size generated by different sprayers, but to compare methodologies by which other similar systems can be evaluated and give applicators sprayer-system performance data. Data from 45 replicated spray tests, comprising 11 sprayers and 5 pesticides, showed a wide range in the droplet size spectra produced. The volume median diameter measurements ranged from 2.6 to 75.5 microm for diesel-diluted sprays and from 27.9 to 59.9 microm for water-diluted sprays. Similarly, the percent volume <20 microm ranged between 12.0-100% and 8.5-30.7%, for diesel- and water-diluted sprays, respectively. The droplet sizes measured by the swinging slide and laser diffraction methods were not consistent. The information presented aids users in sprayer selection and operation to produce the specific droplet size spectra required for a particular application. PMID:19181064

  20. Determination of process conditions for the spray nozzle for the DWPF melter off-gas HEME

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.

    1991-12-15

    The DWPF melter off-gas systems have High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) upstream of the High Efficiency Particulates Air filters (HEPA) to remove fine mist and particulates from the off-gas. To have an acceptable filter life and an efficient HEME operation, air atomized water is sprayed into the melter off-gas and onto the HEME surface. The water spray keeps the HEME wet, which dissolves the soluble particulates and enhances the HEME efficiency. DWPF Technical requested SRL to determine the conditions for the DWPF nozzle which will give complete atomization of water so that the HEME will operate efficiently. Since the air pressure and flow rate to generate the desired spray are not known before hand, an experiment was performed in two stages. The first stage involved preliminary tests which mapped out a general operating region for producing the desired spray pattern. Afterward, all the gages and meters were changed to suitable ranges for the conditions which generated an acceptable spray. This report summarizes the results and the conclusions of the second stage experiment.

  1. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  2. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by 'equivalent' monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  3. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by equivalent monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  4. Induction plasma spraying of ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiao-Bao; Gougeon, Patrick; Gitzhofer, Francois; Boulos, Maher

    A study is carried out on the influence of in-flight particle parameters on their splatting properties during the induction plasma deposition of ceramics. Results are presented for alumina powders with mean particle diameters of 21 microns and 82 microns under soft vacuum conditions. The chamber pressure was varied between 46.6 and 66.6 kPa. Measurements are carried out on the particle surface temperature and velocity prior to impact on stainless steel substrates. The form of the splat obtained is evaluated using SEM. The results are used for the parametric optimization of the induction plasma spraying process. Thick alumina coatings with total porosities as low as 2 percent were obtained.

  5. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  6. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 mm square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3 . Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ } ) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  7. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  8. Cold-Sprayed Nanostructured Pure Cobalt Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cold-sprayed pure cobalt coatings were deposited on carbon-steel substrate. Submicrometer particles for spraying were produced via cryomilling. Deposits were produced using different processing conditions (gas temperature and pressure, nozzle-to-substrate distance) to evaluate the resulting variations in grain size dimension, microhardness, adhesion strength, and porosity. The coating mechanical properties improved greatly with higher temperature and carrying-gas pressure. The coating microstructure was analyzed as a function of spraying condition by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, revealing many different microstructural features for coatings experiencing low or high strain rates during deposition.

  9. Organophosphate residues in grasshoppers from sprayed rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; McEwen, L.C.; Lamont, T.

    1984-01-01

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were collected in pastures that had been sprayed with malathion and acephate to estimate the secondary exposure of insectivorous birds to these pesticides. Residues of malathion were below 3 ppm at 30 'and 54 hours after spraying and no malaoxon was detected. In contrast, acephate was found at 8 and 9 ppm 4 hours after spray; 3-5 ppm of the toxic metabolite methamidophos were also detected at that time. By 53 hours postspray, acephate levels declined to 2 ppm and methamidophos to less than 1 ppm. These results suggest that although malathion may not be a hazard to insectivorous species. acephate may be hazardous through metabolic transformation to methamidophos.

