Science.gov

Sample records for alkaline stability thermal

  1. Conformational stability of human erythrocyte transglutaminase. Patterns of thermal unfolding at acid and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, C M; Dean, M; Matteucci, G; Hanau, S; Tanfani, F; Ferrari, C; Boggian, M; Scatturin, A

    1999-12-01

    Tissue-type transglutaminase is irreversibly inactivated during heat treatment. The rate of inactivation is low at pH 7.5; it increases slightly at acid pH (6.1) but much more at alkaline pH (9.0-9.5), suggesting that specific effects take place in the alkaline range, possibly in relation to decreased stability of the transition-state intermediate as pH is raised above 9.0. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments indicate that thermal unfolding of the protein occurs with two separate transitions, involving independent regions of the enzyme. They are assigned to domains 1 and 2 and domains 3 and 4, respectively, by a combination of calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques. When considering the effects of pH, we noted that transglutaminase was unfolded via different pathways at the different pH values considered. At acid pH, the whole structure of the protein was lost irreversibly, with massive aggregation. At neutral and, even more so, at alkaline pH, aggregation was absent (or very limited at high protein concentration) and the loss of secondary structure was dependent on the ionization state of crucial lysine residues. Unfolding at pH 9.5 apparently chiefly involved the N-terminal region, as testified by changes in protein intrinsic fluorescence. In addition, the C-terminal region was destabilized at each pH value tested during thermal unfolding, as shown by digestion with V8 proteinase, which is inactive on the native protein. Evidence was obtained that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions interact with each other in determining the structure of the native protein. PMID:10561600

  2. Thermal stability of the anionic sigma complexes of 2,4,6-trinitroanisole with the methylates of the alkaline-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, A.I.; Soldatova, T.A.; Golopolosova, T.V.; Gitis, S.S.

    1987-09-10

    The study of the stability of the 1,1-dimethoxy-2,4,6-trinitrocyclohexadienates of the alkali metals when they are heated in air showed that their temperature of decomposition and the heat effect of the process are dependent on the nature of the cation. Our study centered on the thermal decomposition of the products resulting from the addition of the methylates of calcium, strontium, and barium to 2,4,6-trinitroanisole. For a quantitative assessment of the process we used the combined methods of differential-thermal analysis and differential thermogravimetry. The anionic sigma-complexes of 2,4,6-trinitroanisole with the methylates of the alkaline-earth metals decompose on heating into the corresponding picrates; at the same time, when one passes from the calcium slat to the strontium and barium salts the decomposition temperature and the heat effect of the process show a drop which is linked to the structure both of the complexes and of the picrates forming therefrom.

  3. Fusion of an oligopeptide to the N terminus of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica simultaneously improves the enzyme's catalytic efficiency, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Lu, Xinyao; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we constructed and expressed six fusion proteins composed of oligopeptides attached to the N terminus of the alkaline α-amylase (AmyK) from Alkalimonas amylolytica. The oligopeptides had various effects on the functional and structural characteristics of AmyK. AmyK-p1, the fusion protein containing peptide 1 (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK), exhibited improved specific activity, catalytic efficiency, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and oxidative stability compared with AmyK. Compared with AmyK, the specific activity and catalytic constant (kcat) of AmyK-p1 were increased by 4.1-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. The following properties were also improved in AmyK-p1 compared with AmyK: kcat/Km increased from 1.8 liter/(g·min) to 9.7 liter/(g·min), stable pH range was extended from 7.0 to 11.0 to 7.0 to 12.0, optimal temperature increased from 50°C to 55°C, and the half-life at 60°C increased by ∼2-fold. Moreover, AmyK-p1 showed improved resistance to oxidation and retained 54% of its activity after incubation with H2O2, compared with 20% activity retained by AmyK. Finally, AmyK-p1 was more compatible than AmyK with the commercial solid detergents tested. The mechanisms responsible for these changes were analyzed by comparing the three-dimensional (3-D) structural models of AmyK and AmyK-p1. The significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency and stability of AmyK-p1 suggests its potential as a detergent ingredient. In addition, the oligopeptide fusion strategy described here may be useful for improving the catalytic efficiency and stability of other industrial enzymes.

  4. Fusion of an Oligopeptide to the N Terminus of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica Simultaneously Improves the Enzyme's Catalytic Efficiency, Thermal Stability, and Resistance to Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Lu, Xinyao; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Du, Guocheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed and expressed six fusion proteins composed of oligopeptides attached to the N terminus of the alkaline α-amylase (AmyK) from Alkalimonas amylolytica. The oligopeptides had various effects on the functional and structural characteristics of AmyK. AmyK-p1, the fusion protein containing peptide 1 (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK), exhibited improved specific activity, catalytic efficiency, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and oxidative stability compared with AmyK. Compared with AmyK, the specific activity and catalytic constant (kcat) of AmyK-p1 were increased by 4.1-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. The following properties were also improved in AmyK-p1 compared with AmyK: kcat/Km increased from 1.8 liter/(g·min) to 9.7 liter/(g·min), stable pH range was extended from 7.0 to 11.0 to 7.0 to 12.0, optimal temperature increased from 50°C to 55°C, and the half-life at 60°C increased by ∼2-fold. Moreover, AmyK-p1 showed improved resistance to oxidation and retained 54% of its activity after incubation with H2O2, compared with 20% activity retained by AmyK. Finally, AmyK-p1 was more compatible than AmyK with the commercial solid detergents tested. The mechanisms responsible for these changes were analyzed by comparing the three-dimensional (3-D) structural models of AmyK and AmyK-p1. The significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency and stability of AmyK-p1 suggests its potential as a detergent ingredient. In addition, the oligopeptide fusion strategy described here may be useful for improving the catalytic efficiency and stability of other industrial enzymes. PMID:23455344

  5. Improving the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations by substitution.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Gu, Fenglou; Li, Min; Lin, Bencai; Si, Zhihong; Hou, Tingjun; Yan, Feng; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2014-10-01

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates for preparing anion-exchange membranes because of their good alkaline stability. Substitution of imidazolium cations is an efficient way to improve their alkaline stability. By combining density functional theory calculations with experimental results, it is found that the LUMO energy correlates with the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations. The results indicate that alkyl groups are the most suitable substituents for the N3 position of imidazolium cations, and the LUMO energies of alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations depend on the electron-donating effect and the hyperconjugation effect. Comparing 1,2-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,2-DMIm+) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,3-DMIm+) with the same substituents reveals that the hyperconjugation effect is more significant in influencing the LUMO energy of 1,3-DMIms. This investigation reveals that LUMO energy is a helpful aid in predicting the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations.

  6. Jet Fuel Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. F. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the thermal stability problem associated with the use of broadened-specification and nonpetroleum-derived turbine fuels are addressed. The state of the art is reviewed and the status of the research being conducted at various laboratories is presented. Discussions among representatives from universities, refineries, engine and airframe manufacturers, airlines, the Government, and others are presented along with conclusions and both broad and specific recommendations for future stability research and development. It is concluded that significant additional effort is required to cope with the fuel stability problems which will be associated with the potentially poorer quality fuels of the future such as broadened specification petroleum fuels or fuels produced from synthetic sources.

  7. Thermal stability of bioactive enzymatic papers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2010-01-01

    The thermal stability of two enzymes adsorbed on paper, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was measured using a colorimetric technique quantifying the intensity of the product complex. The enzymes adsorbed on paper retained their functionality and selectivity. Adsorption on paper increased the enzyme thermal stability by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the same enzyme in solution. ALP and HRP enzymatic papers had half-lives of 533 h and 239 h at 23 degrees C, respectively. The thermal degradation of adsorbed enzyme was found to follow two sequential first-order reactions, indication of a reaction system. A complex pattern of enzyme was printed on paper using a thermal inkjet printer. Paper and inkjet printing are ideal material and process to manufacture low-cost-high volume bioactive surfaces.

  8. Thermal design of high temperature alkaline-earth vapor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jordan L.; Lemke, Nathan D.; Martin, Kyle W.; Erickson, Christopher J.

    2016-03-01

    Europium doped calcium fluoride is a machinable and alkaline-earth resistant crystal that is suitable for constructing a calcium or strontium vapor cell. However, its heat capacity, emissivity, and high coefficient of thermal expansion make it challenging to achieve optically dense calcium vapors for laser spectroscopy on narrow linewidth transitions. We discuss a low size, weight and power heating package that is under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  9. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  10. Thermal stability of naphthodiazoquinone sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Wayne M.

    1997-07-01

    1,2-Napthoquinone diazides function as both photoactive dissolution inhibitors (PAC) for i-line positive resists and as photoacid generators (PAG) for chemically amplified resists. Traditionally, the 5-sulfonyl esters of 1,2- napthodiazoquinones (DQ) are used as PACS and recently the 4- sulfonyl (DQ) esters function as both PACS or PAGS. Knowledge of the thermal stability of the DQ is important for defining process conditions that stabilize the films prior to exposure or in post-treatments involving specific thermally induced reactions of PAC and resin. The thermal decomposition and photochemical decomposition of 1,2-napthodiazoquinones (DQ) follows similar pathways with the expulsion of nitrogen followed by formation of a reactive ketene. In absence of water (to form the indene carboxylic acid) many participatory bimolecular pathways involving reactant, products and resins are possible. Studies of the rate of decomposition of esters indicate that of 1-naptho-2-diazoquinone-4-sulfonyl derivatives are more thermally stable than the 5-sulfonyl counterparts and afford longer solution shelf life and higher thermal decomposition temperatures of 130 - 150 C. In addition, the 4-sulfonyl substituted DQ can form sulfonic acids upon thermolysis and hydrolysis. In solution, the napthodiazoquinones decompose at faster rates with lower activation energy (20 - 30 Kcal/mole) than in the solid state with higher activation energies of 40 - 50 Kcal/mole. When the DQ dissolution inhibitors are dispersed in resins, the interaction of the resin and DQ can influence the stability of the PAC. DQ mixed with novolak are more thermally stable than when blended with polyhydroxystyrene. The higher thermal stability of the 4-sulfonyl DQ esters is attributed to the electron resonance deactivation of diazo group by the sulfone subsituent.

  11. [DNA degradation during standard alkaline of thermal denaturation].

    PubMed

    Drozhdeniuk, A P; Sulimova, G E; Vaniushin, B F

    1976-01-01

    Essential degradation 8 DNA (up to 10 per cent) with liberation of acid-soluble fragments takes place on the standard alkaline (0,01 M sodium phosphate, pH 12, 60 degrees, 15 min) or thermal (0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, 102 degrees C, 15 min) denaturation. This degradation is more or less selective: fraction of low molecular weight fragments, isolated by hydroxyapatite cromatography and eluted by 0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 is rich in adenine and thymine and contains about 2 times less 5-methylcytosine than the total wheat germ DNA. The degree of degradation of DNA on thermal denaturation is higher than on alkaline degradation. Therefore while studying reassociation of various DNA, one and the same standard method of DNA denaturation should be used. Besides, both the level of DNA degradation and the nature of the resulting products (fragments) should be taken into account.

  12. Thermal stability of sulfonated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Audibert, A.; Argillier, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    Polyacrylamides which are used in oil applications i.e. polymer flooding and water based muds, are hydrolyzed versus time and temperature. This leads to a lack of tolerance towards electrolyte contamination and to a rapid degradation inducing a loss of their properties. Modifications of polyacrylamide structure have been proposed to postpone their thermal stability to higher temperatures. Monomers such as acrylamido methylpropane sulfonate (AMPS) or sulfonated styrene/maleic anhydride can be used to prevent acrylamide comonomer from hydrolysis. The aim of this work is to study under controlled conditions, i.e. anaerobic atmosphere, neutral pH, the stability of sulfonated polymers in order to distinguish between hydrolysis and radical degradation reactions. It has been observed that up to 100 C, the AMPS group is stable and protects the acrylamide function from hydrolysis up to 80%. At higher temperature, even the hydrolysis of the AMPS group occurs, giving acrylate and {beta},{beta} dimethyl taurine, with a kinetics that depends on temperature and time. Degradation in terms of molecular weight then occurs indicating that it follows a radical decarboxylation reaction. It can be limited either by the use of free radical scavenger or when the polymer is in the presence of a mineral phase such as bentonite. These results provide valuable data for the determination of the limits of use of sulfonated copolymers and guidelines for optimizing chemical structure of sulfonated polymers used in water based formulation, in particular to enhance their thermal stability.

  13. The role of stabilization centers in protein thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Magyar, Csaba; Gromiha, M Michael; Sávoly, Zoltán; Simon, István

    2016-02-26

    The definition of stabilization centers was introduced almost two decades ago. They are centers of noncovalent long range interaction clusters, believed to have a role in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of proteins by preventing their decay due to their cooperative long range interactions. Here, this hypothesis is investigated from the viewpoint of thermal stability for the first time, using a large protein thermodynamics database. The positions of amino acids belonging to stabilization centers are correlated with available experimental thermodynamic data on protein thermal stability. Our analysis suggests that stabilization centers, especially solvent exposed ones, do contribute to the thermal stabilization of proteins.

  14. The role of stabilization centers in protein thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Magyar, Csaba; Gromiha, M Michael; Sávoly, Zoltán; Simon, István

    2016-02-26

    The definition of stabilization centers was introduced almost two decades ago. They are centers of noncovalent long range interaction clusters, believed to have a role in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of proteins by preventing their decay due to their cooperative long range interactions. Here, this hypothesis is investigated from the viewpoint of thermal stability for the first time, using a large protein thermodynamics database. The positions of amino acids belonging to stabilization centers are correlated with available experimental thermodynamic data on protein thermal stability. Our analysis suggests that stabilization centers, especially solvent exposed ones, do contribute to the thermal stabilization of proteins. PMID:26845354

  15. Pt- and Ru-doped SnO₂-Sb anodes with high stability in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Raúl; Sieben, Juan Manuel; Quijada, César; Morallón, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    Different Pt- and Ru-doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes were synthesized by thermal decomposition. The effect of the gradual substitution of Sb by Ru in the nominal composition on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties were evaluated. The electrochemical stability of the electrodes was estimated from accelerated tests at 0.5 A cm(-2) in 1 M NaOH. Both as-synthesized and deactivated electrodes were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The incorporation of a small amount (about 3 at. %) of both Pt and Ru into the SnO2-Sb electrodes produced a 400-times increase in their service life in alkaline medium, with no remarkable change in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is concluded that the deactivation of the electrodes is promoted by alkaline dissolution of metal species and coating detachment at high potentials. The introduction of Pt has a coating compacting effect, and Ru(IV), at low amounts until 9.75 at. %, replaces the Sn(IV) cations in the rutile-like SnO2 structure to form a solid solution that strongly increases the stability of the electrodes. The observed Ru segregation and decreased stability for larger Ru contents (x > 9.75 at. %), together with the selective dissolution of Ru after deactivation, suggest that the formation of a homogeneous (RuδSn1-δ)O2 single-phase is crucial for the stabilization of these electrodes. PMID:25453898

  16. Pt- and Ru-doped SnO₂-Sb anodes with high stability in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Raúl; Sieben, Juan Manuel; Quijada, César; Morallón, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    Different Pt- and Ru-doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes were synthesized by thermal decomposition. The effect of the gradual substitution of Sb by Ru in the nominal composition on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties were evaluated. The electrochemical stability of the electrodes was estimated from accelerated tests at 0.5 A cm(-2) in 1 M NaOH. Both as-synthesized and deactivated electrodes were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The incorporation of a small amount (about 3 at. %) of both Pt and Ru into the SnO2-Sb electrodes produced a 400-times increase in their service life in alkaline medium, with no remarkable change in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is concluded that the deactivation of the electrodes is promoted by alkaline dissolution of metal species and coating detachment at high potentials. The introduction of Pt has a coating compacting effect, and Ru(IV), at low amounts until 9.75 at. %, replaces the Sn(IV) cations in the rutile-like SnO2 structure to form a solid solution that strongly increases the stability of the electrodes. The observed Ru segregation and decreased stability for larger Ru contents (x > 9.75 at. %), together with the selective dissolution of Ru after deactivation, suggest that the formation of a homogeneous (RuδSn1-δ)O2 single-phase is crucial for the stabilization of these electrodes.

  17. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  18. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  19. Uricase alkaline enzymosomes with enhanced stabilities and anti-hyperuricemia effects induced by favorable microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yunli; Zhang, Mi; He, Dan; Hu, Xueyuan; Xiong, Huarong; Wu, Jianyong; Zhu, Biyue; Zhang, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme therapy is an effective strategy to treat diseases. Three strategies were pursued to provide the favorable microenvironments for uricase (UCU) to eventually improve its features: using the right type of buffer to constitute the liquid media where catalyze reactions take place; entrapping UCU inside the selectively permeable lipid vesicle membranes; and entrapping catalase together with UCU inside the membranes. The nanosized alkaline enzymosomes containing UCU/(UCU and catalase) (ESU/ESUC) in bicine buffer had better thermal, hypothermal, acid-base and proteolytic stabilities, in vitro and in vivo kinetic characteristics, and uric acid lowering effects. The favorable microenvironments were conducive to the establishment of the enzymosomes with superior properties. It was the first time that two therapeutic enzymes were simultaneously entrapped into one enzymosome having the right type of buffer to achieve added treatment efficacy. The development of ESU/ESUC in bicine buffer provides valuable tactics in hypouricemic therapy and enzymosomal application. PMID:26823332

  20. Thermally Stabilized Transmit/Receive Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James; DelCastillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Birur, Gaj

    2011-01-01

    RF-hybrid technologies enable smaller packaging and mass reduction in radar instruments, especially for subsystems with dense electronics, such as electronically steered arrays. We are designing thermally stabilized RF-hybrid T/R modules using new materials for improved thermal performance of electronics. We are combining advanced substrate and housing materials with a thermal reservoir material, and develop new packaging techniques to significantly improve thermal-cycling reliability and performance stability over temperature.

  1. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    LARKIN, K.A.

    1999-02-23

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: functional design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

  2. Thermal stability of grafted fibers. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundardi, F.; Kadariah; Marlianti, I.

    1983-10-01

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:26381784

  4. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW.

  5. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW. PMID:26391806

  6. System design description PFP thermal stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    1998-11-10

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing P1ant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing to meet the 3013 storage requirements. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: function design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

  7. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank.

  8. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  9. Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christine L.; Hansen, Jacqueline J.; Margolin, Aaron B.; Balkin, Helene; Batzer, Glenda; Widmer, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matrix. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella were undetectable following 2 hours of lime stabilization, demonstrating a 7-log reduction. Adenovirus, MS-2 and rotavirus were below detectable levels following 2 h of liming, demonstrating a 4-log reduction. G. lamblia cysts were also inactivated. A. lumbricoides ova remained viable following 72 hours of liming as did C. parvum oocysts. While this study confirmed that Ascaris ova are resistant to liming, their scarcity in sludge and low recovery efficiencies limit their use as indicator. The persistence of C. parvum oocysts after exposure to lime, suggests that this parasite would be a better choice as indicator for evaluating biosolids intended for land application. The studies done with adenovirus Type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific bacteriophage provided preliminary data demonstrating similar inactivation rates. Monitoring anthropogenic viruses is a time consuming, labor intensive and expensive process. If further studies could demonstrate that phage could be used as an indicator of other enteric viruses, enhanced monitoring could result in greater acceptance of land application of biosolids while demonstrating no increased public health threat. PMID:17431316

  10. Increasing activity and thermal resistance of Bacillus gibsonii alkaline protease (BgAP) by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ronny; Jakob, Felix; Tu, Ran; Siegert, Petra; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus gibsonii Alkaline Protease (BgAP) is a recently reported subtilisin protease exhibiting activity and stability properties suitable for applications in laundry and dish washing detergents. However, BgAP suffers from a significant decrease of activity at low temperatures. In order to increase BgAP activity at 15°C, a directed evolution campaign based on the SeSaM random mutagenesis method was performed. An optimized microtiter plate expression system in B. subtilis was established and classical proteolytic detection methods were adapted for high throughput screening. In parallel, the libraries were screened for increased residual proteolytic activity after incubation at 58°C. Three iterative rounds of directed BgAP evolution yielded a set of BgAP variants with increased specific activity (K(cat)) at 15°C and increased thermal resistance. Recombination of both sets of amino acid substitutions resulted finally in variant MF1 with a 1.5-fold increased specific activity (15°C) and over 100 times prolonged half-life at 60°C (224 min compared to 2 min of the WT BgAP). None of the introduced amino acid substitutions were close to the active site of BgAP. Activity-altering amino acid substitutions were from non-charged to non-charged or from sterically demanding to less demanding. Thermal stability improvements were achieved by substitutions to negatively charged amino acids in loop areas of the BgAP surface which probably fostered ionic and hydrogen bonds interactions.

  11. Thermal effects in borehole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dung Trung

    An accurate wellbore stability analysis depends strongly on the state of knowledge of the problem at hand. Almost in all cases, the state of knowledge for wellbore stability analyses is poor. Values of many parameters and variables (so-called prior geological information) are poorly constrained and various assumptions of the adopted wellbore models are easily violated. The dilema is that using a model requiring few input parameters would suffer from a large number of model assumptions and simplifications; while using a complex model requiring a large number of input parameters which have wide ranges of possible values. Therefore, assessing the uncertainty (or degree of confidence) for different possible wellbore stability/instability scenarios remains difficult. Current sensitivity analyses, which consider varying possible values of one parameter while keeping others constant, are suboptimal and may not provide the correct effects of the parameters' uncertainties on the overall uncertainty of the wellbore stability prediction. Recent technological advances such as logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) enable real-time updating of measured rock properties values and in-situ conditions. This means the ranges and uncertainties of parameters for wellbore stability analyses can be adjusted in real-time, during drilling. This aspect has not been developed into a self-updating, real-time wellbore stability analysis approach yet. As a step toward that goal, this dissertation presents several studies covering different aspects of wellbore stability. In particular, the uncertainties of input parameters and selected models are treated using a probabilistic framework combining Monte Carlo simulations and Bayesian statistics. The uncertain nature of both input parameters and model assumptions and their effects on the uncertainties of wellbore stability predictions are investigated. It is shown that, depending on the severity of parameters

  12. Gamma-Ray Irradiation and Contact with High-Alkalinity Sludge: Stability Studies of Mercury Fulminate

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.; Wilmarth, W.R.; Peters, T.B.; Fink, S.D

    2005-09-15

    The stability of mercury fulminate under gamma-ray irradiation and in a high-alkalinity sludge environment was determined. Both differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize mercury fulminate. Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma-ray source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to {approx}2.4 to 4 yr in Savannah River Site tanks. Mercury fulminate decomposed in contact with high-alkalinity wet sludge. This study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if it ever formed in the tank farm.

  13. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  14. Thermal stability of PLD grown silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2016-05-01

    Present work discusses the stability of silver nanoparticles at different annealing temperatures. Air muffle furnace annealing is performed to study the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited silver nanoparticles. Silver reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form silver oxide at annealing temperatures below 473K and thermal decomposition of silver oxide takes place at temperatures above 473K. Oxide formation results in core shrinkage of silver, which in turn affects the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. With increase in annealing temperature, the surface plasmon effect of nanoparticles starts to fade. SEM, XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy have been performed to analysis various structural and optical properties.

  15. Multifunctional Composites for Improved Polyimide Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2007-01-01

    The layered morphology of silicate clay provides an effective barrier to oxidative degradation of the matrix resin. However, as resin thermal stability continues to reach higher limits, development of an organic modification with comparable temperature capabilities becomes a challenge. Typically, phyllosilicates used in polymer nanocomposites are modified with an alkyl ammonium ion. Such organic modifiers are not suited for incorporation into high temperature polymers as they commonly degrade below 200oC. Therefore, the development of nanoparticle specifically suited for high temperature applications is necessary. Several nanoparticles were investigated in this study, including pre-exfoliated synthetic clay, an organically modified clay, and carbon nanofiber. Dispersion of the layered silicate increases the onset temperature of matrix degradation as well as slows oxidative degradation. The thermally stable carbon nanofibers are also observed to significantly increase the resin thermal stability.

  16. Temperature Stabilization Requirements for Unchopped Thermal Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Marc C.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature stabilization requirements of unchopped thermistor bolometers and thermopile detectors are analyzed. The detector temperature, on which the bolometer output signal depends, is quite sensitive to changes in instrument temperature but relatively insensitive to changes in scene temperature. In contrast, the difference in temperature between detector and substrate (instrument), on which the thermopile signal depends, is equally sensitive to changes in instrument and scene temperature. Expressions for these dependencies are derived based on a simplified instrument model. It is shown that for a typical uncooled thermal imager, the temperature stabilization requirements for a bolometer are two orders of magnitude more stringent than those for a thermopile detector. Keywords: thermistor, bolometer, thermopile, detector, IR, thermal, temperature stabilization

  17. Determination of the thermal stability of perfluoroalkylethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Larry S.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal decomposition temperatures of several commercial and custom synthesized perfluoroalkylether fluids were determined with a computerized tensimeter. In general, the decomposition temperatures of the commercial fluids were all similar and significantly higher than those for custom synthesized fluids. Correlation of the decomposition temperatures with the molecular structures of the primary components of the commercial fluids revealed that the stability of the fluids is not affected by intrinsic factors such as carbon chain length, branching, or cumulated difluoroformal groups. Instead, correlation with extrinsic factors revealed that the stability may be limited by the presence of small quantities of thermally unstable material and/or chlorine-containing material arising from the use of chlorine-containing solvents during synthesis. Finally, correlation of decomposition temperatures with molecular weights for Demnum and Krytox fluids supports a chain cleavage reaction mechanism for Demnum fluids and an unzipping reaction mechanism for Krytox fluids.

  18. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  19. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the σ and π channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  20. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment.

  1. Effect of thermal and alkaline pretreatment of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Li, Yongqiang; Hao, Xiying

    2016-01-01

    Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Chinese fountaingrass (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng), cultivated for landscaping and soil conservation, are potential energy crops. The study investigated the effect of combined thermal and alkaline pretreatments on biogas production of these energy crops. The pretreatment included two types of alkali (6% CaO and 6% NaOH) at 22, 70 and 100 °C. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in a greater breakdown of the hemicellulose fraction, with CaO more effective than NaOH. Pretreatment of giant miscanthus with 6% CaO at 100 °C for 24 h produced a CH4 yield (313 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS)) that was 1.7 times that of the untreated sample (186 mL g(-1) VS). However, pretreatment of Chinese fountaingrass with 6% CaO or 6% NaOH at 70 °C for 24 h resulted in similar CH4 yields (328 and 302 mL g(-1) VS for CaO and NaOH pretreatments) as the untreated sample (311 mL g(-1) VS). Chinese fountaingrass was more easily digestible but had a low overall CH4 yield per hectare (1,831 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)) compared to giant miscanthus (6,868 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)). This study demonstrates the potential of thermal/alkaline pretreatment and the use of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass for biogas production.

  2. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Nanda, Jagjit; Ozcan, Soydan

    2015-05-13

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymermore » films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.« less

  3. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Nanda, Jagjit; Ozcan, Soydan

    2015-05-13

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymer films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.

  4. Radiation and thermal stabilities of adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Demidov, V V; Potaman, V N; Solyanina, I P; Trofimov, V I

    1995-03-01

    We have investigated in detail radiation and thermal stabilities and transformations of adenosine mono- and triphosphates in liquid and frozen solid aqueous solutions within a wide range of absorbed radiation dose (up to 75 kGy) and temperature (up to 160 degrees C). Dephosphorylation is the main pathway of high temperature hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of this process have been determined. Radiolysis of investigated compounds at room temperature results in scission of N-glycosidic bond with a radiation yield about of 1 mol/100 eV. Solution freezing significantly enhances radiation stability of nucleotides as well as other biomolecules. This circumstance is essential in the discussion of panspermia concepts.

  5. Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

    1986-01-21

    The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

  6. Stability of thermostable alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis RP1 in commercial solid laundry detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Sellami-Kamoun, Alya; Haddar, Anissa; Ali, Nedra El-Hadj; Ghorbel-Frikha, Basma; Kanoun, Safia; Nasri, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    The stability of crude extracellular protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1, isolated from polluted water, in various solid laundry detergents was investigated. The enzyme had an optimum pH and temperature at pH 10.0-11.0 and 65-70 degrees C. Enzyme activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting that the preparation contains a serine-protease. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability towards non-ionic (5% Tween 20% and 5% Triton X-100) and anionic (0.5% SDS) surfactants, which retained 100% and above 73%, respectively, of its initial activity after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C. The RP1 protease showed excellent stability and compatibility with a wide range of commercial solid detergents at temperatures from 40 to 50 degrees C, suggesting its further application in detergent industry. The enzyme retained 95% of its initial activity with Ariel followed by Axion (94%) then Dixan (93.5%) after preincubation 60 min at 40 degrees C in the presence of 7 mg/ml of detergents. In the presence of Nadhif and New Det, the enzyme retained about 83.5% of the original activity. The effects of additives such as maltodextrin, sucrose and PEG 4000 on the stability of the enzyme during spray-drying and during subsequent storage in New Det detergent were also examined. All additives tested enhanced stability of the enzyme.

  7. Ceramic membranes with enhanced thermal stability

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin; Bischoff, Brian L.

    1993-01-01

    A method of creating a ceramic membrane with enhanced thermal stability is disclosed. The method involves combining quantities of a first metal alkoxide with a second metal, the quantities selected to give a preselected metal ratio in the resultant membrane. A limited amount of water and acid is added to the combination and stirred until a colloidal suspension is formed. The colloid is dried to a gel, and the gel is fired at a temperature greater than approximately 400.degree. C. The porosity and surface area of ceramic membranes formed by this method are not adversely affected by this high temperature firing.

  8. Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

    1986-03-11

    A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

  9. Realizing SU(N) magnets in thermal alkaline-earth gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverland, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rey, Ana Maria; Alagic, Gorjan

    2014-03-01

    We show that thermal fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in flat-bottom traps allow one to implement a spin model displaying two symmetries: the symmetry that swaps atoms occupying different vibrational levels of the trap and the SU(N) symmetry associated with N nuclear spin states. The high symmetry allows us to analytically calculate the full spectrum, the eigenstates, and the dynamics. Armed with such a solid understanding, we show how this system can be used to generate entangled states usable for Heisenberg limited metrology (e.g. clocks), to make measurements useful for quantum information processing, and to understand spin diffusion in SU(N) systems. The best news is that this highly symmetric spin model should be readily realizable even when the vibrational levels are occupied according to a high-temperature thermal or a non-thermal distribution.

  10. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation. PMID:26785217

  11. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation.

  12. Stability in alkaline aqueous electrolyte of air electrode protected with fluorinated interpenetrating polymer network membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Messaoudi, Houssam; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    We developed original anion exchange membranes to protect air electrodes operating in aqueous lithium-air battery configuration, i.e. supplied with atmospheric air and in concentrated aqueous lithium hydroxide. These protective membranes have an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture combining a hydrogenated cationic polyelectrolyte network based on poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) and a fluorinated neutral network based on perfluoropolyether (Fluorolink® MD700). Two phases, each one rich in one of the polymer, are co-continuous in the materials. This morphology allows combining their properties according to the weight proportions of each polymer. Thus, PECH/Fluorolink IPNs show ionic conductivity varying from 1 to 2 mS cm-1, water uptake from 30 to 90 wt.% and anionic transport number from 0.65 to 0.80 when the PECH proportion varies from 40 to 90 wt.%. These membranes have been systematically assembled on air electrodes. Air electrode protected with PECH/Fluorolink 70/30 IPN shows outstanding stability higher than 1000 h, i.e. a 20-fold increase in the lifetime of the non-modified electrode. This efficient membrane/air electrode assembly is promising for development of alkaline electrolyte based storage or production energy systems, such as metal air batteries or alkaline fuel cells.

  13. [Impacts of alkaline thermal treatment on characteristics of sludge from sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Dong; Chen, Xia; Liu, Cao; Xiao, Ben-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Alkaline thermal treatment is an important pretreatment method for sewage sludge. In this paper, in order to optimize the alkaline thermal treatment conditions for sludge pretreatment, four pretreatment parameters ( sludge concentration, pH, temperature and treatment time) were investigated through orthogonal experiments to determine their effects on the sludge disintegration, sludge concentration and sludge morphology of sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the significance of the four factors on sludge characteristics was in the order of pH > temperature > treatment time > sludge concentration. Additionally, the optimal conditions of the four factors for the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of unit sludge and decrease of sludge concentration were as follows: 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.45, 175 degrees C and 60 min. While the optimal conditions for the decrease of particle size and fractal dimension were 36.55 g x L(-1), pH 12.5, 175 degrees C and 45 min. PMID:26031091

  14. Complexation of Al(III) with gluconate in alkaline to hyperalkaline solutions: formation, stability and structure.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Attila; Tasi, Ágost Gyula; Peintler, Gábor; Forgo, Péter; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2013-10-01

    Contrary to suggestions in the literature, it has been proven that Al(III) forms a 1 : 1 complex with gluconate (hereafter Gluc(-)) in strongly alkaline (pH > 12) aqueous solutions. The complex formation was proven via(27)Al and (1)H NMR, freezing-point depression, polarimetric measurements as well as potentiometric and conductometric titrations. This complexation is a pH independent process, i.e., a condensation reaction takes place. The stability constant of the complex formed was derived from (1)H NMR and polarimetric measurements, and was found to be log K = 2.4 ± 0.4. In the complex formed, Al(III) has a tetrahedral geometry, and the Al(OH)4(-) is most probably statistically distributed between the alcoholate groups of the Gluc(-). PMID:23897548

  15. Osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase mRNA is stabilized by binding to vimentin intermediary filaments.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Yvonne; Biniossek, Martin; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter; Simunovic, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on mRNA binding proteins. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of ALP mRNA is necessary for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-mediated stabilization of osteoblastic ALP mRNA. Using pulldown experiments and nanoflow-HPLC mass spectrometry, vimentin was identified to bind to the 3'-UTR of ALP mRNA. Validation was performed by Western blotting. Functional experiments inhibiting intermediate filaments with iminodipropionitrile and specific inhibition of vimentin by siRNA transfection showed reduced levels of ALP mRNA and protein. Therefore, ALP mRNA binds to and is stabilized by vimentin. This data add to the understanding of intracellular trafficking of ALP mRNA, its function, and have possible implications in tissue engineering applications.

  16. On the stability of subsonic thermal fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez S, Miguel H.; Shchekinov, Yuri; Bessega L, Maria C.

    2005-08-15

    The stability of subsonic thermal fronts against corrugation is analyzed and an exact dispersion relation is obtained taking into account the compressibility of the gas. For heat fronts, this dispersion equation has an unstable root ({omega}{sub ex}) corresponding to the Landau-Darrieus unstable mode ({omega}{sub 0}) modified by the compressional effects. In particular, the exact solution shows a conspicuous maximum very close to the value of the intake Mach number M{sub 1} at which a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration wave behind the heat front is formed. Cooling fronts are stable for corrugation-like disturbances. A maximum damping as well as a maximum in the frequency occur at a value of M{sub 1} depending on the value of the normalized cooling q.

  17. Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, is the dominant oxide constituent of the indigenous corrosion layers that form on iron base alloys in high purity, high temperature water. The apparent simultaneous stability of two distinct oxidation states of iron in this metal oxide is responsible for its unique solubility behavior. The present work was undertaken to extend the experimental and theoretical bases for estimating solubilities of an iron corrosion product (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe(OH){sub 2}) over a broader temperature range and in the presence of complexing, pH-controlling reagents. These results indicate that a surface layer of ferrous hydroxide controls magnetite solubility behavior at low temperatures in much the same manner as a surface layer of nickel(II) hydroxide was previously reported to control the low temperature solubility behavior of NiO. The importance of Fe(III) ion complexes implies not only that most previously-derived thermodynamic properties of the Fe(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion are incorrect, but that magnetite phase stability probably shifts to favor a sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate compound in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures. The test methodology involved pumping alkaline solutions of known composition through a bed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} granules and analyzing the emerging solution for Fe. Two pH-controlling reagents were tested: sodium phosphate and ammonia. Equilibria for the following reactions were described in thermodynamic terms: (a) Fe(OH){sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} dissolution and transformation, (b) Fe(II) and Fe(III) ion hydroxocomplex formation (hydrolysis), (c) Fe(II) ion amminocomplex formation, and (d) Fe(II) and Fe(III) ion phosphatocomplex formation. 36 refs.

  18. A binary palladium-bismuth nanocatalyst with high activity and stability for alkaline glucose electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Lan; Chen, Lin-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Binary palladium-bismuth nanocatalysts supported on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-Bi/C) are synthesized using a one-pot polyol method. The prepared Pd-Bi/C catalysts have a metal particle range from 5.25 to 12.98 nm and are investigated for alkaline electrocatalytic glucose oxidation reaction (GOR). The physical properties of the catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical activities are determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), Tafel analysis and chronoamperomtry (CA) for comparing the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), GOR onset potential, GOR peak current density, Tafel slope, poisoning rate and cycling stability of the Pd-Bi/C catalysts. It is found that Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) can significantly enhance the electrocatalytic activity on GOR about 40% times higher than Pd/C and as well as has a 3.7-fold lower poisoning rate. The in-use stability of Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) is also remarkably improved, according to the results of the 200 cycling CV test. The effects of the operating temperature and the concentration of glucose and NaOH electrolyte on Pd-Bi/C (1:0.14) are further studied in this work. The highest Pd-Bi/C catalyzed GOR current density of 29.5 mA cm-2 is attained in alkaline medium.

  19. Thermal stability of tagatose in solution.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Katherine J; Bell, Leonard N

    2010-05-01

    Tagatose, a monosaccharide similar to fructose, has been shown to behave as a prebiotic. To deliver this prebiotic benefit, tagatose must not degrade during the processing of foods and beverages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of tagatose in solutions. Tagatose solutions were prepared in 0.02 and 0.1 M phosphate and citrate buffers at pHs 3 and 7, which were then held at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C. Pseudo-1st-order rate constants for tagatose degradation were determined. In citrate and phosphate buffers at pH 3, minimal tagatose was lost and slight browning was observed. At pH 7, tagatose degradation rates were enhanced. Degradation was faster in phosphate buffer than citrate buffer. Higher buffer concentrations also increased the degradation rate constants. Enhanced browning accompanied tagatose degradation in all buffer solutions at pH 7. Using the activation energies for tagatose degradation, less than 0.5% and 0.02% tagatose would be lost under basic vat and HTST pasteurization conditions, respectively. Although tagatose does breakdown at elevated temperatures, the amount of tagatose lost during typical thermal processing conditions would be virtually negligible. Practical Application: Tagatose degradation occurs minimally during pasteurization, which may allow for its incorporation into beverages as a prebiotic. PMID:20546393

  20. Potential of an Alkaline-stabilized Biosolid to Manage Nematodes: Case Studies on Soybean Cyst and Root-knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001 a collaborative research effort was initiated to evaluate an alkaline stabilized biosolid amendment for plant-parasitic nematode management. This biosolid amendment, N-Viro Soil (NVS), is produced from a unique process that destroys pathogens through a combination of the following stresses:...

  1. A single mutation within a Ca(2+) binding loop increases proteolytic activity, thermal stability, and surfactant stability.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Mitsuyoshi; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Tohata, Masatoshi; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya

    2013-03-01

    We improved the enzymatic properties of the oxidatively stable alkaline serine protease KP-43 through protein engineering to make it more suitable for use in laundry detergents. To enhance proteolytic activity, the gene encoding KP-43 was mutagenized by error-prone PCR. Screening identified a Tyr195Cys mutant enzyme that exhibited increased specific activity toward casein between pH 7 and 11. At pH 10, the mutant displayed 1.3-fold higher specific activity for casein compared to the wild-type enzyme, but the activity of the mutant was essentially unchanged toward several synthetic peptides. Furthermore, the Tyr195Cys mutation significantly increased thermal stability and surfactant stability of the enzyme under oxidizing conditions. Examination of the crystal structure of KP-43 revealed that Tyr195 is a solvent exposed residue that forms part of a flexible loop that binds a Ca(2+) ion. This residue lies 15-20Å away from the residues comprising the catalytic triad of the enzyme. These results suggest that the substitution at position 195 does not alter the structure of the active center, but instead may affect a substrate-enzyme interaction. We propose that the Tyr195Cys mutation enhances the interaction with Ca(2+) and affects the packing of the Ca(2+) binding loop, consequently increasing protein stability. The simultaneously increased proteolytic activity, thermal stability, and surfactant stability of the Tyr195Cys mutant enzyme make the protein an ideal candidate for laundry detergent application.

  2. Effect of alkaline-stabilized biosolids on alfalfa molybdenum and copper content.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Richard C; Macneal, Kirsten E

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of biosolids poses a potential risk to ruminant animals due to transfer of Mo from biosolids to forage to the animal in amounts large enough to suppress Cu uptake by the animal. Alkaline-stabilized biosolids (ASB) must be given particular consideration in assessment of Mo risk because the high pH of these biosolids could increase Mo and decrease Cu uptake by forage legumes. In this 3-yr field experiment, ASB and ground agricultural limestone (AL) were applied based on their alkalinity at rates equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soil and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was grown. Alfalfa yield was similar with AL and ASB except in the second year when ASB produced larger yields, apparently due to increased B availability with ASB. Application of ASB did not detectably increase extractable soil Mo (0- to 15-cm depth), but increased alfalfa Mo uptake in all cuttings with yield-weighted uptake coefficients (UCs) of 8.07 and 7.11 following the first and second ASB applications, respectively. Although ASB increased extractable soil Cu, and alfalfa Cu content was greater with ASB than with AL, yield-weighted alfalfa Cu to Mo ratio was decreased by ASB to levels near 3. These results suggest that ASB may have a greater effect on Mo uptake and Cu to Mo ratio of forage legumes than do other biosolids. Additional research is needed to determine implications of larger Mo cumulative loading with ASB for Mo risk, particularly in the soil pH range of 7 to 8. PMID:14964367

  3. Structure-Based Engineering of Methionine Residues in the Catalytic Cores of Alkaline Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for Improved Oxidative Stability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Wang, Mingxing; Li, Jianghua; Wang, Nam Sun; Du, Guocheng

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to improve the oxidative stability of alkaline amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica through structure-based site-directed mutagenesis. Based on an analysis of the tertiary structure, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247, and Met 317) were selected as the mutation sites and individually replaced with leucine. In the presence of 500 mM H2O2 at 35°C for 5 h, the wild-type enzyme and the M145L, M214L, M229L, M247L, and M317L mutants retained 10%, 28%, 46%, 28%, 72%, and 43% of the original activity, respectively. Concomitantly, the alkaline stability, thermal stability, and catalytic efficiency of the M247L mutant were also improved. The pH stability of the mutants (M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L) remained unchanged compared to that of the wild-type enzyme, while the stable pH range of the M247L mutant was extended from pH 7.0 to 11.0 for the wild type to pH 6.0 to 12.0 for the mutant. The wild-type enzyme lost its activity after incubation at 50°C for 2 h, and the M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L mutants retained less than 14% of the activity, whereas the M247L mutant retained 34% of the activity under the same conditions. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the kcat values of the M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L mutants decreased, while that of the M247L mutant increased slightly from 5.0 × 104 to 5.6 × 104 min−1. The mechanism responsible for the increased oxidative stability, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and catalytic efficiency of the M247L mutant was further analyzed with a structure model. The combinational mutants were also constructed, and their biochemical properties were characterized. The resistance of the wild-type enzyme and the mutants to surfactants and detergents was also investigated. Our results indicate that the M247L mutant has great potential in the detergent and textile industries. PMID:22865059

  4. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-01-27

    DOE has authorized in their letter of August 2, 1999, the operation of these three furnaces, quote ''Operation of the three uncompleted muffle furnaces (No.3, No.4, and No.5) located in Room 235B is authorized, using the same feed charge limits as the two existing furnaces (No.1, and No.2) located in Room 230C,''. The above statement incorrectly refers to Room 230C whereas the correct location is Room 230A. The current effort is directed to initiate the operation and to complete the design activities DOE authorized the operation of the furnaces based on their Safety Evaluation Report (SER). Based on analogy and the principle of similarity, the risks and consequences of accidents both onsite and offsite due to operation of three furnaces are not significantly larger than those already evaluated with the two operating furnaces. Thermal stabilization operations and the material of feed for furnaces in Glovebox HA-21 I are essentially the same as those currently being stabilized in furnaces in Glovebox HC-21 C. Therefore the accident analysis has utilized identical accident scenarios in evaluation and no additional failure modes are introduced by HA-21 I muffle furnace operation that would enhance the consequences of accidents. Authorization Basis documents as referenced below (PFP FSAR and DOE Letter authorizing the operation) appear to contradict each other, i.e. one allows and authorizes the operation and the other imposes the restriction on the operation. The purpose of the PFP FSAR restrictions was to review thoroughly the design and installation of three furnaces and perform acceptance testing before approving the startup for operation. With the experience of operating the two furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C, and the knowledge of risks and hazards the facility operation, the plant is adequately prepared to operate these additional furnaces. ECN 653595 has been prepared to incorporate operation of the muffle furnaces in Glovebox HA-21 I into the PFP FSAR.

  5. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200/sup 0/C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the /sup 222/Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of ..cap alpha..-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature (500 to 1200(NiAsS) are considered possible species for consideraed. The calculated activity data of the various carbonate, sulfate and hydroxide species in the Li/sup +/Na/sup +/K/sup +//CO/sub 3/ = SO/sub 4/ = OH/sup -/ system have been combined f liquidus surfaces, and estimated error limits are given for each system. A comng payback period, but as the initial cost of the SAHPS is reduced and fuel prices increase, the payback period of a SAHPS will be shorter and could be competitive with other conventional heating/cooling systems.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiguo; Gao Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien; Xie Yulong; Campbell, Luke W.

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2}. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs{sup +} relative to Na{sup +}, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF2 and BaF2. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 {per_thousand}nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF2, BaF2, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs+ relative to Na+, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

  8. The effects of thermally reversible agents on PVC stability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Xiong, X. H.; Jia, C. X.; Ren, R.; Chen, P.; Liu, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    One kind of thermally reversible cross-linking agents for improving PVC thermally stability was synthesized. The chemical structure and thermally reversible characteristics of cross-linking agents were investigated by FTIR and DSC analysis, respectively. FTIR results confirmed that the cyclopentadienyl barium mercaptides ((CPD-C2H4S)2Ba) were successfully synthesized. DSC results showed it has thermally reversible characteristics and the depolymerization temperature was between 170 °C and 205 °C. The effects of cross-linking reaction time on gel content of Poly(vinyl chloride) compounds was evaluated. The gel content value arrived at 42% after being cross-linked for 25 min at 180 C. The static thermally stability measurement proved that the thermally stability of PVC compounds was improved.

  9. Stabilization of supercooled fluids by thermal hysteresis proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P W; Leader, J P

    1995-01-01

    It has been reported that thermal hysteresis proteins found in many cold-hardy, freeze-avoiding arthropods stabilize their supercooled body fluids. We give evidence that fish antifreeze proteins, which also produce thermal hysteresis, bind to and reduce the efficiency of heterogenous nucleation sites, rather than binding to embryonic ice nuclei. We discuss both possible mechanisms for stabilization of supercooled body fluids and also describe a new method for measuring and defining the supercooling point of small volumes of liquid. PMID:7612853

  10. Improved lysis of single bacterial cells by a modified alkaline-thermal shock procedure.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Du, Shiyu; Tan, Xiaohua; Arefin, Ayesha; Han, Cliff S

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell genomics (SCG) is a recently developed tool to study the genomes of unculturable bacterial species. SCG relies on multiple-strand displacement amplification (MDA), PCR, and next-generation sequencing (NGS); however, obtaining sufficient amounts of high-quality DNA from samples is a major challenge when performing this technique. Here we present an improved bacterial cell lysing procedure that combines incubation in an alkaline buffer with a thermal shock (freezing/heating) treatment to yield highly intact genomic DNA with high efficiency. This procedure is more efficient in lysing Bacillus subtilis and Synechocystis cells compared with two other frequently used lysis methods. Furthermore, 16S ribosomal RNA gene and overall genome recovery were found to be improved by this method using single cells from a Utah desert soil community or Escherichia coli single cells, respectively. The efficiency of genome recovery for E. coli single cells using our procedure is comparable with that of the REPLI-g Single Cell (sc) Kit, but our method is much more economical. By providing high-quality genome templates suitable for downstream applications, our procedure will be a promising improvement for SCG research. PMID:26956090

  11. Solubility of ion and trace metals from stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and alkaline mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongling; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2008-01-01

    Stabilized sewage sludge (SS) by fly ash (FA) and alkaline mine tailing as artificial soil, to be applied on the ecological rehabilitation at mining junkyards, offers a potentially viable utilization of the industrial by-product, as well as solves the shortage of soil resource in the mine area. An incubation experiment with different ratios of SS and FA was conducted to evaluate the solubility of ions and trace elements from stabilized sewage sludge. Results showed that fly ash offset a decrease in pH value of sewage sludge. The pH of (C) treatment (FA:SS = 1:1) was stable and tended to neutrality. The SO4(2-) and Cl- concentrations of the solution in the mixture were significantly decreased in the stabilized sewage sludge by alkaline fly ash and mine tailing, compared to the single SS treatment. Stabilized sewage sludge by FA weakened the nitrification of total nitrogen from SS when the proportion of FA in the mixture was more than 50%. The Cr, Ni, and Cu concentrations in the solution were gradually decreased and achieved a stable level after 22 days, for all treatments over the duration of the incubation. Moreover stabilized sewage sludge by fly ash and/or mine tailing notably decreased the trace metal solubility. The final Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the solution for all mixtures of treatments were lower than 2.5, 15, and 50 microg/L, respectively. PMID:18763566

  12. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NPDA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  13. Thermal Stability of Otto Fuel Prepolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompa, Albert S.; Sandagger, Karrie H.; Bryant, William F., Jr.; McConnell, William T.; Lacot, Fernando; Carr, Walter A.

    2000-01-01

    Otto Fuel II contains a nitrate ester, plasticizer, and 2-NDPA as a stabilizer. Otto Fuel with stabilizers from three vendors was investigated by dynamic and isothermal DSC using samples sealed in a glass ampoule and by Isothermal Microcalorimetry (IMC) using 10 gram samples aged at 75 C for 35 days. DSC kinetics did not show differences between the stabilizer; the samples had an activation energy of 36.7 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. However, IMC analysis was sensitive enough to detect small differences between the stabilizer, namely energy of interaction values of 7 to 14 Joules. DSC controlled cooling and heating at 5 C/min from 30 to -60 to 40 C experiments were similar and showed a crystallization peak at -48 +/- 1 C during cooling, and upon heating there was a glass transition temperature step at approx. -54 +/- 0.5 C and a melting peak at -28 +/- 0.4 C.

  14. Thermal stability and degradation of chitosan modified by benzophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, M. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Bader, D. M. D.

    2011-09-01

    N-(biphenylmethylidenyl) chitosan polymer was prepared, characterized and thermal stability was compared with chitosan. Thermal degradation products of the modified polymer were identified by GC-MS technique. It seems that the mechanism of degradation of the prepared polymer is characterized by formation of low molecular weight radicals, followed by random scission mechanism along the backbond chain.