  10. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  11. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæderup Lindeløv, Jesper; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  12. Modeling of Plasma Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chong H.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive computational model for thermal plasma processes is being developed with sufficient generality and flexibility to apply to a wide variety of present and proposed plasma processing concepts and devices. In our model for gas-particle flows, the gas is represented as a continuous multicomponent chemically reacting gas with temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. Ions and electrons are considered as separate components or species of the mixture, while ionization and dissociation reactions are treated as chemical reactions. Entrained particles interacting with the plasma are represented by a stochastic particle model in which the velocities, temperatures, sizes, and other characteristics of typical particles are computed simultaneously with the plasma flow. The model in its present form can simulate particle injection, heating, and melting, but not evaporation and condensation. This model is embodied in the LAVA computer code, which has previously been applied to simulate plasma spraying, mixing and demixing of plasma gases, and departures from chemical (ionization/dissociation), thermal, and excitation equilibrium in plasmas. A transient simulation has been performed of stainless steel particles injected into a swirling high-velocity nitrogen-hydrogen plasma jet in air under typical operating conditions for a newly developed high-velocity high-power (HVHP) torch, which produces plasma jets with peak velocities in excess of 3000 m/s. The calculational results show that strong departures from ionization and dissociation equilibrium develop in the downstream region as the chemical reactions freeze out at lower temperatures. The calculational results also show good agreement with experimental data on particle temperature, velocity, and spray pattern, together with important statistical effects associated with distributions in particle properties and injection conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S

  13. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  14. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  15. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  16. Ethanol (C2H5OH) spray of sub-micron droplets for laser driven negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Borghesi, M; Abicht, F; Nickles, P V; Stiel, H; Schnürer, M; Ter-Avetisyan, S

    2012-08-01

    Liquid ethanol (C(2)H(5)OH) was used to generate a spray of sub-micron droplets. Sprays with different nozzle geometries have been tested and characterised using Mie scattering to find scaling properties and to generate droplets with different diameters within the spray. Nozzles having throat diameters of 470 μm and 560 μm showed generation of ethanol spray with droplet diameters of (180 ± 10) nm and (140 ± 10) nm, respectively. These investigations were motivated by the observation of copious negative ions from these target systems, e.g., negative oxygen and carbon ions measured from water and ethanol sprays irradiated with ultra-intense (5 × 10(19) W/cm(2)), ultra short (40 fs) laser pulses. It is shown that the droplet diameter and the average atomic density of the spray have a significant effect on the numbers and energies of accelerated ions, both positive and negative. These targets open new possibilities for the creation of efficient and compact sources of different negative ion species. PMID:22938287

  17. Ethanol (C2H5OH) spray of sub-micron droplets for laser driven negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Abicht, F.; Nickles, P. V.; Stiel, H.; Schnürer, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2012-08-01

    Liquid ethanol (C2H5OH) was used to generate a spray of sub-micron droplets. Sprays with different nozzle geometries have been tested and characterised using Mie scattering to find scaling properties and to generate droplets with different diameters within the spray. Nozzles having throat diameters of 470 μm and 560 μm showed generation of ethanol spray with droplet diameters of (180 ± 10) nm and (140 ± 10) nm, respectively. These investigations were motivated by the observation of copious negative ions from these target systems, e.g., negative oxygen and carbon ions measured from water and ethanol sprays irradiated with ultra-intense (5 × 1019 W/cm2), ultra short (40 fs) laser pulses. It is shown that the droplet diameter and the average atomic density of the spray have a significant effect on the numbers and energies of accelerated ions, both positive and negative. These targets open new possibilities for the creation of efficient and compact sources of different negative ion species.

  18. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. PMID:27523619

  19. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  20. Spray nozzle investigation for the Improved Helicopter Icing Spray System (IHISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Oldenburg, John R.

    1990-01-01

    A contract has been awarded by the U.S. Army to design, fabricate and test a replacement for the existing Helicopter Icing Spray System. Data are shown for extensive bench and icing tunnel test programs used to select and modify an improved spray nozzle. The IHISS, capable of deployment from any CH-47 helicopter, will include new icing spray nozzles and pneumatic pressure source, and a significantly larger water tank and spray boom. The resulting system will provide a significantly larger icing cloud with droplet characteristics closely matching natural icing conditions.

  1. Large area impingement spray cooling from multiple normal and inclined spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. B.; Duan, F.; Wong, T. N.; Toh, K. C.; Choo, K. F.; Chan, P. K.; Chua, Y. S.; Lee, L. W.

    2013-07-01

    An inclined spray chamber with four multiple nozzles to cool a 1 kW 6U electronic test card has been designed and tested in this study. The multiple inclined sprays can cover the same heated surface area as that with the multiple normal sprays but halve the volume of the spray chamber. The spray cooling system used R134a as a working fluid in a modified refrigeration cycle. It is observed that increasing mass flow rate and pressure drop across the nozzles improved the heat transfer coefficient with a maximum enhancement of 117 %, and reduced the maximum temperature difference at the heated surface from 13.8 to 8.4 °C in the inclined spray chamber with a heat flux of 5.25 W/cm2, while the heat transfer coefficient of the normal spray increased with a maximum enhancement of 215 % and the maximum temperature difference decreased from 10.8 to 5.4 °C under similar operating conditions. We conclude that the multiple inclined sprays could produce a higher heat transfer coefficient but with an increase in non-uniformity of the surface temperature compared with the multiple normal sprays.

  2. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  3. FINAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing Al(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (III-VII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation (pH 10-14) of actinides in presence of Al(III) formation of alumi...

  4. SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

    2006-09-20

    SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

  5. Optimization of the Büchi B-90 spray drying process using central composite design for preparation of solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. PMID:26070248

  6. Fuel thermal stability effects on spray characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, A. H.; Nickolaus, D.

    1987-01-01

    The propensity of a heated hydrocarbon fuel toward solids deposition within a fuel injector is investigated experimentally. Fuel is arranged to flow through the injector at constant temperature, pressure, and flow rate and the pressure drop across the nozzle is monitored to provide an indication of the amount of deposition. After deposits have formed, the nozzle is removed from the test rig and its spray performance is compared with its performance before deposition. The spray characteristics measured include mean drop size, drop-size distribution, and radial and circumferential fuel distribution. It is found that small amounts of deposition can produce severe distortion of the fuel spray pattern. More extensive deposition restores spray uniformity, but the nozzle flow rate is seriously curtailed.

  7. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  8. Vacuum plasma spraying of tantalum and niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Lugscheider, E.; Eschnauer, H.; Haeuser, B.; Jaeger, D.

    1985-11-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying is a suitable process for producing high quality coatings of reactive metals such as tantalum and niobium. Ta and Nb coatings used for corrosion protection must be extremely dense, homogeneous, and of high purity and adhesion. Hence, the process parameters have to be carefully optimized even with regard to the spraying powder, its grain size and morphology. Spraying equipment with vacuum systems which allow for a final pressure of 10/sup -3/ mbar, which have heated and evacuated powder feeder units, and heated substrates, as well as the use of powders with high purity and low gas content, are required for producing high quality Ta and Nb coatings. Corrosion tests in sulfuric acid and aqua regia at different concentrations show that Ta and Nb coatings sprayed under optimized conditions have high resistance to both general and localized corrosion.

  9. LSPRAY-II: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    LSPRAY-II is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-II, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  10. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  11. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. PMID:26705850

  12. LSPRAY-III: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    LSPRAY-III is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-III, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  13. Dynamics of flare sprays. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Martin, S. F.; Hansen, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable passband filters, multislit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronagraphs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occurred between 1969-1974 it is concluded that (1) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (2) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumable magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the materials draining back down along one or both legs of the loop.

  14. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    PubMed

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations. PMID:26479195

  15. Evaluation of spray droplet spectrum of sprayers used for vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Droplet spectra data were collected from spray equipment intended for use in vector control by the US Department of Defense pest management programs to determine if they produce droplets in the ultra-low volume (ULV) spectrum. Droplets generated by 26 sprayers utilizing water + non-ionic surfactant...

  16. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  17. Carbide Dissolution/Carbon Loss as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.

    2015-02-01

    Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. In Part 1 of this two-part article series, the effect of spray distance on the extent of carbide dissolution and carbon loss during high energy plasma spraying was investigated. The effectiveness of solid shield and gas shrouding is contrasted, and the mechanisms by which they influence the degree of decarburization discussed.

  18. Plasma-Sprayed Coatings on Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibert, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Need for combining benefits of duplex thermal-barrier coatings with film cooling on gas-turbine vanes and blades stimulated development of improved method for plasma spraying these coatings. Method reduces blocking of holes by plasma-sprayed material and at same time reduces base-metal oxidation during coating operation. Features provide potential for increased engine efficiency and power, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and extended life and durability.