  15. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  16. Experimental study of the thermal stability of austempered ductile irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cisneros, M. M.; Valdés, E.; Mancha, H.; Calderón, H. A.; Campos, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    A nonisothermal annealing was applied to austempered Ni-Cu-Mo alloyed and unalloyed ductile irons to determine the thermal stability of the ausferritic structure. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) results were used to build the corresponding stability diagrams. The transformation starting temperature of the high carbon austenite was found to be strongly dependent on the austempering temperature, the heating rate, and the chemical composition of the iron. The Ni-Cu-Mo alloying elements and high austempering temperature increased the stability. The transformation of the austenite to ferrite and cementite is achieved via the precipitation of transition carbides identified as silico-carbides of triclinic structure.

  17. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  18. Thermal stability of idealized folded carbyne loops

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Self-unfolding items provide a practical convenience, wherein ring-like frames are contorted into a state of equilibrium and subsequently  pop up’ or deploy when perturbed from a folded structure. Can the same process be exploited at the molecular scale? At the limiting scale is a closed chain of single atoms, used here to investigate the limits of stability of such folded ring structures via full atomistic molecular dynamics. Carbyne is a one-dimensional carbon allotrope composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Here, we explore the stability of idealized carbyne loops as a function of chain length, curvature, and temperature, and delineate an effective phase diagram between folded and unfolded states. We find that while overall curvature is reduced, in addition to torsional and self-adhesive energy barriers, a local increase in curvature results in the largest impedance to unfolding. PMID:24252156

  19. ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF ALKALINE MATERIALS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at it...

  20. A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.

  1. Thermal and radiation resistance of stabilized LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, T.; Jipa, S.; Henderson, D.; Kappel, W.; Mariş, D. A.; Mariş, M.

    2010-03-01

    The effect of capsaicin on the radiation stability of low density polyethylene was accomplished by applying the chemiluminescence procedure. The neat and modified polymer with 0.25% and 0.50% (w/w) capsaicin were exposed to γ-irradiation in air receiving 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The synergistic effect due to the presence of metallic selenium was demonstrated. The significant improvement in oxidation induction time was obtained demonstrating the efficient antioxidant activity of capsaicin in LDPE. The simultaneous protection action of metallic selenium in LDPE/capsaicin systems brought about a supplementary enhancement in the oxidation resistance of irradiated samples.

  2. Thermal and mechanical stability of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bouëssel du Bourg, Lila; Ortiz, Aurélie U.; Coudert, François-Xavier; Boutin, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Theoretical studies on the experimental feasibility of hypothetical Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) have focused so far on relative energy of various polymorphs by energy minimization at the quantum chemical level. We present here a systematic study of stability of 18 ZIFs as a function of temperature and pressure by molecular dynamics simulations. This approach allows us to better understand the limited stability of some experimental structures upon solvent or guest removal. We also find that many of the hypothetical ZIFs proposed in the literature are not stable at room temperature. Mechanical and thermal stability criteria thus need to be considered for the prediction of new MOF structures. Finally, we predict a variety of thermal expansion behavior for ZIFs as a function of framework topology, with some materials showing large negative volume thermal expansion.

  3. Thermal Stability of Fluorinated Polydienes Synthesized by Addition of Difluorocarbene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tianzi; Wang, Xiaojun; Malmgren, Thomas W; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Linear PCHD and polyisoprenes with different microstructures and molecular weights are synthesized and chemically modified to improve their thermal and chemical stability by forming a three-membered ring structure containing two C-F bonds. Pyrolysis of these fluorinated polydienes proceeds through a two-stage decomposition involving chain scission, crosslinking, dehydrogenation, and dehalogenation. The pyrolysis leads to graphite-like residues, whereas their polydiene precursors decompose completely under the same conditions. The fluorination of PCHD enhances its thermal stability. The stronger C-F bond along with high strain of the three-membered ring structure and formation of relatively stable free radicals play an important role in the thermal stability of fluorinated polydienes.

  4. Stabilizing the thermal lattice Boltzmann method by spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillissen, J. J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose to stabilize the thermal lattice Boltzmann method by filtering the second- and third-order moments of the collision operator. By means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion, we show that the additional numerical diffusivity diminishes in the low-wavnumber limit. To demonstrate the enhanced stability, we consider a three-dimensional thermal lattice Boltzmann system involving 33 discrete velocities. Filtering extends the linear stability of this thermal lattice Boltzmann method to 10-fold smaller transport coefficients. We further demonstrate that the filtering does not compromise the accuracy of the hydrodynamics by comparing simulation results to reference solutions for a number of standardized test cases, including natural convection in two dimensions.

  5. Chemical, thermal and mechanical stabilities of metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Ashlee J.; Liu, Yangyang; Li, Peng; Li, Zhanyong; Wang, Timothy C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2016-03-01

    The construction of thousands of well-defined, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF) structures, spanning a broad range of topologies and an even broader range of pore sizes and chemical functionalities, has fuelled the exploration of many applications. Accompanying this applied focus has been a recognition of the need to engender MOFs with mechanical, thermal and/or chemical stability. Chemical stability in acidic, basic and neutral aqueous solutions is important. Advances over recent years have made it possible to design MOFs that possess different combinations of mechanical, thermal and chemical stability. Here, we review these advances and the associated design principles and synthesis strategies. We focus on how these advances may render MOFs effective as heterogeneous catalysts, both in chemically harsh condensed phases and in thermally challenging conditions relevant to gas-phase reactions. Finally, we briefly discuss future directions of study for the production of highly stable MOFs.

  6. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (20) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating (20) consists essentially of a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula consisting essentially of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof; where B is selected from the group of elements selected from Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof; n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  7. Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Kristan

    2016-09-01

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))} , where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.

  8. Novel antimicrobial organic thermal stabilizer and co-stabilizer for rigid PVC.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Mona M; Mohamed, Riham R; Mohamed, Nadia A

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active N-benzoyl-4-(N-maleimido)-phenylhydrazide (BMPH) was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by elemental analysis and various spectral tools. It was examined as a thermal stabilizer and co-stabilizer for rigid poly (vinyl chloride) at 180 °C in air. Blending BMPH with reference samples in different ratios greatly lengthens the thermal stability value and improves the extent of discoloration of PVC. TGA confirmed the improved stability of PVC in presence of the investigated organic stabilizer. GPC measurements were done to investigate the changes occurred in the molecular masses of the degraded samples of blank PVC and PVC in presence of the novel stabilizer. BMPH showed good antimicrobial activity towards two kinds of bacteria and two kinds of fungi. PMID:22751259

  9. Thermal stability of the two-dimensional topological color code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseninia, Razieh

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stability of the topological color code in the presence of a thermal bath is studied. We study the Lindblad evolution of the observables in the weak-coupling limit of the Born-Markov approximation. The autocorrelation functions of the observables are used as a figure of merit for the thermal stability. We show that all of the observables autocorrelation functions decay exponentially in time. By finding a lower bound of the decay rate, which is a constant independent of the system size, we show that the topological color code is unstable against thermal fluctuations from the bath at finite temperature, even though it is stable at T =0 against local quantum perturbations.

  10. Enhanced thermal stability of Ag nanorods through capping

    SciTech Connect

    Bachenheimer, Lou; Elliott, Paul; Stagon, Stephen; Huang, Hanchen

    2014-11-24

    Ag nanorods may serve as sensors in the detection of trace amounts of chemical agents, even single molecules, through surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). However, thermal coarsening of Ag nanorods near room temperature limits their applications. This letter proposes the use of a thin oxide capping layer to enhance the thermal stability of Ag nanorods beyond 100 °C. Using electron microscopy characterization and SERS tests, the authors show that the proposed method is effective in stabilizing both morphology and sensitivity of Ag nanorods. The results of this work extend the applicability of Ag nanorods as chemical sensors to higher temperatures.

  11. CHEMICAL REACTIVITY TEST: Assessing Thermal Stability and Chemical Compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, J; Tran, T; Gagliardi, F; Fontes, A

    2005-04-21

    The thermal stability of high explosive (HE) and its compatibility with other materials are of critical importance in storage and handling practices. These properties are measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the chemical reactivity test (CRT). The CRT measures the total amount of gas evolved from a material or combination of materials after being heat treated for a designated period of time. When the test result is compared to a threshold value, the relative thermal stability of an HE or the compatibility of an HE with other materials is determined. We describe the CRT testing apparatus, the experimental procedure, and the comparison methodology and provide examples and discussion of results.

  12. Effects of sugars on the thermal stability of a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Hiraku; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    It is experimentally known that the heat-denaturation temperature of a protein is raised (i.e., its thermal stability is enhanced) by sugar addition. In earlier works, we proposed a physical picture of thermal denaturation of proteins in which the measure of the thermal stability is defined as the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding at 298 K normalized by the number of residues. A multipolar-model water was adopted as the solvent. The polyatomic structures of the folded and unfolded states of a protein were taken into account in the atomic detail. A larger value of the measure implies higher thermal stability. First, we show that the measure remains effective even when the model water is replaced by the hard-sphere solvent whose number density and molecular diameter are set at those of real water. The physical picture is then adapted to the elucidation of the effects of sugar addition on the thermal stability of a protein. The water-sugar solution is modeled as a binary mixture of hard spheres. The thermal stability is determined by a complex interplay of the diameter of sugar molecules dC and the total packing fraction of the solution η: dC is estimated from the volume per molecule in the sugar crystal and η is calculated using the experimental data of the solution density. We find that the protein is more stabilized as the sucrose or glucose concentration becomes higher and the stabilization effect is stronger for sucrose than for glucose. These results are in accord with the experimental observations. Using a radial-symmetric integral equation theory and the morphometric approach, we decompose the change in the measure upon sugar addition into two components originating from the protein-solvent pair and protein-solvent many-body correlations, respectively. Each component is further decomposed into the excluded-volume and solvent-accessible-surface terms. These decompositions give physical insights into the microscopic origin of the thermal-stability

  13. Thermal Stability Analysis for a Heliocentric Gravitational Radiation Detection Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W.; McElroy, P.; Miyake, R.; Bender, P.; Stebbins, R.; Supper, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is designed for detailed studies of low-frequency gravitational radiation. The mission is currently a candidate for ESA's post-Horizon 2000 program. Thermal noise affects the measurement in at least two ways. Thermal variation of the length of the optical cavity to which the lasers are stabilized introduces phase variations in the interferometer signal, which have to be corrected for by using data from the two arms separately.

  14. Synthesis and thermal stability of carborane containing phosphazenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Basi, R. J.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Carborane substituted polyphosphazenes were prepared by the thermal polymerization of phenyl-carboranyl penta chlorocyclotriphosphazene. Successive isothermal vacuum pyrolyses were conducted on the polymer and examined for structural changes by infrared spectroscopy. The degradation products were ascertained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. It was found that the presence of the carborane group improves the thermal stability of the polymer by retarding the ring chain equilibrium processes of decomposition.

  15. Thermal stability of polyvinyl alcohol/nanocrystalline cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Marina I; Surov, Oleg V; Guseinov, Sabir S; Barannikov, Vladimir P; Zakharov, Anatoly G

    2015-10-01

    Thermal stability of polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystals (PVA/CNCs) composites prepared with solution casting technique was studied. The PVA/CNCs composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Due to the presence of CNCs nanoparticles, thermal degradation of the composites occurs at much higher temperatures compared to that of the neat PVA. Thermal stability of the PVA/CNCs composites is maximally enhanced with CNCs content of 8-12 wt%. Some thermal degradation products of the PVA/CNCs composites were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. TG measurements with synchronous recording of mass spectra revealed that the thermal degradation of both CNCs and PVA in the composites with CNCs content of 8-12 wt% occurs simultaneously at a much higher temperature than that of CNCs or the neat PVA. However, with increasing CNCs content more than 12 wt% the thermal stability of the composites decreases. In this case, the degradation of CNCs comes first followed by the degradation of PVA.

  16. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  17. Evaluation of metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticle stability in soybean oil: Implications for controlled release of alkalinity during subsurface remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Leach, O. I.; Sebik, J.; Muller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional methods for adjusting groundwater pH rely on injection of aqueous solutes and therefore, amendment distribution is reliant upon aqueous phase flow and transport. This reliance can limit mixing and sustention of amendments within the treatment zone. Oil-in-water emulsions offer an alternative for amendment delivery - one that has potential to enhance control of the distribution and release of buffering agents within the subsurface. Focus here is placed on using metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticles to release alkalinity from soybean oil, a common dispersed phase within emulsions designed to support remediation activities. Batch reactor systems were employed to examine the influence of dispersed phase composition on particle stability and solubility. The stability of uncoated MgO and CaCO3 particles in unmodified soybean oil was explored in a series of sedimentation studies conducted at solid loadings of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% mass. Three nominal sizes of MgO particles were examined (20, 50, and 100 nm) and one CaCO3 particle size (60 nm). Results from sedimentation studies conducted over four hours suggest that the viscosity of the soybean oil imparts a kinetic stability, for all sizes of the uncoated MgO and CaCO3 nanoparticles, which is sufficient time for particle encapsulation within oil-in-water emulsions. Based upon these results, the sedimentation of the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO, and 60 nm CaCO3 particles was assessed over longer durations (≥72 hr). Results from these stability tests suggest that the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO particles have greater kinetic stability than the 60 nm CaCO3. Batch studies were also used to assess the influence of n-butanol, a co-solvent hypothesized to aid in controlling the rate of alkalinity release, on phase behavior and metal (Mg2+ and Ca2+) solubility. Phase behavior studies suggest that n-butanol has a limited region of miscibility within the soybean oil-water system. Use of n-butanol and water within this region of

  18. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  19. Substituted silane-diol polymers have improved thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, J. D.; Curry, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Organosilicon polymers were synthesized to produce improved physical and chemical properties, including high thermal stability. Of the polymers produced, poly/4, 4 prime-bisoxybi- phenylene/diphenylsilane, formed from bis/anilino/diphenylsilane and p, p prime-biphenol, was found to have the most desirable properties.

  20. RP-1 and JP-8 Thermal Stability Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sarah P.; Emens, Jessica M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This work experimentally investigates the effect of fuel composition changes on jet and rocket fuel thermal stability. A High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability test device evaluated JP-8 and RP-1 fuels. The experiment consisted of an electrically heated, stainless steel capillary tube with a controlled fuel outlet temperature. An optical pyrometer monitored the increasing external temperature profiles of the capillary tube as deposits build inside during each test. Multiple runs of each fuel composition provided results on measurement repeatability. Testing a t two different facilities provided data on measurement reproducibility. The technique is able to distinguish between thermally stable and unstable compositions of JP-8 and intermediate blends made by combining each composition. The technique is also able to distinguish among standard RP-1 rocket fuels and those having reduced sulfur levels. Carbon burn off analysis of residue in the capillary tubes on the RP-1 fuels correlates with the external temperature results.

  1. Thermal stability of cytochrome c' from mesophilic Shewanella amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Fujii, Sotaro; Kuribayashi, Taka-aki; Masanari, Misa; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c' (SACP) from mesophilic Shewanella amazonensis, growing optimally at 37 °C, was thermally more stable than cytochrome c' (AVCP) from mesophilic Allochromatium vinosum, growing optimally at 25 °C. In contrast, SACP was less stable than cytochrome c' (PHCP) from thermophilic Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus, growing optimally at 52 °C. Although only 28% of the SACP amino acid sequence was identical to those of AVCP and PHCP, the latter two being 55% identical, the overall main chain structures of the three cytochromes c' were similar, and SACP exhibited thermal stability intermediate between those of AVCP and PHCP. For these three proteins, the higher the stability is, the lesser the number of Gly residues in the putative α-helical regions is. Cytochromes c' including the present three are suitable for examining the protein stabilization mechanisms, because they are structurally similar and available from environments with a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  3. Organic underlayer materials with exceptionally high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Hwan-Sung; Yoon, Kyong-Ho; Kim, Min-Soo; Oh, Sung Bae; Song, Jee-Yun; Tokareva, Nataliya; Kim, Jong-Seob; Chang, Tuwon

    2009-03-01

    Multilayer hardmask (MLHM) schemes have been implemented as an indispensable process for ArF lithography which continues to demand thinner photoresist films. There are many variations of MLHM and semiconductor manufacturers choose to adopt their own designs, depending on their specific needs and technical advances. The quad-layer stack consisting of photoresist, organic ARC, CVD Si hardmask, and spin-on carbon underlayer is one of them. Despite the need for wafer transporting between the spin track and CVD equipment, this scheme is attractive because it can avoid laborious elaboration of sophisticated etching chemistries for spin-on Si-ARC and carbon underlayer. One of the issues arising from the mixed film forming process is the thermal stability of carbon underlayer at high temperatures during the CVD process of the Si hardmask. Organic underlayer which shows high thermal stability is crucial for this mixed hardmask process. These types of thermally stable organic film can also be used for other applications such as the spacer patterning technique for pitch size shrinkage. In this paper, we discuss the development of organic resins with high thermal stability, their physical properties, and their lithographic behaviors in the MLHM schemes.

  4. Enhanced thermal stability of phosphate capped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumaran, T.; Philip, John

    2014-06-14

    We have studied the effect of phosphate capping on the high temperature thermal stability and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles synthesized through a single-step co-precipitation method. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles are characterized using various techniques. When annealed in air, the phosphate capped nanoparticle undergoes a magnetic to non-magnetic phase transition at a temperature of 689 °C as compared to 580 °C in the uncoated nanoparticle of similar size. The observed high temperature phase stability of phosphate capped nanoparticle is attributed to the formation of a phosphocarbonaceous shell over the nanoparticles, which acts as a covalently attached protective layer and improves the thermal stability of the core material by increasing the activation energy. The phosphocarbonaceous shell prevents the intrusion of heat, oxygen, volatiles, and mass into the magnetic core. At higher temperatures, the coalescence of nanoparticles occurs along with the restructuring of the phosphocarbonaceous shell into a vitreous semisolid layer on the nanoparticles, which is confirmed from the small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The probable mechanism for the enhancement of thermal stability of phosphocarbonaceous capped nanoparticles is discussed.

  5. Structure-Guided Systems-Level Engineering of Oxidation-Prone Methionine Residues in Catalytic Domain of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for Significant Improvement of Both Oxidative Stability and Catalytic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    High oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency are required for the alkaline α-amylases to keep the enzymatic performance under the harsh conditions in detergent industries. In this work, we attempted to significantly improve both the oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica by engineering the five oxidation-prone methionine residues around the catalytic domain via a systematic approach. Specifically, based on the tertiary structure analysis, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247 and Met 317) were individually substituted with oxidation-resistant threonine, isoleucine and alaline, respectively. Among the created 15 mutants, 7 mutants M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T and M317I showed significantly enhanced oxidative stability or catalytic efficiency. In previous work, we found that the replacement of M247 with leucine could significantly improve the oxidative stability. Thus, these 8 positive mutants (M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T, M247L and M317I) were used to conduct the second round of combinational mutations. Among the constructed 85 mutants (25 two-point mutants, 36 three-point mutants, 16 four-point mutants and 8 five-point mutants), the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I showed a 5.4-fold increase in oxidative stability and a 3.0-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, the specific activity, alkaline stability and thermal stability of this mutant were also increased. The increase of salt bridge and hydrogen bonds around the catalytic domain contributed to the significantly improved catalytic efficiency and stability, as revealed by the three-dimensional structure model of wild-type alkaline α-amylase and its mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I. With the significantly improved oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I has a great potential as a detergent additive, and this structure-guided systems engineering

  6. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 μm entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 μm. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  7. Effect of thermal-alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of streptomycin bacterial residues for methane production.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Zaixing; Yang, Jingliang; Liu, Chun; Tian, Baokuo; Wang, Yongjun; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of streptomycin bacterial residues, solutions with hazardous waste treatments and bioenergy recovery, was tested in laboratory-scale digesters at 35°C at various organic loading rates (OLRs). The methane production and biomass digestion were efficient at OLRs below 2.33 gVS L(-1) d(-1) but were deteriorated as OLR increased because of the increased total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration from cell protein decay. The thermal-alkaline pretreatment with 0.10 NaOH/TS at 70°C for 2 h significantly improved the digestion performance. With the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, the volumetric reactor productivity and specific methane yield of the pretreated streptomycin bacterial residue increased by 22.08-27.08% compared with those of the unpretreated streptomycin bacterial residue at an OLR of 2.33 gVS L(-1) d(-1). The volatile solid removal was 64.09%, with less accumulation of TAN and total volatile fatty acid.

  8. The thermal stability of coronal loops by nonlinear diffusion asymptotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pakkert, J. W.; Verhulst, F.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation and some additional constraints are derived which describe the time-dependent behavior of the temperature structure of the plasma in coronal loops. The equation is analyzed using nonlinear diffusion asymptotics, in particular singular perturbation techniques, and the results are interpreted in the context of the physical problem of the thermal stability and temporal behavior of the plasma. The results are consistent with the possibility of cyclic thermal behavior of the plasma, as suggested by Kuin and Martens (1982).

  9. Theoretical investigation of the structures, stabilities, and NLO responses of calcium-doped pyridazine: alkaline-earth-based alkaline salt electrides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin-Feng; Huang, Jiangen; Jia, Li; Zhou, Guangpei

    2014-02-01

    Currently, whether alkaline-earth-doped compounds with electride characteristics are novel candidates for high-performance nonlinear optical (NLO) materials is unknown. In this paper, using quantum chemical computations, we show that: when doping calcium atoms into a family of alkaline-substituted pyridazines, alkaline-earth-based alkaline salt electrides M-H₃C₄N₂⋯Ca (M=H, Li, and K) with distended excess electron clouds are formed. Interestingly, from the triplet to the singlet state, the chemical valence of calcium atom changes from +1 to 0, and the dipole moment direction (μ₀) of the molecule reverses for each M-H₃C₄N₂⋯Ca. Changing pyridazine from without (H₄C₄N₂⋯Ca) to with one alkaline substituent (M-H₃C₄N₂⋯Ca, M=Li and K), the ground state changes from the triplet to the singlet state. The alkaline earth metal doping effect (electride effect) and alkaline salt effect on the static first hyperpolarizabilities (β₀) demonstrates that (1) the β₀ value is increased approximately 1371-fold from 2 (pyridazine, H₄C₄N₂) to 2745au (Ca-doped pyridazine, H₄C₄N₂⋯Ca), (2) the β₀ value is increased approximately 1146-fold from 2 in pyridazine (H₄C₄N₂) to 2294au in an Li-substituted pyridazine (Li-H₃C₄N₂), and (3) the β₀ value is increased 324-(M=Li) and 106-(M=K) fold from 826 (MLi) and 2294au (MK) to 268,679 (M=Li) and 245,878au (M=K), respectively, from the alkalized pyridazine (M-H₃C₄N₂) to the Ca-doped pyridazine (M-H₃C₄N₂⋯Ca). These results may provide a new means for designing high-performance NLO materials.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Thermal stability of silicon nanowires: atomistic simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Kai-Wang; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2009-07-01

    Using the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential model, we investigate the thermal stability of pristine silicon nanowires based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We explore the structural evolutions and the Lindemann indices of silicon nanowires at different temperatures in order to unveil atomic-level melting behaviour of silicon nanowires. The simulation results show that silicon nanowires with surface reconstructions have higher thermal stability than those without surface reconstructions, and that silicon nanowires with perpendicular dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces have somewhat higher thermal stability than nanowires with parallel dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces. Furthermore, the melting temperature of silicon nanowires increases as their diameter increases and reaches a saturation value close to the melting temperature of bulk silicon. The value of the Lindemann index for melting silicon nanowires is 0.037.

  11. Tris(pyrazolyl)methanides of the alkaline earth metals: influence of the substitution pattern on stability and degradation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Koch, Alexander; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2015-01-20

    Trispyrazolylmethanides commonly act as strong tridentate bases toward metal ions. This expected coordination behavior has been observed for tris(3,4,5-trimethylpyrazolyl)methane (1a), which yields the alkaline-earth-metal bis[tris(3,4,5-trimethylpyrazolyl)methanides] of magnesium (1b), calcium (1c), strontium (1d), and barium (1e) via deprotonation of 1a with dibutylmagnesium and [Ae{N(SiMe3)2}2] (Ae = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively). Barium complex 1e degrades during recrystallization that was attempted from aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers. In these scorpionate complexes, the metal ions are embedded in distorted octahedral coordination spheres. Contrarily, tris(3-thienylpyrazolyl)methane (2a) exhibits a strikingly different reactivity. Dibutylmagnesium is unable to deprotonate 2a, whereas [Ae{N(SiMe3)2}2] (Ae = Ca, Sr, and Ba) smoothly metalates 2a. However, the primary alkaline-earth-metal bis[tris(3-thienylpyrazolyl)methanides] of Ca (2c), Sr (2d), and Ba (2e) represent intermediates and degrade under the formation of the alkaline-earth-metal bis(3-thienylpyrazolates) of calcium (3c), strontium (3d), and barium (3e) and the elimination of tetrakis(3-thienylpyrazolyl)ethene (4). To isolate crystalline compounds, 3-thienylpyrazole has been metalated, and the corresponding derivatives [(HPz(Tp))4Mg(Pz(Tp))2] (3b), dinuclear [(tmeda)Ca(Pz(Tp))2]2 (3c), mononuclear [(pmdeta)Sr(Pz(Tp))2] (3d), and [(hmteta)Ba(Pz(Tp))2] (3e) have been structurally characterized. Regardless of the applied stoichiometry, magnesiation of thienylpyrazole 3a with dibutylmagnesium yields [(HPz(Tp))4Mg(Pz(Tp))2] (3b), which is stabilized in the solid state by intramolecular N-H···N···H-N hydrogen bridges. The degradation of [Ae{C(Pz(R))3}2] (R = Ph and Tp) has been studied by quantum chemical methods, the results of which propose an intermediate complex of the nature [{(Pz(R))2C}2Ca{Pz(R)}2]; thereafter, the singlet carbenes ([:C(Pz(R))2]) dimerize in the vicinity of the alkaline

  12. Effect of stabilizers on the synthesis of palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijuan; Wang, Hui; Li, Hao; Ji, Shan; Davids, Moegamat Wafeeq; Wang, Rongfang

    2014-08-01

    PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium are fabricated using four stabilizers, i.e., glycine (G), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium citrate (SC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with the same reducing process and reaction parameters. X-ray diffraction characterization shows PdNi nanoparticles for all PdNi/C electrocatalysts possess face-centered cubic structure with different alloying degree. TEM results show that PdNi/C-G and PdNi/C-SC have uniform dispersion with ellipse morphology, while particle agglomeration occurs on PdNi/C-EDTA and PdNi/C-SDS. Electrocatalytic activities of these PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation are measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The electrocatalytic activities of PdNi/C change with the different lattice contraction. PdNi/C-SC electrocatalyst exhibits the best activity among the four electrocatalysts, which is ascribed to an appropriate lattice contraction.

  13. A semi-interpenetrating network approach for dimensionally stabilizing highly-charged anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    He, Steve S; Strickler, Alaina L; Frank, Curtis W

    2015-04-24

    There is a delicate balance between ion exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, and dimensional stability in anion exchange membranes as higher charge content can lead to increased water uptake, causing excessive swelling and charge dilution. Using highly-charged benzyltrimethylammonium polysulfone (IEC=2.99 mEq g(-1) ) as a benchmark (which ruptured in water even at room temperature), we report the ability to dramatically decrease water uptake using a semi-interpenetrating network wherein we reinforced the linear polyelectrolyte with a crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) network. These membranes show enhanced dimensional stability as a result of lower water uptake (75 % vs. 301 % at 25 °C) while maintaining excellent hydroxide conductivity (up to 50 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C). These improvements produced an enhanced alkaline fuel cell capable of generating 236 mW cm(-2) peak power density at 80 °C. This method is easily adaptable and can be a viable strategy for stabilizing existing systems.

  14. A semi-interpenetrating network approach for dimensionally stabilizing highly-charged anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    He, Steve S; Strickler, Alaina L; Frank, Curtis W

    2015-04-24

    There is a delicate balance between ion exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, and dimensional stability in anion exchange membranes as higher charge content can lead to increased water uptake, causing excessive swelling and charge dilution. Using highly-charged benzyltrimethylammonium polysulfone (IEC=2.99 mEq g(-1) ) as a benchmark (which ruptured in water even at room temperature), we report the ability to dramatically decrease water uptake using a semi-interpenetrating network wherein we reinforced the linear polyelectrolyte with a crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) network. These membranes show enhanced dimensional stability as a result of lower water uptake (75 % vs. 301 % at 25 °C) while maintaining excellent hydroxide conductivity (up to 50 mS cm(-1) at 25 °C). These improvements produced an enhanced alkaline fuel cell capable of generating 236 mW cm(-2) peak power density at 80 °C. This method is easily adaptable and can be a viable strategy for stabilizing existing systems. PMID:25820199

  15. Enhanced photo-stability, thermal-stability and aqueous-stability of indocyanine green in polymeric nanoparticulate systems.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Sadoqi, Mostafa; Shao, Jun

    2004-03-19

    Photo-degradation, thermal-degradation and aqueous-instability of indocyanine green (ICG) limits its application as a fluorescence contrast agent for imaging purposes. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop polymeric nanoparticles entrapping ICG and to establish its effectiveness in providing photo-stability, thermal stability and aqueous stability to ICG. Nanoparticles entrapping ICG were engineered, characterized and the degradation kinetics of ICG in the nanoparticles was investigated in aqueous media. The entrapment of ICG in the nanoparticles causes a shift in its wavelength of peak fluorescence and a decrease in its peak fluorescence intensity. The degradation of ICG in aqueous nanoparticle suspension followed first-order kinetics for the time period studied. ICG entrapment in the nanoparticles enhanced aqueous-stability of ICG (half-life, t(1/2) was 72.2+/-6.1 h for ICG in the nanoparticles as compared to 16.8+/-1.5 h for free ICG solution), photo-stability of ICG (t(1/2) was 73.7+/-7.5 h for ICG in the nanoparticles as compared to 14.4+/-2.4 h for free ICG solution when exposed to room light from two 32 W normal fluorescent tubes) and thermal-stability of ICG (t(1/2) of ICG at 42 degrees C was 62.4+/-1.7 h for ICG in the nanoparticles as compared to 10.1+/-0.6 h for free ICG solution).

  16. Thermal stability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriano, Pâmela Bento; de Sá, Mayelli Dantas; Andrade, André L. Simões; de Carvalho, Laura Hecker; Canedo, Eduardo Luis

    2015-05-01

    The present work deals with the thermal stability during and after processing of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechnological process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree. PHB/babassu composites with 0, 5, 10 and 20% w/w load were prepared in a laboratory internal mixer. Two fractions of the mesocarp of babassu with different particle sizes were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. The effect of loading level and processing conditions on torque, temperature and mechanical energy dissipation were studied using a new engineering model. It was found that PHB degrades during processing at temperatures slightly above the melting point. To minimize thermal degradation stabilizer and chain extender additives were incorporated, with mixed results. These findings were confirmed by the dependence of the melt flow rate on the processing temperature.

  17. Determination of the thermal stability of perfluoropolyalkyl ethers by tensimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Larry A.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal decomposition temperatures of several perfluoropolyalkyl ether fluids were determined with a computerized tensimeter. In general, the decomposition temperatures of the commercial fluids were all similar and significantly higher than those for noncommercial fluids. Correlation of the decomposition temperatures with the molecular structures of the primary components of the commercial fluids revealed that the stability of the fluids was not affected by carbon chain length, branching, or adjacent difluoroformal groups. Instead, stability was limited by the presence of small quantities of thermally unstable material and/or chlorine-containing material arising from the use of chlorine containing solvents during synthesis. Finally, correlation of decomposition temperatures with molecular weights for two fluids supports a chain cleavage reaction mechanism for one and an unzipping reaction mechanism for the other.

  18. Thermal Stability of Aqueous Polyurethanes Depending on the Applied Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Cakic, Suzana; Nikolic, Goran; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Gligoric, Miladin; Stamenkovic, Jakov; Rajkovic, Milos B.; Barac, Miroljub

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of aqueous polyurethanes has been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis. The aqueous polyurethanes (aqPUR) with catalysts of different selectivity have been studied by use of the dynamic method. To obtain degradations of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.10, employing the dynamic method, the heating rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 °C min-1 have been used in the range of 30-500 °C. Using the more selective catalysts in the aqueous polyurethanes, the total resulting time of the decompositon has been on the increase at all degrees of the degradation and at the particular starting temperature. This paper shows that the dynamic method based on the thermogravimetric analysis can be used to assess the thermal stability of the aqueous polyurethanes using the catalysts of different selectivity.

  19. Thermal stability analysis of the fine structure of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, Pascal; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Schmieder, Brigitte; Raadu, Mickael A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear thermal stability of a 2D periodic structure (alternatively hot and cold) in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. The energy equation includes wave heating (assumed proportional to density), radiative cooling and both conduction parallel and orthogonal to magnetic lines. The equilibrium is perturbed at constant gas pressure. With parallel conduction only, it is found to be unstable when the length scale 1// is greater than 45 Mn. In that case, orthogonal conduction becomes important and stabilizes the structure when the length scale is smaller than 5 km. On the other hand, when the length scale is greater than 5 km, the thermal equilibrium is unstable, and the corresponding time scale is about 10,000 s: this result may be compared to observations showing that the lifetime of the fine structure of solar prominences is about one hour; consequently, our computations suggest that the size of the unresolved threads could be of the order of 10 km only.

  20. Thermally induced percolational transition and thermal stability of silver nanowire networks studied by THz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Zhi; Ahn, Hyeyoung; Yen, Shin-Chun; Tsai, Yao-Jiun

    2014-12-10

    Great demand toward flexible optoelectronic devices finds metal nanowires (NWs) the most promising flexible transparent conducting material with superior mechanical properties. However, ultrathin metal nanowires suffer from relatively poor thermal stability and sheet conductance, attributed to the poor adhesivity of the ohmic contact between nanowires. Thermal heating and annealing at 200 °C increase the conductivity of the metal network, but prolonged annealing accelerates the breakage of NWs near the NW junction and the formation of Ag droplets. In this study, the thermal stability of silver NW (AgNW) films is investigated through the in situ measurements of sheet resistance and terahertz (THz) conductivity. With the improved ohmic contact at the NW junctions by heating, a characteristic transition from the subpercolative to percolative network is observed by in situ THz spectroscopy. It is found that stamp-transferred graphene incorporated with a near-percolative AgNW network can dramatically enhance the thermal stability of the graphene-AgNW (GAgNW) hybrid film. In both in situ measurements, little variation of physical parameters in GAgNW film is observed for up to 3 h of annealing. The presented results offer the potential of graphene-incorporated metal nanowire film as a highly conductive electrode that also has high thermal stability and excellent transparency for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics on flexible substrates. PMID:25402346

  1. Studies of jet thermal stability in a flowing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneghan, S. P.; Martel, C. R.; Williams, T. F.; Ballal, D. R.

    1992-06-01

    A 'Phoenix rig' single-pass flowing heat-exchanger facility has been devised to test the carbon deposition tendencies of jet fuels in their circulation systems. Three samples each of baseline JP fuels and JP fuels blended with additives have been thus tested, and the results obtained vindicate the usefulness of the Phoenix rig. The blended fuel tests indicated significant improvement in fuel thermal stability; block temperature and test duration increased the total carbon deposits in a nonlinear manner.

  2. Surface modification of layered silicates. II. Factors affecting thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    Different aluminosilicates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, were surface-treated with a variety of organic modifiers to quantify factors affecting the thermal stability of the modified fillers. Montmorillonites with different cation exchange capacities were also used. Thermal characterisation was carried out via high resolution thermogravimetric analysis and the results were correlated with X-ray diffraction measurements. Modified substrates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, differed in their thermal behaviour even when modified with the same surface modifiers. Phosphonium-based modifiers were the most thermally stable, compared to pyridinium and ammonium ions. Mixed brushes from the modifiers also influenced the thermal behaviour of the modified substrates. When further modified using physical adsorption or chemical reactions on the surface, the modified minerals also displayed alterations in the thermal behaviour of the fillers. The results can be used as a guide for the selection of surface modifiers in the nanocomposite synthesis process where compounding of the filler with the polymer at high temperature and shear is required.

  3. Flexible all-carbon photovoltaics with improved thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chun; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Chen, Yen-Chang; Siordia, Andrew; Martini, Ashlie; Tung, Vincent C.

    2015-04-15

    The structurally robust nature of nanocarbon allotropes, e.g., semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and C{sub 60}s, makes them tantalizing candidates for thermally stable and mechanically flexible photovoltaic applications. However, C{sub 60}s rapidly dissociate away from the basal of SWCNTs under thermal stimuli as a result of weak intermolecular forces that “lock up” the binary assemblies. Here, we explore use of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as geometrically tailored protecting layers to suppress the unwanted dissociation of C{sub 60}s. The underlying mechanisms are explained using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and transition state theory, revealing the temperature dependent disassociation of C{sub 60}s from the SWCNT basal plane. Our strategy provides fundamental guidelines for integrating all-carbon based nano-p/n junctions with optimized structural and thermal stability. External quantum efficiency and output current–voltage characteristics are used to experimentally quantify the effectiveness of GNR membranes under high temperature annealing. Further, the resulting C{sub 60}:SWCNT:GNR ternary composites display excellent mechanical stability, even after iterative bending tests. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of solvent resistant, mechanically flexible and electrically addressable 2-D soft graphene nanoribbons facilitates the assembly of photoconductive carbon nano-p/n junctions for thermally stable and flexible photovoltaic cells.

  4. Scandia-and-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mess, Derek

    2003-01-01

    yttria in suitable proportions has shown promise of being a superior thermal- barrier coating (TBC) material, relative to zirconia stabilized with yttria only. More specifically, a range of compositions in the zirconia/scandia/yttria material system has been found to afford increased resistance to deleterious phase transformations at temperatures high enough to cause deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been applied to metallic substrates in gas turbine and jet engines to protect the substrates against high operating temperatures. These coatings have porous and microcracked structures, which can accommodate strains induced by thermal-expansion mismatch and thermal shock. The longevity of such a coating depends upon yttria as a stabilizing additive that helps to maintain the zirconia in an yttria-rich, socalled non-transformable tetragonal crystallographic phase, thus preventing transformation to the monoclinic phase with an associated deleterious volume change. However, at a temperature greater than about 1,200 C, there is sufficient atomic mobility that the equilibrium, transformable zirconia phase is formed. Upon subsequent cooling, this phase transforms to the monoclinic phase, with an associated volume change that adversely affects the integrity of the coating. Recently, scandia was identified as a stabilizer that could be used instead of, or in addition to, yttria. Of particular interest are scandia-and-yttria-stabilized zirconia (SYSZ) compositions of about 6 mole percent scandia and 1 mole percent yttria, which have been found to exhibit remarkable phase stability at a temperature of 1,400 C in simple aging tests. Unfortunately, scandia is expensive, so that the problem becomes one of determining whether there are compositions with smaller proportions of scandia that afford the required high-temperature stability. In an attempt to solve this problem, experiments were performed on specimens made with reduced

  5. Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

    2003-07-08

    Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

    1993-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na{sup +} + H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {r_reversible} NaZnPO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O or 2 ZnO(s) + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(aq) {r_reversible} Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO{sub 4} possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 {+-} 0.013, b = 15.175 {+-} 0.010, and c = 8.027 {+-} 0.004 {angstrom}. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S{degrees}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{degrees}) for NaZnPO{sub 4} were calculated to be 169.0 J/mol-K and {minus}1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4} (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/mol-K and {minus}1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions.

  7. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P. )

    1994-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4] possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 [+-] 0.013, b = 15.175 [+-] 0.010, c = 8.027 [+-] 0.004 [angstrom]. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S[degrees]) and free energy of formation ([delta]G[sub f][degrees]) for NaZnPO[sub 4] were calculated to be 169.0 J/(mol K) and -1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4] (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/(mol K) and -1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions. 26 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Thermal Stability of RP-2 for Hydrocarbon Boost Regenerative Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Deans, Matthew C.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.; Psaras, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Heated Tube Facility to study the heat transfer and thermal stability behavior of RP-2 under conditions similar to those found in rocket engine cooling channels. It has long been known that hydrocarbon fuels, such as RP-2, can decompose at high temperature to form deposits (coke) which can adversely impact rocket engine cooling channel performance. The heated tube facility provides a simple means to study these effects. Using resistively heated copper tubes in a vacuum chamber, flowing RP-2 was heated to explore thermal effects at a range of test conditions. Wall temperature (850-1050F) and bulk fluid temperature (300-500F) were varied to define thermal decomposition and stability at each condition. Flow velocity and pressure were fixed at 75 fts and 1000 psia, respectively. Additionally, five different batches of RP-2 were tested at identical conditions to examine any thermal stability differences resulting from batch to batch compositional variation. Among these tests was one with a potential coke reducing additive known as 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline (THQ). While copper tubes were used for the majority of tests, two exploratory tests were performed with a copper alloy known as GRCop-42. Each tube was instrumented with 15 thermocouples to examine the temperature profile, and carbon deposition at each thermocouple location was determined post-test in an oxidation furnace. In many tests, intermittent local temperature increases were observed visually and in the thermocouple data. These hot spots did not appear to correspond with a higher carbon deposition.

  9. A self-adaptive thermal switch array for rapid temperature stabilization under various thermal power inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaobao; Patel, Pragnesh; Narain, Amitabh; Desheng Meng, Dennis

    2011-08-01

    A self-adaptive thermal switch array (TSA) based on actuation by low-melting-point alloy droplets is reported to stabilize the temperature of a heat-generating microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device at a predetermined range (i.e. the optimal working temperature of the device) with neither a control circuit nor electrical power consumption. When the temperature is below this range, the TSA stays off and works as a thermal insulator. Therefore, the MEMS device can quickly heat itself up to its optimal working temperature during startup. Once this temperature is reached, TSA is automatically turned on to increase the thermal conductance, working as an effective thermal spreader. As a result, the MEMS device tends to stay at its optimal working temperature without complex thermal management components and the associated parasitic power loss. A prototype TSA was fabricated and characterized to prove the concept. The stabilization temperatures under various power inputs have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Under the increment of power input from 3.8 to 5.8 W, the temperature of the device increased only by 2.5 °C due to the stabilization effect of TSA.

  10. Enhancement of thermal stability in microwave applicators by mismatching and detuning

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-07-01

    Many microwave applicator systems experiencing thermal runaway can be stabilized by mismatching and/or detuning the system. The stability of the systems is discussed qualitatively and a conservative guide for adjusting microwave applicators for enhanced stability is described.

  11. General stability analysis of composite sandwich plates under thermal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Shaher A.

    In structures subjected to high temperature change such as high-speed aircraft the panels are stressed more significantly under thermal loading than mechanical loading. This can produce instability within the structure; therefore, the thermal loading may become the primary factor in the design of the structure. For example, buckling and facesheet wrinkling are two major failure modes of the composite sandwich plates subjected to various loadings. The goal of this dissertation is to study the stability analysis of composite sandwich plates due to buckling and wrinkling subjected to thermal loading. The primary objective is to find out the critical failure mode and the associated critical temperature change causing it. For thermal buckling and wrinkling analysis, the critical temperature change Delta Tcr, is of more interest than the critical thermal load. In this study, two different approaches of the stability problem of the composite sandwich plate subjected to thermally induced load are developed. In the first approach, the wrinkling analysis and buckling analysis are performed separately to evaluate their associated critical wrinkling and buckling temperature changes. For the face-wrinkling problem, two different models, the linear decaying Hoff model and exponential decaying Chen model are employed. The global buckling analysis is based on the energy method. The second approach is based on the unified theory of Benson and Mayers. In such an approach, the critical temperature change for both the global buckling and face wrinkling can be evaluated simultaneously. A potential energy based variation principle has been applied to formulate the problem. The Lagrange multipliers are used to satisfy the face-core continuity conditions. The buckling and wrinkling can be analyzed and calculated simultaneously. Therefore, the critical wrinkling temperature and the critical buckling temperature are found in a single analysis. The critical buckling and wrinkling stresses

  12. Thermal stabilization of superconducting sigma strings and their drum vortons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brandon; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2002-05-01

    We discuss various issues related to stabilized embedded strings in a thermal background. In particular, we demonstrate that such strings will generically become superconducting at moderately low temperatures, thus enhancing their stability. We then present a new class of defects-drum vortons-which arise when a small symmetry breaking term is added to the potential. We display these points within the context of the O(4) sigma model, relevant for hadrodynamics below the QCD scale. This model admits ``embedded defects'' (topological defect configurations of a simpler-in this case O(2) symmetric-model obtained by imposing an embedding constraint) that are unstable in the full model at zero temperature, but that can be stabilized (by electromagnetic coupling to photons) in a thermal gas at moderately high termperatures. It is shown here that below the embedded defect stabilization threshold, there will still be stabilized cosmic string defects. However, they will not be of the symmetric embedded vortex type, but of an ``asymmetric'' vortex type, and are automatically superconducting. In the presence of weak symmetry breaking terms, such as arise naturally when using the O(4) model for hadrodynamics, the strings become the boundary of a new kind of cosmic sigma membrane, with tension given by the pion mass. The string current would then make it possible for a loop to attain a (classically) stable equilibrium state that differs from an ``ordinary'' vorton state by the presence of a sigma membrane stretched across it in a drum-like configuration. Such defects will however be entirely destabilized if the symmetry breaking is too strong, as is found to be the case-due to the rather large value of the pion mass-in the hadronic application of the O(4) sigma model.

  13. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries. PMID:26582065

  14. Flexible all-carbon photovoltaics with improved thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chun; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Chen, Yen-Chang; Siordia, Andrew; Martini, Ashlie; Tung, Vincent C.

    2015-04-01

    The structurally robust nature of nanocarbon allotropes, e.g., semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and C60s, makes them tantalizing candidates for thermally stable and mechanically flexible photovoltaic applications. However, C60s rapidly dissociate away from the basal of SWCNTs under thermal stimuli as a result of weak intermolecular forces that "lock up" the binary assemblies. Here, we explore use of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as geometrically tailored protecting layers to suppress the unwanted dissociation of C60s. The underlying mechanisms are explained using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and transition state theory, revealing the temperature dependent disassociation of C60s from the SWCNT basal plane. Our strategy provides fundamental guidelines for integrating all-carbon based nano-p/n junctions with optimized structural and thermal stability. External quantum efficiency and output current-voltage characteristics are used to experimentally quantify the effectiveness of GNR membranes under high temperature annealing. Further, the resulting C60:SWCNT:GNR ternary composites display excellent mechanical stability, even after iterative bending tests.

  15. Enhanced Thermal Stability of Polylactide by Terminal Conjugation Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hang Thi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Vu, Ngo Dinh

    2016-05-01

    Various acids such as aliphatic or carbocyclic fatty or aromatic acids were successfully conjugated into the ending hydroxyl group of poly( l-lactide) (PLLA). The chemical structures of various acid-PLLAs were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The crystallinity and solubility of the original PLLA were maintained after the terminal conjugation of various acids. The thermal properties were significantly improved, especially the 10% weight-loss temperature that showed an increase of over 80°C for conjugation of aliphatic or aromatic acids as compared to that of the corresponding original PLLA. In addition, more than 60 wt.% of the aliphatic acid-PLLAs was pyrolyzed, and aromatic acid-PLLAs degraded only about 10 wt.% for 150 min, although the original PLLA was pyrolyzed completely at 250°C for 7 min. The thermal stability of PLLA was controlled by the conjugation of aliphatic or aromatic acids into a chain end. These acid-PLLAs may be useful as materials with high thermal stability for various application fields.

  16. Thermal stability of spent coffee ground polysaccharides: galactomannans and arabinogalactans.

    PubMed

    Simões, Joana; Maricato, Elia; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2014-01-30

    In order to better understand the thermal stability of spent coffee grounds (SCG) galactomannans and arabinogalactans and the reactions that can occur upon roasting, long term isothermal exposures, up to 3h, were performed at 160, 180, 200, 220, and 240 °C. The resultant products were analysed according to the sugars and linkage composition and also by electrospray mass spectrometry. Galactomannans did not loss mass at T ≤ 200 °C during exposures up to 3h whereas the arabinogalactans showed that thermal stability only for T ≤ 180 °C. This was in accordance with the estimated activation energies of their thermal decomposition of 138 kJ/mol and 94 kJ/mol, respectively. The roasting of galactomannans promoted the formation of new glycosidic linkages, with occurrence of 2-, 6-, 2,3-, 2,6-, 3,6-, 2,3,6-, 3,4,6-linked mannose residues, 3,4,6-linked galactose residues, and terminally-linked glucose residues, observed by methylation analysis. Depolymerisation and formation of anhydrohexose residues at the reducing end and mannose-glucose isomerisation were also observed. The roasting of galactomannans at 200 °C promoted their solubility in water upon alkali extraction and neutralisation. PMID:24299772

  17. Thermal Stability Analysis for Superconducting Coupling Coil in MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Guo, XingLong; Green, M.A.

    2010-06-28

    The superconducting coupling coil to be used in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) with inner radius of 750 mm, length of 285 mm and thickness of 110.4 mm will be cooled by a pair of 1.5 W at 4.2 K cryo-coolers. When the coupling coil is powered to 210 A, it will produce about 7.3 T peak magnetic field at the conductor and it will have a stored energy of 13 MJ. A key issue for safe operation of the coupling coil is the thermal stability of the coil during a charge and discharge. The magnet and its cooling system are designed for a rapid discharge where the magnet is to be discharged in 5400 seconds. The numerical simulation for the thermal stability of the MICE coupling coil has been done using ANSYS. The analysis results show that the superconducting coupling coil has a good stability and can be charged and discharged safely.

  18. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A.; El-Toni, Ahmed M.; Almaary, Khalid S.; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A.; Elbadawi, Yahya B.; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS–NH2 nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher Vmax, kcat and kcat/Km, than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media. PMID:26840303

  19. Enhancement of Alkaline Protease Activity and Stability via Covalent Immobilization onto Hollow Core-Mesoporous Shell Silica Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser Salah Shebl; Al-Salamah, Ali A; El-Toni, Ahmed M; Almaary, Khalid S; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Elbadawi, Yahya B; Antranikian, Garabed

    2016-01-29

    The stability and reusability of soluble enzymes are of major concerns, which limit their industrial applications. Herein, alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto hollow core-mesoporous shell silica (HCMSS) nanospheres. Subsequently, the properties of immobilized proteases were evaluated. Non-, ethane- and amino-functionalized HCMSS nanospheres were synthesized and characterized. NPST-AK15 was immobilized onto the synthesized nano-supports by physical and covalent immobilization approaches. However, protease immobilization by covalent attachment onto the activated HCMSS-NH₂ nanospheres showed highest immobilization yield (75.6%) and loading capacity (88.1 μg protein/mg carrier) and was applied in the further studies. In comparison to free enzyme, the covalently immobilized protease exhibited a slight shift in the optimal pH from 10.5 to 11.0, respectively. The optimum temperature for catalytic activity of both free and immobilized enzyme was seen at 60 °C. However, while the free enzyme was completely inactivated when treated at 60 °C for 1 h the immobilized enzyme still retained 63.6% of its initial activity. The immobilized protease showed higher V(max), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m), than soluble enzyme by 1.6-, 1.6- and 2.4-fold, respectively. In addition, the immobilized protease affinity to the substrate increased by about 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the enzyme stability in various organic solvents was significantly enhanced upon immobilization. Interestingly, the immobilized enzyme exhibited much higher stability in several commercial detergents including OMO, Tide, Ariel, Bonux and Xra by up to 5.2-fold. Finally, the immobilized protease maintained significant catalytic efficiency for twelve consecutive reaction cycles. These results suggest the effectiveness of the developed nanobiocatalyst as a candidate for detergent formulation and peptide synthesis in non-aqueous media.

  20. RP-1 Thermal Stability and Copper Based Materials Compatibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegemeier, B. R.; Meyer, M. L.; Driscoll, E.

    2005-01-01

    A series of electrically heated tube tests was performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Heated Tube Facility to investigate the effect that sulfur content, test duration, and tube material play in the overall thermal stability and materials compatibility characteristics of RP-1. Scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the condition of the tube inner wall surface and any carbon deposition or corrosion formed during these runs. Results of the parametric study indicate that tests with standard RP-1 (total sulfur -23 ppm) and pure copper tubing are characterized by a depostion/deposit shedding process producing local wall temperature swings as high as 500 F. The effect of this shedding is to keep total carbon deposition levels relatively constant for run times from 20 minutes up to 5 hours, though increasing tube pressure drops were observed in all runs. Reduction in the total sulfur content of the fuel from 23 ppm to less than 0.1 ppm resulted in the elimination of deposit shedding, local wall temperature variation, and the tube pressure drop increases that were observed in standard sulfur level RP-1 tests. The copper alloy GRCop-84, a copper alloy developed specifically for high heat flux applications, was found to exhibit higher carbon deposition levels compared to identical tests performed in pure copper tubes. Results of the study are consistent with previously published heated tube data which indicates that small changes in fuel total sulfur content can lead to significant differences in the thermal stability of kerosene type fuels and their compatibility with copper based materials. In conjunction with the existing thermal stability database, these findings give insight into the feasibility of cooling a long life, high performance, high-pressure liquid rocket combustor and nozzle with RP-1.

  1. On the thermal stability of radiation-dominated accretion disks

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-11-20

    We study the long-term thermal stability of radiation-dominated disks in which the vertical structure is determined self-consistently by the balance of heating due to the dissipation of MHD turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and cooling due to radiation emitted at the photosphere. The calculations adopt the local shearing box approximation and utilize the recently developed radiation transfer module in the Athena MHD code based on a variable Eddington tensor rather than an assumed local closure. After saturation of the MRI, in many cases the disk maintains a steady vertical structure for many thermal times. However, in every case in which the box size in the horizontal directions are at least one pressure scale height, fluctuations associated with MRI turbulence and dynamo action in the disk eventually trigger a thermal runaway that causes the disk to either expand or contract until the calculation must be terminated. During runaway, the dependence of the heating and cooling rates on total pressure satisfy the simplest criterion for classical thermal instability. We identify several physical reasons why the thermal runaway observed in our simulations differ from the standard α disk model; for example, the advection of radiation contributes a non-negligible fraction to the vertical energy flux at the largest radiation pressure, most of the dissipation does not happen in the disk mid-plane, and the change of dissipation scale height with mid-plane pressure is slower than the change of density scale height. We discuss how and why our results differ from those published previously. Such thermal runaway behavior might have important implications for interpreting temporal variability in observed systems, but fully global simulations are required to study the saturated state before detailed predictions can be made.

  2. On the Thermal Stability of Radiation-dominated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-11-01

    We study the long-term thermal stability of radiation-dominated disks in which the vertical structure is determined self-consistently by the balance of heating due to the dissipation of MHD turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and cooling due to radiation emitted at the photosphere. The calculations adopt the local shearing box approximation and utilize the recently developed radiation transfer module in the Athena MHD code based on a variable Eddington tensor rather than an assumed local closure. After saturation of the MRI, in many cases the disk maintains a steady vertical structure for many thermal times. However, in every case in which the box size in the horizontal directions are at least one pressure scale height, fluctuations associated with MRI turbulence and dynamo action in the disk eventually trigger a thermal runaway that causes the disk to either expand or contract until the calculation must be terminated. During runaway, the dependence of the heating and cooling rates on total pressure satisfy the simplest criterion for classical thermal instability. We identify several physical reasons why the thermal runaway observed in our simulations differ from the standard α disk model; for example, the advection of radiation contributes a non-negligible fraction to the vertical energy flux at the largest radiation pressure, most of the dissipation does not happen in the disk mid-plane, and the change of dissipation scale height with mid-plane pressure is slower than the change of density scale height. We discuss how and why our results differ from those published previously. Such thermal runaway behavior might have important implications for interpreting temporal variability in observed systems, but fully global simulations are required to study the saturated state before detailed predictions can be made.

  3. Thermal Stability of Distillate Hydrocarbon Fuels. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Kishenkumar Tadisina; Cernansky, Nicholas P.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stability of fuels is expected to become a severe problem in the future due to the anticipated use of broadened specification and alternative fuels. Future fuels will have higher contents of heteroatomic species which are reactive constituents and are known to influence fuel degradation. To study the degradation chemistry of selected model fuels, n-dodecane and n-dodecane plus heteroatoms were aerated by bubbling air through the fuels amd stressed on a modified Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester facility operating at heater tube temperatures between 200 to 400 C. The resulting samples were fractionated to concentrate the soluble products and then analyzed using gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques to quantify and identify the stable reaction intermediate and product specifically. Heteroatom addition showed that the major soluble products were always the same, with and without heteroatoms, but their distributions varied considerably.

  4. Study of thermal stability of Cu2Se thermoelectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohra, Anil; Bhatt, Ranu; Bhattacharya, Shovit; Basu, Ranita; Ahmad, Sajid; Singh, Ajay; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability of thermoelectric parameter in operating temperature range is a key consideration factor for fabricating thermoelectric generator or cooler. In present work, we have studied the stability of thermoelectric parameter of Cu2Se within the temperature range of 50-800°C. Temperature dependent Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivity measurement are performed under three continuous thermal cycles. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the presence of mixed cubic-monoclinic Cu2Se phase in bare pellet which transforms to pure α-Cu2Se phase with repeating thermal cycle. Significant enhancement in Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity is observed which may be attributed to (i) Se loss observed in EDS and (ii) the phase transformation from mixed cubic-monoclinic structure to pure monoclinic α-Cu2Se phase.

  5. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  6. Antioxidant-Based Phase-Change Thermal Interface Materials with High Thermal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhiro; Chung, D. D. L.

    2008-04-01

    This work provides phase-change thermal interface materials (TIMs) with high thermal stability and high heat of fusion. They are based on antioxidants mainly in the form of hydrocarbons with linear segments. The thermal stability is superior to paraffin wax and four commercial phase-change materials (PCMs). The use of 98.0 wt.% thiopropionate antioxidant (SUMILIZER TP-D) with 2.0 wt.% sterically half-hindered phenolic antioxidant (GA80) as the matrix and the use of 16 vol.% boron nitride particles as the solid component give a PCM with a 100°C lifetime indicator of 5.3 years, in contrast to 0.95 year or less for the commercial PCMs. The heat of fusion is much higher than those of commercial PCMs; the values for antioxidants with nonbranched molecular structures exceed that of wax; the value for one with a branched structure is slightly below that of wax. The phase-change properties are degraded by heating at 150°C much less than those of the commercial PCMs. The stability of the heat of fusion upon phase-change cycling is also superior. The viscosity is essentially unaffected by heating at 150°C. Commercial PCMs give slightly lower values of the thermal contact conductance for the case of rough (12 μm) mating surfaces, in spite of the lower values of the bond-line thickness.

  7. Surface modification of layered silicates. I. Factors affecting thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    The resistance of modification molecules bound to montmorillonite platelet surfaces towards structural damage at high temperature is a major parameter guiding the formation of optimal interface between the filler and polymer phases in a nanocomposite material. As nanocomposites are generated by melt-blending of modified mineral and polymer, it is necessary to quantify the thermal resistance of the filler surface modification at the compounding conditions because different modifications differ in chain length, chemical structure, chain density, and thermal performance. A number of different alkyl ammonium modifications were exchanged on the montmorillonites with cation exchange capacities in the range 680-900 µequiv. g-1 and their thermal behaviour was characterised using high resolution thermogravimetric analysis. Quantitative comparisons between different modified minerals were achieved by comparing temperature at 10% weight loss as well peak degradation temperature. Various factors affecting thermal stability, such as length and density (or number) of alkyl chains in the modification, presence of excess modification molecules on the filler surface, the chemical structure of the surface modifications, etc. were studied. The TGA findings were also correlated with X-ray diffraction of the modified platelets.

  8. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  9. Substituted Cyclohexene Endcaps for Polymers with Thermal-Oxidative Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This invention relates to polyimides having improved thermal-oxidative stability, to the process of preparing said polyimides, and the use of polyimide prepolymers in the preparation of prepregs and composites. The polyimides are particularly usefull in the preparation of fiber-reinforced, high-temperature composites for use in various engine parts including inlets, fan ducts, exit flaps and other parts of high speed aircraft. The polyimides are derived from the polymerization of effective amounts of at least one tetracarboxylic dianhydride, at least one polyamine and a novel dicarboxylic endcap having the formula presented.

  10. Thermal Stabilization in a High Vacuum Cryogenic Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rosa; Cripe, Jonathan; Corbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The existing technology for gravitational wave detection is limited in part by quantum noise. In our tabletop experiments, we are attempting to lower the noise floor to the quantum limit through the use of a seismically isolated cryogenic high vacuum environment, with the intention of exploring different methods to reduce quantum noise. In the development phase of this environment, we have implemented a customized strategy of ultraviolet irradiation combined with cryogenically cooled radiation shielding to reduce the impact of water vapor and blackbody radiation on the thermal stability of the cryogenic micro-components. Supported by National Science Foundation REU Site #1262890 and CAREER Award #1150531.

  11. Impact of acoustic oscillations on thermal tornado stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, A. O.; Golovanov, A. N.; Matveev, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents physical modeling of thermal tornado under lab conditions. For the tested range of 0÷300 Hz, selective frequencies were discovered which facilitate the tornado decay. Data analysis was complemented by velocity profile measurement using LDV system LD-05M. The results on velocity pulsation at selected points were recalculated into coefficient of correlation between velocities and function cos(2π fΔ t i ) describing the acoustic oscillations. In the theoretical part of this paper, we present solution of dispersive equation of Euler's model and resulting boundary of stability for tornado existence. Satisfactory agreement between experiment and calculation has been observed.

  12. Radiation and Thermal Stability of Murataite Ceramics Nuclear Waste Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2006-05-01

    The wide range of complex nuclear wastes requires a variety of robust hosts for long-term storage during disposal. Wastes with high actinide and iron concentrations have generated intense interest in murataite ceramics as a candidate waste form due to its four distinct cation sites as well as cation vacancies. Critical to this application is the radiation stability of the waste host. We have determined both the radiation and thermal stabilities of murataite ceramics using in situ observations in a transmission electron microscope during ion bombardment at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory. A central issue for structural stability is radiation damage-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transformation that may result in macroscopic swelling, cracking and phase decomposition. Such a response would lead to a significant change in chemical durability and release of incorporated radionuclides. We found that, murataite ceramics are susceptible to ion beam induce ordered-disordered transition and amorphization. The ion dose required for amorphization was determined as a function of temperature and the degree of initial structural disorder. The upper temperature limit for amorphization of murataites was determined to be in the range of 860 K to 1060 K for 1 MeV Kr2+ ion irradiation. Decrease of the susceptibility to irradiation induced amorphization for disordered murataite, suggests that the amorphization susceptibility depends, in part, on the initial degree of intrinsic disorder prior to irradiation. The thermal stability of murataite polytypes was studied by in-situ TEM observation. Phase decomposition with the precipitation of Fe-rich nanocrystals was induced in the murataite structure. The phase decomposition and nanocrystal formation have no significant effects on the radiation resistance of murataite ceramics used as potential host phases for the immobilization of actinides.

  13. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at

  14. Arsenic in an Alkaline AMD Treatment Sludge: Characterization and Stability Under Prolonged Anoxic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, S.; Fiset, J; Poirier, G; Ablett, J

    2010-01-01

    Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg{sup -1}. In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N{sub 2}, 100%N{sub 2} + glucose, 95%N{sub 2}:5%H{sub 2}). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Dissolved Mn concentration in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants

  15. On the thermal stability of a radiating plasma subject to nonlocal thermal conduction. I - Linear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, E.; Rosner, R.

    1993-01-01

    We study the linear stability of an optically thin uniform radiating plasma subject to nonlocal heat transport. We derive the dispersion relation appropriate to this problem, and the marginal wavenumbers for instability. Our analysis indicates that nonlocal heat transport acts to reduce the stabilizing influence of thermal conduction, and that there are critical values for the electron mean free path such that the plasma is always unstable. Our results may be applied to a number of astrophysical plasmas, one such example being the halos of clusters of galaxies.

  16. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  17. New alkaline lipase from Rhizomucor variabilis: Biochemical properties and stability in the presence of microbial EPS.

    PubMed

    Bancerz, Renata; Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jaszek, Magdalena; Janusz, Grzegorz; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Sulej, Justyna; Janczarek, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Rogalski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    A new strain of Rhizomucor variabilis producing an active extracellular lipase was identified and characterized in the present studies. The culture conditions were optimized and the highest lipase production amounting to 136 U/mL was achieved after 4 days of cultivation. The optimum pH (5.5) and temperature (28 °C) were determined as the best conditions for R. variabilis lipase production. The isolated enzyme preparation exhibited maximum activity at 40 °C and pH 8.0. Lipase from R. variabilis was stable up to 50 °C during 2 H retaining 80% of its initial activity. The enzyme was highly stable in the pH range of 7.0-9.0. Moreover, the addition of naturally obtained exopolysaccharides (EPS) significantly enhanced lipase activity. The presence of EPS derived from Ganoderma applanatum and Rhizobium leguminosarum enhanced the lipase activity, which was 22% and 31%, respectively, higher than that in the control experiments. Simultaneously, the pH activity profiles remained unchanged. The Michaelis-Menten constant and the turnover number of the enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate in the standard assay conditions were estimated at a level of 0.631 mM and 0.674 Sec(-1) . In conclusion, the results obtained in this work present a newly isolated lipase preparation stabilized with EPS or without modification as a very effective tool for industrial application. PMID:25643732

  18. Speciation of copper in the thermally stabilized slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Y.-J.; Paul Wang, H.; Chang, J.-E.; Chao, C.-C.; Tsai, C.-K.

    2010-07-01

    The Taiwan universities laboratory hazardous wastes have been treated by incineration at the temperature range of 1173-1273 K. By X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, mainly CuO and CuSO 4 are found in the incineration bottom and fly ashes. The incineration fly ash can be stabilized thermally at 1773 K in the plasma melting reaction chamber (integrated with the incinerator), and converted to slag. The concentration of leachable copper in the slag is reduced significantly mainly due to the fact that copper is encapsulated in the SiO 2 matrix. In addition, the refined extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of copper also indicate formation of the Cu-O-Si species in the slag as the bond distances of 1.95 Å for Cu-O and 2.67 Å for O-Si are observed. This work exemplifies utilization of the synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy to facilitate the thermal stabilization treatments of the fly ash hazardous waste using the plasma melting method.

  19. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-08-23

    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

  20. Ab Initio Quantum Mechanical Study of the Structure and Stability of the Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides and Peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Königstein, Markus; Catlow, C. Richard A.

    1998-10-01

    We report a detailed computationally study of the stability of the alkaline earth metal peroxidesMO2(M=Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Be) with respect to decomposition into the corresponding oxidesMOand molecular oxygen using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. A comparison between calculated and experimental binding energies indicates that the DFT method is most suitable for a correct description of the peroxide bond. The DFT reaction energies for the peroxide decompositionMO2→MO+{1}/{2}O2show that only BaO2and SrO2are thermodynamically stable compounds, while CaO2(in the calcium carbide structure), MgO2, and BeO2(in the pyrite structure) are energetically unstable with reaction energies of -24.7, -26.8, and -128.7kJ/mol, respectively, and are therefore unlikely to exist as pure compounds. The published calcium carbide structure for CaO2is probably incorrect, at least for pure calcium peroxide, since apart from the thermodynamical instability the compound is more stable in the pyrite structure by 25.5 kJ/mol. Our analysis suggests that the water and/or hydrogen peroxide content of experimentally prepared MgO2samples is necessary for the stabilization of the structure, while BeO2is clearly unstable under ambient conditions. We studied also the effect of the zero point energies and the entropies on the decomposition free energies and, for this purpose, performed atomistic lattice simulations based on interatomic potentials, which we derived from ourab initiodata; the results indicate a negligible effect of the zero point energies, while the entropy terms favor the decomposition reaction by ca. 20 kJ/mol at 298.15 K.

  1. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  2. Thermal stability and nova cycles in permanent superhump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, A.; Naylor, T.

    2000-12-01

    Archival data on permanent superhump systems are compiled to test the thermal stability of their accretion discs. We find that their discs are almost certainly thermally stable as expected. This result confirms Osaki's suggestion that permanent superhump systems form a new subclass of cataclysmic variables (CVs), with relatively short orbital periods and high mass-transfer rates. We note that if the high accretion rates estimated in permanent superhump systems represent their mean secular values, then their mass-transfer rates cannot be explained by gravitational radiation, therefore, either magnetic braking should be extrapolated to systems below the period gap or they must have mass-transfer cycles. Alternatively, a new mechanism that removes angular momentum from CVs below the gap should be invoked. We suggest applying the nova cycle scenarios offered for systems above the period gap to the short orbital period CVs. Permanent superhumps have been observed in the two non-magnetic ex-novae with binary periods below the gap. Their post-nova magnitudes are brighter than their pre-outburst values. In one case (V1974 Cyg) it has been demonstrated that the pre-nova should have been a regular SU UMa system. Thus, it is the first nova whose accretion disc was observed to change its thermal stability. If the superhumps in this system indicate persistent high mass-transfer rates rather than a temporary change induced by irradiation from the hot post-nova white dwarf, it is the first direct evidence for mass-transfer cycles in CVs. The proposed cycles are driven by the nova eruption.

  3. Thermal stability in exchange-spring chains of spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicelli, Raffaele; Solzi, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal stability and switching behaviour have been compared in pure-hard and soft-hard Heisenberg linear spin chains of the same total length and equal magnetic parameters (except for magnetic anisotropy) with the anisotropy axis and external magnetic field parallel to the chain direction. The zero-temperature energy barriers and finite-temperature transition rates between remanent equilibrium states have been calculated by utilizing the string method and the forward flux sampling (FFS) method, respectively. Depending on the assumed interfaces, the FFS method could in fact fail to correctly sample the characteristic transition paths at interfaces at which these paths have probabilities much lower than those associated with other non-characteristic transition paths. This can especially occur in the case of the asymmetric energy landscapes and multiple asymmetric minimum energy paths (MEPs) of soft-hard systems. Therefore, a proper interface definition is needed in order to deduce the correct transition rates. In particular, we show that the thermal switching of soft-hard chains starting in the soft or in the hard part turns out to occur with an equal rate provided that the interfaces of the FFS method are defined on the basis of the corresponding zero-temperature MEPs. The thermal stability of a soft-hard chain in the remanent equilibrium state could be to some extent lower with respect to that of a pure-hard chain, due to the shorter hard-part length crossed by the domain wall formed in the chain and also to the related slightly smaller energy barrier. However, its switching field at zero temperature is verified to be widely lower than that of the pure-hard chain. Analytical expressions of switching fields and energy barriers have been deduced in various cases.

  4. Thermal stability of HfO2 nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M; Tuncer, Enis; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability of highly ordered hafnium oxide (HfO2) nanotube arrays prepared through an electrochemical anodization method in the presence of ammonium fluoride is investigated in a temperature range of room temperature to 900 C in flowing argon atmosphere. The formation of the HfO2 nanotube arrays was monitored by current density transient characteristics during anodization of hafnium metal foil. Morphologies of the as-grown and post-annealed HfO2 nanotube arrays were analyzed by powder Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although monoclinic HfO2 is thermally stable up to 2000K in bulk, the morphology of HfO2 nanotube arrays degraded at 900 C. A detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed that the thermal treatment significantly impacted the composition and the chemical environment of the core elements (Hf and O), as well as F content coming from the electrolyte. Possible reasons for the degradation of the nanotube at high temperature were discussed based on XPS study and possible future improvements have also been suggested. Moreover, dielectric measurements were carried out on both the as-grown amorphous film and 500 C post-annealed crystalline film. This study will help us to understand the temperature impact on the morphology of nanotube arrays, which is important to its further applications at elevated temperatures.

  5. "Thermal Stability of Anodic Hafnium Oxide Nanotube Arrays"

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Howe, Jane Y; Mayer, Harry A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tuncer, Enis

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability of highly ordered Hafnium oxide, HfO2 nanotube arrays prepared through electrochemical anodization approach in the presence of ammonium fluoride is investigated in a temperature range of room temperature to 900 C in flowing Argon atmosphere. The formation of the HfO2 nanotube arrays was monitored by current density transient characteristics during anodization of hafnium metal foil. Morphologies of the as grown and post-annealed HfO2 nanotube arrays were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although monoclinic HfO2 is thermally stable up to 2000K in bulk, the morphology HfO2 nanotube arrays degraded at 900 C. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed that the thermal treatment significantly impact the composition and chemical environment of the core elements (Hf, O and F) of HfO2. Possible reasons for the degradation of the nanotube morphology were discussed based on XPS study and possible future improvements were suggested briefly.

  6. Thermal stability of matrix protein from Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Morán, Irene Sánchez; Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Barroso, Isabel Muñoz; Kostetsky, Eduard Ya; Zhadan, Galina; Gómez, Javier; Shnyrov, Valery L; Villar, Enrique

    2013-10-01

    The thermal stability of the matrix protein (M protein) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been investigated using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at pH 7.4. The thermal folding/unfolding of M protein at this pH value is a reversible process involving a highly cooperative transition between folded and unfolded monomers with a transition temperature (Tm) of 63 °C, an unfolding enthalpy, ΔH(Tm), of 340 kcal mol(-1), and the difference in heat capacity between the native and denatured states of the protein, ΔCp, of 5.1 kcal K(-1) mol(-1). The heat capacity of the native state of the protein is in good agreement with the values calculated using a structure-based parameterization, whereas the calculated values for the hypothetical fully-unfolded state of the protein is higher than those determined experimentally. This difference between the heat capacity of denatured M protein and the heat capacity expected for an unstructured polypeptide of the same sequence, together with the data derived from the heat-induced changes in the steady-state fluorescence of the protein, indicates that the polypeptide chain maintains a significant amount of residual structure after thermal denaturation. PMID:23916643

  7. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge.

  8. Evaluation of Thermal Stability of Organic Electro-Optic Device by Using Thermally Stimulated Current.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Ryoma; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Yamada, Toshiki; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement was employed to study the thermal stability of electro-optic (EO) polymers, i.e., guest/host polymer DR1/PMMA and side-chain polymer PMMA-co-DR1. Here the isothermal relaxation test showed that the relaxation time τ (85 °C) of side-chain polymer PMMA-co-DR1 is longer than that of guest/host polymer DR1/PMMA. TSC peaks appeared symmetrically in proportion to the poling electric field Ep, indicating that DR1 molecules make a dominant contribution to dipolar depolarization. Thermal sampling (TS) method showed that the activation energy of the DR1/PMMA is around 1 eV, while that of the PMMA-co-DR1 is distributed >1 eV. Results suggested that side-chain polymer is preferable to the guest/host polymer in the thermal stability. TSC measurement is helpful as a conventional method for studying the life time of EO polymers in terms of dipolar motion. PMID:27451636

  9. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1999-02-01

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  10. Thermal stability of the polyheme cytochrome c3 superfamily.

    PubMed

    Florens, L; Bianco, P; Haladjian, J; Bruschi, M; Protasevich, I; Makarov, A

    1995-10-16

    The cytochrome c3 superfamily includes Desulfovibrio polyheme cytochromes c. We report the characteristic thermal stability parameters of the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway (D.d.N.) cytochromes c3 (M(r) 13,000 and M(r) 26,000) and the Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (D.v.H.) cytochrome c3 (M(r) 13,000) and high molecular mass cytochrome c (Hmc), as obtained with the help of electronic spectroscopy, voltammetric techniques and differential scanning calorimetry. The polyheme cytochromes are denatured over a wide range of temperatures: the D.v.H. cytochrome c3 is highly thermostable (Td = 121 degrees C) contrary to the D.d.N. protein (Td = 73 degrees C). The thermostability of the polyheme cytochromes is redox state dependent. The results are discussed in the light of the structural and functional relationships within the cytochrome c3 superfamily. PMID:7589483

  11. Thermal stability of oxide particles in 12Cr ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiaodong; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Jang, Jinsung

    2012-09-01

    12Cr ferritic ODS steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and hot rolling processes. Thermal stability of the oxide particles in the ODS steel sample was evaluated by isothermal annealing at 1250 °C for 500 h. High density YTaO4 particles with a mean size of about 9 nm were observed in the as hipped sample. A significant coarsening of the YTaO4 particles was observed after hot rolling at 1200 °C. Additional coarsening, as well as phase transformation from monoclinic YTaO4 to cubic Y3TaO7 was detected after isothermal annealing at 1250 °C. These results imply that heat treatment temperatures of the ODS steel during fabrication processes should be controlled as low as possible to avoid the undesirable coarsening of oxide precipitates.

  12. Stability of mixed time integration schemes for transient thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Lin, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    A current research topic in coupled-field problems is the development of effective transient algorithms that permit different time integration methods with different time steps to be used simultaneously in various regions of the problems. The implicit-explicit approach seems to be very successful in structural, fluid, and fluid-structure problems. This paper summarizes this research direction. A family of mixed time integration schemes, with the capabilities mentioned above, is also introduced for transient thermal analysis. A stability analysis and the computer implementation of this technique are also presented. In particular, it is shown that the mixed time implicit-explicit methods provide a natural framework for the further development of efficient, clean, modularized computer codes.

  13. Thermal and chemical stability of reflowed-photoresist microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Myung-Geun; Park, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Seoung-Hoe; Yoo, Byueng-Su; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of heat treatment on the thermal and chemical stability of photoresist microlenses which were made by a reflow method. The microlenses were formed by patterning a novolac-based photoresist (PR) to pillar shapes and by reflowing it at 140 °C. After reflowing, the microlenses were heat treated at a relatively high temperature between 250 °C and 350 °C. After the heat treatment, the fundamental functions as a lens were maintained for infrared laser beams with wavelengths above 800 nm, except volume shrinkage and increment of the refractive index. The heat-treated microlenses also were not attacked by methanol and acetone. Our results suggest wide application of the PR as a simple, cost effective and stable lens medium.

  14. Thermal stability of structure in small gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloven'ko, Zh. V.; Gafner, Yu. Ya.; Gafner, S. L.; Redel', L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Limits of thermal stability of the original fcc phase in gold clusters up to 3.5 nm in diameter have been studied. The simulation carried out by the molecular-dynamics method using a modified TB-SMA tight-binding potential has shown that in small Au clusters under the effect of the temperature factor there occurs a transition from the original fcc phase to other structural modifications, including those with a pentagonal symmetry. As the size of gold nanoparticles increases, the polytypic-transition temperature shifts toward the melting temperature of the cluster. The results obtained are compared with the data for copper and nickel nanoparticles with similar sizes. It has been shown that, in the case of nickel and copper clusters, it is the transition from the fcc phase into structures with a pentagonal symmetry, which are not found in the bulk state, that is the governing factor; the gold clusters demonstrate a much more intricate behavior.

  15. [Thermal stability and transformation behaviors of Pb in Yima coal].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-qing; Wang, Jun-wei

    2013-05-01

    Occurrence forms of Pb in Yima (YM) coal, their thermal stability and transformation behaviors during coal pyrolysis were investigated. Chemical leaching method was used to characterize the forms of Pb in the raw coal and the chars. It was found that about 33% Pb in YM coal was bound to carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, phosphates and oxides, 29% to aluminosilicates, 27% to disulfide species, and 8% to organic species. It was also found that the organic bound Pb was the most releasable while the aluminosilicates bound Pb was the least releasable. The effect of minerals of different sort on Pb release was also studied. The result showed that carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, phosphates and oxides, aluminosilicates and disulfides in YM coal could restrain Pb release during coal pyrolysis. The transformation of different forms of Pb mainly occurred at above 500 degrees C with other forms of Pb transformed to the aluminosilicates form and volatile phase.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of processable polyimides with enhanced thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the emerging applications of polymers on space vehicles require materials with outstanding thermal stability. These polymers must also be readily processable in order to facilitate their use. The syntheses and polymerization of a cardo dianhydride were investigated. This monomer was prepared via the reaction of N-methyl 4-nitrophthalimide with a cardo diol. Polyimides containing oxyalkylene linkages were studied. The effects of two additional structural modifications on the polymers' properties were investigated. The effects of carrying out the preparation of poly(amic acid)s under non-equilibrium conditions were examined. Approaches that were investigated included the in-situ neutralization of the generated amic acid and its in-situ esterification.

  17. Thermal stability study of nitrogen functionalities in a graphene network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2012-06-01

    Catalyst-free vertically aligned graphene nanoflakes possessing a large amount of high density edge planes were functionalized using nitrogen species in a low energy N+ ion bombardment process to achieve pyridinic, cyanide and nitrogen substitution in hexagonal graphitic coordinated units. The evolution of the electronic structure of the functionalized graphene nanoflakes over the temperature range 20-800 °C was investigated in situ, using high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate that low energy irradiation is a useful tool for achieving nitrogen doping levels up to 9.6 at.%. Pyridinic configurations are found to be predominant at room temperature, while at 800 °C graphitic nitrogen configurations become the dominant ones. The findings have helped to provide an understanding of the thermal stability of nitrogen functionalities in graphene, and offer prospects for controllable tuning of nitrogen doping in device applications.

  18. Application of ZnO Nanoparticles for Improving the Thermal and pH Stability of Crude Cellulase Obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus AA001

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Neha; Srivastava, Manish; Mishra, P. K.; Ramteke, Pramod W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulases are the enzymes which are responsible for the hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study thermal and pH stability of crude cellulase has been investigated in the presence of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. We synthesized ZnO nanoparticle by sol-gel method and characterized through various techniques including, X-ray Diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscope, field emission scanning electron microscope and high resolution scanning electron microscope. The crude thermostable cellulase has been obtained from the Aspergillus fumigatus AA001 and treated with ZnO nanoparticle which shows thermal stability at 65°C up to 10 h whereas it showed pH stability in the alkaline pH range and retained its 53% of relative activity at pH 10.5. These findings may be promising in the area of biofuels production. PMID:27148203

  19. Thermal stability and kinetic of decomposition of nitrated HTPB.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingfa; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiangwen; Mi, Zhentao

    2009-12-30

    Nitrated HTPB (NHTPB) is a potential energetic binder to replace the conventional inert binder, HTPB, for the composite solid propellants and plastic bonded explosives (PBXs). The thermal stability of the NHTPB sample with 10% double bonds converted to dinitrate ester group (10% NHTPB) was evaluated by high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC) measurement. The influences of pressure (0.1, 2.5 and 5.0 MPa) and the heating rate (4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees C min(-1)) on the DSC behavior of the 10% NHTPB sample were investigated. The decomposition temperature of this compound decreased with the increase of pressure, meanwhile, increased as the heating rate increasing. The thermal decomposition at 150-250 degrees C followed a first-order law. The kinetic parameters and thermodynamic parameters for the 10% NHTPB sample at 150-250 degrees C under ambient pressure were obtained from the DSC data by non-isothermal methods proposed by ASTM E698 and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa. The critical temperature for this compound was estimated at about 154 degrees C.

  20. Frequency stabilization of laser diodes in an aggressive thermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minch, J. R.; Walther, F. G.; Savage, S.; Plante, A.; Scalesse, V.

    2015-03-01

    Mobile free-space laser communication systems must reconcile the requirements of low size, weight, and power with the ability to both survive and operate in harsh thermal and mechanical environments. In order to minimize the aperture size and amplifier power requirements of such systems, communication links must exhibit performance near theoretical limits. Such performance requires laser transmitters and receiver filters and interferometers to maintain frequency accuracy to within a couple hundred MHz of the design frequency. We demonstrate an approach to achieving high frequency stability over wide temperature ranges by using conventional DFB lasers, tuned with TEC and current settings, referenced to an HCN molecular frequency standard. A HCN cell absorption line is scanned across the TEC set-point to adjust the DFB laser frequency. Once the center of the line is determined, the TEC set-point is offset as required to obtain frequency agility. To obtain large frequency offsets from an HCN absorption line, as well as continuous laser source operation, a second laser is offset from the reference laser and the resulting beat tone is detected in a photoreceiver and set to the desired offset using a digital frequency-locked loop. Using this arrangement we have demonstrated frequency accuracy and stability of better than 8 MHz RMS over an operational temperature range of 0ºC to 50º C, with operation within minutes following 8 hour soaks at -40º C and 70º C.

  1. Effect of cation trapping on thermal stability of magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pati, S S; Philip, John

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the effect of sodium trapping on thermal stability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The pure magnetite nanoparticles incubated in sodium hydroxide solutions and subsequently washed with water to remove the excess sodium. The amount of sodium in magnetite is measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The size distribution obtained from Small angle X-ray scattering measurements show that particles are fairly monodisperse. The FTIR spectra of nanoparticles show transmission bands at 441 and 611 cm(-1) are due to the symmetric stretching vibrations (v) of Fe-O in octahedral and tetrahedral sites respectively. With 500 ppm of sodium ions (Na+) in magnetite, the cubic ferrite structure of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) to hexagonal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) phase transition is enhanced by -150 degrees C in air. The Rietveld analysis of sodium doped magnetite nanoparticles show that above 99% of metastable gamma-Fe2O3 is converted to a thermodynamically stable alpha-Fe2O3 after air annealing at 700 degrees C. A decrease in enthalpy observed in doped magnetite unambiguously confirms that the activation energy for maghemite to hematite transition is increased due to the presence of trapped sodium ions. These results suggest that the trapped cations in ferrite nanoparticles can stabilize them by increasing the activation energy.

  2. Thermal stability of water ice in Ceres' crater Oxo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, Michelangelo; Federico, Costanzo; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Frigeri, Alessandro; Magni, Gianfranco; Tosi, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Dwarf planet Ceres, target of the NASA Dawn mission, exhibits evidences of ammoniated phyllosilicates on its surface [1], compatible with a likely outer Solar System origin. Considerable amounts of water ice have recently been detected in some craters by the Visible InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn in some small fresh crater, such as Oxo, located at about 40° N. The exposure mechanism of water ice is unknown: cryovolcanism, cometary type sublimation/recondensation [2]or impacts with other bodies are likely mechanisms. The evaluation of the time stability of the water ice is crucial to understand the plausible mechanism for its existence. For this purpose, we developed a 3D finite-elements model (FEM) by using the topography given by the shape model of Ceres derived on the basis of images acquired by the Framing Camera in the Survey mission phase. The illumination conditions are provided by the SPICE toolkit. We performed several simulations by analyzing the effect of thermal inertia and albedo on the temperature and rate of ice sublimation. The results of the simulations about the stability of water ice will be presented.[1] De Sanctis et al. NATURE, doi:10.1038/nature16172[2] Formisano et al. MNRAS, doi: 10.1093/mnras/stv2344

  3. Thermal stability of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuang-Liang; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2014-05-01

    The absence of thermal instability in the high/soft state of black hole X-ray binaries, in disagreement with the standard thin disk theory, has been a long-standing riddle for theoretical astronomers. We have tried to resolve this question by studying the thermal stability of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds in the M-dot −Σ plane. It is found that disk winds can greatly decrease the disk temperature and thus help the disk become more stable at a given accretion rate. The critical accretion rate, M-dot {sub crit}, corresponding to the thermal instability threshold, is significantly increased in the presence of disk winds. For α = 0.01 and B {sub φ} = 10B {sub p}, the disk is quite stable even for a very weak initial poloidal magnetic field [β{sub p,0}∼2000,β{sub p}=(P{sub gas}+P{sub rad})/(B{sub p}{sup 2}/8π)]. However, when B {sub φ} = B {sub p} or B {sub φ} = 0.1B {sub p}, a somewhat stronger (but still weak) field (β{sub p,} {sub 0} ∼ 200 or β{sub p,} {sub 0} ∼ 20) is required to make the disk stable. Nevertheless, despite the great increase of M-dot {sub crit}, the luminosity threshold, corresponding to instability, remains almost constant or decreases slowly with increasing M-dot {sub crit} due to decreased gas temperature. The advection and diffusion timescales of the large-scale magnetic field threading the disk are also investigated in this work. We find that the advection timescale can be smaller than the diffusion timescale in a disk with winds, because the disk winds take away most of the gravitational energy released in the disk, resulting in the decrease of the magnetic diffusivity η and the increase of the diffusion timescale.

  4. Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels: Kinetics of Forming Deposit Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegeli, David W.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this study was on the autoxidation kinetics of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels. The objectives were: (1) to demonstrate that laser-induced fluorescence is a viable kinetic tool for measuring rates of deposit precursor formation in jet fuels; (2) to determine global rate expressions for the formation of thermal deposit precursors in jet fuels; and (3) to better understand the chemical mechanism of thermal stability. The fuels were isothermally stressed in small glass ampules in the 120 to 180 C range. Concentrations of deposit precursor, hydroperoxide and oxygen consumption were measured over time in the thermally stressed fuels. Deposit precursors were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), hydroperoxides using a spectrophotometric technique, and oxygen consumption by the pressure loss in the ampule. The expressions, I.P. = 1.278 x 10(exp -11)exp(28,517.9/RT) and R(sub dp) = 2.382 x 10(exp 17)exp(-34,369.2/RT) for the induction period, I.P. and rate of deposit precursor formation R(sub dp), were determined for Jet A fuel. The results of the study support a new theory of deposit formation in jet fuels, which suggest that acid catalyzed ionic reactions compete with free radical reactions to form deposit precursors. The results indicate that deposit precursors form only when aromatics are present in the fuel. Traces of sulfur reduce the rate of autoxidation but increase the yield of deposit precursor. Free radical chemistry is responsible for hydroperoxide formation and the oxidation of sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids. Phenols are then formed by the acid catalyzed decomposition of benzylic hydroperoxides, and deposit precursors are produced by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes, which forms a polymer similar to Bakelite. Deposit precursors appear to have a phenolic resin-like structure because the LIF spectra of the deposit precursors were similar to that of phenolic resin dissolved in TAM.

  5. Formation of multilayered photosynthetic biofilms in an alkaline thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boomer, Sarah M; Noll, Katherine L; Geesey, Gill G; Dutton, Bryan E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70 degrees C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats.

  6. Formation of Multilayered Photosynthetic Biofilms in an Alkaline Thermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming▿

    PubMed Central

    Boomer, Sarah M.; Noll, Katherine L.; Geesey, Gill G.; Dutton, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70°C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats. PMID:19218404

  7. Formation of multilayered photosynthetic biofilms in an alkaline thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boomer, Sarah M; Noll, Katherine L; Geesey, Gill G; Dutton, Bryan E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70 degrees C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats. PMID:19218404

  8. Thermal stability of YBCO coated conductor with different Cu stabilizer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J. H.; Park, H. Y.; Eom, B. Y.; Seong, K. C.; Baik, S. K.

    2010-11-01

    The studies on the conduction-cooled superconducting magnets are actively underway with rapid advancement in refrigeration technology recently. YBCO coated conductor (CC) is one of the promising conductors for a conduction-cooled superconducting magnet because of increasing the operation temperature of magnets and being able to have cost collectiveness with conventional copper conductor in the future. However, it is known that quench propagation velocity in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) is two or three orders of magnitude slower than that in low-temperature superconductor because of its large heat capacity and the high operating temperature. The hot spot will emerge in local region if a critical current is non-uniform along the length of HTS tape and eventually, it causes permanent destroy for the whole HTS tape. Based on the protection of YBCO CC, it is necessary to determine a suitable stabilizer thickness for YBCO CC so that the temperature of hot spot in local area does not exceed the permissible temperature. In this study, we have established a suitable thermal analysis model, and analyzed minimum quench energy and thermal properties for three kinds of YBCO CC samples with different stabilizer thickness, which are fabricated by Superpower Incorporated, using finite element method.

  9. Evaluation of the Lifetime and Thermal Conductivity of Dysprosia-Stabilized Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-Hai; Dorfman, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was the further development of dysprosia-stabilized zirconia coatings for gas turbine applications. The target for these coatings was a longer lifetime and higher insulating performance compared to today's industrial standard thermal barrier coating. Two morphologies of ceramic top coat were studied: one using a dual-layer system and the second using a polymer to generate porosity. Evaluations were carried out using a laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. Lifetime testing was conducted using thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and Image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. The results show that coatings with an engineered microstructure give performance twice that of the present reference coating.

  10. An experimental study on thermal stability of biodiesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yiying

    Biodiesel fuel, as renewable energy, has been used in conventional diesel engines in pure form or as biodiesel/diesel blends for many years. However, thermal stability of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends has been minimally explored. Aimed to shorten this gap, thermal stability of biodiesel is investigated at high temperatures. In this study, batch thermal stressing experiments of biodiesel fuel were performed in stainless steel coils at specific temperature and residence time range from 250 to 425 °C and 3 to 63 minutes, respectively. Evidence of different pathways of biodiesel fuel degradation is demonstrated chromatographically. It was found that biodiesel was stable at 275 °C for a residence time of 8 minutes or below, but the cis-trans isomerization reaction was observed at 28 minutes. Along with isomerization, polymerization also took place at 300 °C at 63 minutes. Small molecular weight products were detected at 350 °C at 33 minutes resulting from pyrolysis reactions and at 360 °C for 33 minutes or above, gaseous products were produced. The formed isomers and dimers were not stable, further decomposition of these compounds was observed at high temperatures. These three main reactions and the temperature ranges in which they occurred are: isomerization, 275--400 °C; polymerization (Diels-Alder reaction), 300--425 °C; pyrolysis reaction, ≥350 °C. The longer residence time and higher temperature resulted in greater decomposition. As the temperature increased to 425 °C, the colorless biodiesel became brownish. After 8 minutes, almost 84% of the original fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) disappeared, indicating significant fuel decomposition. A kinetic study was also carried out subsequently to gain better insight into the biodiesel thermal decomposition. A three-lump model was proposed to describe the decomposition mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a reversible first-order reaction kinetic model for the global biodiesel decomposition was shown to

  11. An integrated approach for thermal stabilization of a mesophilic adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sojin; Jung, Du-kyo; Phillips, George N; Bae, Euiyoung

    2014-09-01

    Thermally stable proteins are desirable for research and industrial purposes, but redesigning proteins for higher thermal stability can be challenging. A number of different techniques have been used to improve the thermal stability of proteins, but the extents of stability enhancement were sometimes unpredictable and not significant. Here, we systematically tested the effects of multiple stabilization techniques including a bioinformatic method and structure-guided mutagenesis on a single protein, thereby providing an integrated approach to protein thermal stabilization. Using a mesophilic adenylate kinase (AK) as a model, we identified stabilizing mutations based on various stabilization techniques, and generated a series of AK variants by introducing mutations both individually and collectively. The redesigned proteins displayed a range of increased thermal stabilities, the most stable of which was comparable to a naturally evolved thermophilic homologue with more than a 25° increase in its thermal denaturation midpoint. We also solved crystal structures of three representative variants including the most stable variant, to confirm the structural basis for their increased stabilities. These results provide a unique opportunity for systematically analyzing the effectiveness and additivity of various stabilization mechanisms, and they represent a useful approach for improving protein stability by integrating the reduction of local structural entropy and the optimization of global noncovalent interactions such as hydrophobic contact and ion pairs.

  12. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Thiol Bonding on Gold Nanostars.

    PubMed

    Borzenkov, Mykola; Chirico, Giuseppe; D'Alfonso, Laura; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; Cabrini, Elisa; Dacarro, Giacomo; Milanese, Chiara; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Taglietti, Angelo; Bernhard, Claire; Denat, Franck

    2015-07-28

    The stability of thiol bonding on the surface of star-shaped gold nanoparticles was studied as a function of temperature in water and in a set of biologically relevant conditions. The stability was evaluated by monitoring the release of a model fluorescent dye, Bodipy-thiol (BDP-SH), from gold nanostars (GNSs) cocoated with poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (PEG-SH). The increase in the BDP-SH fluorescence emission, quenched when bound to the GNSs, was exploited to this purpose. A maximum 15% dye release in aqueous solution was found when the bulk temperature of gold nanostars solutions was increased to T = 42 °C, the maximum physiological temperature. This fraction reduces 3-5% for temperatures lower than 40 °C. Similar results were found when the temperature increase was obtained by laser excitation of the near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonance of the GNSs, which are photothermally responsive. Besides the direct impact of temperature, an increased BDP-SH release was observed upon changing the chemical composition of the solvent from pure water to phosphate-buffered saline and culture media solutions. Moreover, also a significant fraction of PEG-SH was released from the GNS surface due to the increase in temperature. We monitored it with a different approach, that is, by using a coating of α-mercapto-ω-amino PEG labeled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate on the amino group, that after heating was separated from GNS by ultracentrifugation and the released PEG was determined by spectrofluorimetric techniques on the supernatant solution. These results suggest some specific limitations in the use of the gold-thiolate bond for coating of nanomaterials with organic compounds in biological environments. These limitations come from the duration and the intensity of the thermal treatment and from the medium composition and could also be exploited in biological media to modulate the in vivo release of drugs.

  13. [Removal of NO and Hg0 in flue gas using alkaline absorption enhanced by non-thermal plasma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Le; Wang, Mei-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced by positive corona discharge was utilized to oxidize NO and Hg0 to more water-soluble NO2 and Hg2+ under the conditions of simulated flue gas. The effects of discharge voltage and inlet SO2 and NO concentrations on NO and Hg0 oxidation and their removals by alkaline absorption were investigated. The results show that the oxidation and removal of NO and Hg0 are enhanced with the increase of discharge voltage. The concentrations of NO and NO2 at the outlet of absorption tower are 0 and 69 mg/m3 with an inlet NO concentration of 134 mg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 12. 8 kV while the outlet concentrations of Hg0 and Hg2+ are 22 microg/m3 and 11 microg/m3 with an inlet Hg0 concentration of 110 microg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 13.1 kV. The presence of SO2 slightly improves the oxidation and removal of Hg0 while it has almost no effect on NO oxidation and its removal. The oxidation and removal of Hg0 are significantly inhibited with the increase of inlet NO concentration. In the coexistence of 800 mg/m3 SO2, 134 mg/m3 NO and 110 microg/m3 Hg0, the removal efficiencies are 57% for NO and 31% for Hg0 with an energy input of 77 J/L.

  14. Thermal stability of MnBi magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jinfang; Choi, J. P.; Li, G.; Polikarpov, E.; Darsell, J.; Overman, N.; Olszta, M.; Schreiber, D.; Bowden, M.; Droubay, T.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Zarkevich, Nikolay A.; Wang, L L.; Johnson, Duane D.; Marinescu, M.; Takeuchi, I.; Huang, Q. Z.; Wu, H.; Reeve, H.; Vuong, N. V.; Liu, J P.

    2014-01-27

    MnBi has attracted much attention in recent years due to its potential as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. It is unique because its coercivity increases with increasing temperature, which makes it a good hard phase material for exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain, partly because the reaction between Mn and Bi is peritectic, and partly because Mn reacts readily with oxygen. MnO formation is irreversible and harmful to magnet performance. In this paper, we report our efforts toward developing MnBi permanent magnets. To date, high purity MnBi (>90%) can be routinely produced in large quantities. The produced powder exhibits 74:6 emu g1 saturation magnetization at room temperature with 9 T applied field. After proper alignment, the maximum energy product (BH) max of the powder reached 11.9 MGOe, and that of the sintered bulk magnet reached 7.8 MGOe at room temperature. A comprehensive study of thermal stability shows that MnBi powder is stable up to 473 K in air.

  15. Thermal Stability of MnBi Magnetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jun; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Li, Guosheng; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Darsell, Jens T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Bowden, Mark E.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Zarkevich, Nikolai; Wang, L. L.; Johnson, Duane D.; Marinescu, Melania; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Huang, Qingzhen; Wu, Hui; Reeve, Hayden; Vuong, Nguyen V.; Liu, J.Ping

    2014-01-01

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. It is unique because its coercivity increases with increasing temperature, which makes it a good hard phase for exchange coupling nanocomposite magnet. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain, partly because the reaction between Mn and Bi is peritectic, and partly because Mn is easy to react with oxygen. MnO formation is irreversible and causes degradation to the magnetic properties. In this paper, we report our effort on developing MnBi permanent magnet. High purity MnBi (>90%) can be routinely produced in large quantity. The obtained powder exhibit 74 emu/g saturation magnetization at room temperature with 9 T applied field. After alignment, the powder exhibits 11.6 MGOe, and the sintered bulk magnet exhibit 7.8 MGOe at room temperature. Thermal stability study shows that the MnBi is stable up to 473 K in air.

  16. Thermal stability of ladderane lipids as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaeschke, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recognized as a major process resulting in loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the marine environment. Ladderane lipids, membrane lipids unique to anammox bacteria, have been used as markers for the detection of anammox in marine settings. However, the fate of ladderane lipids after sediment burial and maturation is unknown. In this study, anammox bacterial cell material was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at constant temperatures ranging from 120 to 365 ??C for 72 h to study the stability of ladderane lipids during progressive dia- and catagenesis. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that structural alterations of ladderane lipids already occurred at 120 ??C. At temperatures >140 ??C, ladderane lipids were absent and only more thermally stable products could be detected, i.e., ladderane derivatives in which some of the cyclobutane rings were opened. These diagenetic products of ladderane lipids were still detectable up to temperatures of 260 ??C using GC-MS. Thus, ladderane lipids are unlikely to occur in ancient sediments and sedimentary rocks, but specific diagenetic products of ladderane lipids will likely be present in sediments and sedimentary rocks of relatively low maturity (i.e., C31 hopane 22S/(22S + 22R) ratio 0.5). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, T.; Allard, T.; Beaufort, D.; Cantin, J.-L.; von Bardeleben, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    High-purity illite specimens from the Mesoproterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits of Kiggavik, Thelon basin, Nunavut (Canada), and Shea Creek (Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada) have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the thermal stability of the main radiation-induced defects and question the potential of using illite as a natural dosimeter. The observed spectra are complex as they can show in the same region several contributions: (1) an unstable native defect, (2) the main stable defect named Ai by reference to a previous study (Morichon et al. in Phys Chem Minerals 35:339-346, 2008), (3) a signal at g = 2.063 assigned to a new defect, not yet fully characterized, named Ai2 center and (4) impurities such as vanadyl complex or divalent manganese. Isochronal heating shows that the new signal corresponds to a stable species. Isothermal heating experiments at 400 and 450 °C provide values of half-life extrapolated at room temperature and activation energy of 1.9-29,109 years and 1.3-1.4 eV, respectively, corresponding to the Ai center. These parameters allow the use of stable radiation-induced defects as a record of radioactivity down to the Paleoproterozoic period.