  19. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  20. Thermal spray applications for power plant components

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, E.R.

    2000-03-01

    Power plants usually are located near water and many are in salt water environments. Corrosion occurring in these environments is a problem often solved with thermal spray coatings. The use of thermal spray aluminum and zinc in three power plants for various components is reviewed. Special emphasis is on the cooling tower at the Seabrook, New Hampshire plant. A guide to selection of the coating and process also is given.

  1. Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2006-07-01

    Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(ɛ-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

  2. Representation of average drop sizes in sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Lee G.

    1987-06-01

    Procedures are presented for processing drop-size measurements to obtain average drop sizes that represent overall spray characteristics. These procedures are not currently in general use, but they would represent an improvement over current practice. Clear distinctions are made between processing data for spatial- and temporal-type measurements. The conversion between spatial and temporal measurements is discussed. The application of these procedures is demonstrated by processing measurements of the same spray by two different types of instruments.

  3. Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

    1987-08-01

    Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

  4. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  5. Basalt as a solid source of calcium and alkalinity for the sequestration of carbon dioxide in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Westfield, I.; Lu, P.; Bourcier, W. L.; Kendall, T.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the idea of converting waste carbon dioxide into usable building products, Calera Corporation has developed a multi-step process that sequesters CO2 as carbonate minerals in cementitious materials. Process inputs include dissolved divalent cations and alkalinity, both of which can be extracted from basalt. In one mode of the Calera process, the electrochemical production of alkalinity generates large volumes of hydrochloric acid as a by-product, which has been shown to effectively leach divalent cations from basalt while being neutralized by the basalt dissolution reaction. Using a 10:1 1M HCl solution to rock ratio, 3500 ppm Ca was extracted while the initial solution was neutralized to a pH of 2.60 in two weeks at a temperature of 80oC in an anoxic batch reactor. In this scenario, mineral carbonation occurs via three steps: electrochemical production of alkalinity, CO2 absorption by the alkaline stream, then precipitation by mixing the basalt-derived divalent cation stream and the CO2-containing alkaline stream. In a second scenario, alkalinity is extracted from basalt using an alkalinity capacitor, a weak acid. This solution may contain a proton source, such as ammonium chloride, or a hydroxyl acceptor, such as boric acid, but the main design constraint is that the pKa of the capacitor be high enough to deprontonate carbonic acid. The weak acid solution is mixed with basalt in an anoxic batch reactor and the dissolving rock consumes protons from the weak acid, generating the conjugate base. The solution rich in conjugate base then absorbs CO2 and the carbonate-rich solution is mixed with a calcium-rich stream to precipitate carbonate minerals. We have extracted up to 1100 mmol alkalinity per kg rock using an alkalinity capacitor, versus no more than 50 mmol alkalinity per kg rock using DI water as a solvent. Again, carbon sequestration occurs via three steps: alkalinity extraction from basalt, CO2 absorption, and finally carbonate precipitation

  6. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15–30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H+ influx (OH− efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H+/HCO3− symport or OH−/HCO3− antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions. PMID:19820298

  7. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  8. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  9. Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.

    2013-02-01

    Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O, respectively.

  10. Experimental evolution of sprays in a lung model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results of an experiment conceived to observe the evolution of sprays inside the lungs. We have built a model that covers the first 6 generations (from the trachea to segmental bronchi of 5th generation). This setup is placed on a wind tunnel, and the flow inside the model is induced by a vacuum pump that emulates the breathing process using a valve. We inject a previously determined distribution of particles (water droplets), whose average diameter can be modified. Then, we measure the droplet distribution in different branches and compare how the droplet distribution is modified at each generation. The parameters that control the behavior are the average diameter of the original distribution, the airflow rate inside the model and the frequency of the breathing cycle.

  11. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  12. Characteristics of MCrAlY coatings sprayed by high velocity oxygen-fuel spraying system

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Y.; Saitoh, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    High velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spraying system in open air has been established for producing the coatings that are extremely clean and dense. It is thought that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY (M is Fe, Ni and/or Co) coatings can be applied to provide resistance against oxidation and corrosion to the hot parts of gas turbines. Also, it is well known that the thicker coating can be sprayed in comparison with any other thermal spraying systems due to improved residual stresses. However, thermal and mechanical properties of HVOF coatings have not been clarified. Especially, the characteristics of residual stress, that are the most important property from the view point of production technique, have not been made clear. In this paper, the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings were measured in both the case of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings in comparison with a vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties of HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coatings could be improved by a diffusion heat treatment to equate the vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY coatings. Also, the residual stress characteristics were analyzed using a deflection measurement technique and a X-ray technique. The residual stress of HVOF coating was reduced by the shot-peening effect comparable to that of a plasma spray system in open air. This phenomena could be explained by the reason that the HVOF sprayed MCrAlY coating was built up by poorly melted particles.

  13. Modeling of evaporation and oxidation phenomena in plasma spraying of metal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanwei

    Plasma spraying of metals in air is usually accompanied by evaporation and oxidation of the sprayed material. Optimization of the spraying process must ensure that the particles are fully molten during their short residence time in the plasma jet and prior to hitting the substrate, but not overheated to minimize evaporation losses. In atmospheric plasma spraying (ASP), it is also clearly desirable to be able to control the extent of oxide formation. The objective of this work to develop an overall mathematical model of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena involved in the plasma-spraying of metallic particles in air atmosphere. Four models were developed to simulate the following aspects of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process: (a) the particle trajectories and the velocity and temperature profiles in an Ar-H 2 plasma jet, (b) the heat and mass transfer between particles and plasma jet, (c) the interaction between the evaporation and oxidation phenomena, and (d) the oxidation of liquid metal droplets. The resulting overall model was generated by adapting the computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP and was validated by experimental measurements carried out at the collaborating plasma laboratory of the University of Limoges. The thesis also examined the environmental implications of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena in the plasma spraying of metals. The modeling results showed that the combination of the standard k-s model of turbulence and the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity model provided a more accurate prediction of plasma gas behavior. The estimated NOx generation levels from APS were lower than the U.S.E.P.A. emission standard. Either enhanced evaporation or oxidation can occur on the surface of the metal particles and the relative extent is determined by the process parameters. Comparatively, the particle size has the greatest impact on both evaporation and oxidation. The extent of particle oxidation depends principally on gas

  14. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  15. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  16. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

  18. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gittler, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  19. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view. PMID:27040089

  20. [Risks associated with unrestricted consumption of alkaline-reduced water].

    PubMed

    Henry, Marc; Chambron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Minister of Health, Work and Wellbeing, for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Today, these devices are also freely available in France. The commercial information provided with the devices recommends the consumption of 1 to 1.5 liters per day, not only for gastrointestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and inflammation. Academic research on this subject has been undergoing in Japan since 1990, and has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen, which eliminates the free radical HO· in vivo. It has also been shown that electrode degradation during use of the devices releases highly reactive platinum nanoparticles, the toxicity of which is unknown. The authors of this report recommend alerting the French health authorities to the uncontrolled availability of these devices that generate drug substances and should therefore be subject to regulatory requirements. PMID:26753412

  1. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  2. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and

  3. Ultrafine particles emitted by flame and electric arc guns for thermal spraying of metals.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Régnier, Roland; Subra, Isabelle; Sutter, Benjamin; Lecler, Marie T; Morele, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The ultrafine aerosol emitted by thermal spraying of metals using flame and electric arc processes has been characterized in terms of particle size distribution and emission rates based on both particle number and mass. Thermal spraying of Zn, Zn/Al, and Al was studied. Measurements taken using an electrical low pressure impactor and a condensation nucleus counter reveal an aerosol made up of very fine particles (80-95% of number distribution <100 nm). Ultrafine particle emission rates produced by the electric arc process are very high, the largest values being recorded during spraying of pure aluminium. This process generates high particle emissions and therefore requires careful consideration and possible rethinking of currently implemented protection measures: ventilated cabins, dust collectors, and personal protective equipment. PMID:20685717

  4. On the effect of sea spray on the aerodynamic surface drag under severe winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the effect of the sea spray on the air-sea momentum exchange during the entire "life cycle" of a droplet, torn off the crest of a steep surface wave, and its fall down to the water, in the framework of a model covering the following aspects of the phenomenon: (1) motion of heavy particle in the driving air flow (equations of motion); (2) structure of the wind field (wind velocity, wave-induced disturbances, turbulent fluctuations); (3) generation of the sea spray; and (4) statistics of droplets (size distribution, wind speed dependence). It is demonstrated that the sea spray in strong winds leads to an increase in the surface drag up to 40 % on the assumption that the velocity profile is neutral.