  18. Thermal stability of DNA adducts induced by cyanomorpholinoadriamycin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Cullinane, C; Phillips, D R

    1993-01-01

    The Adriamycin derivative, cyanomorpholinoadriamycin (CMA) was reacted with DNA in vitro to form apparent interstrand crosslinks. The extent of interstrand crosslink formation was monitored by a gel electrophoresis assay and maximal crosslinking of DNA was observed within 1 hr with 5 microM of drug. The interstrand crosslinks were heat labile, with a midpoint melting temperature of 70 degrees C (10 min exposure to heat) in 45% formamide. When CMA-induced adducts were detected as blockages of lambda-exonuclease, 12 blockage sites were observed with 8 being prior to 5'-GG sequences, one prior to 5'-CC, one prior to 5'-GC and 2 at unresolved combinations of these sequences. These exonuclease-detected blockages reveal the same sites of CMA-induced crosslinking as detected by in vitro transcription footprinting and primer-extension blockages on single strand DNA, where the blockages at 5'-GG and 5'-CC were identified as sites of intrastrand crosslinking and the 5'-GC blockage as a probable site of interstrand crosslinking. The thermal stability of both types of crosslink (10 min exposure to heat) ranged from 63-70 degrees C at individual sites. High levels of adduct were detected with poly (dG-dC) but not with poly (dI-dC). These results suggest adduct formation involving an aminal linkage between the 3 position of the morpholino moiety and N2 of guanine. Images PMID:8493102

  19. Thermal stability of Pt/Co multilayered films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi, S.; Kusumoto, Y.; Teragaki, Y.; Torazawa, K.; Tsunashima, S.; Uchiyama, S.

    1993-05-01

    The thermal stability of Pt/Co multilayered films with various underlayers has been studied by annealing up to 400 °C. In Pt/Co films sputtered on glass or amorphous AlN underlayers, their coercivity and the squareness of magnetic hysteresis loops are degraded by annealing above 300 °C. In contrast, in films sputtered on ZnO or Pt underlayers, the coercivity is remarkably increased by annealing at 300 °C. The film with the ZnO underlayer shows a hysteresis loop with perfect squareness even after annealing at 400 °C. The results of x-ray diffraction indicate that the ZnO underlayer not only enhances the fcc Pt/Co(111) orientation but also prevents the decay of the multilayered structure during annealing. The results of laser microannealing using a conventional disk drive system also indicate that the Pt/Co films with ZnO underlayers have superior resistance to laser damage.

  20. The Thermal Stability of Nanocrystalline Au-Cu Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Saw, C K; Hayes, J P

    2006-02-15

    Grain refinement to the nanocrystalline scale is known to enhance physical properties as strength and surface hardness. For the case of Au-Cu alloys, development of the pulsed electroplating has led to the functional control of nanocrystalline grain size in the as-deposited condition. The thermal aging of Au-Cu electrodeposits is now investigated to assess the stability of the nanocrystalline grain structure and the difference between two diffusion mechanisms. The mobility of grain boundaries, dominant at low temperatures, leads to coarsening of grain size whereas at high temperature the process of bulk diffusion dominates. Although the kinetics of bulk diffusion are slow below 500 K at 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} {center_dot} sec, the kinetics of grain boundary diffusion are faster at 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2} {center_dot} sec. The diffusivity values indicate that the grain boundaries of the as-deposited nanocrystalline Au-Cu are mobile and sensitive to low-temperature anneal treatments affecting the grain size, hence the strength of the material.

  1. Synthesis, thermal stability, and photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline titanium carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Youjian; Zhang, Hong; Ma, DeKun; Ma, Jianhua; Ye, Hongnan; Qian, Gaojin; Ye, Yi

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The synthesized temperature is lower than some conventional methods. {yields} These raw materials are safe; all manipulations are rather safe and convenient. {yields} The product exhibits photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine-B. -- Abstract: Titanium carbide (TiC) was prepared via one simple route by the reaction of metallic magnesium powders with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and potassium acetate (CH{sub 3}COOK) in an autoclave at 600 {sup o}C and 8 h. Phase structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the product was cubic TiC, which consisted of particles with an average size of about 100 nm in diameter. The product was also studied by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its photocatalysis. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 350 {sup o}C in air. In addition, we discovered that the cubic TiC powders exhibited photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under 500 W mercury lamp light irradiation.

  2. Experimental study of the thermal stability of hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marteney, P. J.; Colket, M. B.; Vranos, A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stability of two hydrocarbon fuels (premium diesel and regular diesel) was determined in a flow reactor under conditions representing operation of an aircraft gas turbine engine. Temperature was varied from 300 to 750 F (422 to 672 K) for fuel flows of 2.84 to 56.8 liters/hr (corresponding to 6.84 x 0.00010 to 1.63 x 0.010 kg/sec for regular diesel fuel and 6.55 x 0.00010 to 1.37 x 0.010 kg/sec for premium diesel fuel); test times varied between 1 and 8 hr. The rate of deposition was obtained through measurement of weight gained by metal discs fixed along the channel wall. The rate of deposit formation is best correlated by an Arrhenius expression. The sample discs in the flow reactor were varied among stainless steel, aluminum and brass; fuels were doped with quinoline, indole, and benzoyl perioxide to yield nitrogen or oxygen concentrations of approximately 1000 ppm. The most substantial change in rate was an increase in deposits for brass discs; other disc materials or the additives caused only small perturbations. Tests were also conducted in a static reactor at temperatures of 300 to 800 F for times of 30 min to 2 1/2 hr. Much smaller deposition was found, indicating the importance of fluid transport in the mechanism.

  3. Thermal stability of MnBi magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Choi, J P; Li, G; Polikarpov, E; Darsell, J; Overman, N; Olszta, M; Schreiber, D; Bowden, M; Droubay, T

    2014-02-12

    MnBi has attracted much attention in recent years due to its potential as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. It is unique because its coercivity increases with increasing temperature, which makes it a good hard phase material for exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain, partly because the reaction between Mn and Bi is peritectic, and partly because Mn reacts readily with oxygen. MnO formation is irreversible and harmful to magnet performance. In this paper, we report our efforts toward developing MnBi permanent magnets. To date, high purity MnBi (>90%) can be routinely produced in large quantities. The produced powder exhibits 74.6 emu g(-1) saturation magnetization at room temperature with 9 T applied field. After proper alignment, the maximum energy product (BH)max of the powder reached 11.9 MGOe, and that of the sintered bulk magnet reached 7.8 MGOe at room temperature. A comprehensive study of thermal stability shows that MnBi powder is stable up to 473 K in air.

  4. Controlled synthesis and thermal stability of hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ruixue; Chen, Kezheng; Liao, Zhongmiao; Meng, Nan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures have been synthesized by a facile method. ► The morphology and size of the building units of 3D structures can be controlled. ► The hydroxyapatite with 3D structure is morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) hierarchical microstructures with novel 3D morphology were prepared through a template- and surfactant-free hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the synthesized products. Interestingly, the obtained HAp with 3D structure is composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods or two-dimensional (2D) nanoribbons, and the length and morphology of these building blocks can be controlled through controlling the pH of the reaction. The building blocks are single crystalline and have different preferential orientation growth under different pH conditions. At low pH values, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase formed first and then transformed into HAp phase due to the increased pH value caused by the decomposition of urea. The investigation on the thermal stability reveals that the prepared HAp hierarchical microstructures are morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C.

  5. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  6. The structural and thermal stability, electrochemical hydrogenation and corrosion behavior of LaT5-xMx(T = Co, Ni and M = Al, Ge, Li) phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetskiv, A.; Rożdżyńska-Kiełbik, B.; Kowalczyk, G.; Prochwicz, W.; Siemion, P.; Pavlyuk, V.

    2014-12-01

    The structural and thermal stability, electrochemical hydrogenation and corrosion behavior of LaT5-x(M/Li)x (T = Co, Ni and M = Al, Ge) alloys have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, SEM with WDS/EDX, DSC and electrochemical techniques. The prepared ternary and quaternary samples are solid solutions on the base of binary LaCo5 and LaNi5 compounds with hexagonal CaCu5 structure type. By partial substitution of transition metals (Ni and Co) by Al, Ge and Li in the LaT5-x(M/Li)x alloys the discharge capacity increased by 25%. Doping of LaCo5 and LaNi5 binary phases by Al, Ge and Li improves corrosion resistance, thermal stability and absorption capacity during the electrochemical hydrogenation. These alloys passivate effectively in strong alkaline solution.

  7. Truncation of the unique N-terminal domain improved the thermos-stability and specific activity of alkaline α-amylase Amy703.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenghui; Wang, Qinhong; Jiang, Sijing; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    High pH condition is of special interest for the potential applications of alkaline α-amylase in textile and detergent industries. Thus, there is a continuous demand to improve the amylase's properties to meet the requirements set by specific applications. Here we reported the systematic study of modular domain engineering to improve the specific activity and stability of the alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. The specific activity of the N-terminal domain truncated mutant (N-Amy) increased by ~35-fold with a significantly improved thermo-stability. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the Kcat and Kcat/Kmof N-Amy were enhanced by 1300-fold and 425.7-fold, respectively, representing the largest catalytic activity improvement of the engineered α-amylases through the methods of domain deletion, fusion or swapping. In addition, different from the wild-type Amy703, no exogenous Ca(2+) were required for N-Amy to maintain its full catalytic activity, implying its superior potential for many industrial processes. Circular dichroism analysis and structure modeling revealed that the increased compactness and α-helical content were the main contributors for the improved thermo-stability of N-Amy, while the improved catalytic efficiency was mainly attributed by the increased conformational flexibility around the active center. PMID:26926401

  8. Truncation of the unique N-terminal domain improved the thermos-stability and specific activity of alkaline α-amylase Amy703

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhenghui; Wang, Qinhong; Jiang, Sijing; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    High pH condition is of special interest for the potential applications of alkaline α-amylase in textile and detergent industries. Thus, there is a continuous demand to improve the amylase’s properties to meet the requirements set by specific applications. Here we reported the systematic study of modular domain engineering to improve the specific activity and stability of the alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. The specific activity of the N-terminal domain truncated mutant (N-Amy) increased by ~35-fold with a significantly improved thermo-stability. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the Kcat and Kcat/Kmof N-Amy were enhanced by 1300-fold and 425.7-fold, respectively, representing the largest catalytic activity improvement of the engineered α-amylases through the methods of domain deletion, fusion or swapping. In addition, different from the wild-type Amy703, no exogenous Ca2+ were required for N-Amy to maintain its full catalytic activity, implying its superior potential for many industrial processes. Circular dichroism analysis and structure modeling revealed that the increased compactness and α-helical content were the main contributors for the improved thermo-stability of N-Amy, while the improved catalytic efficiency was mainly attributed by the increased conformational flexibility around the active center. PMID:26926401

  9. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kőrösi, László; Papp, Szilvia; Hornok, Viktória; Oszkó, Albert; Petrik, Péter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert; Dékány, Imre

    2012-08-01

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO2 in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 °C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H3PO4 aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N2-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H3PO4-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low (˜0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 °C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H3PO4-treated samples were 153 and 244 m2 g-1, respectively. The effects of H3PO4 treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed.

  10. Thermal Stability of Ice on Ceres with Rough Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Aharonson, Oded

    2015-11-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres may have an ice-rich crust, and subsurface ice exposed by impacts or endogenic activity would be subject to sublimation. The “bright spots” recently discovered by the Dawn mission on the illuminated surface of Ceres have prompted speculation regarding their possible icy composition and the youthful age this might imply. Furthermore, sublimation of ice at the surface or in the interior of Ceres could explain water vapor observed on more than one occasion in the exosphere. We investigated the possible distribution and lifetimes of water ice and other volatiles on Ceres using detailed thermal models, including realistic thermophysical properties and surface roughness.Topographic shadowing creates polar cold traps where a small, but non-negligible fraction (~0.4%) of Ceres' surface is perennially below the ~110 K criterion for 1 Gyr of H2O ice stability. These areas are found above 60° latitude. Other molecules (CH3OH, NH3, SO2, CO2) may be cold-trapped in smaller abundances. A model for the transport, gravitational escape and photoionization of H2O molecules suggests net accumulation in the cold traps. At latitudes 0° - 30°, ice is stable under solar illumination only briefly (~10-100 yr), unless it has high albedo and thermal inertia, in which case lifetimes of > 104 yr are possible.Buried ice is stable within a meter for > 1 Gyr at latitudes higher than ~50°. An illuminated polar cap of water ice would be stable within a few degrees of the poles only if it maintained a high albedo (> 0.5) at present obliquity. If the obliquity exceeded 5° in the geologically recent past, then a putative polar cap would have been erased. Finally, a small hemispheric asymmetry exists due to the timing of Ceres' perihelion passage, which would lead to a detectable enhancement of ice in the northern hemisphere if the orbital elements vary slowly relative to the ice accumulation rate. Our model results are potentially testable during the Dawn science

  11. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  12. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 C and cooling in vacuo down to 225 C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2 2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276 426 C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  13. Thermal phase stability of some simulated Defense waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    May, R.P.

    1981-04-01

    Three simulated defense waste glass compositions developed by Savannah River Laboratories were studied to determine viscosity and compositional effects on the comparative thermal phase stabilities of these glasses. The glass compositions are similar except that the 411 glasses are high in lithium and low in sodium compared to the 211 glass, and the T glasses are high in iron and low in aluminum compared to the C glass. Specimens of these glasses were heat treated using isothermal anneals as short as 10 min and up to 15 days over the temperature range of 450/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C. Additionally, a specimen of each glass was cooled at a constant cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour from an 1100/sup 0/C melt down to 500/sup 0/C where it was removed from the furnace. The following were observed. The slow cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour is possible as a canister centerline cooling rate for large canisters. Accordingly, it is important to note that a short range diffusion mechanism like cooperative growth phenomena can result in extensive devitrification at lower temperatures and higher yields than a long-range diffusion mechanism can; and can do it without the growth of large crystals that can fracture the glass. Refractory oxides like CeO/sub 2/ and (Ni, Mn, Fe)/sub 2/O/sub 4/ form very rapidly at higher temperatures than silicates and significant yields can be obtained at sufficiently high temperatures that settling of these dense phases becomes a major microstructural feature during slow cooling of some glasses. These annealing studies further show that below 500/sup 0/C there is but little devitrification occurring implying that glass canisters stored at 300/sup 0/C may be kinetically stable despite not being thermodynamically so.

  14. Thermal stability of ice on Ceres with rough topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Aharonson, O.

    2015-09-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres may have an ice-rich crust, and subsurface ice exposed by impacts or endogenic activity would be subject to sublimation. We model surface and subsurface temperatures on Ceres to assess lifetimes of water ice and other volatiles. Topographic shadowing allows a small but nonnegligible fraction (˜0.4%) of Ceres' surface to be perennially below the ˜110 K criterion for 1 Gyr of stability. These areas are found above 60° latitude. Other molecules (CH3OH, NH3, SO2, and CO2) may be cold trapped in smaller abundances. A model for the transport, gravitational escape, and photoionization of H2O molecules suggests net accumulation in the cold traps. Buried ice is stable within a meter for > 1 Gyr at latitudes higher than ˜50°. An illuminated polar cap of water ice would be stable within a few degrees of the poles only if it maintained a high albedo (>0.5) at present obliquity. If the obliquity exceeded 5° in the geologically recent past, then a putative polar cap would have been erased. At latitudes 0°-30°, ice is stable under solar illumination only briefly (˜10-100 years), unless it has high albedo and thermal inertia, in which case lifetimes of > 104 years are possible. Finally, a small hemispheric asymmetry exists due to the timing of Ceres' perihelion passage, which would lead to a detectable enhancement of ice in the northern hemisphere if the orbital elements vary slowly relative to the ice accumulation rate. Our model results are potentially testable during the Dawn science mission.

  15. Thermal gravity analysis for the study of stability of graphene oxide-glycine nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, F.; Rajabi, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we synthesized graphene oxide-glycine (GO-G) nanocomposite. To produce this nanocomposite with GO surface, glycine with known concentration was added to GO suspension in ethanol solvent. Nanocomposites provided were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal stability of these nanocomposites. Results of characterization by SEM and FT-IR showed that nanocomposite was created by the reaction between GO and G. Study of thermal stability by TGA showed that thermal stability of GO was more than that of the GO-G nanocomposite.

  16. Enhanced Electroresponse of Alkaline Earth Metal-Doped Silica/Titania Spheres by Synergetic Effect of Dispersion Stability and Dielectric Property.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Min; Lee, Seungae; Cheong, Oug Jae; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-09-01

    A series of alkaline earth metal-doped hollow SiO2/TiO2 spheres (EM-HST) are prepared as electrorheological (ER) materials via sonication-mediated etching method with various alkaline earth metal hydroxides as the etchant. The EM-HST spheres are assessed to determine how their hollow interior and metal-doping affects the ER activity. Both the dispersion stability and the dielectric properties of these materials are greatly enhanced by the proposed one-step etching method, which results in significant enhancement of ER activity. These improvements are attributed to increased particle mobility and interfacial polarization originating from the hollow nature of the EM-HST spheres and the effects of EM metal-doping. In particular, Ca-HST-based ER fluid exhibits ER performance which is 7.1-fold and 3.1-fold higher than those of nonhollow core/shell silica/titania (CS/ST) and undoped hollow silica/titania (HST)-based ER fluids, respectively. This study develops a versatile and simple approach to enhancing ER activity through synergetic effects arising from the combination of dispersion stability and the unique dielectric properties of hollow EM-HST spheres. In addition, the multigram scale production described in this experiment can be an excellent advantage for practical and commercial ER application.

  17. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  18. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization.

  19. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100–130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130–140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  20. Comprehensive stabilization mechanism of electron-beam irradiated polyacrylonitrile fibers to shorten the conventional thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Sejoon; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Kang, Ha Ri; Jo, Seong Mu; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    An electron beam was irradiated on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers prior to thermal stabilization. The electron-beam irradiation effectively shortened the thermal stabilization process by one fourth compared with the conventional thermal stabilization process. A comprehensive mechanistic study was conducted regarding this shortening of the thermal stabilization by electron-beam irradiation. Various species of chain radicals were produced in PAN fibers by electron-beam irradiation and existed for a relatively long duration, as observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Subsequently, these radicals were gradually oxidized to peroxy radicals in the presence of oxygen under storage or heating. We found that these peroxy radicals (CO) enabled such an effective shortcut of thermal stabilization by acting as intermolecular cross-linking and partial aromatization points in the low temperature range (100-130 °C) and as earlier initiation seeds of successive cyclization reactions in the next temperature range (>130-140 °C) of thermal stabilization. Finally, even at a low irradiation dose (200 kGy), followed by a short heat treatment (230 °C for 30 min), the PAN fibers were sufficiently stabilized to produce carbon fibers with tensile strength and modulus of 2.3 and 216 GPa, respectively, after carbonization. PMID:27349719

  1. Removal of toxic and alkali/alkaline earth metals during co-thermal treatment of two types of MSWI fly ashes in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yu; Jin, Limei; Ma, Chuan; Paterson, Nigel; Sun, Lushi

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to vaporize heavy metals and alkali/alkaline earth metals from two different types of fly ashes by thermal treatment method. Fly ash from a fluidized bed incinerator (HK fly ash) was mixed with one from a grate incinerator (HS fly ash) in various proportions and thermally treated under different temperatures. The melting of HS fly ash was avoided when treated with HK fly ash. Alkali/alkaline earth metals in HS fly ash served as Cl-donors to promote the vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment. With temperature increasing from 800 to 900°C, significant amounts of Cl, Na and K were vaporized. Up to 1000°C in air, less than 3% of Cl and Na and less than 5% of K were retained in ash. Under all conditions, Cd can be vaporized effectively. The vaporization of Pb was mildly improved when treated with HS fly ash, while the effect became less pronounced above 900°C. Alkali/alkaline earth metals can promote Cu vaporization by forming copper chlorides. Comparatively, Zn vaporization was low and only slightly improved by HS fly ash. The low vaporization of Zn could be caused by the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4. Under all conditions, less than 20% of Cr was vaporized. In a reductive atmosphere, the vaporization of Cd and Pb were as high as that in oxidative atmosphere. However, the vaporization of Zn was accelerated and that of Cu was hindered because the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4 and copper chloride was depressed in reductive atmosphere. PMID:26303652

  2. Improving the Stability and Performance of Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes by Thermal Annealing Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Choul; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Da Bin; Jung, Eui Dae; Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Bo Ram; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    A perovskite LED with a perovskite film treated under optimum thermal annealing conditions exhibits a significantly enhanced long-term stability with full coverage of the green electroluminescence emission due to the highly uniform morphology of the perovskite film.

  3. Constant of thermal heat conduction and stabilization of the bus bar conductor for superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, G.

    1993-07-01

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of thermal heating conduction is given that brings about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  4. Thermal Stability Comparison of Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Binary Alloy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. G.; Hattar, K.; Marshall, M. T.; Chookajorn, T.; Boyce, B. L.; Schuh, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest; yet, they have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dominated systems. Although traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloys can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdoch et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10 at.% Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results show improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison with the Fe-Cu, and thermally-evolved microstructures that are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility with aerospace fluids of wire insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Johnson, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center requested NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility to conduct flammability, odor, offgassing, thermal vacuum stability, and compatibility tests with aerospace fluids of several wire insulations.

  6. Thermal Stability of the AVIRIS On-Board Calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Sarture, Chuck; Williams, Orlesa

    1998-01-01

    The AVIRIS On-Board Calibrator (OBC) provides essential data for refining the calibration of each AVIRIS data run. Annual improvement to the AVIRIS sensor and laboratory calibration accuracy has resulted in increasingly high demands on the stability of the OBC. Since the 1995 flight season, the OBC could track the stability of the spectrometer alignment to the 2% level, a significant improvement over previous years. The major contributor to this 2% stability was the conversion from a constant-current bulb power supply to an intensity-based active feedback power supply. Given the high sensor signal-to-noise ratio, improving the OBC to track 1% or 0.5% changes was highly desirable. Achieving stability better than 2% required an examination of the mechanisms affecting stability.

  7. Engineering Interface Structures and Thermal Stabilities via SPD Processing in Bulk Nanostructured Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Shijian; Carpenter, John S.; McCabe, Rodney J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2014-02-27

    Nanostructured metals achieve extraordinary strength but suffer from low thermal stability, both a consequence of a high fraction of interfaces. Overcoming this tradeoff relies on making the interfaces themselves thermally stable. In this paper, we show that the atomic structures of bi-metal interfaces in macroscale nanomaterials suitable for engineering structures can be significantly altered via changing the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing pathway. Two types of interfaces are formed, both exhibiting a regular atomic structure and providing for excellent thermal stability, up to more than half the melting temperature of one of the constituents. Most importantly, the thermal stability of one is found to be significantly better than the other, indicating the exciting potential to control and optimize macroscale robustness via atomic-scale bimetal interface tuning. As a result, we demonstrate an innovative way to engineer pristine bimetal interfaces for a new class of simultaneously strong and thermally stable materials.

  8. Dimensional stability testing in thermal vacuum of the CHEOPS optical telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klop, W. A.; Verlaan, A. L.

    2016-07-01

    The CHEOPS mission (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite) is dedicated to searching for exoplanetary transits by performing ultra-high precision photometry on bright stars already known to host planets. A 32cm diameter on-axis Ritchey-Chrétien telescope is used for imaging onto a single cooled detector. With integration times up to 48 hours the thermal stability of the telescope and its structure are key to the performance. Using a multi-lateration interferometer setup TNO has successfully demonstrated the μm-level stability of the Structural Thermal Model (STM2) of the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) in thermal vacuum. This OTA was later upgraded to become the Flight Model. Experiments comprise thermal vacuum cycling, thermal vacuum stability testing where axial and lateral deformations are measured to the nm-level sensitivity.

  9. Engineering Interface Structures and Thermal Stabilities via SPD Processing in Bulk Nanostructured Metals

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shijian; Carpenter, John S.; McCabe, Rodney J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured metals achieve extraordinary strength but suffer from low thermal stability, both a consequence of a high fraction of interfaces. Overcoming this tradeoff relies on making the interfaces themselves thermally stable. Here we show that the atomic structures of bi-metal interfaces in macroscale nanomaterials suitable for engineering structures can be significantly altered via changing the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing pathway. Two types of interfaces are formed, both exhibiting a regular atomic structure and providing for excellent thermal stability, up to more than half the melting temperature of one of the constituents. Most importantly, the thermal stability of one is found to be significantly better than the other, indicating the exciting potential to control and optimize macroscale robustness via atomic-scale bimetal interface tuning. Taken together, these results demonstrate an innovative way to engineer pristine bimetal interfaces for a new class of simultaneously strong and thermally stable materials. PMID:24573355

  10. Engineering interface structures and thermal stabilities via SPD processing in bulk nanostructured metals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shijian; Carpenter, John S; McCabe, Rodney J; Beyerlein, Irene J; Mara, Nathan A

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured metals achieve extraordinary strength but suffer from low thermal stability, both a consequence of a high fraction of interfaces. Overcoming this tradeoff relies on making the interfaces themselves thermally stable. Here we show that the atomic structures of bi-metal interfaces in macroscale nanomaterials suitable for engineering structures can be significantly altered via changing the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing pathway. Two types of interfaces are formed, both exhibiting a regular atomic structure and providing for excellent thermal stability, up to more than half the melting temperature of one of the constituents. Most importantly, the thermal stability of one is found to be significantly better than the other, indicating the exciting potential to control and optimize macroscale robustness via atomic-scale bimetal interface tuning. Taken together, these results demonstrate an innovative way to engineer pristine bimetal interfaces for a new class of simultaneously strong and thermally stable materials. PMID:24573355

  11. Engineering Interface Structures and Thermal Stabilities via SPD Processing in Bulk Nanostructured Metals

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Shijian; Carpenter, John S.; McCabe, Rodney J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Mara, Nathan A.

    2014-02-27

    Nanostructured metals achieve extraordinary strength but suffer from low thermal stability, both a consequence of a high fraction of interfaces. Overcoming this tradeoff relies on making the interfaces themselves thermally stable. In this paper, we show that the atomic structures of bi-metal interfaces in macroscale nanomaterials suitable for engineering structures can be significantly altered via changing the severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing pathway. Two types of interfaces are formed, both exhibiting a regular atomic structure and providing for excellent thermal stability, up to more than half the melting temperature of one of the constituents. Most importantly, the thermal stability ofmore » one is found to be significantly better than the other, indicating the exciting potential to control and optimize macroscale robustness via atomic-scale bimetal interface tuning. As a result, we demonstrate an innovative way to engineer pristine bimetal interfaces for a new class of simultaneously strong and thermally stable materials.« less

  12. Correlation between iron self-diffusion and thermal stability in doped iron nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul E-mail: dr.mukul.gupta@gmail.com; Kumar, D.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Amir, S. M.; Korelis, Panagiotis; Stahn, Jochen

    2014-12-14

    Nanocrystalline Fe-X-N thin films (with doping X = 0, 3.1 at. % Al, 1.6 at. % Zr), were deposited using reactive ion beam sputtering. Magnetization study reveals that the deposited films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thermal stability of the films was investigated systematically and it was observed that the structural and the magnetic stability gets significantly enhanced with Al doping, whereas Zr doping has only a marginal effect. Fe self-diffusion, obtained using polarized neutron reflectivity, shows a suppression with both additives. A correlation between the thermal stability and the diffusion process gives a direct evidence that the enhancement in the thermal stability is primarily diffusion controlled. A combined picture of diffusion, structural, and magnetic stability has been drawn to understand the obtained results.

  13. Correlation between iron self-diffusion and thermal stability in doped iron nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul; Kumar, D.; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Amir, S. M.; Korelis, Panagiotis; Stahn, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-X-N thin films (with doping X = 0, 3.1 at. % Al, 1.6 at. % Zr), were deposited using reactive ion beam sputtering. Magnetization study reveals that the deposited films exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Thermal stability of the films was investigated systematically and it was observed that the structural and the magnetic stability gets significantly enhanced with Al doping, whereas Zr doping has only a marginal effect. Fe self-diffusion, obtained using polarized neutron reflectivity, shows a suppression with both additives. A correlation between the thermal stability and the diffusion process gives a direct evidence that the enhancement in the thermal stability is primarily diffusion controlled. A combined picture of diffusion, structural, and magnetic stability has been drawn to understand the obtained results.

  14. Thermal stability and strength of deformation microstructures in pure copper

    SciTech Connect

    Saldana, C.; King, Alex H.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2012-05-18

    The plastic flow field produced by machining is utilized to access a range of deformation parameters in pure copper: strains of 1–7, strain rates of 1–1000 s−1 and temperatures as low as 77 K. The strength and stability of the severe plastic deformation microstructures including cellular, elongated, equiaxed and twinned types are characterized. Unique combinations of strengthening and stability are identified in the case of heavily twinned microstructures. These observations offer insights for improving the stability of both single-phase and multicomponent ultrafine-grained alloys.

  15. Electrocatalytic activity and operational stability of electrodeposited Pd-Co films towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Lok-kun; Zafferoni, Claudio; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Innocenti, Massimo; Vizza, Francesco; Zangari, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are usually run with Pd anodic catalysts, but their performance can be improved by utilizing alloys of Pd and Co. The oxyphilic Co serves to supply ample -OH to the ethanol oxidation reaction, accelerating the rate limiting step at low overpotential under alkaline conditions. Pd-Co films with compositions between 20 and 80 at% Co can be prepared by electrodeposition from a NH3 complexing electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry studies show that the ethanol oxidation peak exhibits increasing current density with increasing Co content, reaching a maximum at 77% Co. In contrast, potentiostatic measurements under conditions closer to fuel cell operating conditions show that a 50 at% Co alloy has the highest performance. Importantly, the Co-Pd film is also found to undergo phase and morphological transformations during ethanol oxidation, resulting in a change from a compact film to high surface area flake-like structures containing Co3O4 and CoOOH; such a transformation instead is not observed when operating at a constant potential of 0.7 VRHE.

  16. Thermal stability of bimetallic Au/Fe nanoparticles in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pannu, Compesh Singh, Udai B. Hooda, Sonu Kabiraj, D. Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    Thin silica film containing Au and Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by atom beam cosputtering. The samples were annealed at different temperatures from 400 to 800° C to study the thermal stability of bimetallic nanoparticles using X ray diffraction. It is observed that at 800° C strong structural rearrangement took place leading to thermal decomposition of bimetallic nanoparticles.

  17. Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Luo, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Hsu, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2013-07-01

    The thermal stability of leaf essential oils from various Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their constituents was investigated for the first time. The results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) content in eugenol-free essential oil from C. osmophloeum was affected by high temperatures. The retention of Cin (RC) decreased to 17.4% after the essential oil was incubated for 8 h at 100 °C. In contrast, essential oils containing eugenol showed greater thermal stability. Seven kinds of antioxidants were added to Cin to improve its thermal stability. Among them, eugenol endowed Cin with the best thermal stability. We also investigated the influence of various amounts of eugenol on the thermal stability of both essential oil and Cin. Both essential oil and Cin showed excellent thermal stability when 0.62 and 2.60% (v/v) eugenol were added. In short, the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin could be effectively improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol.

  18. Fe-N-Doped Carbon Capsules with Outstanding Electrochemical Performance and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Both Acid and Alkaline Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Guillermo A; Preuss, Kathrin; Marinovic, Adam; Jorge, Ana Belen; Mansor, Noramalina; Brett, Dan J L; Fuertes, Antonio B; Sevilla, Marta; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2016-06-28

    High surface area N-doped mesoporous carbon capsules with iron traces exhibit outstanding electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in both alkaline and acidic media. In alkaline conditions, they exhibit more positive onset (0.94 V vs RHE) and half-wave potentials (0.83 V vs RHE) than commercial Pt/C, while in acidic media the onset potential is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C with a peroxide yield lower than 10%. The Fe-N-doped carbon catalyst combines high catalytic activity with remarkable performance stability (3500 cycles between 0.6 and 1.0 V vs RHE), which stems from the fact that iron is coordinated to nitrogen. Additionally, the newly developed electrocatalyst is unaffected by the methanol crossover effect in both acid and basic media, contrary to commercial Pt/C. The excellent catalytic behavior of the Fe-N-doped carbon, even in the more relevant acid medium, is attributable to the combination of chemical functions (N-pyridinic, N-quaternary, and Fe-N coordination sites) and structural properties (large surface area, open mesoporous structure, and short diffusion paths), which guarantees a large number of highly active and fully accessible catalytic sites and rapid mass-transfer kinetics. Thus, this catalyst represents an important step forward toward replacing Pt catalysts with cheaper alternatives. In this regard, an alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell was assembled with Fe-N-doped mesoporous carbon capsules as the cathode catalyst to provide current and power densities matching those of a commercial Pt/C, which indicates the practical applicability of the Fe-N-carbon catalyst.

  19. Low Thermal Conductivity Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Using the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Jiang, Chen; Roth, Jeffrey; Gell, Maurice

    2014-06-01

    The primary function of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is to insulate the underlying metal from high temperature gases in gas turbine engines. As a consequence, low thermal conductivity and high durability are the primary properties of interest. In this work, the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process was used to create layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries, in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs. IPBs have been shown to be effective in reducing thermal conductivity. Optimization of the IPB microstructure by the SPPS process produced YSZ TBCs with a thermal conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, an approximately 50% reduction compared to standard air plasma sprayed (APS) coatings. In preliminary tests, SPPS YSZ with IPBs exhibited equal or greater furnace thermal cycles and erosion resistance compared to regular SPPS and commercially made APS YSZ TBCs.

  20. Kinetic analysis about the effects of neutral salts on the thermal stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The effects of salts on the rate constants of inactivation by heat of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) at 60.0 degrees C were measured. Different effects were observed at low and high salt concentrations. At high concentrations, some salts had stabilizing effects, while others were destabilizing. The effects of salts in the high concentration range examined can be described as follows: (decreased thermal stability) NaClO(4) < NaI = (C(2)H(5))(4)NBr < NH(4)Br < NaBr = KBr = CsBr = (no addition) < (CH(3))(4)NBr < KCl < KF < Na(2)SO(4) (increased thermal stability). The decreasing effect of NaClO(4) on YADH controlled the thermal stability of the enzyme absolutely and was not compensated by the addition of Na(2)SO(4), a salt which stabilized the enzyme. However, Na(2)SO(4) compensation did occur in response to the decrease in thermal stability caused by (C(2)H(5))(4)NBr. The rate constants of inactivation by heat (k (in)) of the enzyme were measured at various temperatures. Effective values of the thermodynamic activation parameters of thermal inactivation, activation of free energy (DeltaG (double dagger)), activation enthalpy (DeltaH (double dagger)), and activation entropy (DeltaS (double dagger)), were determined. The thermal stability of YADH in 0.8 M Na(2)SO(4) increased more than that of pyruvate kinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, a moderate thermophile. The changes in the values of DeltaH (double dagger) and DeltaS (double dagger) were great and showed a general compensatory tendency, with the exception of in the case of NaClO(4). The temperature for the general compensation effect (T (c)) was approximately 123 degrees C. With Na(2)SO(4), the thermal stability of YADH at a temperature below T (c) was greater than that in the absence of salt due to the higher values of DeltaH (double dagger) and DeltaS (double dagger), respectively, and thus was an example of low-temperature enzymatic stabilization. With (C(2)H(5))(4)NBr, the thermal stability of YADH

  1. Infiltrated Phlogopite Micas with Superior Thermal Cycle Stability as Compressive Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-03-01

    Thermal cycle stability is one of the most stringent requirements for sealants in solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The sealants have to survive several hundreds to thousands of thermal cycles during lifetime operation in stationary and transportation applications. Recently, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a novel method to infiltrate the mica flakes with a wetting or liquid forming material such that the leak path will be reduced from 3-D to 2-D and achieve good thermal cycle stability with low leak rates.

  2. Dimensional stability of fused silica, Invar, and several ultralow thermal expansion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.; Norton, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed for testing the long-term dimensional stability of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser, using a technique whereby thermal expansion coefficients are measured by forming a Fabry-Perot etalon from the sample and monitoring the optical resonant frequencies with tunable sidebands impressed on a laser beam from a frequency-stabilized He-Ne laser. A change of 1 ppm over a 3-yr period on the part of fused silica dimensions and the differential thermal expansion of Invar LR-35 and Super Invar materials are noted. The method is of interest for the metrology of extremely stable structures such as telescopes and optical resonators.

  3. Thermal and electrochemical stability of organosilicon electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Usrey, Monica; Peña-Hueso, Adrian; West, Robert; Hamers, Robert J.

    2013-11-01

    Organosilicon (OS) electrolytes that integrate an ethylene glycol oligomer with a trimethylsilane head group are promising substitutes for commercial carbonate-based electrolytes because of their low flammability and their high electrochemical and thermal stability. To explore the factors that control thermal and electrochemical stability of these compounds, we developed a real-time headspace analysis apparatus with a mass spectrometer to detect the evolution of decomposition products during thermal cycling and during electrochemical measurements. Here we present mass spectroscopy, XPS, and SEM results exploring the thermal stability of [2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]trimethylsilane (1NM3) with LiPF6, and its electrochemical stability against graphite anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes. Our results show that 1NM3 + LiPF6 shows no significant decomposition below 100 °C and at potentials below 4.5 V. At higher temperatures and/or potentials, decomposition of LiPF6 induces hydrolysis of 1NM3. Our results show that LiPF6 decomposition is the limiting factor controlling stability of 1NM3 + LiPF6 electrolytes and also provide fundamental insights into the molecular bonds of 1NM3 that are attacked by PF5 and its decomposition products. Full-cell measurements of 1NM3 + LiPF6 + vinyl carbonate show Coulombic efficiencies of >99.6%. These results point the way to new molecular structures that may have even further enhanced electrochemical and thermal stability.

  4. Thermal stability of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae entrapped in polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Raviyan, Patcharin; Tang, Juming; Rasco, Barbara A

    2003-08-27

    To determine the suitability as a time-temperature indicator for dielectric pasteurization processes, the thermal stability (50-75 degrees C) of Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase immobilized in polyacrylamide gel in phosphate buffer, mashed potatoes, and minced shrimp was examined. Changing the cross-linking agent concentration from 3.3 to 5.3% and adding 2% salt did not markedly affect the thermal stability of the immobilized alpha-amylase. Thermal inactivation was first order, and immobilization generally improved the thermal stability of alpha-amylase. z values of the immobilized system in test food systems were 10.2 degrees C (phosphate buffer), 8.45 degrees C (minced shrimp), and 7.78 degrees C (mashed potatoes). PMID:12926898

  5. Thermal stability comparison of nanocrystalline Fe-based binary alloy pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Blythe G.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Marshall, Michael Thomas; Chookajorn, Tonghai; Boyce, Brad L.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2016-02-01

    Here, the widely recognized property improvements of nanocrystalline (NC) materials have generated significant interest, yet have been difficult to realize in engineering applications due to the propensity for grain growth in these interface-dense systems. While traditional pathways to thermal stabilization can slow the mobility of grain boundaries, recent theories suggest that solute segregation in NC alloy can reduce the grain boundary energy such that thermodynamic stabilization is achieved. Following the predictions of Murdock et al., here we compare for the first time the thermal stability of a predicted NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.% Mg) with a predicted non-NC stable alloy (Fe-10at.%more » Cu) using the same processing and characterization methodologies. Results indicate improved thermal stability of the Fe-Mg alloy in comparison to the Fe-Cu, and observed microstructures are consistent with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.« less

  6. Analysis of protein stability and ligand interactions by thermal shift assay.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Kathy; Partch, Carrie L

    2015-02-02

    Purification of recombinant proteins for biochemical assays and structural studies is time-consuming and presents inherent difficulties that depend on the optimization of protein stability. The use of dyes to monitor thermal denaturation of proteins with sensitive fluorescence detection enables rapid and inexpensive determination of protein stability using real-time PCR instruments. By screening a wide range of solution conditions and additives in a 96-well format, the thermal shift assay easily identifies conditions that significantly enhance the stability of recombinant proteins. The same approach can be used as an initial low-cost screen to discover new protein-ligand interactions by capitalizing on increases in protein stability that typically occur upon ligand binding. This unit presents a methodological workflow for small-scale, high-throughput thermal denaturation of recombinant proteins in the presence of SYPRO Orange dye.

  7. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0 57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  8. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  9. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  10. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  11. Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.

  12. Stability of polydopamine and poly(DOPA) melanin-like films on the surface of polymer membranes under strongly acidic and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Houliang; Ren, Jun; Han, Bo; Xu, Li; Han, Lulu; Jia, Lingyun

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the stability of polydopamine and poly(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (poly(DOPA)) melanin-like films on the surface of polymer substrates. Three polymer membranes, polypropylene (PP), poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and nylon, were modified with polydopamine or poly(DOPA), and then immersed in 0.1M HCl or NaOH, followed by UV-vis spectrometry analysis to detect the presence of film detachment. The results showed that the outer parts of both polydopamine and poly(DOPA) films were detached, probably due to electrostatic repulsion between the polymers within the film, when the modified membranes were washed in HCl or NaOH solution. These two films were more stable in strongly acidic solution, but the stability of poly(DOPA) film was better than that of polydopamine film. Compared to the films on the surface of PVDF or nylon membrane, films on PP surface showed the lowest stability, possibly because of the hydrophobic property of PP. The process of film detachment was analyzed by GPC, which showed that unreacted dopamine or DOPA monomers were still present in the freshly formed films. The unreacted monomers, as well as polydopamine or poly(DOPA) that were incorporated in the film via noncovalent interactions, became detached when the film was exposed to strongly acidic or alkaline solution. Oxidation of freshly formed films could significantly enhance their stability. The results therefore provide us with a better understanding of the stability of melanin-like films, and allow us to develop an effective strategy for constructing stable films. PMID:23707846

  13. FDSOI bottom MOSFETs stability versus top transistor thermal budget featuring 3D monolithic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenouillet-Beranger, C.; Previtali, B.; Batude, P.; Nemouchi, F.; Cassé, M.; Garros, X.; Tosti, L.; Rambal, N.; Lafond, D.; Dansas, H.; Pasini, L.; Brunet, L.; Deprat, F.; Grégoire, M.; Mellier, M.; Vinet, M.

    2015-11-01

    To set up specification for 3D monolithic integration, for the first time, the thermal stability of state-of-the-art FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI) transistors electrical performance is quantified. Post fabrication annealings are performed on FDSOI transistors to mimic the thermal budget associated to top layer processing. Degradation of the silicide for thermal treatments beyond 400 °C is identified as the main responsible for performance degradation for PMOS devices. For the NMOS transistors, arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) dopants deactivation adds up to this effect. By optimizing both the n-type extension implantations and the bottom silicide process, thermal stability of FDSOI can be extended to allow relaxing upwards the thermal budget authorized for top transistors processing.

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Design consideration of the thermal and electro stability of multi-finger HBTs based on different device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanhu, Chen; Huajun, Shen; Xinyu, Liu; Hui, Xu; Ling, Li; Huijun, Li

    2010-10-01

    The thermal and electro stability of multi-finger heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with different structures were analyzed and discussed simultaneously. The thermal stability of the devices with different layout structures was assessed by the DC-IV test and thermal resistance calculation. Their electro stability was assessed by the calculation of the stability factor K based on the S parameter of the HBT. It is found that HBTs with higher thermal stability are prone to lower electro stability. The trade-off relationship between the two types of stability was explained and discussed by using a compact K-factor analytic formula which is derived from the small signal equivalent circuit model of HBT. The electro stability of the device with a thermal ballasting resistor was also discussed, based on the analytic formula.

  15. Fine scale thermal blooming instability: a linear stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Barnard, J J

    1989-02-01

    The fine-scale thermal blooming instability of a high power trans-atmospheric laser beam is shown to be affected by the laser pulse length. In this study, we calculate the asymptotic gain of a sinusoidal perturbation as a function of pulse length and perturbation wavenumber. We include the effects of viscosity, diffusion, and wind shear, and we heuristically estimate the effect of turbulence. We find that for short laser pulses, the small wavenumber perturbations are reduced due to acoustic effects. However, large wavenumber perturbations remain large and extend to a higher cutoff in wavenumber than in the long laser pulse limit. At wavenumbers higher than this cutoff, thermal diffusion causes exponential decay of the perturbations. For long laser pulse length wind shear and turbulence limit perturbation growth.

  16. Pump power stability range of single-mode solid-state lasers with rod thermal lensing

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; La Porta, P.; Magni, V.

    1987-11-01

    The pump power stability range of solid-state laser resonators operating in the TEM/sub 00/ mode has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that, for a very general resonator containing intracavity optical systems, rod thermal lensing engenders a pump power stability range which is a characteristic parameter of laser material and pump cavity, but is independent of resonator configuration. Stability ranges have been calculated and critically discussed for Nd:YAG, Nd:Glasses, Nd:Cr:GSGG, and alexandrite. The independence of the pump power stability range from the resonator configuration has been experimentally demonstrated for a CW Nd:YAG laser.

  17. Thermal Stability of Cold Clouds in Galaxy Halos.

    PubMed

    Wardle; Walker

    1999-12-20

    We consider the thermal properties of cold, dense clouds of molecular hydrogen and atomic helium. For cloud masses below 10-1.7 M middle dot in circle, the internal pressure is sufficient to permit the existence of particles of solid or liquid hydrogen at temperatures above the cosmic microwave background temperature. Optically thin thermal continuum emission by these particles can balance cosmic-ray heating of the cloud, leading to equilibria that are thermally stable even though the heating rate is independent of cloud temperature. For the Galaxy, the known heating rate in the disk sets a minimum mass of order 10-6 M middle dot in circle necessary for survival. Clouds of this type may in principle comprise most of the dark matter in the Galactic halo. However, we caution that the equilibria do not exist at redshifts z greater, similar1 when the temperature of the microwave background was substantially larger than its current value; therefore, the formation and the survival of such clouds to the present epoch remain open questions.

  18. Effect of various nanofillers on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anusuya; Bhowmick, Anil K; Ong, Christopher; Soddemann, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    Structure of nanofillers and their subsequent interaction with a polymer is very important in determining thermal stability of polymer nanocomposite. In this paper, we tried to correlate structure of various 0, 1 and 2 dimensional nanofillers with the thermal stability of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) nanocomposites. Organically modified and unmodified layered silicates such as montmorillonite (Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 15A), rod-like fibrous filler (sepiolite) and spherical nanoparticles (nanosilica) were chosen for this purpose. A significant improvement in thermal stability (obtained by thermogravimeric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry) was observed for silica-filled nanocomposites. However, the activation energy of the nanocomposites calculated by different kinetic methods (both non-isothermal and isothermal methods) was found to be significantly high for sepiolite, 30B and silica-filled nanocomposites. The results were explained with the help of structure of the nanofillers, their interaction with the elastomer and the subsequent dispersion, as measured by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. From these analyses it was concluded that organically modified montmorillonite, sepiolite and nanosilica increase the thermal stability of the nanocomposite to a great extent due to the interaction of the reactive groups on the surface of these fillers with the polymer and high thermal stability of these inorganic fillers. Finally, degradation mechanism of HNBR in presence of the nanofillers at severe operating temperatures was investigated with the help of FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:21125850

  19. Analytical solution of thermal magnetization on memory stabilizer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yu; Viteri, C. Ricardo; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2010-10-01

    We return to the question of how the choice of stabilizer generators affects the preservation of information on structures whose degenerate ground state encodes a classical redundancy code. Controlled-not gates are used to transform the stabilizer Hamiltonian into a Hamiltonian consisting of uncoupled single spins and/or pairs of spins. This transformation allows us to obtain an analytical partition function and derive closed-form equations for the relative magnetization and susceptibility. These equations are in agreement with the numerical results presented in Viteri [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.042313 80, 042313 (2009)] for finite size systems. Analytical solutions show that there is no finite critical temperature, Tc=0, for all of the memory structures in the thermodynamic limit. This is in contrast to the previously predicted finite critical temperatures based on extrapolation. The mismatch is a result of the infinite system being a poor approximation even for astronomically large finite-size systems, where spontaneous magnetization still arises below an apparent finite critical temperature. We extend our analysis to the canonical stabilizer Hamiltonian. Interestingly, Hamiltonians with two-body interactions have a higher apparent critical temperature than the many-body Hamiltonian.

  20. Thermal stability relationships between PMR-15 resin and its composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Bors, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 matrix resin and the stability of graphite-fiber-reinforced composites that contain this resin as the matrix material. Three areas were investigated. The first was the effect of fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength on the isothermal aging weight loss of composites. By using type-A graphite fibers produced by Hercules, it was possible to study composites reinforced with fibers that were processed to receive different surface treatments. One of the fibers was untreated, a second fiber was treated by oxidation to enhance fiber/matrix bonding, and the third type of fiber was coated with an epoxy sizing. These treatments produced three significantly different interfacial bond strengths. The epoxy sizing on the third fiber was quickly oxidized from the bare fiber surfaces at 288, 316, and 343 C. The weight loss due to the removal of the sizing was constant at 1.5 percent. This initial weight loss was not observed in thermo-oxidative stability studies of composites. The PMR-15 matrix satisfactorily protected the reinforcemnt at all three temperatures.

  1. Analytical solution of thermal magnetization on memory stabilizer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Yu; Viteri, C. Ricardo; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2010-10-15

    We return to the question of how the choice of stabilizer generators affects the preservation of information on structures whose degenerate ground state encodes a classical redundancy code. Controlled-not gates are used to transform the stabilizer Hamiltonian into a Hamiltonian consisting of uncoupled single spins and/or pairs of spins. This transformation allows us to obtain an analytical partition function and derive closed-form equations for the relative magnetization and susceptibility. These equations are in agreement with the numerical results presented in Viteri et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 042313 (2009)] for finite size systems. Analytical solutions show that there is no finite critical temperature, T{sub c}=0, for all of the memory structures in the thermodynamic limit. This is in contrast to the previously predicted finite critical temperatures based on extrapolation. The mismatch is a result of the infinite system being a poor approximation even for astronomically large finite-size systems, where spontaneous magnetization still arises below an apparent finite critical temperature. We extend our analysis to the canonical stabilizer Hamiltonian. Interestingly, Hamiltonians with two-body interactions have a higher apparent critical temperature than the many-body Hamiltonian.