  5. Optical observation of ultrafine droplets and air flows from newly designed supersonic air assist spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashiro, Seiji S.; Mori, H.; Takechi, H.

    2001-04-01

    One of the authors developed a new spray drying nozzle (special quadruplet fluid spray nozzle) for drug manufacturing and it has succeeded in manufacturing fine particles of 2 micrometer diameter of 1/15 ratios to those currently in use. The flow visualization results show that the two air jets become under-expanded on both edge sides of the nozzle, generate shock and expansion waves alternately on each side and reach the edge tip, where they collide, unite, and spout out while shock and expansion waves are again formed in the mixed jet. When the edge surfaces are supplied with water, the water is extended into thin film by the air jet and intensely disturbed. At the nozzle tip it is torn into droplets, which are further atomized afterwards in shock waves. At the spray tip, the friction with ambient air shears the droplets furthermore, and they decrease further in size.

  6. Dissolution enhancement of fenofibrate by micronization, cogrinding and spray-drying: comparison with commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Markus; Kunath, Klaus; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2008-02-01

    Several techniques were compared for improving the dissolution of fenofibrate, a poorly soluble drug. Particle size reduction was realized by jet milling (micronization; cogrinding with lactose, polyvinylpyrrolidone or sodium lauryl sulphate) and by media milling using a bead mill (nanosizing) with subsequent spray-drying. Solid state characterization by X-ray diffraction and Differential Scanning Calorimetry verified the maintenance of the crystalline state of the drug after dry milling and its conversion to the amorphous state during spray-drying. Micronization of fenofibrate enhanced its dissolution rate in biorelevant media (8.2% in 30min) compared to crude material (1.3% in 30min). Coground mixtures of the drug increased the dissolution rate further (up to 20% in 30min). Supersaturated solutions were generated by nanosizing combined with spray-drying, this process converted fenofibrate to the amorphous state. Fenofibrate drug products commercially available on the German and French markets dissolved similarly to crude or micronized fenofibrate, but significantly slower than the coground or spray-dried fenofibrate mixtures. The results suggest that cogrinding and spray-drying are powerful techniques for the preparation of rapidly dissolving formulations of fenofibrate, and could potentially lead to improvements in the bioavailability of oral fenofibrate products. PMID:17574403

  7. Sustained delivery by leucine-modified chitosan spray-dried respirable powders.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, Tristan P; Burrows, Jane L; French, Eddie; Seville, Peter C

    2009-05-01

    The controlled co-delivery of multiple agents to the lung offers potential benefits to patients. This study investigated the preparation and characterisation of highly respirable spray-dried powders displaying the sustained release of two chemically distinct therapeutic agents. Spray-dried powders were produced from 30% (v/v) aqueous ethanol formulations that contained hydrophilic (terbutaline sulphate) and hydrophobic (beclometasone dipropionate) model drugs, chitosan (as a drug release modifier) and leucine (aerosolisation enhancer). The influence of chitosan molecular weight on spray-drying thermal efficiency, aerosol performance and drug release profile was investigated. Resultant powders were physically characterised: with in vitro aerosolisation performance and drug release profile investigated by the Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger and modified USP II dissolution apparatus, respectively. It was found that increased chitosan molecular weight gave increased spray-drying thermal efficiency. The powders generated were of a suitable size for inhalation-with emitted doses over 90% and fine particle fractions up to 72% of the loaded dose. Sustained drug release profiles were observed in dissolution tests for both agents: increased chitosan molecular weight associated with increased duration of drug release. The controlled co-delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities underlines the capability of spray drying to produce respirable particles with sustained release for delivery to the lung. PMID:19429272

  8. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

    1995-02-14

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

  9. Processing Conditions Affecting Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Nanocomposites Produced via Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cold spray is a coating technology based on aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. In this process, spray particles (usually 1-50 μm in diameter) are accelerated to a high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (pre-heated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval-type nozzle. A coating is formed through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at a temperature below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper the main processing parameters affecting the microstructural and mechanical behavior of metal-metal cold spray deposits are described. The effect of process parameters on grain refinement and mechanical properties were analyzed for composite particles of Al-Al2O3, Ni-BN, Cu-Al2O3, and Co-SiC. The properties of the formed nanocomposites were compared with those of the parent materials sprayed under the same conditions. The process conditions, leading to a strong grain refinement with an acceptable level of the deposit mechanical properties such as porosity and adhesion strength, are discussed.