  2. X-ray Crystallographic Structure of Thermophilic Rhodopsin: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH THERMAL STABILITY AND OPTOGENETIC FUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Takashi; Mizutani, Kenji; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Takahashi, Megumi; Honda, Naoya; Hashimoto, Naoki; Shimono, Kazumi; Yamashita, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Miyauchi, Seiji; Takagi, Shin; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Murata, Takeshi; Sudo, Yuki

    2016-06-01

    Thermophilic rhodopsin (TR) is a photoreceptor protein with an extremely high thermal stability and the first characterized light-driven electrogenic proton pump derived from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus JL-18. In this study, we confirmed its high thermal stability compared with other microbial rhodopsins and also report the potential availability of TR for optogenetics as a light-induced neural silencer. The x-ray crystal structure of TR revealed that its overall structure is quite similar to that of xanthorhodopsin, including the presence of a putative binding site for a carotenoid antenna; but several distinct structural characteristics of TR, including a decreased surface charge and a larger number of hydrophobic residues and aromatic-aromatic interactions, were also clarified. Based on the crystal structure, the structural changes of TR upon thermal stimulation were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations revealed the presence of a thermally induced structural substate in which an increase of hydrophobic interactions in the extracellular domain, the movement of extracellular domains, the formation of a hydrogen bond, and the tilting of transmembrane helices were observed. From the computational and mutational analysis, we propose that an extracellular LPGG motif between helices F and G plays an important role in the thermal stability, acting as a "thermal sensor." These findings will be valuable for understanding retinal proteins with regard to high protein stability and high optogenetic performance. PMID:27129243

  3. Three interesting coordination compounds based on metalloligand and alkaline-earth ions: Syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2016-09-01

    Based on metalloligand LCu ([Cu(2,4-pydca)2]2-, 2,4-pydca2- = pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate) and alkaline-earth ions (Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+), three interesting coordination compounds, [Ca(H2O)7][LCu·H2O]·H2O (1), {Sr[LCu·H2O]·4H2O}n (2), and {Ba[LCu·H2O]·8H2O}n (3), have been synthesized and well-characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 1 features a discrete 0D coordination compound, while 2 and 3 exhibit the 2D network and 1D chain structures, respectively. Compound 2 is constructed from {LCu}2 dimers connected with {Sr2} units, which is fabricated by two Sr2+ ions bridged via two μ2-O bridges, while compound 3 is formed by 1D {Ba}n chain linked with metalloligands LCu and exhibits an interesting sandwich like chain structure. It is noted that the coordination numbers of alkaline-earth ions are in positive correlation with their radiuses. Moreover, the magnetic property of compound 2 has been studied.

  4. Effects of Protein Stabilizing Agents on Thermal Backbone Motions: A Disulfide Trapping Study†

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Scott L.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical stabilizers are widely used to enhance protein stability, both in nature and in the laboratory. Here, the molecular mechanism of chemical stabilizers is studied using a disulfide trapping assay to measure the effects of stabilizers on thermal backbone dynamics in the Escherichia coli galactose/glucose binding protein. Two types of backbone fluctuations are examined: (a) relative movements of adjacent surface α-helices within the same domain and (b) interdomain twisting motions. Both types of fluctuations are significantly reduced by all six stabilizers tested (glycerol, sucrose, trehalose, l-glucose, d-glucose, and d-galactose), and in each case larger amplitude motions are inhibited more than smaller ones. Motional inhibition does not require a high-affinity stabilizer binding site, indicating that the effects of stabilizers are nonspecific. Overall, the results support the theory that effective stabilizing agents act by favoring the most compact structure of a protein, thereby reducing local backbone fluctuations away from the fully folded state. Such inhibition of protein backbone dynamics may be a general mechanism of protein stabilization in extreme thermal or chemical environments. PMID:8718847

  5. Solar selective black cobalt: preparation, structure, and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.B.; Ignatiev, A.; Zajac, G.

    1980-08-01

    In the quest for an electroplated selective black coating stable to 500 /sup 0/C in air, black cobalts have been prepared by three techniques to yield (a) plated cobalt sulphides, (b) plated cobalt oxide-hydroxide, and (c) cobalt oxide prepared by thermal oxidation of electropolated cobalt metal. The optical properties of the various coatings are analyzed before and after exposure to air for extended periods of time at temperatures in the 300 /sup 0/--500 /sup 0/C range. The sulfide black cobalt is not acceptable as a high-temperature selective absorber due to severe thermal degradation. The plated oxide is a good selective absorber to about 400 /sup 0/C, and the thermally oxidized black to a slightly higher temperature, but degrades at 500 /sup 0/C. Structure studies via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are reported which yield a full account of the coating chemistry before and after heating. The studies reveal that the high solar absorptance of the acceptable black cobalt coatings is due to a continuation of a porous outer layer grading into nondense oxides of cobalt; either CoO or Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, depending on the film. Absorption is intrinsic but not due to metal particles as in black chrome. A limited amount of optical degradation occurs upon heating the oxide black cobalt in air due to oxidation of hydroxide. However, the major degradation problem is shown to be substrate oxidation in contrast to black chrome where film oxidation is the principal problem.

  6. Thermal Stability of FeS2 Cathode Material in "Thermal" Batteries: Effect of Dissolved Oxides in Molten Salt Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick J.

    2008-09-01

    The thermal stability of FeS2 cathode material for thermal batteries is investigated in the LiCl-KCl eutectic containing up to 10 wt% Li2O (used as anti-peak). The results show that the decomposition of pyrite shifts to higher temperatures in the presence of molten salts as the S2 gas is repressed by the liquid phase. For high lithium oxide contents the decomposition temperature of pyrite decreases by 100 °C. In addition Li2FeS2 as reaction product is evidenced whereas Li3Fe2S4 is expected from literature data.

  7. The thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal stability of the Fusarium solani pisi cutinase as a function of pH, in the range from pH 2–12. Its highest enzymatic activity coincides with the pH-range at which it displays its highest thermal stability. The unfolding of the enzyme as a function of pH was investigated by microcalorimetry. The ratio between the calorimetric enthalpy (ΔHcal) and the van't Hoff enthalpy (ΔHv) obtained, is far from unity, indicating that cutinase does not exhibit a simple two state unfolding behaviour. The role of pH on the electrostatic contribution to the thermal stability was assessed using TITRA. We propose a molecular interpretation for the pH-variation in enzymatic activity. PMID:12488611

  8. FTIR and DSC studies of the thermal and photochemical stability of Balanites aegyptiaca oil (Toogga oil).

    PubMed

    Gardette, Jean-Luc; Baba, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The oil extracted from the bean of Balanites aegyptiaca was characterized, and its photochemical and thermal stabilization were evaluated. The chemical composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC), revealing that the oil is very rich in unsaturated fatty acids (72% omega-6 and omega-9). The photochemical stability was assessed by subjecting it to artificially accelerated photo-aging and then examining the changes using infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability was studied at six different temperatures ranging from 130 to 200°C and monitored in situ by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The kinetic parameters (EA and k) describing the thermal degradation of this oil were calculated. It has been shown that the antioxidants present in the oil delay the oxidation process (induction period). The degradation of the Toogga oil was compared with that of oleic and linoleic fatty acids. In addition, the degradation of the Toogga oil extracted with hexane was compared to that of the neat oil.

  9. Thermal stability of soils and detectability of intrinsic soil features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Christian; Kucerik, Jiri

    2014-05-01

    Soils are products of long term pedogenesis in ecosystems. They are characterized by a complex network of interactions between organic and inorganic constituents, which influence soil properties and functions. However, the interrelations cannot easily be determined. Our search for unifying principles of soil formation focuses on water binding. This approach was derived from water-dependent soil formation. It considers the importance of water binding in theories about the origin of genes, in the structural arrangement and functionality of proteins, and in the co-evolution of organism species and the biosphere during the history of earth. We used thermogravimetry as a primary experimental technique. It allows a simple determi-nation of bound water together with organic and inorganic components in whole soil samples without a special preparation. The primary goal was to search for fingerprinting patterns using dynamics of thermal mass losses (TML) caused by water vaporization from natural soils, as a reference base for soil changes under land use. 301 soil samples were collected in biosphere reserves, national parks and other areas as-sumingly untouched by human activity in Siberia, North and South America, Antarctica, and in several long term agricultural experiments. The results did not support the traditional data evaluation procedures used in classical differ-ential thermogravimetry. For example, peak positions and amplitudes did not provide useful information. In contrast, using thermal mass losses (TML) in prefixed smaller, e.g. 10 °C temperature intervals allowed the determination of the content of carbon, clay, nitrogen and carbonates with high accuracy. However, this approach was applicable for soils and neither for soil-like carbon containing mineral substrates without pedogenetic origin, nor for plant residues or soils containing ashes, cinder, or charcoal. Therefore, intrinsic soil regulation processes are discussed as a possible factor causing

  10. Stabilizing effects of hydrated fullerenes C₆₀ in a wide range of concentrations on luciferase, alkaline phosphatase, and peroxidase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Voeikov, Vladimir L; Yablonskaya, Olga I

    2015-01-01

    Hydrated fullerene (HyFnC60) is a highly hydrophilic supra-molecular complex consisting of unmodified С60 fullerene molecule enclosed into a hydrated shell. It has been shown in numerous experiments that aqueous solutions of HyFnC60 manifest a wide range of biological activities both in vivo and in vitro even at very low concentrations of HyFnC60. We used a spectrophotometric method and a method of biochemoluminescence to demonstrate that HyFnC60 in concentrations below 10(-9) M down to 10(-23) M stabilizes peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, and bacterial luciferase against inactivation due to long-term incubation of the enzymes at room temperature and also against heat inactivation. In addition, HyFnC60 was able to "revive" heat inactivated enzymes. These effects cannot be explained by the direct action of the fullerene molecules upon the enzymes. We suggest that the effects of HyFnC60 on the enzymes are related to the ability of hydrated fullerene C60 molecules to organize thick aqueous shells around them. One of the specific properties of water phase in these shells is its ability to optimize redox reactions, which can support enzyme stability against factors deteriorating their structure.

  11. Stabilization of Different Types of Transition States in a Single Enzyme Active Site: QM/MM Analysis of Enzymes in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua; Cui, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The first step for the hydrolysis of a phosphate monoester (pNPP2−) in enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily, R166S AP and wild type NPP, is studied using QM/MM simulations based on an approximate density functional theory (SCC-DFTBPR) and a recently introduced QM/MM interaction Hamiltonian. The calculations suggest that similar loose transition states are involved in both enzymes, despite the fact that phosphate monoesters are the cognate substrates for AP but promiscuous substrates for NPP. The computed loose transition states are clearly different from the more synchronous ones previously calculated for diester reactions in the same AP enzymes. Therefore, our results explicitly support the proposal that AP enzymes are able to recognize and stabilize different types of transition states in a single active site. Analysis of the structural features of computed transition states indicates that the plastic nature of the bi-metallic site plays a minor role in accommodating multiple types of transition states, and that the high degree of solvent accessibility of the AP active site also contributes to its ability to stabilize diverse transition state structures without the need of causing large structural distortions of the bimetallic motif. The binding mode of the leaving group in the transition state highlights that vanadate may not always be an ideal transition state analog for loose phosphoryl transfer transition states. PMID:23786365

  12. Thermal Mechanical Stability of Single-Crystal-Oxide Refractive Concentrators Evaluated for High-Temperature Solar-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, refractive secondary solar concentrator systems were developed for solar thermal power and propulsion (ref. 1). Single-crystal oxides-such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO), and sapphire (Al2O3)-are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials. However, the refractive concentrator system will experience high-temperature thermal cycling in the solar thermal engine during the sun/shade transition of a space mission. The thermal mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a controlled heat flux test approach was developed for investigating the thermal mechanical stability of the candidate oxide. This approach used a 3.0-kW continuous-wave (wavelength, 10.6 mm) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (ref. 2). The CO2 laser is especially well-suited for single-crystal thermal shock tests because it can directly deliver well-characterized heat energy to the oxide surfaces. Since the oxides are opaque at the 10.6-mm wavelength of the laser beam, the light energy is absorbed at the surfaces rather than transmitting into the crystals, and thus generates the required temperature gradients within the specimens. The following figure is a schematic diagram of the test rig.

  13. Tuneable enhancement of the salt and thermal stability of polymeric micelles by cyclized amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic molecules provide better stability for their aggregates. Typically in nature, the unique cyclic cell membrane lipids allow thermophilic archaea to inhabit extreme conditions. By mimicking the biological design, the robustness of self-assembled synthetic nanostructures is expected to be improved. Here we report topology effects by cyclized polymeric amphiphiles against their linear counterparts, demonstrating a drastic enhancement in the thermal, as well as salt stability of self-assembled micelles. Furthermore, through coassembly of the linear and cyclic amphiphiles, the stability was successfully tuned for a wide range of temperatures and salt concentrations. The enhanced thermal/salt stability was exploited in a halogen exchange reaction to stimulate the catalytic activity. The mechanism for the enhancement was also investigated. These topology effects by the cyclic amphiphiles offer unprecedented opportunities in polymer materials design unattainable by traditional means. PMID:23481382

  14. Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-08-09

    The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain

  15. Enhanced planar hall sensitivity with better thermal stability by introducing interfacial modification of Au spacer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Jing; Feng, Chun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Yi-Wei; Jiang, Shao-Long; Liu, Yang; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports an enhancement of planar Hall sensitivity in NiFe/Au/IrMn multilayers by introducing interfacial modification. The improvement of the sensitivity derives from the increase of resistivity change (Δρ), which is attributed to strengthened spin-asymmetry of polarized electrons in NiFe layer induced by strong spin-orbit scattering of Au layer. Furthermore, the NiFe/Au/IrMn structure based sensor exhibits good thermal stability. The high sensitivity together with good thermal stability makes the NiFe/Au/IrMn structure based sensor very promising for bio-detections.

  16. Surge discharge capability and thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, M.; Kojima, S.; Nishiwaki, S.; Sato, T.; Yanabu, S.

    1983-02-01

    The surge discharge capability and the thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester were examined experimentally. It was found that the breakdown energy is nearly the same against the switching surge and the temporary overvoltage of various peak values and time durations. Heat dissipation capability of an 84kV porcelain-type model arrester was examined and found to be less than that of a small model unit, while this relation of the value had been considered opposite in a previously published paper. From these experimental data, the limit at high operation stress was found to be determined by the thermal stability rather than by the discharge capability

  17. Direct laser initiation and improved thermal stability of nitrocellulose/graphene oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Hikal, Walid M.; Zhang, Yue; Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K.; Li, Li; Panditrao, Siddharth; Wang, Shiren; Weeks, Brandon L.

    2013-04-01

    We report on the enhancement and possible control of both laser ignition and burn rates of Nitrocellulose (NC) microfilms when doped with graphene oxide (GO). A Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 20 ns) laser is used to ignite GO-doped NC films at low temperatures. The effect of GO on the doping concentration of the activation energies of laser ignition and thermal stability of the NC films is studied. The activation energy of laser ignition decreases with increasing GO/NC weight ratio and attains a constant value with higher concentrations. This behavior is accompanied by an increase in the thermal stability.

  18. PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites For Improved Thermal Stability And Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel; Faile, Michael; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified by co-exchange of an aromatic diamine and a primary alkyl amine. The clay was dispersed into a PMR (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants)-15 matrix and the glass transition temperature and thermal oxidative stability of the resulting nanocomposites were evaluated. PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposites were also investigated as a matrix material for carbon fabric reinforced composites. Dispersion of the organically modified silicate into the PMR-15 matrix enhanced the thermal oxidative stability, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength of the polymer matrix composite.

  19. Improvement of thermal stability of metal/oxide interface for electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Yo; Hiramoto, Masayoshi; Matsukawa, Nozomu; Iijima, Kenji; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    1998-12-31

    The nano-meter controlled iron/iron-oxide multilayer materials have been successfully obtained by the pulse reactive sputtering method with high deposition rate. These multilayer demonstrated a good thermal stability of its structure and magnetic properties up to 500 C when a small amount of Si was doped in the structure, whereas the non-doped multilayer degraded at above 300 C. The difference of the oxidation energy between Fe and Si increases the thermal stability of the interface between Fe and Fe-O layer.

  20. Effects of curvature and compressibility on the stability of thermal fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez S, Miguel H.; Bessega L, Maria C.; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2006-06-15

    The stability of subsonic thermal fronts against corrugation is analyzed and an exact dispersion relation is obtained taking into account the effects of the curvature of the distorted front as well as the compressibility of the gas. At a certain value of the Mach number ahead of the thermal front, unstable rates show a maximum; these rates drop to zero when a Chapman-Jouguet regime is established behind heat fronts. It is shown that curvature effects tend to stabilize conductive heat fronts propagating in a compressible gas.

  1. Applications of differential scanning calorimetry for thermal stability analysis of proteins: qualification of DSC.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jie; Arthur, Kelly; Chemmalil, Letha; Muzammil, Salman; Gabrielson, John; Jiang, Yijia

    2012-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to characterize protein thermal stability, overall conformation, and domain folding integrity by the biopharmaceutical industry. Recently, there have been increased requests from regulatory agencies for the qualification of characterization methods including DSC. Understanding the method precision can help determine what differences between samples are significant and also establish the acceptance criteria for comparability and other characterization studies. In this study, we identify the parameters for the qualification of DSC for thermal stability analysis of proteins. We use these parameters to assess the precision and sensitivity of DSC and demonstrate that DSC is suitable for protein thermal stability analysis for these purposes. Several molecules from different structural families were studied. The experiments and data analyses were performed by different analysts using different instruments at different sites. The results show that the (apparent) thermal transition midpoint (T(m)) values obtained for the same protein by same and different instruments and/or analysts are quite reproducible, and the profile similarity values obtained for the same protein from the same instrument are also high. DSC is an appropriate method for assessing protein thermal stability and conformational changes.

  2. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bharat; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of the relativistic mean-field approach using the axially deformed basis. We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited state for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay such as α decay and β decay are analyzed. We found that neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α decay, however, they are very unstable against β decay. The lifetime of these nuclei is predicted to be tens of seconds against β decay. If these nuclei are utilized before their decay time, a lot of energy can be produced with the help of multifragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have great implications from the astrophysical point of view. In some cases, we found that the isomeric states with energy range from 2 to 3 MeV and three maxima in the potential energy surface of Th-230228 and U-234228 isotopes.

  3. Improved thermal stability of oxide-supported naked gold nanoparticles by ligand-assisted pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, C; Divins, N. J.; Gazquez, Jaume; Varela, Maria; Angurell, I; Llorca, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a method to improve the thermal stability, up to 900 C, of bare-metal (naked) gold nanoparticles supported on top of SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via ligand-assisted pinning. This approach leads to monodisperse naked gold nanoparticles without significant sintering after thermal annealing in air at 900 C. The ligand-assisted pinning mechanism is described.

  4. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  5. Developing Multilayer Thin Film Strain Sensors With High Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer thin film strain sensor for large temperature range use is under development using a reactively-sputtered process. The sensor is capable of being fabricated in fine line widths utilizing the sacrificial-layer lift-off process that is used for micro-fabricated noble-metal sensors. Tantalum nitride films were optimized using reactive sputtering with an unbalanced magnetron source. A first approximation model of multilayer resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance was used to set the film thicknesses in the multilayer film sensor. Two multifunctional sensors were fabricated using multilayered films of tantalum nitride and palladium chromium, and tested for low temperature resistivity, TCR and strain response. The low temperature coefficient of resistance of the films will result in improved stability in thin film sensors for low to high temperature use.

  6. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  7. Enzyme inhibitors in tuber crops and their thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, S; Nambisan, B; Leelamma, S

    1995-10-01

    Tubers of Cassava (Manihot esculenta), yams (Dioscorea esculenta), aroids (Amorphophallus campanulatus, Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittfolium) and Coleus (Solenostemon rotundifolius) were screened for inhibitory activities against amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Coleus tuber possessed the highest anti-amylase activity, whereas Colocasia tuber was the most potent source of anti-tryptic and anti-chymotryptic activity. Xanthosoma tubers exhibited amylase inhibitory activity and Amorphophallus tubers antiprotease activity. Dioscorea esculenta had low levels of amylase and chymotrypsin inhibitors, while Cassava tubers were totally free of inhibitors. When tubers were processed by pressure cooking, there was significant reduction/complete elimination in inhibitory activity. Partial retention of inhibition was observed in the case of amylase inhibitor in Dioscorea, chymotrypsin inhibitor in Colocasia and trypsin inhibitor in Colocasia, Coleus and Amorphophallus. In vitro experiments on heat stability of the different inhibitors revealed almost similar pattern of inactivation. PMID:8833431

  8. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  9. Thermal stability and thermal expansion studies of cubic fluorite-type MgF{sub 2} up to 135 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.W.; Song, T.; Wei, X.P.; Quan, W.L.; Liu, X.B.; Su, W.F.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The thermal expansion of MgF{sub 2} with a fluorite-type structure has been investigated. • The quasi-harmonic Debye model is applied to take into account the thermal effect. • Particular attention is paid to the prediction of thermal expansion for the first time. - Abstract: The thermal expansion of MgF{sub 2} with a fluorite structure has been investigated at high pressures using plane-wave pseudopotential scheme within the local density approximation correction in the frame of density functional theory based on the analysis of thermal stability using classical molecular dynamics simulations up to 6500 K. To investigate the thermodynamic properties like as the P–V–T equation of state and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient α{sub V} of cubic fluorite-type MgF{sub 2} at extended pressure and temperature ranges, we apply the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered. The P–V relationship and α{sub V} dependence of the pressure up to 135 GPa at different temperatures, and the V–T relationship and α{sub V} dependence of the temperature up to the melting temperature 1500 K at different pressures have been obtained.

  10. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, L.; Lipari, M.; Lombardi, D.; Zicari, A.; Dotta, A.; Pontieri, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl groups, is without effect on the stability of the enzyme in vivo. Macrophages of tumour bearing mice release into the culture medium a more heat resistant enzyme than macrophages from control mice. In both cases the heat resistance of the secreted enzyme is higher when fetal calf serum is present in the culture medium. Bovine serum does not modify the thermal stability of beta-D-galactosidase in this system. Incubation of lysosomal fractions of various organs with the synthetic beta-D-galactosidase substrate, p-nitrophenyl-galactopyranoside, also strongly increases the heat resistance of the enzyme. The results suggest that one factor influencing the heat resistance of this enzyme may be complex formation between the enzyme and its substrates, an example of substrate protection of the enzyme. This may not be the only factor involved in enzyme stabilization in vivo. PMID:3099822

  11. The work function engineering and thermal stability of novel metal gate electrodes for advanced CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Penghui

    The continuous scaling of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits requires the replacement of the conventional poly-silicon gate electrode and silicon dioxide gate dielectric with metal gate electrodes and high-agate dielectrics, respectively. The most critical requirements for alternative metal gates are proper work function and good thermal stability. This dissertation has focused on the effective work function and thermal stability of molybdenum-based metal gates (Mo, MoN, and MoSiN) and fully silicided (FUSI) NiSi metal gates. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurements of MOS capacitors were performed to investigate the electrical properties of molybdenum-based metal gates. Four-point probe resistivity measurements, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Electron Nanodiffraction analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and backside Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) methods were performed as well, to characterize the thermal stability of metal gate electrodes. The effective work function and thermal stability of molybdenum-based metal gates (Mo, MoN and MoSiN) on both SiO2 and Hf-based high-kappadielectrics have been evaluated systematically. The effects of silicon and nitrogen concentrations on the work function and thermal stability are discussed. The effective work function of molybdenum nitrides on both SiO2 and Hf-based high-kappadielectrics can be tuned to ˜4.4-4.5 eV, however, the thermal budgets should be less than 900°C 10 sec due to nitrogen loss and the phase transformation behavior of molybdenum nitrides. Silicon incorporation in the Mo-N system can improve the film thermal stability and diffusion barrier properties at the interface of metal gates/dielectrics due to the presence of Si-N bonds. By optimizing the film composition, the work function of MoSiN gates on SiO2 can be tuned for fully

  12. Electro-optical and pyroelectrical thermal analysis of novel nonlinear optical side-chain polymers with high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard-Multhaupt, Reimund; Bauer, Stefan; Molzow, Wolf-Dietrich; Ren, W.; Wirges, Werner; Yilmaz, S.; Oertel, U.; Haenel, B.; Haeussler, L.; Komber, H.; Lunkwitz, K.

    1994-01-01

    Polymers containing nonlinear optical moieties were prepared on the basis of maleic anhydride copolymers. Azo dyes such as Disperse Red 1 (DR 1) were attached to the polymer backbones via esterification, amidization, or imidization. Optimal poling conditions for the side-chain polymers were determined by means of thermal analysis. After electrode poling with a bias voltage of 200 V at a temperature of 185 degree(s)C, the spin-coated samples were slowly cooled down to room temperature with the poling field still applied. The thermal stabilities of the poled polymer films were measured by means of electro-optical (EOTA) and pyro- electrical (PTA) thermal analysis and compared to the respective responses of DR 1/polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) guest/host polymer samples. Both experimental techniques (EOTA and PTA) are discussed in some detail together with the experimental results.

  13. Diffusion and the Thermal Stability of Amorphous Copper-Zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelter, Eric Carl

    Measurements have been made of diffusion and thermal relaxation in amorphous Cu(,50)Zr(,50). Samples were prepared by melt-spinning under vacuum. Diffusion measurements were made over the temperature range from 317 to 385 C, using Ag and Au as substitutional impurities, by means of Auger electron spectrometry (AES) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Thermal measurements were made by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) up to 550 C. The diffusion coefficients of Ag and Au in amorphous Cu(,50)Zr(,50) are found to be somewhat higher than, but very close in magnitude to the coefficient of self-diffusion in crystalline Cu at the same temperatures. The activation energies for diffusion in the amorphous alloy are 0.72 to 1.55 eV/atom, much closer to the activation energy for self-diffusion in liquid Cu, 0.42 eV/atom, than that for the crystalline solid, 2.19 eV/atom. The mechanism for diffusion in the amorphous metal is presumably quite different from the monovacancy mechanism dominant in the crystalline solid. The pre-exponential terms are found to be extremely small, on the order of 10('-10) to 10('-11) cm('2)/sec for Ag diffusion. This indicates that diffusion in amorphous Cu(,50)Zr(,50) may involve an extended defect of 10 or more atoms. Analysis of the data in terms of the free -volume model also lends strength to this conclusion and indicates that the glass is composed of liquid-like clusters of 15 to 20 atoms. The initial stage of relaxation in amorphous CuZr occurs with a spectrum of activation energies. The lowest activation energy involved, 0.78 eV/atom, is almost identical to the average activation energy of Ag diffusion in the glass, 0.77 eV/atom, indicating that relaxation occurs primarily through diffusion. The activation energy of crystallization, determined by Kissinger's method, is 3.10 eV/atom. The large difference, on the order of 2.3 eV/atom, between the activation energies of crystallization and diffusion is attributed to the energy

  14. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  15. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet, and magnesium oxide.

  16. Rigidity versus flexibility: the dilemma of understanding protein thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Karshikoff, Andrey; Nilsson, Lennart; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    The role of fluctuations in protein thermostability has recently received considerable attention. In the current literature a dualistic picture can be found: thermostability seems to be associated with enhanced rigidity of the protein scaffold in parallel with the reduction of flexible parts of the structure. In contradiction to such arguments it has been shown by experimental studies and computer simulation that thermal tolerance of a protein is not necessarily correlated with the suppression of internal fluctuations and mobility. Both concepts, rigidity and flexibility, are derived from mechanical engineering and represent temporally insensitive features describing static properties, neglecting that relative motion at certain time scales is possible in structurally stable regions of a protein. This suggests that a strict separation of rigid and flexible parts of a protein molecule does not describe the reality correctly. In this work the concepts of mobility/flexibility versus rigidity will be critically reconsidered by taking into account molecular dynamics calculations of heat capacity and conformational entropy, salt bridge networks, electrostatic interactions in folded and unfolded states, and the emerging picture of protein thermostability in view of recently developed network theories. Last, but not least, the influence of high temperature on the active site and activity of enzymes will be considered. PMID:26074325

  17. Optical and Thermal Stability of Oligofluorene/Rubber Luminescent Blend.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Camila G; Faez, Roselena; Péres, Laura O

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes to obtain homogeneous and stable blends of oligo(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-phenylene (OF), a conjugated oligomer with strong tendency of formation of excimers in the solid state, and nitrile rubber (NBR). This rubber protection reduces the formation of polymer excimers in the films. The fluorene oligomer was synthesized via Suzuki reaction and incorporated in the nitrile rubber. The films were formed by spin coating and casting techniques on the proportions of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 % (w/w) of OF in the nitrile rubber (NBR). The structural, optical and thermal properties of the films were evaluated with infrared, UV-Vis, fluorescence and thermogravimetry, respectively. The nitrile rubber proved to be essential for the preparation of homogeneous and stable films, since it was not possible to obtain films with only fluorene using the above-mentioned techniques. Furthermore, luminescent properties of OF are unchanged and the excimers formation in the solid state decrease suggesting the efficiency of nitrile rubber as the matrix for making films. PMID:27351668

  18. Thermal stabilization of collagen in skin and decalcified bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Christopher A.; Avery, Nicholas C.

    2011-04-01

    The state of collagen molecules in the fibres of tail tendon, skin and demineralized bone has been investigated in situ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Hydroxyproline analysis and tissue digestion with bacterial collagenase and trypsin were used to confirm that the common cause of all the DSC endotherms was collagen denaturation. This occurred within a narrow temperature range in tendons, but over a wide temperature range in demineralized bone and old skin and demonstrated that in tendon and demineralized bone at least the same type I collagen molecule exists in different thermal states. Hypothesizing that this might be caused by different degrees of confinement within the fibre lattice, experiments were performed to measure the effect of changing the lattice dimensions by extracting the collagen into dilute solution with pepsin, swelling the lattice in acetic acid, and contracting the lattice by dehydration. A theoretical analysis was undertaken to predict the effect of dehydration. Results were consistent with the hypothesis, demonstrating that collagen molecules within the natural fibres of bone and old skin are located at different intermolecular spacings, revealing differences between molecules in the magnitude of either the attractive or repulsive forces controlling their separation. One potential cause of such variation is known differences in covalent cross-linking.

  19. Stability of global entanglement in thermal states of spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of a one-dimensional chain of qubits coupled via nearest-neighbor spin-spin interactions. The entanglement measure used is the n-concurrence, which is distinct from other measures on spin chains such as bipartite entanglement in that it can quantify 'global' entanglement across the spin chain. Specifically, it computes the overlap of a quantum state with its time-reversed state. As such, this measure is well suited to study ground states of spin-chain Hamiltonians that are intrinsically time-reversal-symmetric. We study the robustness of n-concurrence of ground states when the interaction is subject to a time-reversal antisymmetric magnetic field perturbation. The n-concurrence in the ground state of the isotropic XX model is computed and it is shown that there is a critical magnetic field strength at which the entanglement experiences a jump discontinuity from the maximum value to zero. The n-concurrence for thermal mixed states is derived and a threshold temperature is computed below which the system has nonzero entanglement.

  20. Experimental Study of Turbine Fuel Thermal Stability in an Aircraft Fuel System Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranos, A.; Marteney, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability of aircraft gas turbines fuels was investigated. The objectives were: (1) to design and build an aircraft fuel system simulator; (2) to establish criteria for quantitative assessment of fuel thermal degradation; and (3) to measure the thermal degradation of Jet A and an alternative fuel. Accordingly, an aircraft fuel system simulator was built and the coking tendencies of Jet A and a model alternative fuel (No. 2 heating oil) were measured over a range of temperatures, pressures, flows, and fuel inlet conditions.

  1. Thermal stability study for candidate stainless steels of GEN IV reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeg Veternikova, J.; Degmova, J.; Pekarcikova, M.; Simko, F.; Petriska, M.; Skarba, M.; Mikula, P.; Pupala, M.

    2016-11-01

    Candidate stainless steels for GEN IV reactors were investigated in term of thermal and corrosion stability at high temperatures. New austenitic steel (NF 709), austenitic ODS steel (ODS 316) and two ferritic ODS steels (MA 956 and MA 957) were exposed to around 1000 °C in inert argon atmosphere at pressure of ∼8 MPa. The steels were further studied in a light of vacancy defects presence by positron annihilation spectroscopy and their thermal resistance was confronted to classic AISI steels. The thermal strain supported a creation of oxide layers observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Thermal and pH stability of pestiviruses.

    PubMed

    Depner, K; Bauer, T; Liess, B

    1992-09-01

    Three strains/isolates of hog cholera virus (HCV) and two strains/isolates each of cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cytopathogenic (ncp) biotype of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) were each exposed to pH 3, 3.5 and 4 at 4 degrees C, 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C in a number of combinations. Infectivity titration and half-life determinations following correlation and regression analysis showed a significant temperature-dependent shortening of half-lives within the pH range investigated. At pH 3, mean half-lives were more than tenfold lower when HCV was kept at an ambient temperature of 21 degrees C rather than at 4 degrees C. Additionally, in some of the strains/isolates tested, half-lives of HCV kept at 4 degrees C were four to ten times lower when the pH was raised from 3 to 4. BVDV appeared more sensitive at 4 degrees C and pH 3 than HCV, but equally sensitive at 21 degrees C. Differences in temperature or pH stability between cp and ncp biotypes of BVDV could not be statistically verified although, in general, the cp biotypes seemed to be more stable than the ncp strains/isolates.

  3. Structural characterization and thermal stability of Notothenia coriiceps metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    D'Auria, S; Carginale, V; Scudiero, R; Crescenzi, O; Di Maro, D; Temussi, P A; Parisi, E; Capasso, C

    2001-01-01

    Fish and mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) differ in the amino acid residues placed between their conserved cysteines. We have expressed the MT of an Antarctic fish, Notothenia coriiceps, and characterized it by means of multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Overall, the architecture of the fish MT is very similar to that of mammalian MTs. However, NMR spectroscopy shows that the dynamic behaviour of the two domains is markedly different. With the aid of absorption and CD spectroscopies, we studied the conformational and electronic features of fish and mouse recombinant Cd-MT and the changes produced in these proteins by heating. When the temperature was increased from 20 to 90 degrees C, the Cd-thiolate chromophore absorbance at 254 nm of mouse MT was not modified up to 60 degrees C, whereas the absorbance of fish MT decreased significantly starting from 30 degrees C. The CD spectra also changed quite considerably with temperature, with a gradual decrease of the positive band at 260 nm that was more pronounced for fish than for mouse MT. The differential effect of temperature on fish and mouse MTs may reflect a different stability of metal-thiolate clusters of the two proteins. Such a conclusion is also corroborated by results showing differences in metal mobility between fish and mouse Zn-MT. PMID:11171106

  4. Stability of thermal convection in a rotating cylindrical container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    The rotation and an axial gradient of temperature drive the meridional circulation of a fluid filling a sealed cylindrical container. This numerical study explains why the flow remains stable up to the Grashof number Gr around 1011; Gr characterizes the circulation strength. The shear-layer instability, occurring in a rotating pipe for small values of the Prandtl number Pr [M. A. Herrada and V. N. Shtern, "Stability of centrifugal convection in a rotating pipe," Phys. Fluids 27, 064106 (2015)], is suppressed here even for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio being ten. The cold end disk enhances the fluid circulation near the sidewall and diminishes it near the axis. The inflection point in the radial profile of axial velocity shifts to the sidewall vicinity where the stable centrifugal stratification and the no-slip condition prevent the disturbance growth. The cases Pr = 0, 0.015 (mercury), 0.7 (air), and 5.8 (water) are particularly analyzed. At Pr > 0, the stable density stratification develops and helps to suppress the disturbances. The obtained results are of fundamental interest and might be important for the development of efficient heat exchangers.

  5. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity Used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/rtHz at 10mHz at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  6. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with t.he direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency- reference cavity of order 1 Hz/square root Hz(0.01 Hz/square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  7. Thermal-noise limit in the frequency stabilization of lasers with rigid cavities.

    PubMed

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2004-12-17

    We evaluate thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/ square root Hz (0.01 Hz/ square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results. PMID:15697887

  8. Solute-Derived Thermal Stabilization of Nano-sized Grains in Melt-Spun Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. H.; Sanders, P. G.; Lass, E. A.; Kapoor, Deepak; Kampe, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    Thermal stabilization of nanograined metallic microstructures (or nanostructures) can be difficult due to the large driving force for growth that arises from the inherently significant boundary area. Kinetic approaches for stabilization of the nanostructure effective at low homologous temperatures often fail at higher homologous temperatures. Alternatively, thermodynamic approaches for thermal stabilization may offer higher temperature stability. In this research, modest alloying of aluminum with solute (1 pct by mole Sc, Yb, or Sr) was examined as a means to thermodynamically stabilize a bulk nanostructure at elevated temperatures. Following 1-hour annealing treatments at 673 K (400 °C) (0.72 Tm), 773 K (500 °C) (0.83 Tm), and 873 K (600 °C) (0.94 Tm), the alloys remain nanocrystalline (<100 nm) as measured by Warren-Averbach Fourier analysis of X-ray diffraction peaks and direct observation of TEM dark-field micrographs, with the efficacy of stabilization: Sr ≈ Yb > Sc. The disappearance of intermetallic phases in the Sr- and Yb-containing alloys in the X-ray diffraction spectra is observed to occur coincident with the stabilization after annealing, suggesting that precipitates dissolve and the boundaries are enriched with solute.

  9. Thermal stabilization of chromium(VI) in kaolin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Shu-Yuan; Tsai, Hsien-Neng; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2002-11-01

    Reduction of Cr(VI) by heating may be a useful detoxification mechanism for thermal immobilization. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the change of speciation of chromium in 105 degrees C dried 3.7% Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin further heated at 500, 900, or 1100 degrees C was studied. The 105 degrees C dried 3.7% Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin sample was prepared by mixing 1.5 L of 0.257 M CrO3 solution (pH 0.71) with 0.5 kg of kaolin powder for 48 h, and then the slurry was heated (dried) at 105 degrees C until a constant weight was reached. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure method was used to determine the percentage of leached chromium from all heated samples. In all 500-900 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin samples, Cr2O3 transformed from the hydrated Cr(VI) by a 4-h heat application was identified by the X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy as the key species that is leaching-resistant due to its low solubility. For the 1100 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin sample, the Fourier transform of its EXAFS spectrum indicates that the intensity of the peaks at 2.45 (Cr-Cr shell of Cr2O3) and 5.00 A (Cr-Cr and Cr-O shells of Cr2O3) without phase shift correction is either relatively smaller or disappearing, compared with that of the 500-900 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin samples. It is suggested that chromium octahedra were bridged to silica tetrahedra and incorporated in minerals formed at 1100 degrees C, such as mullite or sillimanite, since these phases were detected by XRD. Cr of this form is not easily leached. PMID:12433175

  10. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    2000-10-04

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating technologies for removing radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) from the supernate solutions stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. Crystalline silicotitanate sorbent (IONSIV IE-911,{reg_sign} UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL), which is very effective at removing cesium from high-salt solution, is one of three technologies currently being tested. Because of the extremely high inventory of {sup 137}Cs expected for the large columns of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) that would be used for treating the SRS supernate, any loss of flow or cooling to the columns could result in high temperatures from radiolytic heating. Also, even for normal operation, the CST would be exposed to the supernates for up to a year before being removed. Small-scale tests using simulant solutions were used to determine the long-term stability of the CST to the solutions at various temperatures. In the tests performed in this study, the cesium capacity of the CST decreased significantly (76%) as the temperature of the simulant and CST during loading was increased from 23 to 80 C. CST exposed to recirculating SRS average simulant solution at room temperature in a column test showed a slow decrease in cesium loading capacity (measured at 23 C), with a drop of 30% for CST from the top of the bed and 13% for CST from the bottom of the bed after a 12-month period of exposure. A similar column test using a high-pH salt solution did not show any change in the cesium capacity of the CST. An increase was noted in pressure drop through the column using average simulant, but no change was observed for the column using high-pH salt solution.

  11. Stability of lysozyme in aqueous extremolyte solutions during heat shock and accelerated thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Saluja, Vinay; van Streun, Erwin L P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of lysozyme in aqueous solutions in the presence of various extremolytes (betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose, ectoine, and firoin) under different stress conditions. The stability of lysozyme was determined by Nile red Fluorescence Spectroscopy and a bioactivity assay. During heat shock (10 min at 70°C), betaine, trehalose, ectoin and firoin protected lysozyme against inactivation while hydroxyectoine, did not have a significant effect. During accelerated thermal conditions (4 weeks at 55°C), firoin also acted as a stabilizer. In contrast, betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose and ectoine destabilized lysozyme under this condition. These findings surprisingly indicate that some extremolytes can stabilize a protein under certain stress conditions but destabilize the same protein under other stress conditions. Therefore it is suggested that for the screening extremolytes to be used for protein stabilization, an appropriate storage conditions should also be taken into account.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Novel Thermal- and Alkaline-Tolerant Egyptian Rhizobium Strains Nodulating Berseem Clover

    PubMed Central

    Shamseldin, Abdelaal; Nelson, Matthew S.; Staley, Christopher; Guhlin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Four Rhizobium strains were isolated from berseem clover in Egypt. The symbiotically effective, salt-tolerant, strain Rhiz950 was identified as new species, Rhizobium aegypticaum sv. trifolii (USDA 7124T). The other three thermal- and pH-tolerant strains were identified as Rhizobium bangladeshense sv. trifolii, the type strain is USDA 7125T. PMID:27635006

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Novel Thermal- and Alkaline-Tolerant Egyptian Rhizobium Strains Nodulating Berseem Clover.

    PubMed

    Shamseldin, Abdelaal; Nelson, Matthew S; Staley, Christopher; Guhlin, Joseph; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Four Rhizobium strains were isolated from berseem clover in Egypt. The symbiotically effective, salt-tolerant, strain Rhiz950 was identified as new species, Rhizobium aegypticaum sv. trifolii (USDA 7124(T)). The other three thermal- and pH-tolerant strains were identified as Rhizobium bangladeshense sv. trifolii, the type strain is USDA 7125(T). PMID:27635006

  14. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  15. Effect of graphene oxide sheet size on the curing kinetics and thermal stability of epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Jin, Jie; Song, Mo; Lin, Yue

    2016-10-01

    This work revealed the influences of graphene oxide (GO) sheet size on the curing kinetics and thermal stability of epoxy resins. A series of GO/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared by the incorporation of three different sized GO sheets, namely GO-1, GO-2 and GO-3, the average size of which was 10.79 μm, 1.72 μm and 0.70 μm, respectively. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were observed by field emission gun scanning electron microscope. The dispersion quality of each sized GO was comparable in the epoxy matrix. The curing kinetics was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and analyzed based on kinetics model. Addition of a small amount of GO (0.1 wt%) exhibited strong catalytic effect on the curing reaction of epoxy resin. The activation energy was reduced by 18.9%, 28.8% and 14.6% with addition of GO-1, GO-2 and GO-3, respectively. GO-2 with medium size (1.72 μm) showed the most effective catalysis on the cure. The thermal stability of the cured resins was evaluated based on thermogravimetric analysis. GO/epoxy nanocomposites showed improved thermal stability in the range of 420 °C–500 °C, compared with the pure resin. A ∼ 4% more residue was obtained in each of the incorporated system. The variations of GO sheet size did not influence the enhancement effect on the thermal stability.

  16. The effect of phytosterol concentration on oxidative stability and thermal polymerization of heated oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effect of adding mixed phytosterols, at various concentrations, on the thermal polymerization and oxidative stability index (OSI) of soybean and high-oleic sunflower oils. The indigenous tocopherols and phytosterols were removed from the oils by molecular distillation. Pu...

  17. New class of thermosetting plastics has improved strength, thermal and chemical stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, E. A.; Dubrow, B.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1967-01-01

    New class of thermosetting plastics has high hydrocarbon content, high stiffness, thermal stability, humidity resistance, and workability in the precured state. It is designated cyclized polydiene urethane, and is applicable as matrices to prepare chemically stable ablative materials for rocket nose cones of nozzles.

  18. Fullerene-Free Polymer Solar Cells with over 11% Efficiency and Excellent Thermal Stability.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenchao; Qian, Deping; Zhang, Shaoqing; Li, Sunsun; Inganäs, Olle; Gao, Feng; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-06-01

    A nonfullerene-based polymer solar cell (PSC) that significantly outperforms fullerene-based PSCs with respect to the power-conversion efficiency is demonstrated for the first time. An efficiency of >11%, which is among the top values in the PSC field, and excellent thermal stability is obtained using PBDB-T and ITIC as donor and acceptor, respectively.

  19. Photochemical and Thermal Stability of Green and Blue Proteorhodopsins: Implications for Protein-Based Bioelectronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ranaghan, Matthew J.; Shima, Sumie; Ramos, Lavosier; Poulin, Daniel S.; Whited, Gregg; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Stuart, Jeffery A.; Albert, Arlene D.; Birge, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The photochemical and thermal stability of the detergent solubilized blue- and green-absorbing proteorhodpsins, BPR and GPR respectively, are investigated to determine viability of these proteins for photonic device applications. Photochemical stability is studied by using pulsed laser excitation and differential uv-vis spectroscopy to assign the photocyclicity. GPR, with a cyclicity of 7×104 photocycles protein−1, is 4–5 times more stable than BPR (9×103 photocycles protein−1), but is less stable than native bacteriorhodopsin (9×105 photocycles protein−1) or the 4-keto-bacteriorhodopsin analog (1×105 photocycles protein−1). The thermal stabilities are assigned by using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal bleaching experiments. Both proteorhodopsins display excellent thermal stability, with melting temperatures above 85°C, and remain photochemically stable up to 75°C. The biological relevance of our results is also discussed. The lower cyclicity of BPR is found to be adequate for the long-term biological function of the host organism at ocean depths of 50 m or more. PMID:20964279

  20. Improving the Stability and Performance of Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes by Thermal Annealing Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Choul; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Da Bin; Jung, Eui Dae; Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Ah-Young; Lee, Bo Ram; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    A perovskite LED with a perovskite film treated under optimum thermal annealing conditions exhibits a significantly enhanced long-term stability with full coverage of the green electroluminescence emission due to the highly uniform morphology of the perovskite film. PMID:27239729

  1. High-thermal-stability white light-emitting-diodes employing broadband glass phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wood-Hi; Chen, Li-Yin; Cheng, Wei-Chih

    2014-09-01

    We report the high-thermal-stability white light-emitting-diodes (WLEDs) employing broadband glass phosphors. The broadband glass phosphors were fabricated by sintering the mixture of multiple phosphors and SiO2-based glass (SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO) at 680°. Y3Al5O12:Ce 3+ (YAG), Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+ (LuAG), and CaAlSiN3: Eu2+ (Nitride) phosphor crystals were chosen as the yellow, green, and red emitters of the glass phosphors, respectively. The results showed that the broadband phosphors exhibited high quantum-yield of 54% and color-rendering index (CRI) of 90. The lumen degradation, chromaticity shift, and transmittance loss in the broadband glass-based WLEDs under thermal aging temperature at 150, 250, 350 and 450° were also presented and compared with those of silicone-based WLEDs under thermal aging temperature at 150 and 250°. The results demonstrated that the broadband glass-based WLEDs exhibited better thermal stability in lumen degradation, chromaticity shift, and transmittance loss than the silicone-based WLEDs. The excellent thermal stability of the broadband glass-based WLEDs with high CRI is essentially beneficial to the applications for next-generation solid-state indoor lighting, especially in the area where high power and absolute reliability are required.

  2. Differential scanning fluorimetry based assessments of the thermal and kinetic stability of peptide-MHC complexes.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Lance M; Yin, Liusong; Wang, Yuan; Blevins, Sydney J; Riley, Timothy P; Belden, Orrin S; Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Stern, Lawrence J; Baker, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of thermal stability by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have been widely used to assess the binding of peptides to MHC proteins, particularly within the structural immunology community. Although thermal stability assays offer advantages over other approaches such as IC50 measurements, CD-based stability measurements are hindered by large sample requirements and low throughput. Here we demonstrate that an alternative approach based on differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) yields results comparable to those based on CD for both class I and class II complexes. As they require much less sample, DSF-based measurements reduce demands on protein production strategies and are amenable for high throughput studies. DSF can thus not only replace CD as a means to assess peptide/MHC thermal stability, but can complement other peptide-MHC binding assays used in screening, epitope discovery, and vaccine design. Due to the physical process probed, DSF can also uncover complexities not observed with other techniques. Lastly, we show that DSF can also be used to assess peptide/MHC kinetic stability, allowing for a single experimental setup to probe both binding equilibria and kinetics. PMID:26906089

  3. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys. PMID:26777778

  4. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys.

  5. Enhancement of Aviation Fuel Thermal Stability Characterization Through Application of Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Samuel Tucker; Wong, Hubert; Hinderer, Cameron Branch; Klettlinger, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    ASTM D3241/Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) procedure, the standard method for testing thermal stability of conventional aviation turbine fuels is inherently limited due to the subjectivity in the color standard for tube deposit rating. Quantitative assessment of the physical characteristics of oxidative fuel deposits provides a more powerful method for comparing the thermal oxidation stability characteristics of fuels, especially in a research setting. We propose employing a Spectroscopic Ellipsometer to determine the film thickness and profile of oxidative fuel deposits on JFTOT heater tubes. Using JP-8 aviation fuel and following a modified ASTM D3241 testing procedure, the capabilities of the Ellipsometer will be demonstrated by measuring oxidative fuel deposit profiles for a range of different deposit characteristics. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project

  6. Morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid) toughened by precipitated barium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinian; Wang, Chuang; Shao, Kaiyun; Ding, Guoxin; Tao, Yulun; Zhu, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based composites were prepared by blending PLA with precipitated barium sulfate (BaSO4) modified with stearic acid. The morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of samples with increased mass fraction of BaSO4 were investigated. Results showed that PLA was toughened and reinforced simultaneously by incorporation of precipitated BaSO4 particles. The highest impact toughness and elongation at break were both achieved at 15% BaSO4, while the elastic modulus increased monotonically with increasing BaSO4 loading. Little effect of BaSO4 on the thermal behavior of PLA was observed in the present case. However, the thermal stability of PLA/BaSO4 composites at high temperature was enhanced.

  7. Structure, thermal stability and electrical properties of reduced graphene/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Fan, Jingbo; Zhu, Lin; Min, Chunying; Shen, Xiangqian; Pan, Tiezheng

    2012-09-01

    The reduced graphene/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films were prepared by the solution casting-thermal reduction process using graphene oxide (GO) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) resin. With the presence of reduced graphene (RG) nano sheets in the nanocomposite, the structure of PVDF is transformed from alpha to beta phase, and the beta phase fraction and its crystallinity are largely affected by the RG content. The PVDF thermal stability is improved by the RG introduction, with about 15 degrees C increase of the half-life of PVDF decomposition temperature. The RG/PVDF nanocomposites show a better electrical conductivity than that for the GO/PVDF nanocomposites. At a low RG content (0.8 wt.%), the dielectric constant of RG/PVDF nanocomposite film with a very low loss tangent is dramatically increased from about 6 to 23. The mechanisms for the thermal stability and electrical property improvements are discussed. PMID:23035466

  8. Structure, thermal stability and electrical properties of reduced graphene/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Fan, Jingbo; Zhu, Lin; Min, Chunying; Shen, Xiangqian; Pan, Tiezheng

    2012-09-01

    The reduced graphene/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite films were prepared by the solution casting-thermal reduction process using graphene oxide (GO) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) resin. With the presence of reduced graphene (RG) nano sheets in the nanocomposite, the structure of PVDF is transformed from alpha to beta phase, and the beta phase fraction and its crystallinity are largely affected by the RG content. The PVDF thermal stability is improved by the RG introduction, with about 15 degrees C increase of the half-life of PVDF decomposition temperature. The RG/PVDF nanocomposites show a better electrical conductivity than that for the GO/PVDF nanocomposites. At a low RG content (0.8 wt.%), the dielectric constant of RG/PVDF nanocomposite film with a very low loss tangent is dramatically increased from about 6 to 23. The mechanisms for the thermal stability and electrical property improvements are discussed.

  9. Optical testing technique for the evaluation of mechanical mount thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapply, Jon K.

    1999-09-01

    Precise optical stability requirements for a military laser required the establishment of detailed error and tolerance budgets of the mechanical system. In order to verify these budgets and also to fully understand the true dynamic stability of the mechanical mounts, extensive thermal testing was performed. This paper present a test technique established to provide a consistent testing process from which results could be used with confidence. Utilizing a readily available optical measurement device and impose test fixtures, this technique provides the designer with a powerful evaluation tool to verify design performance. Various types of result can be obtained using this technique, such as: optical element distortion at temperature, unrecoverable static shifting to the mount, dynamic movement effects and repeatability. These results can be further extrapolated into qualitative assessments of the thermal stability of specific mount design technique. When compiled into a design database, this will provide invaluable information for future design choices.

  10. Increased Thermal Stability of Chromatin Containing 5-Bromodeoxyuridine-Substituted DNA

    PubMed Central

    David, John; Gordon, Joel S.; Rutter, William J.

    1974-01-01

    The replacement of thymidine by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in DNA leads to a greatly enhanced stability of chromatin from hepatoma tissue culture or embryonic rat pancreas, as measured by thermal chromatography on hydroxylapatite. The increased stability is directly correlated with the degree of bromodeoxyuridine substitution. On the other hand, the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA results in a modest stabilization of purified DNA. Substitution of nucleotide also alters slightly the hyperchromicity profile generated during the thermal denaturation of purified DNA and chromatin. The observed changes can best be explained by an altered interaction between the bromodeoxyuridine-DNA and other chromatin components, presumably proteins. These results suggests that the selective effects of bromodeoxyuridine on cytodifferentiation may be due to an increased affinity of regulatory proteins for bromodeoxyuridine-DNA. PMID:4368811

  11. High-throughput thermal scanning for protein stability: making a good technique more robust.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Shane A; Newman, Janet

    2013-08-12

    We present a high-throughput approach to help define experimental formulations that enhance protein stability, which is based on differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF). The method involves defining the thermal stability of a protein against a screen of 13 buffer systems, systematically sampling pH from 5.0 to 9.0 at high and low salt concentrations, using both redundancy and extensive controls to make the method robust. The screen allows rapid determination of a suitable base formulation for protein samples, and is particularly useful for difficult samples: those that are rapidly degraded or cannot be sufficiently concentrated for downstream analyses. Data obtained from three samples in this assay illustrate the vastly different values for thermal stability that can be obtained from different formulations. This approach is simple to interpret and reliable enough that it has been implemented as a service through the Collaborative Crystallisation Centre (C3). PMID:23710551

  12. Thermal stability and energy harvesting characteristics of Au nanorods: harsh environment chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the levels of polluting gases such as CO and NOx from high temperature (500°C and higher) combustion environments requires materials with high thermal stability and resilience that can withstand harsh oxidizing and reducing environments. Au nanorods (AuNRs) have shown potential in plasmonic gas sensing due to their catalytic activity, high oxidation stability, and absorbance sensitivity to changes in the surrounding environment. By using electron beam lithography, AuNR geometries can be patterned with tight control of the rod dimensions and spacings, allowing tunability of their optical properties. Methods such as NR encapsulation within an yttria-stabilized zirconia overcoat layer with subsequent annealing procedures will be shown to improve temperature stability within a simulated harsh environment. Since light sources and spectrometers are typically required to obtain optical measurements, integration is a major barrier for harsh environment sensing. Plasmonic sensing results will be presented where thermal energy is harvested by the AuNRs, which replaces the need for an external incident light source. Results from gas sensing experiments that utilize thermal energy harvesting are in good agreement with experiments which use an external incident light source. Principal component analysis results demonstrate that by selecting the most "active" wavelengths in a plasmonic band, the wavelength space can be reduced from hundreds of monitored wavelengths to just four, without loss of information about selectivity of the AuNRs. By combining thermal stability, the thermal energy harvesting capability, and the selectivity in gas detection (achieved through multivariate analysis), integration of plasmonic sensors into combustion environments can be greatly simplified.

  13. Validated stability indicating RP-HPLC for quantitation of nitazoxanide in presence of its alkaline degradation products and their characterization by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Maha; Kessiba, Amira; El Gindy, Ahmed Emad; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    A simple and sensitive stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Nitazoxanide (NTZ), a new antiprotozoal drug, in presence of degradation products generated under forced alkaline hydrolysis. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Inertsil C8-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer (50:50, v/v, pH 5.0 adjusted with acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Quantification was achieved with UV detection at 298 nm based on relative peak area. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.8-50 µg/mL (r = 0.9999) with a limit of detection and quantification 0.0410 and 0.1242 µg/mL, respectively. The developed method has the requisite accuracy, selectivity, sensitivity and precision to assay NTZ in presence of its degradation products either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulations. The degradation products were then identified by HPLC-MS/MS analysis using an electrospray ionization source and an ion trap analyzer.

  14. Purification and characterization of a thermostable keratinolytic serine alkaline proteinase from Streptomyces sp. strain AB1 with high stability in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Jaouadi, Bassem; Abdelmalek, Badis; Fodil, Djamila; Ferradji, Fatma Zohra; Rekik, Hatem; Zaraî, Nedia; Bejar, Samir

    2010-11-01

    A keratinolytic alkaline proteinase (KERAB) was isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain AB1. Based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 29850.17Da. The NH(2)-terminal sequence of the enzyme was determined to be TQANPPSWGLDDIDQTAL. This keratinase was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DIFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. Using keratin azure as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for keratinase activity were pH 11.5 and 75 degrees C, respectively. This keratinase was stable between 30 and 60 degrees C and pH 4 and 11 for 4 and 96 h, respectively, and thermoactivity and thermostability were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Mg(2+). Its catalytic efficiency was higher than those of SAPB-L31I/T33S/N99Y, nattokinase and subtilisin Carlsberg. KERAB exhibited stability to detergents and high resistance against organic solvents and was able to degrade feathers completely. These properties make KERAB a potential candidate for future applications in detergent formulations, dehairing during leather processing, and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and application of enrofloxacin complexes as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    el-Gamel, Nadia E A; Mohamed, Riham R; Zayed, M A

    2012-02-14

    Synthesis and characterization of both binary Co(II)- (1), Ni(II)- (2) complexes with enrofloxacin drug (HL(1)) and ternary Co(II)- (3), Ni(II)- (4) complexes in presence of DL-alanine (H(2)L(2)) are reported using physico-chemical techniques. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been screened against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with reference drug. All the binary and ternary complexes showed remarkable potential antimicrobial activity higher than the recommended standard agents. Ni(II)-complexes exhibited higher potency as compared to the parent drug against bacterial and fungal strain. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the reported complexes as thermal stabilizers and co-stabilizers for rigid PVC in air at 180 °C. Their high stabilizing efficiency is detected by their high induction period values (T(s)) compared with some of the common reference stabilizers used industrially, such as dibasic lead carbonate (DBLC) and calcium-zinc soap. Blending these complexes with some of the reference stabilizers in different ratios had a synergistic effect on both induction period as it gave better thermal stability and lower extent of discoloration. The stabilizing efficiency is attributed at least partially to the ability of the metal complex stabilizer to be incorporated in the polymeric chains, thus disrupting the chain degradation and replace the labile chlorine atoms on PVC chains by a relatively more s moiety of the inorganic stabilizer. Their amenability to use as a biomedical additives for PVC, has afforded them great potential for various medical applications. PMID:22159190

  16. Impact of revised thermal stability on pollutant transport time in a deep reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Jingfu; Liu, Changming

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stability (Schmidt stability) and water age, which are significantly related to water quality and algae bloom in deep reservoirs, are two crucial indicators of stratification strength and pollutant transport time, respectively. Here, the original Schmidt stability, which was derived from a one-dimensional assumption, was theoretically extended to a three-dimensional water body. In addition, a three-dimensional model was verified for the case study of Hongfeng Reservoir in China based on data from 2009 and 2010. Although the revised stability was similar to the original stability of Hongfeng Reservoir, which occurred at a relatively low level, the greater stratification in other deep water bodies would enhance their difference. Air temperature and water depth were the most important factors of the temporal variation in stability and the spatial variation in stability, respectively. The pollutant transport processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir was very complex with alternate appearances of overflow, interflow and underflow, depending on the season. The spatial water age was primarily determined by the morphometry and the inflow/outflow (with the highest water age in North Lake), whereas the vertical difference in the water age among the layers was primarily controlled by thermal stratification. Negative linear relationships between the average stability and the water ages of the bottom layers in three representative sites during summer were observed. Positive linear relationships between the average stability and the water ages of the surface layers were also observed. These findings enable a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and pollutant transport processes in a deep reservoir.

  17. Thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei c30 cellulase and aspergillus niger; -glucosidase after ph and chemical modification

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Whaley, K.S.; Zachry, G.S.; Wohlpart, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment of Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at pH 10.0 for 1 h at room temperature increased its pH and thermal stability. Chemical modification of the free epsilon-amino groups of cellulase at pH 10.0 resulted in no further increase in stability. Such chemical modification, however, decreased the thermal stability of the cellulose-cellulase complex. On the contrary, the chemical modification of Aspergillus niger glucosidase with glutaraldehyde at pH 8.0 increased the thermal stability of this enzyme.

  18. Thermal transport in composites of self-assembled nickel nanoparticles embedded in yttria stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Nitin; Liao, Hao-Hsiang; Abiade, J; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Kumar, Dhananjay; Huxtable, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of nickel nanoparticle size on thermal transport in multilayer nanocomposites consisting of alternating layers of nickel nanoparticles and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) spacer layers that are grown with pulsed laser deposition. Using time-domain thermoreflectance, we measure thermal conductivities of k = 1.8, 2.4, 2.3, and 3.0 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} for nanocomposites with nickel nanoparticle diameters of 7, 21, 24, and 38 nm, respectively, and k = 2.5 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} for a single 80 nm thick layer of YSZ. We use an effective medium theory to estimate the lower limits for interface thermal conductance G between the nickel nanoparticles and the YSZ matrix (G > 170 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1}), and nickel nanoparticle thermal conductivity.

  19. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  20. Thermal stability of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermal battery cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Bryce, J. C.

    1992-08-01

    Thermal analysis of lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO) has shown that it has limited thermal stability, possibly accounting for the failure of some thermal batteries with LVO cathodes. Its minor component, gamma-LiV2O5, melts at temperatures which could be reached during thermal battery activation. The major component of LVO, VO2, is thermally stable on its own, but can react with lithium chloride-potassium chloride binary eutectic when heated for prolonged periods above 700 C, though VO2/binary eutectic mixtures should be sufficiently stable for use in thermal batteries.

  1. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  2. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  3. ALD functionalized nanoporous gold: thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Biener, Monika M; Biener, Juergen; Wichmann, Andre; Wittstock, Arne; Baumann, Theodore F; Bäumer, Marcus; Hamza, Alex V

    2011-08-10

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications, but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only 1 nm thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1,000°C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO(2) ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high-temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  4. Thermal Stability Results of a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel With Various Blends of Aromatic Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Jennifer; Klettlinger, Suder

    2013-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. F-T fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal paraffins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel with an aromatic solution. The goal of this research is to determine the effect of aromatic content on the thermal stability of F-T fuel. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. Two different aromatic content fuels from Rentech, as well as these fuels with added aromatic blend were analyzed for thermal stability using the JFTOT method. Preliminary results indicate a reduction in thermal stability occurs upon increasing the aromatic content to 10% by adding an aromatic blend to the neat fuel. These results do not specify a failure based on pressure drop, but only on tube color. It is unclear whether tube color correlates to more deposition on the tube surface or not. Further research is necessary in order to determine if these failures are true failures based on tube color. Research using ellipsometry to determine tube deposit thickness rather than color will be continued in follow-up of this study.

  5. Polarization of intraprotein hydrogen bond is critical to thermal stability of short helix.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ya; Lu, Xiaoliang; Duan, Li L; Zhang, John Z H; Mei, Ye

    2012-01-12

    Simulation result for protein folding/unfolding is highly dependent on the accuracy of the force field employed. Even for the simplest structure of protein such as a short helix, simulations using the existing force fields often fail to produce the correct structural/thermodynamic properties of the protein. Recent research indicated that lack of polarization is at least partially responsible for the failure to successfully fold a short helix. In this work, we develop a simple formula-based atomic charge polarization model for intraprotein (backbone) hydrogen bonding based on the existing AMBER force field to study the thermal stability of a short helix (2I9M) by replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation. By comparison of the simulation results with those obtained by employing the standard AMBER03 force field, the formula-based atomic charge polarization model gave the helix melting curve in close agreement with the NMR experiment. However, in simulations using the standard AMBER force field, the helix was thermally unstable at the temperature of the NMR experiment, with a melting temperature almost below the freezing point. The difference in observed thermal stability from these two simulations is the effect of backbone intraprotein polarization, which was included in the formula-based atomic charge polarization model. The polarization of backbone hydrogen bonding thus plays a critical role in the thermal stability of helix or more general protein structures.

  6. Thermal stabilization of chromium slag by sewage sludge: effects of sludge quantity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changlin; Zhang, Hua; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of detoxifying chromium slag by sewage sludge, synthetic chromium slag containing 3% of Cr(VI) was mixed with sewage sludge followed by thermal treatment in nitrogen gas for stabilizing chromium. The effects of slag to sludge ratio (0.5, 1 and 2) and temperature (200, 300, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C) on treatment efficiency were investigated. During the mixing process before thermal treatment, 59.8%-99.7% of Cr(VI) was reduced, but Cr could be easily leached from the reduction product. Increasing heating temperature and decreasing slag to sludge ratio strengthened the reduction and stabilization of Cr(VI). When the slag to sludge ratio was 0.5 and thermal treatment temperature was 300 degrees C, the total leached Cr and Cr(VI) declined to 0.55 mg/L and 0.17 mg/L respectively, and 45.5% of Cr in the thermally treated residue existed as residual fraction. A two-stage mechanism was proposed for the reduction and stabilization of Cr.

  7. Using thermal and spectroscopic (XANES) indices to understand the biological stability of soil organic matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, A. W.; Sanei, H.; Diochon, A.; Tarnocai, C.; Janzen, H.; Regier, T. Z.; Gregorich, E.

    2014-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) composition is a key property that underpins ecosystem productivity. Understanding its physical, chemical and biological properties is important for evaluating its role in carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, the stability of SOM (i.e., resistance to microbial degradation) has important implications in ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling, emission of greenhouse gases from soil, and C sequestration. Thus there is interest in developing new ways to measure and quantify the labile and stable forms of soil organic carbon. In this presentation, we describe the combined use of thermal decomposition methods based on pyrolysis, and chemical properties using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to describe the stability of soil organic matter. Soils (n=81) for this study were obtained from a wide geographical range and management practices. Controlled respiration studies were conducted on the soils to determine the biodegradability of organic C after 98 days. In the thermal analysis, the sample is subjected to a temperature ramp and pyrolyzed/volatilized organic C was recorded as a function of temperature. Analysis by XAS provided information on the types of C functional groups present in a soil sample. We show that biological stability is well described using a two component model which included thermal stability and C composition chemistry.

  8. Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the Thermal Stabilities of Nitroaromatic Compounds Following Different Decomposition Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Huo, Xing; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition behavior of energetic materials is very important for the safety problems concerning their production, transportation, use and storage, because molecular decomposition is intimately connected to their explosive properties. Nitroaromatic compounds, particularly nitrobenzene derivatives, are often considered as prototypical energetic molecules, and some of them are commonly used as high explosives. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) represents a potential tool for predicting the thermal stability properties of energetic materials. But it is reported that constructing general reliable models to predict their stability and their potential explosive properties is a very difficult task. In this work, we make our efforts to investigate the relationship between the molecular structures and corresponding thermal stabilities of 77 nitrobenzene derivatives with various substituent functional groups (in ortho, meta and/or para positions). The proposed best MLR model, developed by the new software QSARINS, based on Genetic Algorithm for variable selection and with various validation tools, is robust, stable and predictive with R(2) of 0.86, QLOO (2) of 0.79 and CCC of 0.90. The results indicated that, though difficult, it is possible to build predictive, externally validated QSAR models to estimate the thermal stability of nitroaromatic compounds.

  9. Thermal stability of vapor-deposited stable glasses of an organic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Diane M.; Ediger, M. D.; Richert, Ranko

    2015-04-07

    Vapor-deposited organic glasses can show enhanced kinetic stability relative to liquid-cooled glasses. When such stable glasses of model glassformers are annealed above the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, they lose their thermal stability and transform into the supercooled liquid via constant velocity propagating fronts. In this work, we show that vapor-deposited glasses of an organic semiconductor, N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), also transform via propagating fronts. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry and a new high-throughput annealing protocol, we measure transformation front velocities for TPD glasses prepared with substrate temperatures (T{sub Substrate}) from 0.63 to 0.96 T{sub g}, at many different annealing temperatures. We observe that the front velocity varies by over an order of magnitude with T{sub Substrate}, while the activation energy remains constant. Using dielectric spectroscopy, we measure the structural relaxation time of supercooled TPD. We find that the mobility of the liquid and the structure of the glass are independent factors in controlling the thermal stability of TPD films. In comparison to model glassformers, the transformation fronts of TPD have similar velocities and a similar dependence on T{sub Substrate}, suggesting universal behavior. These results may aid in designing active layers in organic electronic devices with improved thermal stability.

  10. Thermal stability enhancement of modified carboxymethyl cellulose films using SnO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baniasad, Arezou; Ghorbani, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    In this study, in-situ and ex-situ hydrothermal synthesis procedures were applied to synthesize novel CMC/porous SnO2 nanocomposites from rice husk extracted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) biopolymer. In addition, the effects of SnO2 nanoparticles on thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposite were specifically studied. Products were investigated in terms of morphology, particle size, chemical structure, crystallinity and thermal stability by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Presence of characteristic bands in the FTIR spectra of samples confirmed the successful formation of CMC and CMC/SnO2 nanocomposites. In addition, FESEM images revealed four different morphologies of porous SnO2 nanoparticles including nanospheres, microcubes, nanoflowers and olive-like nanoparticles with hollow cores which were formed on CMC. These nanoparticles possessed d-spacing values of 3.35Å. Thermal stability measurements revealed that introduction of SnO2 nanoparticles in the structure of CMC enhanced stability of CMC to 85%.

  11. Multifunctional cyclotriphosphazene/hexagonal boron nitride hybrids and their flame retarding bismaleimide resins with high thermal conductivity and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenqin; Yuan, Li; Liang, Guozheng; Gu, Aijuan

    2014-09-10

    A novel hybridized multifunctional filler (CPBN), cyclotriphosphazene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) hybrid, was synthesized by chemically coating hBN with hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and p-phenylenediamine, its structure was systemically characterized. Besides, CPBN was used to develop new flame retarding bismaleimide/o,o'-diallylbisphenol A (BD) resins with simultaneously high thermal conductivity and thermal stability. The nature of CPBN has a strong influence on the flame behavior of the composites. With the addition of only 5 wt % CPBN to BD resin, the thermal conductivity increases 2 times; meanwhile the flame retardancy of BD resin is remarkably increased, reflected by the increased limited oxygen index, much longer time to ignition, significantly reduced heat release rate. The thermogravimetric kinetics, structures of chars and pyrolysis gases, and cone calorimeter tests were investigated to reveal the unique flame retarding mechanism of CPBN/BD composites. CPBN provides multieffects on improving the flame retardancy, especially in forming a protective char layer, which means a more thermally stable and condensed barrier for heat and mass transfer, and thus protecting the resin from further combustion. PMID:25140735

  12. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Tamaki; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-06-21

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce(3+) ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce(3+) ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce(3+) ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce(3+) and Ce(4+) ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce(3+) ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce(3+) ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce(3+) ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce(3+) to Ce(4+) occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce(3+) ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce(3+) stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce(3+) sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce(3+) ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments.

  13. Thermal unfolding of Apo and Holo Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin: cofactor stabilizes folded and intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Muralidhara, B K; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2004-10-12

    We here compare thermal unfolding of the apo and holo forms of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans flavodoxin, which noncovalently binds a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor. In the case of the apo form, fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) detected transitions are reversible but do not overlap (T(m) of 50 and 60 degrees C, respectively, pH 7). The thermal transitions for the holo form follow the same pattern but occur at higher temperatures (T(m) of 60 and 67 degrees C for fluorescence and CD transitions, respectively, pH 7). The holoprotein transitions are also reversible and exhibit no protein concentration dependence (above 10 microM), indicating that the FMN remains bound to the polypeptide throughout. Global analysis shows that the thermal reactions for both apo and holo forms proceed via an equilibrium intermediate that has approximately 90% nativelike secondary structure and significant enthalpic stabilization relative to the unfolded states. Incubation of unfolded holoflavodoxin at high temperatures results in FMN dissociation. Rebinding of FMN at these conditions is nominal, and therefore, cooling of holoprotein heated to 95 degrees C follows the refolding pathway of the apo form. However, FMN readily rebinds to the apoprotein at lower temperatures. We conclude that (1) a three-state thermal unfolding behavior appears to be conserved among long- and short-chain, as well as apo and holo forms of, flavodoxins and (2) flavodoxin's thermal stability (in both native and intermediate states) is augmented by the presence of the FMN cofactor. PMID:15461458

  14. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  15. Structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a carboxypeptidase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, A; Zecca, L; Fusi, P; Colombo, S; Tedeschi, G; Tortora, P

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, D'Auria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent cation. Chaotropic salts strongly destabilized the holoenzyme, showing that hydrophobic interactions are involved in maintaining the native conformation of the enzyme. However, the inactivation rate was also increased by sodium sulphate, acetate and chloride, which are not chaotropes, indicating that one or more salt bridges concur in stabilizing the active enzyme. Furthermore, at the extremes of the pH-stability curve, NaCl did not affect the inactivation rate, confirming the stabilizing role of intramolecular ionic bonds, as a pH-dependent decrease in stability is likely to occur from breaking of salt bridges involved in maintaining the native conformation of the protein. PMID:8240298

  16. Structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a carboxypeptidase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Zecca, L; Fusi, P; Colombo, S; Tedeschi, G; Tortora, P

    1993-11-01

    Investigations were performed on the structural features responsible for kinetic thermal stability of a thermostable carboxypeptidase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus which had been purified previously and identified as a zinc metalloprotease [Colombo, D'Auria, Fusi, Zecca, Raia and Tortora (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 349-357]. Removal of Zn2+ by dialysis led to reversible activity loss, which was promptly restored by addition of 80 microM ZnCl2 to the assay mixture. For the first-order irreversible thermal inactivation the metal-depleted enzyme showed an activation energy value of 205.6 kJ.mol-1, which is considerably lower than that of the holoenzyme (494.4 kJ.mol-1). The values of activation free energies, enthalpies and entropies also dropped with metal removal. Thermal inactivation of the apoenzyme was very quick at 80 degrees C, whereas the holoenzyme was stable at the same temperature. These findings suggest a major stabilizing role for the bivalent cation. Chaotropic salts strongly destabilized the holoenzyme, showing that hydrophobic interactions are involved in maintaining the native conformation of the enzyme. However, the inactivation rate was also increased by sodium sulphate, acetate and chloride, which are not chaotropes, indicating that one or more salt bridges concur in stabilizing the active enzyme. Furthermore, at the extremes of the pH-stability curve, NaCl did not affect the inactivation rate, confirming the stabilizing role of intramolecular ionic bonds, as a pH-dependent decrease in stability is likely to occur from breaking of salt bridges involved in maintaining the native conformation of the protein.

  17. Thermal stability of higher plant biomarkers evaluated through pyrolysis; geologic implications in thermally-mature sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Von Bargen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The organic molecules known as n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and sterols are widely used biomarkers in paleoecological and organic matter source-apportionment studies, and are complementary to traditional bulk organic matter proxies (organic carbon stable isotopes and C/N ratios). These organic matter parameters are hindered by early and late diagenesis, through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, which can lead to uncertainty in sediments on geologic timescales. This study seeks to use modern central Texas plants and soils as tools for our understanding and interpretation of biomarker patterns deep time, specifically in thermally mature sediment and paleosols. Bulk leaf and soil samples were heat treated to a range of temperatures in a muffle furnace in the absence of oxygen in order to clarify the role of abiotic degradation (thermal cracking) on bulk SOM and biomarker distributions. Preliminary results for unaltered n-alkane distributions of Southern Cattail (Typha domingensis) biomass shows a strong odd-over-even predominance, where the most abundant n-alkanes are nC23, nC25, nC27, and nC29. The biomass exposed to slow pyrolysis temperature of 300°C had n-alkanes ranging from nC11-nC29, with no odd-over-even predominance. The high abundance of lower molecular weight n-alkanes (thermal cracking of high molecular weight alkanes into smaller fragments. It is evident that the n-alkane distributions of modern plant material is severely disrupted by modest heating, an observation that must be taken into account when interpreting these biomarkers in deeply-buried geological samples.

  18. Thermal-stability studies of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junwei

    2005-07-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries has recently attracted attention for two major reasons. (1) Attempts to make large-size cells used in power tools, E-bikes and EVs. Large cells have lower surface area to volume ratios and hence heat dissipation is more problematic than 18650-size cells. Safety problems, therefore, for large cells are more serious. (2) Next generation high-capacity electrodes will increase the energy density of lithium-ion cells meaning even an 18650-size cell may face safety concerns. This thesis presents studies of the thermal stability of electrode materials in electrolytes to understand their reactivity. A search for new positive electrode materials with high thermal stability was made. The thermal stability of two common electrode materials (Li0.81 C6 and Li0.5CoO2) in lithium-ion cells was studied by Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC). Li0.81C 6 has much lower reactivity with lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) electrolyte compared to LiPF6 electrolyte. It is not the case, however, for Li0.5CoO2. Oven tests of full LiCoO 2/C 18650-size cells with LiBOB or LiPF6 electrolytes, confirmed the ARC results. ARC was then used to study the reactivity of existing electrode materials. The thermal stability of a negative electrode material was found to increase with the binding energy of Li atoms hosted in the material. Li0.5VO 2 (B) has a higher lithium binding energy (2.45 eV vs. Li) than Li 0.81C6 (0.1 eV vs. Li) and Li7Ti5O 12 (1.55 eV) and it shows the highest thermal stability in EC/DEC among the three materials. The reactivity of two existing positive electrode materials, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, was studied. Cell systems expected to be highly tolerant to thermal abuse were suggested: LiFePO 4/C or Li4Ti5O12 in LiBOB electrolytes. The system, x Li[Ni1/2Mn1/2]O2 • y LiCoO2 • z Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 (x + y + z = 1), was explored for new positive electrode materials with large capacity and high thermal stability. Li[(Ni0.5Mn0.5) xCo1-x]O2 (0

  19. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  20. Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.

  1. Studies of jet fuel thermal stability and oxidation using a quartz crystal microbalance and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zabarnick, S. . Aerospace Mechanics Div.)

    1994-05-01

    The thermal stability of aircraft jet fuels was measured in real time with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) at 140 C. Qualitative data on the oxidation of these fuels was also obtained by monitoring the system pressure during thermal stressing. The system was operated at relatively low oxygen availability (1 atm air) which more closely approximates the oxygen availability of flowing fuel tests and real fuel systems than previous work. The high sensitivity and good reproducibility of the QCM permitted deposition measurements under unaccelerated conditions (i.e., relatively low temperature and oxygen availability). Correlation of oxidation and deposition behavior provided insight into the deposition and oxidation processes.

  2. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    SciTech Connect

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Hornok, Viktoria; Oszko, Albert; Petrik, Peter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert; Dekany, Imre

    2012-08-15

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO{sub 2} in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 Degree-Sign C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low ({approx}0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated samples were 153 and 244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The effects of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed. - Graphical Abstract: TEM picture (left) shows P-TNTs with diameters about 5-6 nm. Inset shows a stable titanate nanotube sol illuminated by a 532 nm laser beam. Due to the presence of the nanoparticles the way of the light is visible in the sol. Cross sectional SEM picture (right) as well as ellipsometry revealed the formation of optical quality P-TNT films with thicknesses below 50 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment led to TNTs with high surface area even after calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated TNTs preserved their nanotube morphology up to 500

  3. Radiation and Thermal Stability of Solid Radwaste After Immobilization in Polymer Matrix - 13504

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Yu.; Babain, V.; Strelkov, S.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kelley, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The paper will illustrate results of the various experiments on radiation and thermal stability of polymer matrixes after solutions solidification including aqueous and organic solutions and mixed waste. It was shown that- after irradiation the specimen and after solidification the mixture with oil and TBP hydrogen has been observed (less 1%) and some others gases have been detected. Results of the performed experiments and the radiation stability data of the polymer compositions allow the conclusion that the technological process of immobilizing the above mentioned aqueous solutions and solutions with organic products into polymers at room temperature is the explosion- and flameproof as well as the storage thereof. (authors)

  4. Thermal Stability of Photosensitive Bragg Gratings in Sputter-Deposited Germanosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    POTTER JR.,BARRETT G.; POTTER,KELLY SIMMONS; DUNBAR,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-07-24

    The thermal stability of photo-imprinted Bragg gratings formed in reactive-atmosphere, RF-magnetron sputtered germanosilicate thin films was evaluated in terms of point defect modifications observed during isochronal annealing. Optical and magnetic spectroscopes were utilized to evaluate structural relaxation in these sputtered glasses on both a local and medium-range size scale. Depending upon the substrate temperature used during deposition, significant structural rearrangement was found to occur with increasing post-deposition anneal temperature to 600 C. This resulted in changes in the photobleaching response of the material itself as the identity of optically active structural defects evolved. Based on a color center model for photosensitivity in these materials and measured changes in optical absorption with annealing, the thermal stability of a photo-imprinted Bragg grating was modeled. Good qualitative agreement with experiment was observed.

  5. Stability diagram of the collective atomic recoil laser with thermal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, H.; Schmidt, D.; Georges, C.; Slama, S.; Zimmermann, C.

    2015-06-01

    We experimentally investigate cold thermal atoms in a single sidedly pumped optical ring resonator for temperatures between 0.4 and 9 μ K . The threshold for collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL) is recorded for various pump-cavity detunings. The resulting stability diagram is interpreted by simulating the classical CARL equations. We find that the stability diagram for thermal atoms shows the same asymmetry as observed for Bose-Einstein condensates in previous experiments. Whereas for condensates the asymmetry is well explained by a Dicke-type quantum model we here discuss a simplified classical model. It complements the quantum model and provides an intuitive explanation based on the change in the long-range atomic interaction with pump-cavity detuning.

  6. Investigation on the thermal stability of PVC filled with hydrotalcite by the UV-vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Hancheng

    2008-01-01

    The thermal stability of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filled with hydrotalcite was studied in this paper. It was found that the stability of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn and hydrotalcite was better than that of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn alone. The UV-vis spectra showed that under certain heat treatment conditions, the sample without hydrotalcite embodied relatively high content of the conjugated double bonds with the chain length of about 3-5, however, the content of the conjugated double bond with the chain length of about 7 was greatly increased when the hydrotalcite was filled into the PVC resin. The hydrotalcite could inhibit the thermal degradation process of PVC resin in ionic mechanism. PMID:17434333

  7. Studies on the thermal stability of BiCuSeO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreteau, Celine; Berardan, David; Dragoe, Nita

    2015-02-01

    BiCuSeO based materials have been reported as very promising thermoelectric materials, with thermoelectric figure of merit values that make them among the best p-type Pb-free polycrystalline thermoelectric materials, and they could be suitable for applications in thermal to electrical power conversion modules in a 300-650 °C temperature range. In this paper, we report on the phase stability and thermal stability of these materials under inert and oxidizing atmosphere and we discuss their actual potential for wide scale applications. We show that although they are stable in inert atmosphere up to 650 °C, with very slow volatilization rate, it is not the case under oxidizing atmosphere, with a quick oxidation starting at a moderate temperature.

  8. Thermal stability of vapor phase deposited self-assembled monolayers for MEMS anti-stiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yan Xin; Hansen, Ole; Knieling, Thomas; Wang, Christian; Rombach, Pirmin; Lang, Walter; Benecke, Wolfgang; Kehlenbeck, Markus; Koblitz, Jörn

    2006-11-01

    Six different source chemicals (organosilanes) were successfully used for deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto silicon substrates by a vapor phase process. Five different fluorocarbon coatings and one hydrocarbon coating were deposited. The thermal stability of the coatings was studied in detail with respect to degradation as a function of temperature, and for the fluorocarbon coatings also the degradation rate at 400 °C. For fluorocarbon coatings deposited from FDTS a useful lifetime of approximately 90 min at 400 °C was found allowing the coating to survive high temperature MEMS packaging operations, while fluorocarbon coatings deposited from FOTS, FOMDS, FOTES and FOMMS were less stable. The hydrocarbon coating deposited from OTS degrades already at approximately 200 °C. The thermal stability of the SAM coatings was found to be significantly reduced if aggregations from the deposition process are present on the coatings.

  9. Study of the thermal stability of Zerodur glass ceramics suitable for a scanning probe microscope frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Číp, Ondřej; Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Buchta, Zdeněk; Lazar, Josef

    2012-04-01

    The work presents measurements of the length stability of Zerodur glass ceramic with temperature change. Measurement of this thermal characteristic is necessary for determination of the optimal temperature at which the Zerodur glass ceramic has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to zero. The principle of the measurement is to monitor the length changes using an optical resonator with a cavity mirror spacer made from the Zerodur material to be studied. The resonator is placed inside a vacuum chamber with a temperature control. A tunable laser diode is locked to a certain optical mode of the resonator to monitor the optical frequency of this mode. A beat-note signal from optical mixing between the laser and a stabilized femtosecond frequency comb is detected and processed. The temperature dependence of the glass ceramics was determined and analyzed. The resolution of the length measurement of the experimental set-up is on the order of 0.1 nm.

  10. Fullerene mixtures enhance the thermal stability of a non-crystalline polymer solar cell blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Camilla; Bergqvist, Jonas; Bäcke, Olof; Gustafsson, Stefan; Wang, Ergang; Olsson, Eva; Inganäs, Olle; Andersson, Mats R.; Müller, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Printing of polymer:fullerene solar cells at high speed requires annealing at temperatures up to 140 °C. However, bulk-heterojunction blends that comprise a non-crystalline donor polymer often suffer from insufficient thermal stability and hence rapidly coarsen upon annealing above the glass transition temperature of the blend. In addition, micrometer-sized fullerene crystals grow, which are detrimental for the solar cell performance. In this manuscript, we present a strategy to limit fullerene crystallization, which is based on the use of fullerene mixtures of the two most common derivatives, PC61BM and PC71BM, as the acceptor material. Blends of this fullerene mixture and a non-crystalline thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer display considerably enhanced thermal stability and largely retain their photovoltaic performance upon annealing at elevated temperatures as high as 170 °C.

  11. Cancellation of drift kinetic effects between thermal and energetic particles on the resistive wall mode stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, Z. R.

    2016-07-01

    Drift kinetic stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is computationally investigated using MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K following the non-perturbative approach (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503), for both reversed field pinch (RFP) and tokamak plasmas. Toroidal precessional drift resonance effects from trapped energetic ions (EIs) and various kinetic resonances between the mode and the guiding center drift motions of thermal particles are included into the self-consistent toroidal computations. The results show cancellation effects of the drift kinetic damping on the RWM between the thermal particles and EIs contributions, in both RFP and tokamak plasmas, even though each species alone can provide damping and stabilize RWM instability by respective kinetic resonances. The degree of cancellation generally depends on the EIs equilibrium distribution, the particle birth energy, as well as the toroidal flow speed of the plasma.

  12. Synthesis and thermal stability of selenium-doped hydroxyapatite with different substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonghui; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2015-12-01

    Selenium (Se) plays a specific role in human health, especially for its antitumor effect. Incorporation of selenium into biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAP) may endow the materials with novel characteristics. In the current work, a series of seleniumdoped hydroxyapatite (Se-HAP) nanoparticles with different Se/P ratios were synthesized by a modified chemical precipitation. It was revealed that the powders with/without heattreatment were nano-sized needle-like HAP while the heat-treated samples have high crystallinity. The addition of selenium decreases the crystallinity of the synthesized apatite, and also takes a negative effect on the thermal stability of the as-prepared powders. The Se-HAP nanoparticles with Se/P molar ratio not more than 5% sintered at 900°C can achieve good crystallinity and thermal stability.

  13. Stability and color changes of thermally treated betanin, phyllocactin, and hylocerenin solutions.

    PubMed

    Herbach, Kirsten M; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-25

    Thermal degradation of betanin, phyllocactin (malonyl-betanin), and hylocerenin (3' '-hydroxy-3' '-methyl-glutaryl-betanin) solutions isolated from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) was monitored by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analyses. For betanin and phyllocactin solutions, the color shift upon thermal treatment was found to be nearly identical, while hylocerenin samples exhibited an intelligibly higher chromatic steadiness. Betanin proved to be the most stable individual pigment structure, while the enhanced tinctorial stability of the integral phyllocactin and especially hylocerenin solutions was due to the formation of red degradation products exhibiting improved color retention as opposed to their respective genuine pigments. Individual structure-related stability characteristics can exclusively be assessed by HPLC-DAD analyses and may not be noticed by mere spectrophotometric assessment of color and tinctorial strength.

  14. Thermal stability of fission gas bubble superlattice in irradiated U–10Mo fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Robinson, A. B.; Wachs, D. M.; Meyer, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated U-7Mo dispersion and U-10Mo monolithic fuel plates, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel with a local fission density of 3.5×1021 fissions/cm3 was used for an in-situ heating TEM experiment. The temperature of the heating holder was raised at a ramp rate of approximately 10 ºC/min up to ~700 ºC, kept at that temperature for about 34 min, continued to 850 ºC with a reduced rate of 5 ºC/min. The result shows a high thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of this observation on the fuel microstructural evolution and performance under irradiation is discussed.

  15. Applications of high pressure differential scanning calorimetry to aviation fuel thermal stability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M. C.; Stocker, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was studied as an alternate method for performing high temperature fuel thermal stability research. The DSC was used to measure the heat of reaction versus temperature of a fuel sample heated at a programmed rate in an oxygen pressurized cell. Pure hydrocarbons and model fuels were studied using typical DSC operating conditions of 600 psig of oxygen and a temperature range from ambient to 500 C. The DSC oxidation onset temperature was determined and was used to rate the fuels on thermal stability. Kinetic rate constants were determined for the global initial oxidation reaction. Fuel deposit formation is measured, and the high temperature volatility of some tetralin deposits is studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are used to study the chemical composition of some DSC stressed fuels.

  16. A study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of the NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte in alkaline aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Yuta; Zhang, Tao; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Im, Dongmin; Lee, Dong Joon; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu; Sammes, Nigel

    The stability of the high lithium ion conducting glass ceramics, Li 1+ x+ yTi 2- xAl xSi yP 3- yO 12 (LTAP) in alkaline aqueous solutions with and without LiCl has been examined. A significant conductivity decrease of the LTAP plate immersed in 0.057 M LiOH aqueous solution at 50 °C for 3 weeks was observed. However, no conductivity change of the LTAP plate immersed in LiCl saturated LiOH aqueous solutions at 50 °C for 3 weeks was observed. The pH value of the LiCl-LiOH-H 2O solution with saturated LiCl was in a range of 7-9. The molarity of LiOH and LiCl in the LiOH and LiCl saturated aqueous solution were estimated to be 5.12 and 11.57 M, respectively, by analysis of Li + and OH -. The high concentration of LiOH and the low pH value of 8.14 in this solution suggested that the dissociation of LiOH into Li + and OH - is too low in the solution with a high concentration of Li +. These results suggest that the water stable LTAP could be used as a protect layer of the lithium metal anode in the lithium/air cell with LiCl saturated aqueous solution as the electrolyte, because the content of OH - ions in the LiCl saturated aqueous solution does not increase via the cell reaction of Li + 1/2O 2 + H 2O → 2LiOH, and LTAP is stable under a deep discharge state.

  17. Thermal Stability of Giant Magneto-impedance Effect in Glass-covered Amorphous Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. D.; Liu, J. S.; Xing, D. W.; Chen, D. M.; Wang, H.; Sun, J. Fei

    Thermal stability of Giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect of Co-based amorphous glass-covered wires was investigated. The temperature measurement was conducted in a special calorstat cell between 25 °C and 200 °C, and the GMI effect of the as-cast, glass-removed and DC annealed wires was measured at 100kHz-12 MHz ranging from 0 Oe to 80 Oe. Experimental results show that the ambient temperature has a significant influence on the thermal stability of GMI effect, it is caused by external conditions: driving frequency, magnetic field and sample states. The thermal stability and GMI fluctuating variation at different temperature of three-type wires could be quantificationally characterized by GMImax ratio variation difference Δ[ΔZ/Zmax]Tmax of three-type wires, and drastically improved with the driving frequency increasing to 10 MHz, and the working range of magnetic field for possible sensor applications should be below 10 Oe. While there is different from as-cast and glass-removed wires, DC annealed wire has twin-working-zone range (relatively low field 0 Oe-2 Oe & relatively high field 2Oe-10 Oe) of magnetic field at relatively high frequency (10 MHz) for sensor applications with different detection range of weak magnetic field. So, the improved thermal stability is caused by the co- actions of remarkable skin-effect, magnetic polarization and magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy with the increasing frequency. It therefore is concluded that the optimal driving frequency of 10 MHz and the detection range of weak magnetic field (2Oe-10 Oe) is favorable for the design parameters choices of high-performance GMI sensor.

  18. Ordered domain lateral location, symmetry, and thermal stability in Ge:Si islands

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.-I.; Schülli, T. U.; Zhong, Z.; Metzger, T. H.; Renaud, G.

    2015-01-05

    Compositional atomic ordering is a crucial issue in the epitaxial growth of nanoparticles and thin films. Here, we report on a method based on x-ray diffuse scattering close to basis forbidden Bragg reflections to infer the lateral location, the symmetry, and the thermal stability of ordered domains in GeSi dome-shaped islands on Si(001) after growth and during annealing. We observe that atomic ordering does not disappear after annealing, demonstrating that it is a resilient metastable phenomenon.

  19. Correlation between Thermal Stability Map and Base Substitution Map of DNA from Related Bacteriophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husimi, Yuzuru; Shibata, Keizo

    1984-10-01

    The number density of substituted bases among related bacteriophages (fd, 1 and M13) is heterogeneous along the DNA strand although most base substitutions do not alter the coded amino acids. Local thermal stability of the double helical DNA is also heterogeneous. There is a negative correlation between these two maps. The same conclusion holds between less closely related phages, φX174 and G4.

  20. Thermal stability of kudzu root (Pueraria Radix) isoflavones as additives to beef patties.

    PubMed

    Kumari, S; Raines, J M; Martin, J M; Rodriguez, J M

    2015-03-01

    Kudzu root, Pueraria radix, extracts are a rich source of isoflavones. This study investigates the thermal stability of Pueraria radix extracts as a natural nutraceutical supplement in beef patties. The extract contained puerarin, diadzin, genistin, ononin, daidzein, glycitein, calycosin, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A; however, puerarin, daidzein and glycitein were the main components. The isoflavones concentrations in the spiked beef patties with kudzu root extracts were unaffected by cooking. PMID:25745227

  1. Design considerations of a thermally stabilized continuous flow electrophoresis chamber 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jandebeur, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    The basic adjustable parameters of a Beckman Continouous Particle Electrophoresis (CPE) Apparatus are investigated to determine the optimum conditions for ground based operation for comparison with space experiments. The possible application of electrically insulated copper/aluminum chamber walls is evaluated as a means to thermally stabilize or equilibrate lateral temperature gradients which exist on the walls of conventional plastic chambers and which distort the rectilinear base flow of buffer through the chamber, significantly affecting sample resolution.

  2. Resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing thermal stabilization to enhance the safe storage of plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant until decisions are made on long-term storage and disposition of the material. The proposed action is to resume thermal stabilization of pyrophoric plutonium in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Plant. Thermal stabilization would heat the pyrophoric plutonium under controlled conditions in a glovebox furnace to promote full oxidation and convert the material into stable plutonium oxide in the form of PuO{sub 2}. Other activities associated with thermal stabilization would include post-stabilization characterization of non-pyrophoric plutonium and on-site movement of pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric plutonium. This report covers; purpose and need; proposed action; alternatives to the proposed action; affected environment; environmental effects of proposed action and no action alternative; agencies and person consulted; and public participation.

  3. Minimizing Postsampling Degradation of Peptides by a Thermal Benchtop Tissue Stabilization Method.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Lova; Gustavsson, Jenny; Nylander, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Enzymatic degradation is a major concern in peptide analysis. Postmortem metabolism in biological samples entails considerable risk for measurements misrepresentative of true in vivo concentrations. It is therefore vital to find reliable, reproducible, and easy-to-use procedures to inhibit enzymatic activity in fresh tissues before subjecting them to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this study was to test a benchtop thermal stabilization method to optimize measurement of endogenous opioids in brain tissue. Endogenous opioid peptides are generated from precursor proteins through multiple enzymatic steps that include conversion of one bioactive peptide to another, often with a different function. Ex vivo metabolism may, therefore, lead to erroneous functional interpretations. The efficacy of heat stabilization was systematically evaluated in a number of postmortem handling procedures. Dynorphin B (DYNB), Leu-enkephalin-Arg(6) (LARG), and Met-enkephalin-Arg(6)-Phe(7) (MEAP) were measured by radioimmunoassay in rat hypothalamus, striatum (STR), and cingulate cortex (CCX). Also, simplified extraction protocols for stabilized tissue were tested. Stabilization affected all peptide levels to varying degrees compared to those prepared by standard dissection and tissue handling procedures. Stabilization increased DYNB in hypothalamus, but not STR or CCX, whereas LARG generally decreased. MEAP increased in hypothalamus after all stabilization procedures, whereas for STR and CCX, the effect was dependent on the time point for stabilization. The efficacy of stabilization allowed samples to be left for 2 hours in room temperature (20°C) without changes in peptide levels. This study shows that conductive heat transfer is an easy-to-use and efficient procedure for the preservation of the molecular composition in biological samples. Region- and peptide-specific critical steps were identified and stabilization enabled the optimization of tissue handling and opioid

  4. Soil thermal resistivity and thermal stability measuring instrument. Volume 2: Manual for operation and use of the thermal property analyzer and statistical weather analysis program to determine thermal design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. A.; Radhakrishna, H. S.; Chu, F. Y.; Ford, G. L.; Griffin, J. D. A.; Steinmanis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Numerous considerations influence the thermal design of an underground power cable, including the soil thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal stability. Each of these properties is a function of soil moisture which is in turn a function of past weather, soil composition, and biological burden. The Neher-McGrath formalism has been widely used for thermal cable design. However, this formalism assumes knowledge of soil thermal properties (resistivity and diffusivity). For design purposes, these parameters should be treated statistically, since weather varies greatly from year to year. As well, soil thermal property surveys are normally required along the route to assess the thermal quality of the native soil. This project is intended to fill the gap between the need to carry out thermal design and the use of the Neher-McGrath formalism which is normally employed. This goal has been addressed through: development of instrumentation and methods of measuring soil thermal properties in situ and in the laboratory; recommendation of methods for conducting soil surveys along a proposed cable route and of assessing the thermal quality of soils; and development of a computerized method to treat soil thermal design parameters on a statistical basis using computerized weather records as supplied by the US Environmental Data Service. The use of the methods and instrumentation developed as a result of this contract should permit less conservative thermal design thereby improving the economics of underground transmission. As well, these techniques and instrumentation facilitate weather-dependent prediction of cable ampacity for installed cables, monitoring of backfill thermal stability, and many other new practices.

  5. Thermal Stabilization of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase a for application in a sugar beet pulp biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Chakiath, Chacko; Lyons, Margaret J; Kozak, Robert E; Laufer, Craig S

    2009-12-01

    Directed evolution approaches were used to construct a thermally stabilized variant of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectin methylesterase A. The final evolved enzyme has four amino acid substitutions that together confer a T(m) value that is approximately 11 degrees C greater than that of the wild-type enzyme, while maintaining near-wild-type kinetic properties. The specific activity, with saturating substrate, of the thermally stabilized enzyme is greater than that of the wild-type enzyme when both are operating at their respective optimal temperatures, 60 degrees C and 50 degrees C. The engineered enzyme may be useful for saccharification of biomass, such as sugar beet pulp, with relatively high pectin content. In particular, the engineered enzyme is able to function in biomass up to temperatures of 65 degrees C without significant loss of activity. Specifically, the thermally stabilized enzyme facilitates the saccharification of sugar beet pulp by the commercial pectinase preparation Pectinex Ultra SPL. Added pectin methylesterase increases the initial rate of sugar production by approximately 50%.

  6. Thermal stability evaluation of microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Kameel; Zhao, Ming-Yue; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhang-Jian; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2014-10-01

    The thermal stability is important for tungsten based alloys as plasma facing materials to survive against high heat flux in fusion reactors. In this work, the thermal stability of W-5%V alloy fabricated following a powder metallurgy route by spark plasma sintering technique has been studied. To investigate the impact of temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructures, the alloy was subjected to heat treatment for 2 h over the temperature range 900-1500°C in a pure argon furnace. The micro-hardness values of the heat treated alloys were highly stable as compared to pure tungsten. A slight decrease flexural strength was observed with increasing annealing temperature. The maximum change flexural strength at the highest treated temperature was noted about 14% lower. The morphology analyses of the crack surfaces by scanning electron microscopy did not identify a drastic change in tungsten grain size, after heat treatment. The results indicate that the addition of vanadium in tungsten improves the overall thermal stability of microstructures and mechanical properties.

  7. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-12-30

    The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG-DSC-MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10K/min from room temperature to 350°C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200°C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO2, NH3, SO2 and N2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  8. Influence of Nitrogen Content on Thermal Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Cryomilled Al Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi-Sadraei, L.; Mousavi, S. E.; Vogt, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Lavernia, E. J.; Schoenung, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    Nanocomposite powders of Al 5083/B4C were produced via cryogenic milling (cryomilling) of boron carbide (B4C) particles in Al 5083 matrix. The effect of milling time (up to 24 hours), and consequential nitrogen content, on grain growth in the nanocrystalline Al 5083 matrix was investigated. Thermal stability was studied at temperatures as high as ~0.96 T m and annealing times of up to 24 hours. Average grain sizes increased with time and temperature and tended to stabilize after longer annealing times, regardless of nitrogen content. Higher thermal stability was observed in samples with higher nitrogen content, with the average grain size remaining in the range of 30 nm, even after exposure to the most extreme annealing conditions. This behavior was attributed to the retarding effect that nitrides have on grain growth, as a result of pinning grain boundaries. Kinetic studies based on the Burke equation showed two thermally activated grain growth regimes—a low-temperature regime with an activation energy of 15 kJ/mol and a high-temperature regime with an activation energy of 58 kJ/mol.

  9. Stability of Pin1 as revealed by thermal and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Pin1 is a two-domain enzyme which has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Pin1 recognizes phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in cell-signaling proteins, and is both a cancer and an Alzheimer's disease target. The thermal stability of Pin1 was studied intensively by SDS-PAGE, enzymatic activity assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The activity of Pin1 gradually decreased above 40 °C, and the Tm was 57.6 ± 1.0 °C. Fluorescence experiments indicated that heat treatment induced changes in the substructures in Pin1, resulting in that the polarity in the microenvironments of the tryptophan residues increased. It is assumed that the thermal denaturation of Pin1 involved a three-state transition. The intermediate state of Pin1 at about 60 °C was confirmed by fluorescence emission spectra, the synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD measurements. Decreases in α-helix and β-sheet appeared above 40 °C, which was balanced by an enhancement in unordered coil. The Tm values calculated from α-helix transition and β-sheet transition were 54.6 ± 0.6 °C and 70.7 ± 3.3 °C, respectively. Our results illustrated that Pin1 had a relatively high thermal stability and the WW domain had a higher stability than the PPIase domain.