  10. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

  11. Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alex L; Mayes, William M

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problematic trace metals, and rapid rates of calcite precipitation which smother benthic habitats. A 36-year dataset was collated from the long-term ambient monitoring of physicochemical parameters and elemental concentrations of samples from two steel slag leachate-affected watercourses in northern England. Waters were typified by elevated pH (>10), high alkalinity, and were rich in dissolved metals (e.g. calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn)). Long-term trend analysis was performed upon pH, alkalinity, and Ca concentration which, in addition to Ca flux calculations, were used to highlight the longevity of pollution arising as a result of the dumping and subsequent leaching of steel slags. Declines in calcium and alkalinity have been modest over the monitoring period and not accompanied by significant declines in water pH. If the monotonic trends of decline in alkalinity and calcium continue in the largest of the receiving streams, it will be in the region of 50-80 years before calcite precipitation would be expected to be close to baseline levels, where ecological impacts would be negligible. PMID:26108748

  12. Particle design of three-component system for sustained release using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richer; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Danjo, Kazumi

    2006-11-01

    We prepared composite particles of acetaminophen (Act) with chitosan (Cht) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) as a carrier using a newly developed 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer. Cht dissolves in acid solutions and forms a gel, but it is insoluble in alkaline solutions. On the other hand, HPMCP is insoluble in acid solutions, but it dissolves in alkaline solutions. Therefore, we tested a preparation of controlled release composite particles using the characteristics of these carriers. Act and Cht mixtures in prescribed ratios were dissolved in an acid solution. Composite particles of Act and HPMCP in prescribed ratios were dissolved in alkaline solutions. We evaluated the composite particles of the three components (Act, Cht, and HPMCP) by preparing solid dispersions using a 4-fluid nozzle spray-dryer. Observation of particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the particles from the spray-drying process had atomized to several microns and had all become spherical. We investigated the physical properties of the composite particles by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dissolution rate analysis to clarify the effects of crystallinity on the dissolution rate. Powder X-ray diffraction peaks and the heat of fusion of Act in the spray-dried samples decreased in proportion to the carrier content, indicating that the drug was amorphous. These results indicate that the Act-Cht-HPMCP system formed a solid dispersion. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between the drug and the carrier using FT-IR analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy of the Act solid dispersions suggested that the Act carbonyl and Cht amino groups formed a hydrogen bond. On the other hand, interaction by hydrogen bond was observed between the carbonyl group of HPMCP with the amino group of Act. In the three-component Act-Cht-HPMCP system, the 4-fluid nozzle spray-dried preparation with a mixing ratio of 1 : 2.5 : 2.5 obtained sustained

  13. Influence of Spray Volume on Spray Deposition and Coverage Within Nursery Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on better utilizing air blast sprayers to obtain high pesticide spray application efficiency in nursery tree production is needed. Foliar spray deposition and coverage at different heights inside crabapple tree canopies were investigated for an air blast sprayer with four different appl...

  14. EVALUATION OF CONVERGENT SPRAY TECHNOLOGYTM SPRAY PROCESS FOR ROOF COATING APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of Convergent Spray TechnologyTM for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilizing recycled materials, a CSTTM spray process portable application cart, a...