  10. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of MnBi/NdFeB hybrid bonded magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, S.; Yue, M.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, D. T.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic properties and thermal stability were investigated for the MnBi/NdFeB (MnBi = 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt.%) bonded hybrid magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of MnBi content on the magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets was studied. With increasing MnBi content, the coercivity of the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets increases rapidly, while the remanence and maximum energy product drops simultaneously. Thermal stability measurement on MnBi magnet, NdFeB magnet, and the hybrid magnet with 20 wt.% MnBi indicates that both the NdFeB magnet and the MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnet have a negative temperature coefficient of coercivity, while the MnBi magnet has a positive one. The (BH){sub max} of the MnBi/NdFeB magnet (MnBi = 20 wt.%) is 5.71 MGOe at 423 K, which is much higher than 3.67 MGOe of the NdFeB magnet, indicating a remarkable improvement of thermal stability.

  11. Improvement of thermal stability of amorphous CoFeSiB thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, M. Shimizu, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2015-05-07

    The excellent soft magnetic properties of amorphous (a-) CoFeSiB films make it suited for use in the yoke of granular-in-gap sensors, but only if their thermal stability can be improved. To this end, this study investigated the effects of adding small amounts of other metals on the magnetic and structural properties of a-CoFeSiB films. It was found that adding metals with relatively large atomic radii is an effective way to increase thermal stability, with both Ta and Hf showing good thermal stability after annealing at temperatures of 473 to 573 K. Indeed, a -(CoFeSiB){sub 96.2}Hf{sub 3.8} film was found to maintain its initial coercivity of 0.2 Oe without very little decrease in magnetization after annealing at 623 K. Furthermore, even after annealing at 673 K a -(CoFeSiB){sub 93.0}Hf{sub 7.0} film still had a relatively low coercivity of approximately 0.5 Oe.

  12. Thermal stability and starch degradation profile of α-amylase from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sang Youn; Nakashima, Kazunori; Okai, Naoko; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Miyake, Michiru; Harazono, Koichi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Amylases from Streptomyces are useful in the production of maltooligosaccharides, but they have weak thermal stability at temperatures higher than 40 °C. In this study, α-amylase (SAV5981 gene of Streptomyces avermitilis) was expressed from Streptomyces lividans 1326 and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by anionic chromatography (Q-HP sepharose). The properties of the purified SAV5981 amylase were determined by the starch-iodine method. The effect of metal ions on amylase activity was investigated. The optimal temperature shifted from 25 to 50 °C with the addition of the Ca(2+) ion. The thermal stability of SAV5981 was also dramatically enhanced by the addition of 10 mM CaCl2. Improvement of the thermal stability of SAV5981 was examined by CD spectra in the presence and the absence of the Ca(2+) ion. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and HPLC analysis of starch degradation revealed that SAV5981 mainly produced maltose and maltotriose, not glucose. The maltoorigosaccharide-producing amylase examined in this study has the potential in the industrial application of oligosaccharide production.

  13. Thermal Conductivity and Water Vapor Stability of Ceramic HfO2-Based Coating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 are candidate thermal/environmental barrier coating materials for gas turbine ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor liner applications because of their relatively low thermal conductivity and high temperature capability. In this paper, thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability of plasma-sprayed coatings and/or hot-pressed HfO2-5mol%Y2O3, HfO2-15mol%Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 were evaluated at temperatures up to 1700 C using a steady-state laser heat-flux technique. Sintering behavior of the plasma-sprayed coatings was determined by monitoring the thermal conductivity increases during a 20-hour test period at various temperatures. Durability and failure mechanisms of the HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 coatings on mullite/SiC Hexoloy or CMC substrates were investigated at 1650 C under thermal gradient cyclic conditions. Coating design and testing issues for the 1650 C thermal/environmental barrier coating applications will also be discussed.

  14. The Effect Of Thermal Insulation Of An Apartment Building On The Thermo-Hydraulic Stability Of Its Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurčová, Mária

    2015-12-01

    The contribution aims to investigate the effect of the decreased thermal losses of an apartment building due to the thermal insulation of opaque external building constructions and the replacement of transparent constructions. It emphasizes the effect of the thermal characteristics of external constructions on the functionality of the existing heating system in the building and the related requirements for the renovation of the heating system in order to ensure the hydraulic stability of the system and the thermal comfort of the inhabitants.

  15. Application of a Physics-Based Stabilization Criterion to Flight System Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Garrison, Matthew; Cottingham, Christine; Peabody, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The theory shown here can provide thermal stability criteria based on physics and a goal steady state error rather than on an arbitrary "X% Q/mC(sub P)" method. The ability to accurately predict steady-state temperatures well before thermal balance is reached could be very useful during testing. This holds true for systems where components are changing temperature at different rates, although it works better for the components closest to the sink. However, the application to these test cases shows some significant limitations: This theory quickly falls apart if the thermal control system in question is tightly coupled to a large mass not accounted for in the calculations, so it is more useful in subsystem-level testing than full orbiter tests. Tight couplings to a fluctuating sink causes noise in the steady state temperature predictions.

  16. Refractometric sensitivity and thermal stabilization of fluorescent core microcapillary sensors: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Lane, S; Marsiglio, F; Zhi, Y; Meldrum, A

    2015-02-20

    Fluorescent-core microcapillaries (FCMs) present a robust basis for the application of optical whispering gallery modes toward refractometric sensing. An important question concerns whether these devices can be rendered insensitive to local temperature fluctuations, which may otherwise limit their refractometric detection limits, mainly as a result of thermorefractive effects. Here, we first use a standard cylindrical cavity formalism to develop the refractometric and thermally limited detection limits for the FCM structure. We then measure the thermal response of a real device with different analytes in the channel and compare the result to the theory. Good stability against temperature fluctuations was obtained for an ethanol solvent, with a near-zero observed thermal shift for the transverse magnetic modes. Similarly good results could in principle be obtained for any other solvent (e.g., water), if the thickness of the fluorescent layer can be sufficiently well controlled.

  17. Friction, wear, and thermal stability studies of some organotin and organosilicon compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal decomposition temperatures were determined for a number of organotin and organosilicon compounds. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used to determine the friction and wear characteristics of two representative compounds, (1) 3-tri-n-butylstannyl (diphenyl) and (2) 3-tri-n-butylsilyl (diphenyl). Friction and wear test conditions included a 1-kg load, 25 to 225 C disk temperatures, and a dry air atmosphere. The tin and silicon compounds yielded friction and wear results either lower than or similar to those obtained with a polyphenyl ether and a C-ether. The maximum thermal decomposition temperatures obtained in the silicon and tin series were 358 and 297 C, respectively. Increasing the steric hindrance around the silicon or tin atoms increased the thermal stability. Future work with these compounds will emphasize their use as antiwear additives rather than base fluids.

  18. V-groove-based compact FBG package for thermal tuning and mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Wei; Wang, Di; Chen, Di-Jun; Cai, Hai-Wen; Qu, Rong-Hui

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated a V-groove-based fiber Bragg grating (FBG) package that has been glue-filled and cured to make it a bulky component with much improved mechanical stability. The V-groove can be executed with many types of materials including plastics, ceramics, semiconductors, and metals, providing an easy method for redesigning the thermal tuning performance of FBGs by selecting among a wide variety of materials and processes. We achieved more than 10-nm thermal wavelength tuning and thermal sensitivity ranging from 15 to 160 pm/K. The original FBG spectrum can be maintained without any degradation because the fiber is buried in the V-groove. The compact package does not increase the original grating length and turns the FBG into a planar waveguide grating, improving FBG applications in telecommunications, external cavity lasers, and sensing areas.

  19. The effect of heparin and pentosan polysulfate on the thermal stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, H; Molnárová, M; Podhradský, D

    1998-12-01

    Heparin and pentosan polysulfate as organic polyanions inhibit yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of heparin and pentosan polysulfate on the thermostability of alcohol dehydrogenase. Spectral and kinetic analyses showed that these compounds increase the thermal stability of the enzyme and eliminate entirely thermal aggregation. The thermostabilizing effect of unfractionated heparin and pentosan polysulfate was accelerated in the presence of NAD+. The addition of NAD+ (11 microM) to the incubation medium decreased the inhibition of the YADH activity in the presence of pentosan polysulfate (1.32 microM). Moreover, 38% of the residual activity of YADH was found after a 5-min incubation at 70 degrees C. These findings indicate that heparinoids not only modulate the enzyme activity but also can prevent the protein's thermal denaturation.

  20. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of polyurethane foam composites containing carbon additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Lee, Geesoo; Han, San Wook; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Ki-Dong; Han, Joo-Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is an important class of polymers that have wide application in a number of different industrial sectors. The goal of this work was the synthesis of flame-retarded PU foam with expandable graphite (EG) or commercial graphene. The flame retardancy and thermal stability of the foams has been studied through cone calorimeter analysis, the limited oxygen index and thermal conductivity. The presence of expandable graphite brings an improvement in fire behavior. In particular, the limited oxygen index increases in a linear way and the highest limited oxygen index values are obtained for EG-PU foams. The results from the cone calorimeter are in agreement with those of oxygen index; EG filled foams show a considerable decrease of maximum-heat release rate (M-HRR) with respect to unfilled foams. The results of thermal conductivity show that an increase in expandable graphite amount in PU foams lead to an increased conductivity.

  1. Feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory and thermal stability of topological order

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-10-15

    Recently, it has become apparent that the thermal stability of topologically ordered systems at finite temperature, as discussed in condensed matter physics, can be studied by addressing the feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory, as discussed in quantum information science. Here, with this correspondence in mind, we propose a model of quantum codes that may cover a large class of physically realizable quantum memory. The model is supported by a certain class of gapped spin Hamiltonians, called stabilizer Hamiltonians, with translation symmetries and a small number of ground states that does not grow with the system size. We show that the model does not work as self-correcting quantum memory due to a certain topological constraint on geometric shapes of its logical operators. This quantum coding theoretical result implies that systems covered or approximated by the model cannot have thermally stable topological order, meaning that systems cannot be stable against both thermal fluctuations and local perturbations simultaneously in two and three spatial dimensions. - Highlights: > We define a class of physically realizable quantum codes. > We determine their coding and physical properties completely. > We establish the connection between topological order and self-correcting memory. > We find they do not work as self-correcting quantum memory. > We find they do not have thermally stable topological order.

  2. Heat inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase with enhanced thermal stability by glucose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Shi, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhan, Xi-Lan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase and effect of glucose on thermostability of the enzyme have been determined in this paper. Kinetic studies showed that the thermal inactivation was irreversible and first-order reaction. The microscopic rate constants for inactivation of free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complex were both determined, which suggested that substrates can protect β-glucosidase against thermal deactivation effectively. On the other hand, glucose was found to protect β-glucosidase from heat inactivation to remain almost whole activity below 70°C at 20mM concentration, whereas the apparent inactivation rate of BG decreased to be 0.3×10(-3)s(-1) in the presence of 5mM glucose, smaller than that of sugar-free enzyme (1.91×10(-3)s(-1)). The intrinsic fluorescence spectra results showed that glucose also had stabilizing effect on the conformation of BG against thermal denaturation. Docking simulation depicted the interaction mode between glucose and active residues of the enzyme to produce stabilizing effect.

  3. Activity and stability of the oxygen evolution reaction on electrodeposited Ru and its thermal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Yeong; Choi, Jihui; Kim, Ho Young; Hwang, Eunkyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kil

    2015-12-01

    The activity and stability of Ru metal and its thermal oxide films for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were investigated. The metallic Ru films were prepared by electrodeposition on a Ti substrate and then thermally oxidized at various temperatures under atmospheric conditions. During long-term operation of the OER with cyclic voltammetry (CV) in H2SO4 electrolyte, changes in the properties of the Ru and its thermal oxides were monitored in terms of their morphology, crystal structure, and electronic structure. In the initial stages of the OER, all of the Ru thermal oxide films underwent an activation process that was related to the continuous removal of low-activity Ru oxides from the surface. With further cycling, the OER activity decreased. The rate of decrease was different for each Ru film and was related to the annealing temperatures. Monitoring of material properties indicates that the amount of stable anhydrous RuO2 is important for OER stability because it prevents both the severe dissolution of metallic Ru beneath the oxide surface and the formation of a less active hydrous RuO2 at the surface.

  4. Thermal Stability of a 4 Meter Primary Reflector for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofield, Richard E.; Kasl, Eldon P.

    2011-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) is a space-borne heterodyne radiometer which will measure pressure, temperature and atmospheric constituents from thermal emission in [180,680] GHz. SMLS, planned for the NRC Decadal Survey's Global Atmospheric Composition Mission, uses a novel toric Cassegrain antenna to perform both elevation and azimuth scanning. This provides better horizontal and temporal resolution and coverage than were possible with elevation-only scanning in the two previous MLS satellite instruments. SMLS is diffraction-limited in the vertical plane but highly astigmatic in the horizontal (beam aspect ratio approx. 1:20). Nadir symmetry ensures that beam shape is nearly invariant over plus or minus 65 deg azimuth. A low-noise receiver FOV is swept over the reflector system by a small azimuth-scanning mirror. We describe the fabrication and thermal-stability test of a composite demonstration primary reflector, having full 4m height and 1/3 the width planned for flight. Using finite-element models of reflectors and structure, we evaluate thermal deformations and optical performance for 4 orbital environments and isothermal soak. We compare deformations with photogrammetric measurements made during soak tests in a chamber. The test temperature range exceeds predicted orbital ranges by large factors, implying in-orbit thermal stability of 0.21 micron rms (root mean square)/C, which meets SMLS requirements.

  5. Reliability and stability of three cryogenic temperature sensor models subjected to accelerated thermal cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Krause, John

    2012-06-01

    Reliability of a cryogenic temperature sensor is important for any experimental application, but even more so for aerospace applications where there is virtually no opportunity to replace a failed sensor. Many factors affect the stability and longevity of a cryogenic temperature sensor, but one of the most detrimental factors is thermal cycling over an extended temperature range. Strains and stresses caused by thermal contraction can affect both the sensing material and its interface with electrical contacts leading to either calibration shift and/or catastrophic failure of the sensor. Depending upon the aerospace application, a temperature sensor may cycle from cryogenic temperature to near room temperature hundreds of times or more during the lifetime of the mission. Sample groups of three sensors types, the Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. models CX-1050-SD (23 samples), DT-670-SD (12 samples), and DT-470-SD (11 samples), were subjected to accelerated thermal shocking from room temperature to 77 K one thousand times. Recalibrations of each group were performed from 1.2 K to 325 K after 20, 40, 60, 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 thermal shocks. The resulting reliability and stability data are presented.

  6. Phosphate buffer effects on thermal stability and H2O2-resistance of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Asad, Sedigheh; Torabi, Seyed-Fakhreddin; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Ghaemi, Nasser; Khajeh, Khosro

    2011-05-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has attracted intense research interest due to its potential applications in biotechnological fields. However, inadequate stability under prevalent conditions such as elevated temperatures and H(2)O(2) exposure, has limited its industrial application. In this study, stability of HRP was investigated in the presence of different buffer systems (potassium phosphate and Tris-HCl) and additives. It was shown that the concentration of phosphate buffer severely affects enzyme thermostability in a way that in diluted potassium phosphate buffer (10mM) half-life (from 13 to 35 min at 80 °C) and T(m) (from 73 to 77.5 °C) increased significantly. Among additives tested, trehalose had the most thermostabilizing effect. Exploring the role of glycosylation in stabilizing effect of phosphate buffer, non-glycosylated recombinant HRP was also examined for its thermal and H(2)O(2) stability in both diluted and concentrated phosphate buffers. The recombinant enzyme was more thermally stable in diluted buffer in accordance to glycosylated HRP; but interestingly recombinant HRP showed higher H(2)O(2) tolerance in concentrated buffer.

  7. Prediction of salt effects on protein phase behavior by HIC retention and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Kai; Großhans, Steffen; Schütz, Juliane; Suhm, Susanna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry it is mandatory to know and ensure the correct protein phase state as a critical quality attribute in every process step. Unwanted protein precipitation or crystallization can lead to column, pipe or filter blocking. In formulation, the formation of aggregates can even be lethal when injected into the patient. The typical methodology to illustrate protein phase states is the generation of protein phase diagrams. Commonly, protein phase behavior is shown in dependence of protein and precipitant concentration. Despite using high-throughput methods for the generation of phase diagrams, the time necessary to reach equilibrium is the bottleneck. Faster methods to predict protein phase behavior are desirable. In this study, hydrophobic interaction chromatography retention times were correlated to crystal size and form. High-throughput thermal stability measurements (melting and aggregation temperatures), using an Optim(®)2 system, were successfully correlated to glucose isomerase stability. By using hydrophobic interaction chromatography and thermal stability determinations, glucose isomerase conformational and colloidal stability were successfully predicted for different salts in a specific pH range. PMID:27268946

  8. Thermal stability and long-chain fatty acid positional distribution on glycerol of argan oil.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Mannina, Luisa; Viel, Stéphane; Owen, Robert W

    2008-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stability of argan oils by using peroxides and conjugated diene hydroperoxides measurements as analytical indicators. Both food and cosmetic argan oils were investigated. Their oxidative stability was also determined by monitoring the relative changes of their fatty acid profiles by (1)H NMR. In addition, valuable information regarding minor components as well as the acyl positional distribution, were obtained for both grades by high field (1)H and (13)C NMR, respectively. Given that the cosmetic and food grades have a similar profile and content of phenolic antioxidants, vitamers, and squalene, it appears that the ratio of fatty acid aliphatic to bisallylic CH2 groups, much higher in argan oils than in other vegetable oils, is responsible for their higher thermal stability.

  9. Photo- and thermal-stability studies on benzimidazole anthelmintics by HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ragno, Gaetano; Risoli, Antonella; Ioele, Giuseppina; De Luca, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Photo- and thermal-stability of the anthelmintics Albendazole, Mebendazole and Fenbendazole as in solid as in solution form has been investigated, by using a Xenon arc lamp as a radiation source, according to the ICH guideline for the drug stability tests. The degradation process was monitored by a HPLC method. All drugs showed high photosensitivity in solution but a reliable stability in solid form and when exposed to a temperature up to 50 degrees C. Two main degradation products from hydrolysis of the carbamic groups were identified by GC-MS. Validation studies demonstrated high accuracy (recovery 94 to 106%) and precision (RSD under 4.6%) of the HPLC method. The analytical procedure was successfully applied to the control of the drugs in the respective pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:16755047

  10. Thermal stability of PVC formulations gamma irradiated at different dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Facio, A.; Benavides, R.; Martínez-Pardo, M. E.

    2014-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) formulated with two different stabilizer systems (Ca/Zn stearates and dibasic lead phthalate) irradiated at 75 kGy at two different dose rates were studied in order to evaluate their effect in thermal stability. Samples were degraded in a TGA instrument at different heating rates and the activation energy (Ea) to dehydrochlorination was calculated using the Arrhenius method in accordance with ASTM E 1641-07. TGA evaluations show that temperature for HCl evolution is higher when increasing heating rate, as well as higher resistance to degradation, for irradiated lead formulations; however, after activation energies calculation the irradiated Ca/Zn formulations are more stable. The controversial results are due to the low initial stability of lead additives in PVC.

  11. Protein thermal stability enhancement by designing salt bridges: a combined computational and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Wen; Wang, Hsiu-Jung; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Protein thermal stability is an important factor considered in medical and industrial applications. Many structural characteristics related to protein thermal stability have been elucidated, and increasing salt bridges is considered as one of the most efficient strategies to increase protein thermal stability. However, the accurate simulation of salt bridges remains difficult. In this study, a novel method for salt-bridge design was proposed based on the statistical analysis of 10,556 surface salt bridges on 6,493 X-ray protein structures. These salt bridges were first categorized based on pairing residues, secondary structure locations, and Cα-Cα distances. Pairing preferences generalized from statistical analysis were used to construct a salt-bridge pair index and utilized in a weighted electrostatic attraction model to find the effective pairings for designing salt bridges. The model was also coupled with B-factor, weighted contact number, relative solvent accessibility, and conservation prescreening to determine the residues appropriate for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges. According to our method, eight putative salt-bridges were designed on a mesophilic β-glucosidase and 24 variants were constructed to verify the predictions. Six putative salt-bridges leaded to the increase of the enzyme thermal stability. A significant increase in melting temperature of 8.8, 4.8, 3.7, 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7°C of the putative salt-bridges N437K-D49, E96R-D28, E96K-D28, S440K-E70, T231K-D388, and Q277E-D282 was detected, respectively. Reversing the polarity of T231K-D388 to T231D-D388K resulted in a further increase in melting temperatures by 3.6°C, which may be caused by the transformation of an intra-subunit electrostatic interaction into an inter-subunit one depending on the local environment. The combination of the thermostable variants (N437K, E96R, T231D and D388K) generated a melting temperature increase of 15.7°C. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel

  12. Protein Thermal Stability Enhancement by Designing Salt Bridges: A Combined Computational and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Protein thermal stability is an important factor considered in medical and industrial applications. Many structural characteristics related to protein thermal stability have been elucidated, and increasing salt bridges is considered as one of the most efficient strategies to increase protein thermal stability. However, the accurate simulation of salt bridges remains difficult. In this study, a novel method for salt-bridge design was proposed based on the statistical analysis of 10,556 surface salt bridges on 6,493 X-ray protein structures. These salt bridges were first categorized based on pairing residues, secondary structure locations, and Cα–Cα distances. Pairing preferences generalized from statistical analysis were used to construct a salt-bridge pair index and utilized in a weighted electrostatic attraction model to find the effective pairings for designing salt bridges. The model was also coupled with B-factor, weighted contact number, relative solvent accessibility, and conservation prescreening to determine the residues appropriate for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges. According to our method, eight putative salt-bridges were designed on a mesophilic β-glucosidase and 24 variants were constructed to verify the predictions. Six putative salt-bridges leaded to the increase of the enzyme thermal stability. A significant increase in melting temperature of 8.8, 4.8, 3.7, 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7°C of the putative salt-bridges N437K–D49, E96R–D28, E96K–D28, S440K–E70, T231K–D388, and Q277E–D282 was detected, respectively. Reversing the polarity of T231K–D388 to T231D–D388K resulted in a further increase in melting temperatures by 3.6°C, which may be caused by the transformation of an intra-subunit electrostatic interaction into an inter-subunit one depending on the local environment. The combination of the thermostable variants (N437K, E96R, T231D and D388K) generated a melting temperature increase of 15.7°C. Thus, this study

  13. High Thermal Stability of La2O3- and CeO2-Stabilized Tetragonal ZrO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shichao; Xie, Hong; Lin, Yuyuan; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R; Li, Tao; Winans, Randall E; Cui, Yanran; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Canlas, Christian P; Elam, Jeffrey W; Zhang, Hongbo; Marshall, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst support materials of tetragonal ZrO2, stabilized by either La2O3 (La2O3-ZrO2) or CeO2 (CeO2-ZrO2), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C with NH4OH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide as the mineralizer. From in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, the calcined La2O3-ZrO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports were nonporous nanocrystallites that exhibited rectangular shapes with a thermal stability of up to 1000 °C in air. These supports had an average size of ∼ 10 nm and a surface area of 59-97 m(2)/g. The catalysts Pt/La2O3-ZrO2 and Pt/CeO2-ZrO2 were prepared by using atomic layer deposition with varying Pt loadings from 6.3 to 12.4 wt %. Monodispersed Pt nanoparticles of ∼ 3 nm were obtained for these catalysts. The incorporation of La2O3 and CeO2 into the t-ZrO2 structure did not affect the nature of the active sites for the Pt/ZrO2 catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction.

  14. High thermal stability of La2O3 and CeO2-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Shichao; Xie, Hong; Lin, Yuyuan; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Li, Tao; Winans, Randall E.; Cui, Yanran; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Canlas, Christian P.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; et al

    2016-02-15

    Catalyst support materials of tetragonal ZrO2, stabilized by either La2O3 (La2O3-ZrO2) or CeO2 (CeO2-ZrO2), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C with NH4OH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide as the mineralizer. From In Situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, the calcined La2O3-ZrO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports were nonporous nanocrystallites that exhibited rectangular shapes with thermal stability up to 1000 °C in air. These supports had an average size of ~10 nm and a surface area of 59-97 m2/g. The catalysts Pt/La2O3-ZrO2 and Pt/CeO2-ZrO2 were prepared by using atomic layer deposition with varying Pt loadings from 6.3-12.4 wt %.more » Mono-dispersed Pt nanoparticles of ~3 nm were obtained for these catalysts. As a result, the incorporation of La2O3 and CeO2 into the t-ZrO2 structure did not affect the nature of the active sites for the Pt/ZrO2 catalysts for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction.« less

  15. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  16. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  17. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  18. Thermal stability of purified and reconstituted CFTR in a locked open channel conformation.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Luba A; Jensen, Timothy J; Cui, Liying; Kousouros, Joseph N; He, Lihua; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Riordan, John R

    2015-12-01

    CFTR is unique among ABC transporters as the only one functioning as an ion channel and from a human health perspective because mutations in its gene cause cystic fibrosis. Although considerable advances have been made towards understanding CFTR's mechanism of action and the impact of mutations, the lack of a high-resolution 3D structure has hindered progress. The large multi-domain membrane glycoprotein is normally present at low copy number and when over expressed at high levels it aggregates strongly, limiting the production of stable mono-disperse preparations. While the reasons for the strong self-association are not fully understood, its relatively low thermal stability seems likely to be one. The major CF causing mutation, ΔF508, renders the protein very thermally unstable and therefore a great deal of attention has been paid to this property of CFTR. Multiple second site mutations of CFTR in NBD1 where F508 normally resides and small molecule binders of the domain increase the thermal stability of the mutant. These manipulations also stabilize the wild-type protein. Here we have applied ΔF508-stabilizing changes and other modifications to generate wild-type constructs that express at much higher levels in scaled-up suspension cultures of mammalian cells. After purification and reconstitution into liposomes these proteins are active in a locked-open conformation at temperatures as high as 50 °C and remain monodisperse at 4 °C in detergent or lipid for at least a week. The availability of adequate amounts of these and related stable active preparations of homogeneous CFTR will enable stalled structural and ligand binding studies to proceed.

  19. Thermal stability of coal-derived jet fuels in the autoxidative and pyrolytic regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.M.; Strohm, J.J.; Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal-based liquids have a great potential as precursors for advanced jet fuels that meet the more stringent thermal stability requirements for the future high-Mach jet aircraft. In current commercial planes, the fuel may be exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. However, as the flight speed will be increased to high Mach numbers, the fuel is expected to experience temperatures as high as 480 C (900 F) in the future, since the jet fuel also functions as the main coolant for the different electronic and mechanical parts of the aircraft. Even though the residence time at such elevated temperatures is expected to be fairly short (matter of minutes), the jet fuels presently used have shown to form solid deposits that can lead to catastrophic malfunction of the jet aircraft. The current jet fuels are petroleum-derived and consequently rich in linear alkanes, which are highly susceptible to pyrolytic cracking resulting in coking. The thermal stability of a jet fuel in the pyrolytic regime can be greatly enhanced by utilizing liquids rich in cyclo-alkanes. This is the case for hydro-treated coal-derived liquids, where the aromatic structures have been transformed over to their corresponding cyclo-alkanes. An additional problem with jet fuels is the presence of dissolved oxygen (from air), which reacts with the fuel during the autoxidative regime (150--250 C) before the fuel and its oxygenated reaction products enter the pyrolytic regime (400--500 C). Accordingly, this study compares the thermal stability of a linear alkane (tetradecane), a cyclo-alkane (decahydronaphthalene) and a coal-derived jet-fuel as they go through the autoxidative regime into the pyrolytic regime. Differences in chemical reactivity between the linear- and cyclo-alkane have been related to the stability of the coal-derived jet-fuel.

  20. Thermal stability of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) based materials

    DOE PAGES

    Patel, Mogon; Pitts, Simon; Beavis, Peter; Robinson, Mathew; Morrell, Paul; Khan, Niaz; Khan, Imran; Pockett, Nicola; Letant, Sonia; Von White, Gregory; et al

    2013-03-26

    The thermal stability properties of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) composites have been studied in support of our core programmes in materials qualification and life assessment. The material is used as a binder phase for boron particles in highly filled (70 wt %) composites. Our studies show that the uncured resin readily accumulates acetic acid through hydrolysis of the pendent acetate groups which alters the acidity (pH) of the material. Thermal desorption studies in combination with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry show that the resin readily evolves acetic acid when thermally aged to temperatures up to 75°C. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) suggests that thermal ageingmore » induces a gradual reduction in resin molecular weight and confirms the susceptibility of the material to chain scission. Heating at elevated temperatures in excess of 300oC is required to induce significant changes in the carbon skeleton through deacetylation and dehydration processes and the production of unsaturated main chain double bonds. Overall, the mechanical response of these filled composites are found to be relatively complex with the extent of polymer-filler interactions possibly playing an important role in determining key engineering properties. Mechanical property studies confirm a small but significant decrease in modulus presumably linked to thermally induced chain scission of the EVA binder.« less

  1. Thermal stability of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Mogon; Pitts, Simon; Beavis, Peter; Robinson, Mathew; Morrell, Paul; Khan, Niaz; Khan, Imran; Pockett, Nicola; Letant, Sonia; Von White, Gregory; Labouriau, Andrea

    2013-03-26

    The thermal stability properties of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) composites have been studied in support of our core programmes in materials qualification and life assessment. The material is used as a binder phase for boron particles in highly filled (70 wt %) composites. Our studies show that the uncured resin readily accumulates acetic acid through hydrolysis of the pendent acetate groups which alters the acidity (pH) of the material. Thermal desorption studies in combination with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry show that the resin readily evolves acetic acid when thermally aged to temperatures up to 75°C. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) suggests that thermal ageing induces a gradual reduction in resin molecular weight and confirms the susceptibility of the material to chain scission. Heating at elevated temperatures in excess of 300oC is required to induce significant changes in the carbon skeleton through deacetylation and dehydration processes and the production of unsaturated main chain double bonds. Overall, the mechanical response of these filled composites are found to be relatively complex with the extent of polymer-filler interactions possibly playing an important role in determining key engineering properties. Mechanical property studies confirm a small but significant decrease in modulus presumably linked to thermally induced chain scission of the EVA binder.

  2. Thermal Conductivity and Water Vapor Stability of HfO2-based Ceramic Coating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 are candidate thermal/environmental barrier coating materials for gas turbine ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor liner applications because of their relatively low thermal conductivity and high temperature capability. In this paper, thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability of plasma-sprayed coatings and/or hot-pressed HfO2-5mol%Y2O3, HfO2- 15mol%Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 were evaluated at temperatures up to 1700 C using a steady-state laser heat-flux technique. Sintering behavior of the plasma-sprayed coatings was determined by monitoring the thermal conductivity increases during a 20-hour test period at various temperatures. Durability and failure mechanisms of the HfO2-Y2O3 and La2Zr2O7 coatings on mullite/SiC Hexoloy or CMC substrates were investigated at 1650 C under thermal gradient cyclic conditions. Coating design and testing issues for the 1650 C thermaVenvironmenta1 barrier coating applications will also be discussed.

  3. Thermal Stability of a 4 Meter Primary Reflector for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofield, Richard; Kasl, Eldon P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and thermal-stability analysis and test of a composite demonstration model of the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) primary reflector, having full 4m height and 1/3 the width planned for flight. SMLS is a space-borne heterodyne radiometer which will measure pressure, temperature and atmospheric constituents from thermal emission between 180 and 660 GHz. Current MLS instruments in low Earth orbit scan pencil-beam antennas (sized to resolve about one scale height) vertically over the atmospheric limb. SMLS, planned for the Global Atmospheric Composition Mission of the NRC Decadal Survey, adds azimuthal scanning for better horizontal and temporal resolution and coverage than typical orbit spacing provides. SMLS combines the wide scan range of the parabolic torus with unblocked offset Cassegrain optics. The resulting system is diffraction-limited in the vertical plane but highly astigmatic in the horizontal, having a beam aspect ratio [tilde operator]1:20. Symmetry about the nadir axis ensures that beam shape is nearly invariant over +/-65(white bullet) azimuth. The a feeds a low-noise SIS receiver whose FOV is swept over the reflector system by a small scanning mirror. Using finiteelement models of antenna reflectors and structure, we evaluate thermal deformations and the resulting optical performance for 4 orbital environments and isothermal soak. We compare deformations with photogrammetric measurements made during wide-range (ambient+[-97,+75](white bullet) C) thermal soak tests of the primary in a chamber. This range exceeds predicted orbital soak ranges by large factors, implying in-orbit thermal stability of 0.21(mu)m rms/(white bullet)C, which meets SMLS requirements.

  4. Manipulation of the magnetic exchange interaction in SmCo films with high thermal stability by controlling phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chun; Li, Ning; Li, Shuai; Huo, Qianming; Li, Minghua; Zhan, Qian; Li, Baohe H.; Yin, Jinhua; Jiang, Yong; Yu, Guanghua

    2012-01-01

    High thermal stability and tunable magnetic exchange interaction (MEI) in SmCo materials have been the critical problem in applications to magnetic recording media and nanocomposite permanent magnets. We constructed SmCo films with a high thermal stability and tunable MEI by controlling the phase transformation through properly increasing the Sm concentration (20.5-37.7 at.%) and controlling the annealing process. Microstructure studies show that the SmCo5 phases ensure that the film has a high thermal stability. Moreover, we manipulated the MEI in the film with non-magnetic precipitated SmCo2 particles in the vicinity of SmCo5 particles. These results provide a novel way to tune the MEI in SmCo materials while maintaining a high thermal stability.

  5. Phosphorus-assisted biomass thermal conversion: reducing carbon loss and improving biochar stability.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Kan, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT), and triple superphosphate (TSP), were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4-0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar) to 46.9%-56.9% (modified biochars). Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%-47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25531111

  6. Phosphorus-Assisted Biomass Thermal Conversion: Reducing Carbon Loss and Improving Biochar Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde; Zheng, Wei; Kan, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT), and triple superphosphate (TSP), were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4–0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar) to 46.9%–56.9% (modified biochars). Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%–47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:25531111

  7. Thermal and hydrothermal stability of selected polymers in a nuclear reactor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinho

    The focus of this study is the development and understanding of polymer based burnable poison rod assemblies (BPRAs) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This material substitution reduces the water displacement penalty at the end of cycle (EOC) currently found with the B4C/Al 2O3 BPRAs that displace moderator water in PWRs. This gives rise to a longer fuel cycle due to the extra moderation from hydrogen in polymer structures. Finding synthetic polymers that endure a severe nuclear reactor circumstance is a challenge. Aside from the proper thermal stability at the range of 350--600°C in the core for a single cycle, the hydrothermal stability at near-critical water condition (350°C, 20.7MPa) is required to maintain the safe and controlled nuclear reaction because a danger comes if water might possibly penetrate inside the burnable poison rod by the failure of zircaloy cladding. There are two approaches to obtain a boron source (burnable position material) in hydrogen containing polymers. One is to utilize the boron source directly by synthesizing boron-containing polymers. A second approach is to find commercial polymers that have an appropriate thermal, hydrothermal, radiational stability and high hydrogen content; and then add an inorganic boron source such as B4C to form a composite material. Poly (diacetylene-siloxane-carborane)s and other silicon based precursor polymers were introduced to observe their thermal and hydrothermal stability. However, we found that the degradation of Si-O-Si, which was presented in the polymer, was an unfavorable disadvantage under near-critical water (350°C, 20.7MPa) even though they formed dense network structures. In addition, the Si-O bond is quite sensitive to variety of reagents, including base and acid. Therefore, the degradation rate might be accelerated by high H+ and OH- ion concentrations at the near-critical water condition. For the second approach, a number of candidate matrix polymers were screened for new

  8. Thermal Design to Meet Stringent Temperature Gradient/Stability Requirements of SWIFT BAT Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is an instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) SWIFT spacecraft. It is designed to detect gamma ray burst over a broad region of the sky and quickly align the telescopes on the spacecraft to the gamma ray source. The thermal requirements for the BAT detector arrays are very stringent. The maximum allowable temperature gradient of the 256 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors is PC. Also, the maximum allowable rate of temperature change of the ASICs of the 256 Detector Modules (DMs) is PC on any time scale. The total power dissipation of the DMs and Block Command & Data Handling (BCDH) is 180 W. This paper presents a thermal design that uses constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) to minimize the temperature gradient of the DMs, and loop heat pipes (LHPs) to transport the waste heat to the radiator. The LHPs vary the effective thermal conductance from the DMs to the radiator to minimize heater power to meet the heater power budget, and to improve the temperature stability. The DMs are cold biased, and active heater control is used to meet the temperature gradient and stability requirements.

  9. Increased functional properties and thermal stability of flexible cellulose nanocrystal/ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Lizundia, E; Urruchi, A; Vilas, J L; León, L M

    2016-01-20

    In this work we attempt to improve the functional properties and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films by means of eco-friendly materials and processes. Mechanically flexible films of closely packed CNCs with concentrations up to 5 wt.% of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been prepared by a simple, standard and environmentally friendly method using solely water. Results reveal that ultraviolet light is blocked by 98.5% at 1 wt.% ZnO while good transparency is maintained. A sharp hydrophobicity increase is observed with the addition of ZnO which would enhance the durability of films by decreasing the water diffusion through the material. The thermal degradation activation energy (E) presents an increase of 141%, denoting a high thermal stability of films, which would result beneficial for their potential application in the field of flexible electronics. Mechanical results demonstrate a high structural integrity of CNC/ZnO as a result of the occurring strong cellulosic inter- and intramolecular interactions within the closely packed CNC network. In overall, this work highlights the potential for environmentally friendly processing of sustainable nanostructured functional materials based on cellulose. PMID:26572353

  10. RP-2 Thermal Stability and Heat Transfer Investigation for Hydrocarbon Boost Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanNoord, J. L.; Stiegemeier, B. R.

    2010-01-01

    A series of electrically heated tube tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Heated Tube Facility to investigate the use of RP-2 as a fuel for next generation regeneratively cooled hydrocarbon boost engines. The effect that test duration, operating condition and test piece material have on the overall thermal stability and materials compatibility characteristics of RP-2 were evaluated using copper and 304 stainless steel test sections. The copper tests were run at 1000 psia, heat flux up to 6.0 Btu/in.2-sec, and wall temperatures up to 1180 F. Preliminary results, using measured wall temperature as an indirect indicator of the carbon deposition process, show that in copper test pieces above approximately 850 F, RP-2 begins to undergo thermal decomposition resulting in local carbon deposits. Wall temperature traces show significant local temperature increases followed by near instantaneous drops which have been attributed to the carbon deposition/shedding process in previous investigations. Data reduction is currently underway for the stainless steel test sections and carbon deposition measurements will be performed in the future for all test sections used in this investigation. In conjunction with the existing thermal stability database, these findings give insight into the feasibility of cooling a long life, high performance, high-pressure liquid rocket combustor and nozzle with RP-2.

  11. Coaxial carbon@boron nitride nanotube arrays with enhanced thermal stability and compressive mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Huang, Jingfeng; Tan, Dunlin; Zhang, Bowei; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2016-06-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have aroused considerable interest because of their remarkable mechanical properties. However, the mechanical behaviour of as-synthesized CNT arrays could vary drastically at a macro-scale depending on their morphologies, dimensions and array density, which are determined by the synthesis method. Here, we demonstrate a coaxial carbon@boron nitride nanotube (C@BNNT) array with enhanced compressive strength and shape recoverability. CNT arrays are grown using a commercially available thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique and an outer BNNT with a wall thickness up to 1.37 nm is introduced by a post-growth TCVD treatment. Importantly, compared to the as-grown CNT arrays which deform almost plastically upon compression, the coaxial C@BNNT arrays exhibit an impressive ∼4-fold increase in compressive strength with nearly full recovery after the first compression cycle at a 50% strain (76% recovery maintained after 10 cycles), as well as a significantly high and persistent energy dissipation ratio (∼60% at a 50% strain after 100 cycles), attributed to the synergistic effect between the CNT and outer BNNT. Additionally, the as-prepared C@BNNT arrays show an improved structural stability in air at elevated temperatures, attributing to the outstanding thermal stability of the outer BNNT. This work provides new insights into tailoring the mechanical and thermal behaviours of arbitrary CNT arrays which enables a broader range of applications. PMID:27227818

  12. Feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory and thermal stability of topological order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-10-01

    Recently, it has become apparent that the thermal stability of topologically ordered systems at finite temperature, as discussed in condensed matter physics, can be studied by addressing the feasibility of self-correcting quantum memory, as discussed in quantum information science. Here, with this correspondence in mind, we propose a model of quantum codes that may cover a large class of physically realizable quantum memory. The model is supported by a certain class of gapped spin Hamiltonians, called stabilizer Hamiltonians, with translation symmetries and a small number of ground states that does not grow with the system size. We show that the model does not work as self-correcting quantum memory due to a certain topological constraint on geometric shapes of its logical operators. This quantum coding theoretical result implies that systems covered or approximated by the model cannot have thermally stable topological order, meaning that systems cannot be stable against both thermal fluctuations and local perturbations simultaneously in two and three spatial dimensions.

  13. Thermal stability of nonmagnetic Cd and In impurities in Fe3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, W.; Ida, T.; Komatsuda, S.; Fujisawa, T.; Takenaka, S.; Ohkubo, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) was doped with radioactive 111mCd and 111In ions as impurities, and their residence sites and thermal stability were investigated by means of time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) spectroscopy. Well-defined TDPAC spectra unequivocally show their sites: Cd ions are stably located only in the tetrahedral A site in all the temperature range of the present observation (77 K-873 K); In ions also specifically occupy the A site at low temperature, but at high temperature part of them select the B site in a reversible fashion. The energy difference between the A and B sites for the accommodation of In was experimentally determined to be 0.119 (9) eV by assuming a Boltzmann distribution for the populations of the 111In probe in the respective sites. The element-dependent thermal stabilities observed for Cd and In were well corroborated by density functional theory calculations. The successful observation of thermally activated site-to-site displacement of impurity In ions in Fe3O4 is reported.

  14. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes stabilized by chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Phuoc, Tran X.; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Thermal conductivity, viscosity, and stability of nanofluids containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) stabilized by cationic chitosan were studied. Chitosan with weight fraction of 0.1%, 0.2 wt%, and 0.5 wt% was used to disperse stably MWCNTs in water. The measured thermal conductivity showed an enhancement from 2.3% to 13% for nanofluids that contained from 0.5 wt% to 3 wt% MWCNTs (0.24 to 1.43 vol %). These values are significantly higher than those predicted using the Maxwell's theory. We also observed that the enhancements were independent of the base fluid viscosity. Thus, use of microconvection effect to explain the anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement should be reconsidered. MWCNTs can be used either to enhance or reduce the fluid base viscosity depending on the weight fractions. In the viscosity-reduction case, a reduction up to 20% was measured by this work. In the viscosity-enhancement case, the fluid behaved as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid. By assuming that MWCNT nanofluids behave as a generalized second grade fluid where the viscosity coefficient depends upon the rate of deformation, a theoretical model has been developed. The model was found to describe the fluid behavior very well.

  15. Enhanced thermal stability of functionally graded sandwich cylindrical shells by shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, H.; Akbarzadeh, A. H.; Chen, Z. T.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2015-04-01

    The present paper deals with the nonlinear thermal instability of geometrically imperfect sandwich cylindrical shells under uniform heating. The sandwich shells are made of a shape memory alloy (SMA)-fiber-reinforced composite and functionally graded (FG) face sheets (FG/SMA/FG). The Brinson phenomenological model is used to express the constitutive characteristics of SMA fibers. The governing equations are established within the framework of the third-order shear deformation shell theory by taking into account the von Karman geometrical nonlinearity and initial imperfection. The material properties of constituents are assumed to be temperature dependent. The Galerkin technique is utilized to derive expressions of the bifurcation points and bifurcation paths of the sandwich cylindrical shells. Using the developed closed-form solutions, extensive numerical results are presented to provide an insight into the influence of the SMA fiber volume fraction, SMA pre-strain, core thickness, non-homogeneity index, geometrical imperfection, geometry parameters of sandwich shells and temperature dependency of materials on the stability of shells. The results reveal that proper application of SMA fibers postpones the thermal bifurcation point and dramatically decreases thermal post-buckling deflection. Moreover, the induced tensile recovery stress of SMA fibers could also stabilize the geometrically imperfect shells during the inverse martensite phase transformation.

  16. Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qian; Feng Yongjun; Feng Junting; Li Dianqing

    2011-06-15

    2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: > Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. > The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. > The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

  17. Improving thermal stability of KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphors prepared by microwave assisted sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu-Ming; Su, Yan-Kuin; Yang, Ru-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, KSr0.94PO4:Tb0.063+ phosphor was synthesized successfully by microwave assisted sintering method at 1200 °C for 1 h under an air atmosphere. Photoluminescence results show KSr0.94PO4:Tb0.063+ phosphor prepared by microwave assisted sintering method presents an observable improved effect on the enhancement of thermal stability. The emission intensity reduces slowly and marginally by approximately 7% for the maximum emission peak with the temperature increasing from 30 °C to 200 °C indicating great thermal stability KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphors are. Additionally, the activation energy (ΔE) of thermal quenching of KSrPO4:Tb3+ phosphor was calculated to be 0.2 eV. Moreover, the chromaticity (x, y) located at (0.30, 0.52) was kept without variation when the temperature increased from 30 °C to 200 °C.

  18. Phase stability of thermal barrier oxides based on t'-zirconia with trivalent oxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo Franco, Noemi Rosa

    Zirconia stabilized with 7+/-1 wt.% addition of yttria (7YSZ) is widely used for thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) on actively cooled gas turbine components, selected partly because of its superior durability under thermal cyclic conditions. As deposited, 7YSZ occurs as a metastable single-phase tetragonal solid solution (t') that is thermodynamically stable against the deleterious transformation to monoclinic upon cooling. However, at high temperatures t' is driven to decompose diffusionally into an equilibrium mixture of high-Y cubic and low-Y tetragonal; the latter becomes transformable to monoclinic compromising the mechanical integrity of the system. This dissertation explores the effects of trivalent stabilizers, including Y, Sc and selected rare-earth oxides (REO's), on the phase stability of the resulting solid solutions in zirconia. The REO additions are of interest because they can potentially enhance the insulation efficiency on the coating allowing higher operating temperatures. However, understanding of their effects on phase stability and potentially on cyclic durability at the projected use temperature in next generation engines (1200-1400°C) is insufficient to guide the design of coatings with the desirable combination of lower thermal conductivity and acceptable durability. Sc was also investigated because of previous reports on the higher phase stability of materials doped with Sc, and Y served as the baseline. The experimental approach is based on powders synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of precursor solutions, usually compacted and then subjected to a variety of heat treatments, following their evolution by means of X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The use of powders facilitated the synthesis of a wider range of compositions that would not have been possible by coating deposition approaches, and because the synthesis occurs at low temperature, it also enabled the starting

  19. Effects of high pressure homogenisation of raw bovine milk on alkaline phosphatase and microbial inactivation. A comparison with continuous short-time thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Picart, Laëtitia; Thiebaud, Maryse; René, Malika; Pierre Guiraud, Joseph; Cheftel, Jean Claude; Dumay, Eliane

    2006-11-01

    Raw whole milk of high microbial quality (alkaline phosphatase (ALP); (ii) endogenous milk flora and (iii) two Gram positive (Listeria innocua and Micrococcus luteus) and one Gram negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) strains inoculated into milk. Temperatures T1 and T2 measured before and immediately after the HP valve, and fat globule size distributions were also determined. ALP activity slightly decreased after homogenisation above 250 MPa when Tin=4 degrees C (corresponding T2>58 degrees C), but markedly decreased above 200 MPa when Tin=24 degrees C (T2>60 degrees C). In contrast to inactivation induced by continuous short-time thermal treatments, ALP inactivation induced by HP homogenisation was clearly due to mechanical forces (shear, cavitation and/or impact) in the HP valve and not to the short (<1 s) residence time at temperature T2 in the same valve. Inactivation of the three exogenous microorganisms led to similar conclusions. Homogenisation at 250 MPa or 300 MPa (Tin=24 degrees C) induced a 2-3 log cycle reduction of the total endogenous milk flora and a 1.5-1.8 log cycle reduction of inoculated List. innocua. Higher reduction ratios (2-4 log cycles) were obtained for the two other microorganisms. The highest levels of ALP inactivation corresponded to the highest extents of microbial reduction. Running the milk twice or three times through the homogeniser (recycling), keeping temperature T1 approximately 29 degrees C and pressure=200 MPa, increased homogenisation efficiency. PMID:16834813

  20. Diffusion mechanism and the thermal stability of fluorine ions in GaN after ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. J.; Yuan, L.; Chen, K. J.; Xu, F. J.; Shen, B.

    2009-04-15

    The diffusion mechanisms of fluorine ions in GaN are investigated by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Instead of incorporating fluorine ions close to the sample surface by fluorine plasma treatment, fluorine ion implantation with an energy of 180 keV is utilized to implant fluorine ions deep into the GaN bulk, preventing the surface effects from affecting the data analysis. It is found that the diffusion of fluorine ions in GaN is a dynamic process featuring an initial out-diffusion followed by in- diffusion and the final stabilization. A vacancy-assisted diffusion model is proposed to account for the experimental observations, which is also consistent with results on molecular dynamic simulation. Fluorine ions tend to occupy Ga vacancies induced by ion implantation and diffuse to vacancy rich regions. The number of continuous vacancy chains can be significantly reduced by a dynamic thermal annealing process. As a result, strong local confinement and stabilization of fluorine ions can be obtained in GaN crystal, suggesting excellent thermal stability of fluorine ions for device applications.

  1. Effect of Hofmeister ions on protein thermal stability: roles of ion hydration and peptide groups?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Stagg, Loren; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-11-01

    We have systematically explored the Hofmeister effects of cations and anions (0.3-1.75 M range) for acidic Desulfovibrio desulfuricans apoflavodoxin (net charge -19, pH 7) and basic horse heart cytochrome c (net charge +17, pH 4.5). The Hofmeister effect of the ions on protein thermal stability was assessed by the parameter dT trs/d[ion] (T trs; thermal midpoint). We show that dT trs/d[ion] correlates with ion partition coefficients between surface and bulk water and ion surface tension effects: this suggests direct interactions between ions and proteins. Surprisingly, the stability effects of the different ions on the two model proteins are similar, implying a major role of the peptide backbone, instead of charged groups, in mediation of the interactions. Upon assessing chemical/physical properties of the ions responsible for the Hofmeister effects on protein stability, ion charge density was identified as most important. Taken together, our study suggests key roles for ion hydration and the peptide group in facilitating interactions between Hofmeister ions and proteins.

  2. Effect of Hofmeister ions on protein thermal stability: roles of ion hydration and peptide groups?

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Stagg, Loren; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-11-01

    We have systematically explored the Hofmeister effects of cations and anions (0.3-1.75 M range) for acidic Desulfovibrio desulfuricans apoflavodoxin (net charge -19, pH 7) and basic horse heart cytochrome c (net charge +17, pH 4.5). The Hofmeister effect of the ions on protein thermal stability was assessed by the parameter dT trs/d[ion] (T trs; thermal midpoint). We show that dT trs/d[ion] correlates with ion partition coefficients between surface and bulk water and ion surface tension effects: this suggests direct interactions between ions and proteins. Surprisingly, the stability effects of the different ions on the two model proteins are similar, implying a major role of the peptide backbone, instead of charged groups, in mediation of the interactions. Upon assessing chemical/physical properties of the ions responsible for the Hofmeister effects on protein stability, ion charge density was identified as most important. Taken together, our study suggests key roles for ion hydration and the peptide group in facilitating interactions between Hofmeister ions and proteins. PMID:18782555

  3. Mg-based multilayers and their thermal stabilities for EUV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jingtao; Zhou, Sika; Li, Haochuan; Huang, Qiushi; Jiang, Li; Wang, Fengli; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhou, Hongjun; Huo, Tonglin

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the optical properties and thermal stabilities of a serial of Mg-based multilayers including Mg/SiC, Mg/Co and Mg/Zr in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range. Mg/X multilayer mirrors were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique onto polished silicon wafers. In order to study their stabilities under heat resistance, annealing experiments were carried out in vacuum environment keeping 1hour at different temperatures from 200°C to 550°C. Their EUV reflectivities were measured by using synchrotron radiation. Grazing incident X-ray and EUV reflection measurements were used to estimate the thermal stability of these multilayer systems. Mg/SiC and Mg/Co are stable up to 200°C and the reflectivity decreases drastically with the increase of temperature, while the reflectivity of Mg/Zr keeps constant during annealing at 300°C and falls slowly as the temperature increases. Up to 550°C, Bragg peaks of Mg/Zr multilayer are still sharp in X-ray reflectivity curve, and EUV reflectivity is 25% at 26.2nm at 30 degree incidence. These measurement results indicate that Mg/Co and Mg/SiC should be used in application requiring no heating above 200°C, while the new material combination Mg/Zr is a promising multilayer for practical application requiring stronger heat resistance in EUV range.

  4. Thermal stability and binding energetics of thymidylate synthase ThyX.

    PubMed

    Krumova, Sashka; Todinova, Svetla; Tileva, Milena; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula; Taneva, Stefka G

    2016-10-01

    The bacterial thymidylate synthase ThyX is a multisubstrate flavoenzyme that takes part in the de novo synthesis of thymidylate in a variety of microorganisms. Herein we study the effect of FAD and dUMP binding on the thermal stability of wild type (WT) ThyX from the mesophilic Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1) and from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TmThyX), and from two variants of TmThyX, Y91F and S88W, using differential scanning calorimetry. The energetics underlying these processes was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry. The PBCV-1 protein is significantly less stable against the thermal challenge than the TmThyX WT. FAD exerted stabilizing effect greater for PBCV-1 than for TmThyX and for both mutants, whereas binding of dUMP to FAD-loaded proteins stabilized further only TmThyX. Different thermodynamic signatures describe the FAD binding to the WT ThyX proteins. While TmThyX binds FAD with a low μM binding affinity in a process characterized by a favorable entropy change, the assembly of PBCV-1 with FAD is governed by a large enthalpy change opposed by an unfavorable entropy change resulting in a relatively strong nM binding. An enthalpy-driven formation of a high affinity ternary ThyX/FAD/dUMP complex was observed only for TmThyX. PMID:27268384

  5. Novel LLM series high density energy materials: Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagoria, Philip; Zhang, Maoxi; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    Novel high density energy materials must satisfy specific requirements, such as an increased performance, reliably high stability to external stimuli, cost-efficiency and ease of synthesis, be environmentally benign, and be safe for handling and transportation. During the last decade, the attention of researchers has drifted from widely used nitroester-, nitramine-, and nitroaromatic-based explosives to nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds. Good thermal stability, the low melting point, high density, and moderate sensitivity make heterocycle materials attractive candidates for use as oxidizers in rocket propellants and fuels, secondary explosives, and possibly as melt-castable ingredients of high explosive formulations. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and results of quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal stability of LLM-191, LLM-192 and LLM-200 high density energy materials are presented. Work performed under the auspices of the DOE by the LLNL (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344). This research is supported in part by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529) and NSF. We used NSF XSEDE (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) resources.

  6. Influence of attachment strategy on the thermal stability of hybridized DNA on gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Petty, Tyler J; Wagner, Caleb E; Opdahl, Aric

    2014-12-23

    The thermal stabilities of double-stranded DNA hybrids immobilized on gold surfaces are shown to be significantly affected by the conformation of the hybrid. To analyze this behavior, DNA probes were immobilized using attachment strategies where the nucleotides within the strand had varying levels of interactions with the gold substrate. The abilities of these probes to form double-stranded hybrids with solution DNA targets were evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) over a temperature range 25-60 °C. The measurements were used to construct thermal stability profiles for hybrids in each conformation. We observe that DNA hybrids formed with probe strands that interact extensively with the gold surface have stability profiles that are shifted lower by 5-10 °C compared to hybrids formed with end-tethered probes that have fewer interactions with the surface. The results provide an understanding of the experimental conditions in which these weaker DNA hybrids can form and show the additional complexity of evaluating denaturation profiles generated from DNA on surfaces.

  7. Stability of the pion string in a thermal and dense medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berera, Arjun; Brandenberger, Robert; Mabillard, Joel; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the stability of the pion string in a thermal bath and a dense medium. We find that stability is dependent on the order of the chiral transition. String core stability within the experimentally allowed regime is found only if the chiral transition is second order, and even there the stable region is small; i.e., the temperature below which the core is unstable is close to the critical temperature of the phase transition. We also find that the presence of a dense medium, in addition to the thermal bath, enhances the experimentally accessible region with stable strings. We also argue that once the string core decays, the "effective winding" of the string persists at large distances from the string core. Our analysis is done both in the chiral limit, which is mainly what has been explored in the literature up to now, and for the physical h ≠0 case, where a conceptual framework is set up for addressing this regime and some simple estimates are done.

  8. Experimentation and Modeling of Jet A Thermal Stability in a Heated Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodabandeh, Julia W.

    2005-01-01

    High performance aircraft typically use hydrocarbon fuel to regeneratively cool the airframe and engine components. As the coolant temperatures increase, the fuel may react with dissolved oxygen forming deposits that limit the regenerative cooling system performance. This study investigates the deposition of Jet A using a thermal stability experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. The experimental portion of this study is performed with a high Reynolds number thermal stability (HiRets) tester in which fuel passes though an electrically heated tube and the fuel outlet temperature is held constant. If the thermal stability temperature of the fuel is exceeded, deposits form and adhere to the inside of the tube creating an insulating layer between the tube and the fuel. The HiRets tester measures the tube outer wall temperatures near the fuel outlet to report the effect of deposition occurring inside the tube. Final deposits are also estimated with a carbon burn off analysis. The CFD model was developed and used to simulate the fluid dynamics, heat transfer, chemistry, and transport of the deposit precursors. The model is calibrated to the experiment temperature results and carbon burn-off deposition results. The model results show that the dominant factor in deposition is the heated wall temperature and that most of the deposits are formed in the laminar sublayer. The models predicted a 7.0E-6 kilograms per square meter-sec deposition rate, which compared well to the carbon burn-off analysis deposition rate of 1.0E-6 kilograms per square meter-sec.

  9. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  10. Thermal stability and adhesion of low-emissivity electroplated Au coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Jorenby, Jeff W.; Hachman, John T., Jr.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Chames, Jeffrey M.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-12-01

    We are developing a low-emissivity thermal management coating system to minimize radiative heat losses under a high-vacuum environment. Good adhesion, low outgassing, and good thermal stability of the coating material are essential elements for a long-life, reliable thermal management device. The system of electroplated Au coating on the adhesion-enhancing Wood's Ni strike and 304L substrate was selected due to its low emissivity and low surface chemical reactivity. The physical and chemical properties, interface bonding, thermal aging, and compatibility of the above Au/Ni/304L system were examined extensively. The study shows that the as-plated electroplated Au and Ni samples contain submicron columnar grains, stringers of nanopores, and/or H{sub 2} gas bubbles, as expected. The grain structure of Au and Ni are thermally stable up to 250 C for 63 days. The interface bonding is strong, which can be attributed to good mechanical locking among the Au, the 304L, and the porous Ni strike. However, thermal instability of the nanopore structure (i.e., pore coalescence and coarsening due to vacancy and/or entrapped gaseous phase diffusion) and Ni diffusion were observed. In addition, the study also found that prebaking 304L in the furnace at {ge} 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr promotes surface Cr-oxides on the 304L surface, which reduces the effectiveness of the intended H-removal. The extent of the pore coalescence and coarsening and their effect on the long-term system integrity and outgassing are yet to be understood. Mitigating system outgassing and improving Au adhesion require a further understanding of the process-structure-system performance relationships within the electroplated Au/Ni/304L system.

  11. Thermal and trophic stability of deeper Maine lakes in granite waterhsheds implacted by acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Wittchen, B.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Acid deposition can lead to lake and watershed acidification, increases in lake transparency, and reduction in thermal stability and hypolimnetic oxygen deficits. On the basis of lake surveys during August-September 1985, we determined to what extent the deeper (maximum depth z{sub m}{gt}17 m) Maine lakes in acid-sensitive granitic watersheds have registered changes in temperature and oxygen stratification, as compared to 1938-1942, when G.P. Cooper performed the earliest scientific surveys of the state's lakes. After correcting for small but geographically consistent interannual differences in summer hypolimnetic temperatures related to spring turnover, and weather-dependent differences in mixed layer depth, there has been no significant change in thermal stratification in these Maine lakes over approximately 43 years. On the basis of specific historical contrasts in the late summer metalimnetic, hypolimnetic, and bathylimnetic oxygen concentrations there has been no significant change in lake trophic state or transparency.

  12. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  13. Effect of Aromatic Concentration of a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel on Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer Lindsey Suder

    2012-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer­ Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel with an aromatic solution. The goal of this research is to determine the effect of aromatic content on the thermal stability of Fischer-Tropsch fuel. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  14. Thermal stability and flammability of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbizzani, Catia; Gabrielli, Giulio; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-05-01

    Safety is the key-feature of large-size lithium-ion batteries and thermal stability of the electrolytes is crucial. We investigated the thermal and flammability properties of mixed electrolytes based on the conventional ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (1:1 wt/wt)-1 M LiPF6 and the hydrophobic ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI). The results of thermogravimetric analyses and flammability tests of mixed electrolytes of different compositions are reported and discussed. An important finding is that though the mixtures with high contents of ionic liquid are more difficult to ignite, they burn for a longer time, once they are ignited.

  15. Investigation of jet fuel thermal stability using photon correlation spectroscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    The thermal stability of aviation fuels is an important concern in designs for enhanced aircraft performance. In addition to its primary use as a propellant, jet fuel serves as a coolant for the environmental control system, engine lubrication, avionics, etc. in present military applications. Thermal loads on the fuel are anticipated to increase concurrently with the demands of advanced aircraft. Unfortunately, elevated temperatures in hydrocarbon-based fuels lead to oxidative degradation, producing insoluble products in the bulk liquid as well as deposits on contacting. These processes reduce heat exchanger efficiencies and can result in obstructions of critical components, including valves, filters, and injection nozzles. real-time diagnostics for monmitoring incipient particle formation as well as mass deposition on surfaces is needed. This report describes an experimental assembly designed for simultaneous application of photon correlation spectroscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance. Results from measurements are discussed.

  16. EXPANDED IRON UTA SPECTRA-PROBING THE THERMAL STABILITY LIMITS IN AGN CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ferland, G. J.; Lykins, M. L.; Kisielius, R.; Jonauskas, V.; Keenan, F. P.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Porter, R. L.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2013-04-20

    The Fe unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) produce prominent features in the {approx}15-17 A wavelength range in the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we present new calculations of the energies and oscillator strengths of inner-shell lines from Fe XIV, Fe XV, and Fe XVI. These are crucial ions since they are dominant at inflection points in the gas thermal stability curve, and UTA excitation followed by autoionization is an important ionization mechanism for these species. We incorporate these, and data reported in previous papers, into the plasma simulation code Cloudy. This updated physics is subsequently employed to reconsider the thermally stable phases in absorbing media in AGNs. We show how the absorption profile of the Fe XIV UTA depends on density, due to the changing populations of levels within the ground configuration.

  17. Machine-able Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Composites for Thermal Insulation in Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, J.; Zhang, R.; Santos, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ceramics are a promising insulating material for high temperature environment. To qualify for in-core use in nuclear reactors, there are many other materials requirements to be met, such as neutron irradiation resistance, corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion, high strength, high fracture toughness, ease of fabricability, etc. And among the promising ceramics meeting most of the requirements, with the exception of fabricability, is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Like all ceramics, YSZ is hard, brittle and difficult to machine. At CanmetMATERIALS, YSZ-based composites for in-core insulation that are machine-able and capable of being formed into complex shapes have been developed. In this paper, the focus is geared towards the fabrication and property evaluation of such composites. In addition, the machinability aspect of the YSZ composites was addressed with a demonstration of a machined component.

  18. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Manpreet Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam

    2015-08-28

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  19. Dynamics and thermal stability of surface-confined metal-organic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecija, D.; Marschall, M.; Reichert, J.; Kasperski, A.; Nieckarz, D.; Szabelski, P.; Auwärter, W.; Barth, J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics and thermal stability of metallosupramolecular chains on surfaces is of relevance for the development of molecular connectors in nanoelectronics or other fields. Here we present a combined study using temperature-controlled STM and Monte Carlo simulations to explore the behavior of metal-organic porphyrin chains on Cu(111) based on two-fold pyridyl-Cu-pyridyl coordination motifs. We monitor their behavior in the 180-360 K range, revealing three thermal regimes: i) flexibility up to 240 K, ii) diffusion of chain fragments and partial dissociation into a fluid phase for T > 240 K, and iii) full dissolution with temperatures exceeding ~ 320 K. The experimentally estimated reaction enthalpy of the metal-organic bonding is ~ 0.6 eV. Monte Carlo simulations reproduce qualitatively our STM observations and reveal the preference for linear and extended supramolecular chains with reduced substrate temperatures.

  20. Simulation of Electromagnetic and Thermal Processes in Fastcycling Magnets for Calculation Parameters of Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, V.; Kozub, S.; Tkachenko, L.

    SIS300 fast-cycling superconducting quadrupole magnet is developed at IHEP. Temperature margin and minimum quench energy are main parameters of stability of superconducting magnets. These parameters are important for the design and safe operation of superconducting magnets. But additional understanding for fast-cycling superconducting magnets is needed. To calculate the temperature margin one needs coupled numerical transient simulation of electromagnetic and thermal processes in the coil because critical temperature, operating temperature and AC losses are nonuniform over turns and their magnitudes vary in time during accelerator cycles. For calculation of the minimum quench energy the combination of the network model with thermal analysis is necessary, which allows one to model quench dynamics, including the effects of a current redistribution between strands of cable and spatial inhomogeneity of cable. Results for the temperature margin and the minimum quench energy for the magnet are presented and theirs dependence on various parameters is discussed.

  1. Improvements in UV stability for FEP/Ag based thermal control materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieser, James; Maas, Gerald

    2003-09-01

    Darkening of FEP/Ag based Thermal Control (TC) materials after UV exposure has been documented for several years. This End of Life (EOL) Solar Absorptance (α) increase and the corresponding performance degradation must be taken into account in the preliminary design of spacecraft. Astral Technology Unlimited, Inc. (ATU) has developed new processes and coatings to improve the UV stability of FEP/Ag based TC materials. Test results of this development effort are presented. Data for several new coating combinations along with data on the current "Industry Standard" material are compared for up to 27,000 Equivalent Sun Hours (ESH) of UV exposure. The resulting solar absorptance improvements are very dramatic and should allow future satellite designs with the EOL solar alpha to be nearly identical to the Beginning of Life (BOL) values. Satellites using these new TC materials can have optimum thermal-optical performance for the life of the spacecraft.

  2. New hybrid organic-zincophosphate frameworks: single-crystal-to-single-crystal structural transformation and remarkable thermal and chemical stabilities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Yuan; Yan, Zhao-Nan; Wang, Chun-Chi; Li, Hsing-Chun; Lin, Hsiu-Mei; Wang, Chih-Min

    2016-05-01

    This research is the first example of a hybrid metal phosphate that undergoes an SCSC structural transformation and provides a new route for the synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high stabilities via the introduction of nitrogen-donor ligands into a metal-phosphate system. The synthesis, structural diversity, and thermal and chemical stabilities are also discussed.

  3. Enhancing the thermal stability of inulin fructotransferase with high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungao; Miao, Ming; Liu, Miao; Chen, Xiangyin; Jiang, Bo; Feng, Biao

    2015-03-01

    The thermal stability of inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was studied. The value of inactivation rate of IFTase in the range of 70-80°C decreased under the pressure of 100 or 200 MPa, indicating that the thermostability of IFTase under high temperature was enhanced by HHP. Far-UV CD and fluorescence spectra showed that HHP impeded the unfolding of the conformation of IFTase under high temperature, reflecting the antagonistic effect between temperature and pressure on IFTase. The new intramolecular disulfide bonds in IFTase were formed under a combination of HHP and high temperature. These bonds might be related to the stabilization of IFTase at high temperature. All the above results suggested that HHP had the protective effect on IFTase against high temperature.

  4. Effect of Sn implantation on thermal stability improvement of NiSiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Meng, X.; Ping, Y.; Yu, W.; Xue, Z.; Wei, X.; Di, Z.; Zhang, M.; Wang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We study the formation of nickel-germanosilicide (NiSiGe) on Sn ion pre-implanted Si0.8Ge0.2 layers. The Sn influences on NiSiGe morphology and sheet resistance are investigated at different annealing temperature. The NiSiGe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) techniques. It is shown that the presence of Sn atoms increases the thermal stability of NiSiGe about 150 °C. We demonstrate that the Sn atoms retard the Ni germanosilicidation rate, stabilize the NiSiGe phase, and smooth the NiSiGe/SiGe interface.

  5. Thermal stability of Dion-Jacobson mixed-metal-niobate double-layered perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andrew T.; Wiley, John B.

    2009-05-06

    The thermal stability and decomposition pathways of six Dion-Jacobson-related double-layered perovskites, ALaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A = H, Li, Na, Ag) and (ACl)LaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A = Fe, Cu), are investigated. These compounds are made by low temperature (<400 deg. C) ion exchange reactions from RbLaNb{sub 2}O{sub 7}. All the compounds are low temperature phases with some of them exhibiting decomposition exotherms consistent with metastability. Decomposition temperatures and reactions pathways vary with the identity of A with most decompositions resulting in the formation of a niobate (containing A) and LaNbO{sub 4}. Results from differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction studies are presented and structural parameters pertinent to compound stability discussed.

  6. Dielectric Coating Thermal Stabilization During GaAs-Based Laser Fabrication for Improved Device Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Michael K.; Millsapp, Jamal E.; Turner, George W.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and yield of GaAs-based ridge waveguide devices fabricated at MIT Lincoln Laboratory were negatively impacted by the random lot-to-lot appearance of blisters in the front-side contact metal. The blisters signaled compromised adhesion between the front-side contact metal, underlying SiO2 dielectric coating, and semiconductor surface. A thermal-anneal procedure developed for the fabrication of GaAs slab coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) ridge waveguide devices stabilizes the SiO2 dielectric coating by means of outgassing and stress reduction. This process eliminates a primary source of adhesion loss, as well as blister generation, and thereby significantly improves device yield. Stoney's equation was used to analyze stress-induced bow in device wafers fabricated using this stabilization procedure. This analysis suggests that changes in wafer bow contribute to the incidence of metal blisters in SCOW devices.

  7. Femtosecond-laser-inscribed sampled fiber Bragg grating with ultrahigh thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congzhe; Yang, Yuanhong; Wang, Chao; Liao, Changrui; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-22

    We have successfully fabricated a series of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with easily adjustable sampling periods and duty cycles using an 800 nm femtosecond laser point-by-point inscription. The thermal stability of the fabricated fiber gratings was investigated using isochronal annealing tests, which indicated that the fiber gratings are capable of maintaining high reflectivity at temperatures of up to 1000°C for 8 h. This demonstrates the potential of the developed sampled fiber Bragg gratings for use in multi-wavelength fiber lasers and a variety of high temperature applications. PMID:26907050

  8. Thermal stability of the cellular structure of an austenitic alloy after selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazaleeva, K. O.; Tsvetkova, E. V.; Balakirev, E. V.; Yadroitsev, I. A.; Smurov, I. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal stability of the cellular structure of an austenitic Fe-17% Cr-12% Ni-2% Mo-1% Mn-0.7% Si-0.02% C alloy produced by selective laser melting in the temperature range 20-1200°C is investigated. Metallographic analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy show that structural changes in the alloy begin at 600-700°C and are fully completed at ~1150°C. Differential scanning calorimetry of the alloy with a cellular structure reveals three exothermic processes occurring upon annealing within the temperature ranges 450-650, 800-1000, and 1050-1200°C.

  9. Dielectric properties and thermal stability of γ-irradiated inorganic nanofiller modified PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuprina, Florin; Zaharescu, Traian; Jipa, Silviu; Pleşa, Ilona; Notingher, Petru V.; Panaitescu, Denis

    2010-03-01

    The dielectric characteristics of polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites containing titania, silica and alumina at the concentration of 5% were investigated by dielectric spectroscopy. The sharp modification in the permittivity and dielectric loss of neat and irradiated PVC samples over the low frequency range may be explained by the interaction between external electrical field and the dipoles formed during high energy exposure. The material characterization is completed by the thermal stability assay based on the accumulation of carbonyl units in the sample matrices, which provides the differences in the molecular level contact between host polymer and fillers.

  10. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shota; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-03-28

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  11. Contribution of thermal noise to frequency stability of rigid optical cavity via Hertz-linewidth lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Notcutt, Mark; Ma, L.-S.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun; Hall, John L.

    2006-03-15

    We perform detailed studies of state-of-the-art laser stabilization to high finesse optical cavities, revealing fundamental mechanical thermal noise-related length fluctuations. We compare the frequency noise of lasers tightly locked to the resonances of a variety of rigid Fabry-Perot cavities of differing lengths and mirror substrate materials. The results are in agreement with the theoretical model proposed in K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250602 (2004)]. The results presented here on the fundamental limits of FP references will impact planning and construction of next generation ultrastable optical cavities.

  12. Synthesis of superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes with robust thermal stability and flexibility via in situ polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liping; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Mao, Xue; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2012-09-01

    Superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust thermal stability and flexibility were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun silica nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By using F-PBZ/SiO2 NP modification, the pristine hydrophilic silica nanofibrous membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of up to 161°. Surface morphological studies have revealed that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. Quantitative fractal dimension analysis using the N2 adsorption method has confirmed the correlation between hierarchical roughness and WCA for the modified membranes. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes exhibited high thermal stability (450 °C), good flexibility (0.0127 gf cm), and comparable tensile strength (2.58 MPa), suggesting their use as promising materials for a variety of potential applications in high-temperature filtration, self-cleaning coatings, catalyst carriers, etc., and also provided new insight into the design and development of functional nanofibrous membranes through F-PBZ modification.Superhydrophobic silica nanofibrous membranes exhibiting robust thermal stability and flexibility were prepared by a facile combination of electrospun silica nanofibers and a novel in situ polymerized fluorinated polybenzoxazine (F-PBZ) functional layer that incorporated SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). By using F-PBZ/SiO2 NP modification, the pristine hydrophilic silica nanofibrous membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (WCA) of up to 161°. Surface morphological studies have revealed that the wettability of resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the surface composition as well as the hierarchical structures. Quantitative fractal dimension analysis using the N2

  13. Nature of astoichiometry and thermal stability in InVo/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikov, V.L.; Leonidov, L.A.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1988-02-01

    The aim of our work was to investigate the processes of disordering in InVo/sub 4/ and to study its thermal stability in relation to the temperature and partial pressure of oxygen PO/sub 2/. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity at PO/sub 2/ = 21 kPa is shown. The activation energy of the total ionic (%) and electron (sigma) conductivities in the interval 920-1170/sup 0/K is (87 +/- 2) kJ. The isothermal dependence of the total electrical conductivity on PO/sub 2/ is also shown.

  14. High fill factor and thermal stability of bilayer organic photovoltaic cells with an inverted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Hong, Ziruo; Zhuang, Taojun; Chen, Guo; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Kido, Junji

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we fabricated planar heterojunction photovoltaic cells with inverted device structures based on tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene and fullerene-70 (C70). With proper designs of device architecture and selection of electrode buffers, a high fill factor and power conversion efficiency were obtained due to large shunt resistance (Rsh) and efficient carrier collection. Optical simulation reveals that field-dependent recombination is depressed in the inverted structure cells because of less light absorption in short wavelength range, resulting in high fill factor. More importantly, high thermal stability of inverted structure cells was demonstrated via utilizing stable electrode buffers.

  15. Effect of the thermal stabilization temperature on the change in the texture of polyacrylonitrile fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlitdinova, A. G.; Tyumentsev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature of isothermal treatment on the change in sizes L 010 of coherent scattering regions and texture of a polyacrylonitrile fiber during its transition to the structure of a thermally stabilized fiber is analyzed using X-ray structure analysis. An increase in the thermostabilization temperature at a constant stretching load stimulates simultaneously a more active increase in size L 010 and texturing of polyacrylonitrile fibers at the initial stage. Active evolution of the phase transformation at temperatures 275-290°C during further thermostabilization is accompanied by a substantial decrease in the texture of the polymer that has not experienced the phase transformation by this instant.

  16. Microstructure and thermal stability of transition metal nitrides and borides on GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Barcz, A.; Zielinski, M.

    2000-06-28

    Microstructure and thermal stability of ZrN/ZrB2 bilayer deposited on GaN have been studied using transmission electron microscopy methods (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It has been demonstrated that annealing of the contact structure at 1100 C in N2 atmosphere does not lead to any observable metal/ semiconductor interaction. In contrast, a failure of the integrity of ZrN/ZrB2 metallization at 800 C, when the heat treatment is performed in O2 ambient has been observed.

  17. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shota; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  18. Enhancement of thermal stability of porous bodies comprised of stainless steel or an alloy

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Judkins, Roddie R.; Armstrong, Timothy R.; Adcock, Kenneth D.

    2010-11-09

    A method for treating a porous item constructed of metal powder, such as a powder made of Series 400 stainless steel, involves a step of preheating the porous item to a temperature of between about 700 and 900.degree. C. degrees in an oxidizing atmosphere and then sintering the body in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature which is slightly below the melting temperature of the metal which comprises the porous item. The thermal stability of the resulting item is enhanced by this method so that the item retains its porosity and metallic characteristics, such as ductility, at higher (e.g. near-melting) temperatures.

  19. Temporal, thermal, and light stability of continuously tunable cholesteric liquid crystal laser array.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Yun; Chung, Ki Soo; Wu, Jeong Weon

    2014-11-01

    Fine-structured polymerized cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) wedge laser devices have been realized, with high fine spatial tunability of the lasing wavelength. With resolution less than 0.3 nm in a broad spectral range, more than one hundred laser lines could be obtained in a PCLC cell without extra devices. For practical device application, we studied the stability of the device in detail over time, and in response to strong external light sources, and thermal perturbation. The PCLC wedge cells had good temporal stability for 1 year and showed good stability for strong perturbations, with the lasing wavelength shifting less than 1 nm, while the laser peak intensities decreased by up to 34%, and the high energy band edge of the photonic band gap (PBG) was red shifted 3 nm by temperature perturbation. However, when we consider the entire lasing spectrum for the PCLC cell, the 1-nm wavelength shift may not matter. Although the laser peak intensities were decreased by up to 34% in total for all of the perturbation cases, the remaining 34% laser peak intensity is considerable extent to make use. This good stability of the PCLC laser device is due to the polymerization of the CLC by UV curing. This study will be helpful for practical CLC laser device development.

  20. Effect of alkaline treatment on the characterization of zalacca midrib wastes fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the need for new materials is urgent due to the scarcity of conventional materials and energy resources. The environmental issue requires materials which are biodegradable. There are many composites, arranged from synthetic fibers and matrix, which cannot be recyclable after their lifetime. In this research, the utilization potency of zalacca midrib wastes for their fibers as composite reinforcement were investigated, especially after the alkaline treatment to improve their characteristics. The influence of alkaline treatment on the density, functional groups of the fiber surface, thermal stability and crystallinity were measured and/or analyzed by linear-density-and-diameter-calculation, FTIR, TGA-DTA and XRD, respectively. The result showed that the zalacca midrib fibers had lower density than synthetic fibers and several natural fibers. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that the alkaline treatment of NaOH slightly raised their density because it removed several functional groups which attributed to the hemicellulose and lignin. TGA-DTA analysis indicated that zalacca fibers had good thermal stability until temperature of 220°C and it was improved by alkaline treatment. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of zalacca fibers was higher than several natural fibers like rice straw, sorghum stem and wheat straw fibers. Their crystallinity index was higher than wheat straw fiber. The alkaline treatment increases the crystallinity and crystallinity index rather than untreated fibers.

  1. Thermal stability of hydrocarbons in nature: Limits, evidence, characteristics, and possible controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous petroleum-geochemical analyses of deeply buried, high-rank, fine-grained rocks from ultra-deep wellbores by different investigators demonstrate that C15+ hydrocarbons (HCs) persist in moderate to high concentrations at vitrinite reflectance (R0) values of 2.0-5.0% and persist in measurable concentrations up to R0 = 7.0-8.0%, at which point the thermal deadline for C15+ HC's is finally approached. Qualitative analyses have been carried out on 1. (1) high-rank gas condensates which have been exposed to the HC-thermal-destructive phase, 2. (2) bitumens from high-temperature aqueous-pyrolysis experiments in the HC-thermal-destructive phase, and 3. (3) bitumens from high-rank, fine-grained rocks near the HC-thermal-destructive phase. These analyses clearly demonstrate that well-defined compositional suites are established in the saturated, aromatic, and sulfur-bearing aromatic HCs in and near the HC-thermal-destructive phase. On the other hand, accepted petroleum-geochemical paradigms place rigid limits on HC thermal stability: C15+ HCs begin thermal cracking at R0 values of 0.9% and are completely thermally destroyed by R0 = 1.35%; C2-C4 HC gases are thermally destroyed by R0 = 2.0% and methane is thermally destroyed by R0 = 4.0%. Furthermore, published data and observations in many HC basins worldwide support these models; for example, 1. (1) sharp basinal zonations of gas and oil deposits vs. maturation rank in HC basins and 2. (2) decreasing C15+ HC concentrations in some fine-grained rocks at ranks of R0 ??? 0.9%. The fact that observed data (C15+ HCs thermally stable to R0 = 7.0-8.0%) is so far removed from predicted behavior (C15+) HCs expected to be thermally destroyed by R0 = 1.35%) may be due to 1. (1) a lack of recognition of some important possible controlling parameters of organic matter (OM) metamorphism and too much importance given to other assumed controlling parameters; and 2. (2) assigning HC distribution patterns in petroleum basins to HC

  2. A study of wellbore stability in shales including poroelastic, chemical, and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guizhong

    Shale is always a troublesome rock during oil and gas drilling operations. Shale (in)stability has been of great concern in the oil industry for decades. It has also been a costly problem and has perplexed the industry for many years. A better understanding of the wellbore stability mechanism in shales is imperative. The object of this study is to develop a comprehensive model to deal with borehole instability problems in shales. Wellbore stability problems are caused by changes in near wellbore pore pressure and rock stresses. The excess of rock effective stresses over the rock strength can cause collapse (shear) or breakdown (tensile) failure of the drilled formation. This imbalance between the rock stress and rock strength always happens when the in-situ rock is drilled out and is replaced by the drilling fluid. Pore pressure alterations due to osmotic effects are a function of the water activity in the drilling fluid and the membrane efficiency of the shale. In this work, thermo-mechanical stresses coupled with the osmotic contributions are used to compute conditions under which the wellbore becomes unstable. The osmotic contribution is added to the hydraulic potential to form the net driving force of the fluid flow. Changes in pore pressure have been observed in shale experiments. An alteration of the shale strength was also observed when shales are exposed to different drilling fluids. It is necessary to consider shale strength alterations when inspecting the wellbore stability status and determining critical mud weights. Thermal diffusion inside the drilled formation induces additional pore pressure and rock stress changes and consequently affects shale stability. Thermal effects are important because thermal diffusion into shale formations occurs more quickly than hydraulic diffusion and thereby dominates during early times. Rock temperature and pore pressure can be partially decoupled for shale formations. The partially decoupled problem can be solved

  3. Effectiveness and limitations of local structural entropy optimization in the thermal stabilization of mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sojin; Bannen, Ryan M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Phillips, George N; Bae, Euiyoung

    2014-10-01

    Local structural entropy (LSE) is a descriptor for the extent of conformational heterogeneity in short protein sequences that is computed from structural information derived from the Protein Data Bank. Reducing the LSE of a protein sequence by introducing amino acid mutations can result in fewer conformational states and thus a more stable structure, indicating that LSE optimization can be used as a protein stabilization method. Here, we describe a series of LSE optimization experiments designed to stabilize mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases (AKs) and report crystal structures of LSE-optimized AK variants. In the mesophilic AK, thermal stabilization by LSE reduction was effective but limited. Structural analyses of the LSE-optimized mesophilic AK variants revealed a strong correlation between LSE and the apolar buried surface area. Additional mutations designed to introduce noncovalent interactions between distant regions of the polypeptide resulted in further stabilization. Unexpectedly, optimizing the LSE of the thermophilic AK resulted in a decrease in thermal stability. This destabilization was reduced when charged residues were excluded from the possible substitutions during LSE optimization. These observations suggest that stabilization by LSE reduction may result from the optimization of local hydrophobic contacts. The limitations of this process are likely due to ignorance of other interactions that bridge distant regions in a given amino acid sequence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and limitations of LSE optimization as a protein stabilization strategy and highlight the importance and complementarity of local conformational stability and global interactions in protein thermal stability.

  4. Effectiveness and limitations of local structural entropy optimization in the thermal stabilization of mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sojin; Bannen, Ryan M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Phillips, George N; Bae, Euiyoung

    2014-10-01

    Local structural entropy (LSE) is a descriptor for the extent of conformational heterogeneity in short protein sequences that is computed from structural information derived from the Protein Data Bank. Reducing the LSE of a protein sequence by introducing amino acid mutations can result in fewer conformational states and thus a more stable structure, indicating that LSE optimization can be used as a protein stabilization method. Here, we describe a series of LSE optimization experiments designed to stabilize mesophilic and thermophilic adenylate kinases (AKs) and report crystal structures of LSE-optimized AK variants. In the mesophilic AK, thermal stabilization by LSE reduction was effective but limited. Structural analyses of the LSE-optimized mesophilic AK variants revealed a strong correlation between LSE and the apolar buried surface area. Additional mutations designed to introduce noncovalent interactions between distant regions of the polypeptide resulted in further stabilization. Unexpectedly, optimizing the LSE of the thermophilic AK resulted in a decrease in thermal stability. This destabilization was reduced when charged residues were excluded from the possible substitutions during LSE optimization. These observations suggest that stabilization by LSE reduction may result from the optimization of local hydrophobic contacts. The limitations of this process are likely due to ignorance of other interactions that bridge distant regions in a given amino acid sequence. Our results illustrate the effectiveness and limitations of LSE optimization as a protein stabilization strategy and highlight the importance and complementarity of local conformational stability and global interactions in protein thermal stability. PMID:24931334

  5. Comparative thermal stability characteristics and isothermal oxidation behavior of an aluminized and a Pt-aluminized Ni-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tawancy, H.M.; Sridhar, N.; Abbas, N.M.; Rickerby, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is the objective of this paper to compare the thermal stability characteristics and isothermal oxidation behavior of an aluminide coating and a Pt-aluminide coating of the same Al content on a Ni-base superalloy. Addition of Pt to an aluminide coating was found to improve its thermal stability as well as its capability for selective oxidation of Al resulting in a purer scale of slower growth rate. This was correlated with the greater diffusional stability of the Pt-aluminide coating restricting the transport of substrate elements into the outer coating layers.

  6. Poly(imide)/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite as a Potential Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Battirola, Liliane C.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the potentiality of a poly(imide) (PI)/organically-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposite membrane for the use in alkaline fuel cells. Both X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed a good dispersion of O-MMT into the PI matrix and preservation of the O-MMT layered structure. When compared to the pure PI, the addition of O-MMT improved thermal stability and markedly increased the capability of absorbing electrolyte and ionic conductivity of the composite. The results show that the PI/O-MMT nanocomposite is a promising candidate for alkaline fuel cell applications. PMID:24958290

  7. Thermal Stabilization and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Iron-Nickel-Zirconium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotan, Hasan

    Ultrafine grained and nanostructured materials are promising for structural applications because of the high strength compared to coarse grained counterparts. However, their widespread application is limited by an inherently high driving force for thermally induced grain growth, even at low temperatures. Accordingly, the understanding of and control over grain growth in nanoscale materials is of great technological and scientific importance as many physical properties (i.e. mechanical properties) are functions of the average grain size and the grain size distribution within the microstructure. Here, we investigate the microstructural evolution and grain growth in Fe-Ni alloys with Zr addition and differentiate the stabilization mechanisms acting on grain boundaries. Fe-Ni alloys are chosen for stability investigations since they are important for understanding the behavior of many steels and other ferrous alloys. Zirconium is proven to be an effective grain size stabilizer in pure Fe and Fe-base systems. In this study, nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by high energy ball milling. In situ and ex situ experiments were utilized to directly follow grain growth and microstructural evolution as a function of temperature and composition. The information obtained from these experiments enables the real time observation of microstructural evolution and phase transformation and provides a unique view of dynamic reactions as they occur. The knowledge of the thermal stability will exploit the potential high temperature applications and the consolidation conditions (i.e. temperature and pressure) to obtain high dense materials for advanced mechanical tests. Our investigations reveal that the grain growth of Fe-Ni alloys is not affected by Ni content but strongly inhibited by the addition of 1 at% Zr up to about 700 °C. The microstructural stability is lost due to the bcc-to-fcc transformation (occurring at 700°C) by the sudden appearance of abnormally grown fcc grains

  8. Investigation of the stability of paraffin-exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet composites for latent heat thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Mallow, Anne; Graham, Samuel; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Organic materials, such as paraffin wax, are sought as stable and environmentally friendly phase change materials (PCM) for thermal energy storage, but they suffer from low thermal conductivity which limits the rate at which thermal energy flows into and out of the material. A common method to improve the PCM thermal behavior is through loading with high thermal conductivity particulate fillers. However, the stability of these composites in the molten state is a concern as settling of the fillers will change the effective thermal conductivity. In this work, we investigate the stability of wax loaded with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets either of 1 m (xGnP-1) or 15 m (xGnP-15) diameter. The effect of dispersants, oxidation of the wax, viscosity of the wax, mixing time, and hydrocarbon chain length on stability is reported. It was found that the addition of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) is an effective dispersant for xGnP in paraffin and microcrystalline wax. In addition, mixing time, viscosity, and oxidation of the wax influence stability in the molten state. Overall, it was found that a mixing time of 24 hours for xGnP-15 along with ODPA mixed in a high viscosity, oxidized microcrystalline wax results in composite PCM systems with the greatest stability determined at 80 C in the molten state.

  9. Thermal stability of lightweight graphite glass sandwich reflectors for far infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluege, J. H.; Mayor, R. A.; Hoffman, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Graphite fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites are being developed for a variety of structural applications requiring excellent thermomechanical stability. These materials are ideally suited for lightweight, high strength, thermally stable infrared mirrors because of their low density, low thermal expansion, high strength and stiffness, and their ability to be machined, replicated and figured using standard polishing techniques. These properties are particularly promising for applications such as a 3-meter balloon-borne far-infrared and submillimeter telescope mirror which must be both very lightweight and able to retain its figure accuracy when cycled between room temperature and its operating temperature of -50 C. This paper presents the results of a set of low temperature optical tests conducted to determine the figure stability of a 30-cm diameter, frit-bonded graphite/glass mirror in the +20 to -60 C temperature range using a 10.6 micron laser interferometer. The results indicate that the residual change in figure was less than 0.3 microns, rms.

  10. Thermal stability of NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volochová, D.; Kavečanský, V.; Antal, V.; Diko, P.; Yao, X.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stability of the Nd1+x Ba2-x Cu3O7-δ (Nd-123 or NdBCO) thin films deposited on MgO substrate, with YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y-123 or YBCO) buffer layer (NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film), has been experimentally studied in order to determine the optimal film thickness acting as seed for bulk YBCO growth. YBCO bulk superconductors with Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) and CeO2 addition were prepared by the top seeded melt growth process in a chamber furnace using NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film seeds of different thicknesses (200-700 nm with 20 nm YBCO buffer layer) and different maximum temperatures, T max. The maximum temperatures varied in the range of 1040 °C-1125 °C. The highest thermal stability 1118 °C was observed in the case of NdBCO/YBCO/MgO thin film of 300 nm thickness. These results are corroborated with differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as microstructure observations.

  11. Molecular adaptation to an extreme environment: origin of the thermal stability of the pompeii worm collagen.

    PubMed

    Sicot, F X; Mesnage, M; Masselot, M; Exposito, J Y; Garrone, R; Deutsch, J; Gaill, F

    2000-09-29

    The annelid Alvinella pompejana is probably the most heat-tolerant metazoan organism known. Previous results have shown that the level of thermal stability of its interstitial collagen is significantly greater than that of coastal annelids and of vent organisms, such as the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila, living in colder parts of the deep-sea hydrothermal environment. In order to investigate the molecular basis of this thermal behavior, we cloned and sequenced a large cDNA molecule coding the fibrillar collagen of Alvinella, including one half of the helical domain and the entire C-propeptide domain. For comparison, we also cloned the 3' part of the homologous cDNA from Riftia. Comparison of the corresponding helical domains of these two species, together with that of the previously sequenced domain of the coastal lugworm Arenicola marina, showed that the increase in proline content and in the number of stabilizing triplets correlate with the outstanding thermostability of the interstitial collagen of A. pompejana. Phylogenetic analysis showed that triple helical and the C-propeptide parts of the same collagen molecule evolve at different rates, in favor of an adaptive mechanism at the molecular level. PMID:10993725

  12. History of Sulphur Content Effects on the Thermal Stability of RP-1 under Heated Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Solveig A.; Schoettmer, Amanda K.; Bates, Ronald W.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    As technologies advance in the aerospace industry, a strong desire has emerged to design more efficient, longer life, reusable liquid hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. To achieve this goal, a more complete understanding of the thermal stability and chemical makeup of the hydrocarbon propellant is needed. Since the main fuel used in modern liquid hydrocarbon systems is RP-1, there is concern that Standard Grade RP-1 may not be a suitable propellant for future-generation rocket engines due to concern over the outdated Mil-Specification for the fuel. This current specification allows high valued limits on contaminants such as sulfur compounds, and also lacks specification of required thermal stability qualifications for the fuel. Previous studies have highlighted the detrimental effect of high levels of mercaptan sulfur content (^50 ppm) on copper rocket engine materials, but the fuel itself has not been studied. While the role of sulfur in other fuels (e.g., aviation, diesel, and automotive fuels) has been extensively studied, little has been reported on the effects of sulfur levels in rocket fuels. Lower RP-1 sulfur concentrations need to be evaluated and an acceptable sulfur limit established before RP-1 can be recommended for use as the propellant for future launch vehicles. (5 tables, 8 figures, 9 refs.)

  13. Nanocrystalline CuNi alloys: improvement of mechanical properties and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogues, Josep; Varea, A.; Pellicer, E.; Sivaraman, K. M.; Pane, S.; Nelson, B. J.; Surinach, S.; Baro, M. D.; Sort, J.

    2014-03-01

    Nanocrystalline metallic films are known to benefit from novel and enhanced physical and chemical properties. In spite of these outstanding properties, nanocrystalline metals typically show relatively poor thermal stability which leads to deterioration of the properties due to grain coarsening. We have studied nanocrystalline Cu1-xNix (0.56 < x < 1) thin films (3 μm-thick) electrodeposited galvanostatically onto Cu/Ti/Si (100) substrates. CuNi thin films exhibit large values of hardness (6.15 < H < 7.21 GPa), which can be tailored by varying the composition. However, pure Ni films (x = 1) suffer deterioration of their mechanical and magnetic properties after annealing during 3 h at relatively low temperatures (TANN > 475 K) due to significant grain growth. Interestingly, alloying Ni with Cu clearly improves the thermal stability of the material because grain coarsening is delayed due to segregation of a Cu-rich phase at grain boundaries, thus preserving both the mechanical and magnetic properties up to higher TANN.

  14. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  15. Unusual Thermal Stability of RNA/[RP-PS]-DNA/RNA Triplexes Containing a Homopurine DNA Strand

    PubMed Central

    Guga, Piotr; Boczkowska, Małgorzata; Janicka, Magdalena; Maciaszek, Anna; Kuberski, Sławomir; Stec, Wojciech J.

    2007-01-01

    Homopurine deoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates, as short as hexanucleotides and possessing all internucleotide linkages of RP configuration, form a triple helix with two RNA or 2′-OMe-RNA strands, with Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen complementarity. Melting temperature and fluorescence quenching experiments strongly suggest that the Hoogsteen RNA strand is parallel to the homopurine [RP-PS]-oligomer. Remarkably, these triplexes are thermally more stable than complexes formed by unmodified homopurine DNA molecules of the same sequence. The triplexes formed by phosphorothioate DNA dodecamers containing 4–6 dG residues are thermally stable at pH 7.4, although their stability increases significantly at pH 5.3. FTIR measurements suggest participation of the C2-carbonyl group of the pyrimidines in the stabilization of the triplex structure. Formation of triple-helix complexes with exogenously delivered PS-oligos may become useful for the reduction of RNA accessibility in vivo and, hence, selective suppression/inhibition of the translation process. PMID:17218459

  16. Pressure effects on the thermal stability of SiC fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially available polymer derived SiC fibers were treated at temperatures from 1000 to 2200 C in vacuum and argon gas pressure of 1 and 1360 atm. Effects of gas pressure on the thermal stability of the fibers were determined through property comparison between the pressure treated fibers and vacuum treated fibers. Investigation of the thermal stability included studies of the fiber microstructure, weight loss, grain growth, and tensile strength. The 1360 atm argon gas treatment was found to shift the onset of fiber weight loss from 1200 to above 1500 C. Grain growth and tensile strength degradation were correlated with weight loss and were thus also inhibited by high pressure treatments. Additional heat treatment in 1 atm argon of the fibers initially treated at 1360 atm argon caused further weight loss and tensile strength degradation, thus indicating that high pressure inert gas conditions would be effective only in delaying fiber strength degradation. However, if the high gas pressure could be maintained throughout composite fabrication, then the composites could be processed at higher temperatures.

  17. Thermal and storage stability of nutraceuticals in a milk beverage dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Uzzan, M; Nechrebeki, J; Labuza, T P

    2007-04-01

    Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), fluid skim milk can be used to serve as a vehicle to deliver certain metabolites (nutraceuticals or new dietary ingredients), which provide health benefits as related to aging problems for those over 55. This opens a new avenue for an increase in milk consumption and may replace taking pills. Milk beverages enriched with various nutraceutical ingredients (soy isoflavones, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, creatine, and lactoferrin) were thermally processed at different combinations of temperatures from 72 to 138 degrees C for different holding times using a Microthermics pilot plant thermal processing unit and were incubated at refrigeration, room, or elevated storage temperatures. Residual concentrations of the active compounds were measured by high performance liquid chromatography or by immunodifusion (for lactoferrin) and degradation kinetics were determined. Results showed a very good stability of isoflavones and chondroitin sulfate in the milk environment while glucosamine, lactoferrin, and creatin showed only limited stability at either processing or storage. Glucosamine destabilized the milk protein system at boiling temperature or higher, which caused drastic precipitation in the heat exchangers. Nevertheless, all the tested nutraceutical compounds can be used to design milk beverage dietary supplements but an overrun of over 25% may be required for some of them. PMID:17995798

  18. Gas uptake and thermal stability analysis of boron nitride and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mengyu

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exist in many forms and can have critical pore diameters on the angstrom length scale, making them suitable for molecular capture. By combining the porous structure of CNTs with the chemical stability of carbide and/or nitride materials, one can create a more robust, nanoporous material for gas capture in high temperature conditions. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are more chemically and thermally robust than pure CNTs, and were synthesized using CNTs as a structural precursor. However, this reaction mechanism was found to be unfavorable to produce high-yield and purity BNNTs. Adsorption tests using gases of interest (N2, He) were performed on commercial CNTs and BNNTs to determine their porosity and gas uptake abilities. Their thermal stability and oxidation resistance when heated up to 1773 K in air was also studied using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. While the CNTs began to oxidize between 450 °C and 750 °C, depending on the nanotube diameter, the BNNTs remained stable up until 1000 °C.

  19. [Effects of biochar on water thermal properties and aggregate stability of Lou soil].

    PubMed

    Shang, Jie; Geng, Zeng-chao; Zhao, Jun; Geng, Rong; Zhao, Ying-cui

    2015-07-01

    A field trail was carried out to study the impact of biochar on soil bulk density, soil moisture content, soil temperature and soil aggregate stability in Lou soil. Five treatments of different biochar amounts were set in this study as follows: 0 (B0), 20 (B20), 40 (B40), 60 (B60), 80 (B80) t . hm-2. The results showed that, after applying biochar two years, compared with the control(B0), the soil bulk density in 0-30 cm soil layer significantly decreased by 7.7%-10.9%, and the soil moisture content significantly increased by 10.0% - 13.4%. Applying biochar at 40-60 t . hm-2 could buffer the change of soil temperature, and increase the soil thermal capacity. The water stable aggregates (WR0.25) with diameters greater than 0.25 mm significantly increased by 30.3%, the mean mass diameter (MWD) under dry sieving and wet sieving significantly increased by 15.2% and 31.6%, respectively, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) and unstable aggregate index (ELT) significantly decreased by 19.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The results indicated that applying biochar could significantly improve the water thermal properties of Lou soil and increase soil aggregate stability, and the best applying amount was 40-60 t . hm-2

  20. Bovine lactoperoxidase - a versatile one- and two-electron catalyst of high structural and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO), a member of the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, is found in multiple human exocrine secretions and acts as a first line of defense against invading microorganisms by production of antimicrobial oxidants. Because of its ability to efficiently catalyze one- and two-electron oxidation reactions of inorganic and organic compounds, the heme peroxidase is widely used in food biotechnology, cosmetic industry, and diagnostic kits. In order to probe its structural integrity, conformational, and thermal stability, we have undertaken a comprehensive investigation by using complementary biophysical techniques including UV-Vis, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The oxidoreductase exhibits a high chemical and thermal stability under oxidizing conditions but is significantly destabilized by addition of DTT. Due to its unique ester bonds between the prosthetic group and the protein as well as six intra-chain disulfides, unfolding of the central compact (-helical core occurs concomitantly with denaturation of the heme cavity. The corresponding enthalpic and entropic contributions to the free enthalpy of unfolding are presented. Together with spectroscopic data they will be discussed with respect to the known structure of bovine LPO and homologous myeloperoxidase as well as to its practical application.