  15. External characteristics of unsteady spray atomization from a nasal spray device.

    PubMed

    Fung, Man Chiu; Inthavong, Kiao; Yang, William; Lappas, Petros; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-03-01

    The nasal route presents an enormous opportunity to exploit the highly vascularized respiratory airway for systemic drug delivery to provide more rapid onset of therapy and reduced drug degradation compared with conventional oral routes. The dynamics of atomization at low injection pressure is less known as typical spray atomization studies have focused on industrial applications such as fuel injection that are performed at much higher pressure. An experimental test station was designed in house and an alternative method to characterize the external spray is presented. This involved the use of high-speed camera to capture the temporal development of the spray as it is atomized through actuation of the spray device. An image-processing technique based on edge detection was developed to automate processing through the large number of images captured. The results showed that there are three main phases of spray development (prestable, stable, and poststable) that can be correlated by examining the spray width. A comparison with a human nasal cavity is made to put into perspective the dimensions and geometry that the spray atomization produces. This study aimed to extend the current existing set of data to contribute toward a better understanding in nasal spray drug delivery. PMID:23303644

  16. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  17. Heat Flux Analysis of a Reacting Thermite Spray Impingent on a Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael A. Daniels; Daniel J. Prentice; Eric D. Steffler; Steven P. D'Arche

    2012-03-01

    Spray combustion from a thermite reaction is a new area of research relevant to localized energy generation applications, such as welding or cutting. In this study, we characterized the heat flux of combustion spray impinging on a target from a nozzle for three thermite mixtures. The reactions studied include aluminum (Al) with iron oxide (Fe2O3), Al with copper oxide (CuO), and Al with molybdenum oxide (MoO3). Several standoff distances (i.e., distance from the nozzle exit to the target) were analyzed. A fast response heat flux sensor was engineered for this purpose and is discussed in detail. Results correlated substrate damage to a threshold heat flux of 4550 W/cm2 for a fixed-nozzle configuration. Also, higher gas-generating thermites were shown to produce a widely dispersed spray and be less effective at imparting kinetic energy damage to a target. These results provide an understanding of the role of thermal and physical properties (i.e., such as heat of combustion, gas generation, and particle size) on thermite spray combustion performance measured by damaging a target substrate.

  18. What Can We Learn From Laboratory Studies of Inorganic Sea Spray Aerosol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Zieger, P.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Grythe, H.; Kirkevag, A.; Rosati, B.; Riipinen, I.; Nilsson, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013 we have been operating a temperature-controlled plunging-jet sea spray aerosol chamber at Stockholm University using inorganic artificial seawater. Using size-resolved measurements of the foam bubbles responsible for the aerosol production we were able to show that it is changes to these foam bubbles which drive the observed changes in aerosol production and size distribution as water temperature changes (Salter et al., 2014). Further, by combining size-resolved measurements of aerosol production as a function of water temperature with measurements of air entrainment by the plunging-jet we have developed a temperature-dependent sea spray source function for deployment in large-scale models (Salter et al., 2015). We have also studied the hygroscopicity, morphology, and chemical composition of the inorganic sea spray aerosol produced in the chamber. The sea spray aerosol generated from artificial seawater exhibited lower hygroscopic growth than both pure NaCl and output from the E-AIM aerosol thermodynamics model when all relevant inorganic ions in the sea salt were included. Results from sensitivity tests using a large-scale earth system model suggest that the lower hygroscopicity observed in our laboratory measurements has important implications for calculations of the radiative balance of the Earth. In addition, size-dependent chemical fractionation of several inorganic ions was observed relative to the artificial seawater with potentially important implications for the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. Each of these studies suggest that there is still much to be learned from rigorous experiments using inorganic seawater proxies. Salter et al., (2014), On the seawater temperature dependence of the sea spray aerosol generated by a continuous plunging jet. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 9052-9072, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021376 Salter et al., (2015), An empirically derived inorganic sea spray source function incorporating sea surface temperature. Atmos

  19. Current Status of Superheat Spray Modeling With NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Bulzan, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of liquid fuel behavior at superheat conditions is identified to be a topic of importance in the design of modern supersonic engines. As a part of the NASA's supersonics project office initiative on high altitude emissions, we have undertaken an effort to assess the accuracy of various existing CFD models used in the modeling of superheated sprays. As a part of this investigation, we have completed the implementation of a modeling approach into the national combustion code (NCC), and then applied it to investigate the following three cases: (1) the validation of a flashing jet generated by the sudden release of pressurized R134A from a cylindrical nozzle, (2) the differences between two superheat vaporization models were studied based on both hot and cold flow calculations of a Parker-Hannifin pressure swirl atomizer, (3) the spray characteristics generated by a single-element LDI (Lean Direct Injector) experiment were studied to investigate the differences between superheat and non-superheat conditions. Further details can be found in the paper.

  20. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.