Sample records for alkaline water ph

  1. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  2. Minimising alkalinity and pH spikes from Portland cement-bound Bauxsol (seawater-neutralized red mud) pellets for pH circum-neutral waters.

    PubMed

    Despland, Laure M; Clark, Malcolm W; Aragno, Michel; Vancov, Tony

    2010-03-15

    Bauxsol reagents (powder, slurry, or pellet forms) are powerful tools in environmental remediation and water and sewage treatment However, when used in circum-neutral water treatments, cement-bound Bauxsol pellets produce a sustained pH and alkalinity spike due to the presence of unreacted CaO in the cement binder. This study developed a pellet treatment system to minimize the alkalinity/pH spike. The recipe for pelletization consisted of Bauxsol powder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrophilic fumed silica, aluminum powder, a viscosity modifier, and water. Several batches (including different ratios and sizes) were run using modified makeup waters (H(2)0 + CO(2) or NaHCO(3)) or curing brines (CO(2), NaHCO(3), or Mg/CaCl(2)). Alkalinity, pH stability, and slake durability tests were performed on pellets before and/or after curing. The best result for reducing the alkalinity/pH spike was obtained from a MgCl(2), CaCl(2) bath treatment using a Bauxsol:cement ratio of 2.8:1 (pH 8.28; alkalinity 75.1 mg/L) for a 100 g batch or 245:1 (pH 8.05; alkalinity 35.4 mg/L) for a 1 kg batch. Although brine curing does provide a control on pH/alkalinity release, the pellets may still contain unreacted CaO. Therefore, a freshwater rinse of pellets before treating circum-neutral waters is recommended as is the continued investigation of alternative pellet binders.

  3. Introducing TEX86 as a Water pH Proxy for Alkaline Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Tian, Q.; Li, X.; Liang, J.; Yue, H.; Hou, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lake water pH represents one of the most important indicators for lake evolution and factors influencing the evolution of aquatic ecosystem, however, which is less studied on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Applicability of diatom assemblages, an effective proxy of lake water pH variation in freshwater lakes, is highly limited on the TP because the widespread distribution of alkaline lakes is unfavorable for preservation of diatom shells. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are a series of specific membrane lipids biosynthesized by archaea and bacteria, which appear to be a promising method to reflect lake water pH variation. Here we present the distribution of iGDGTs compounds in surface sediments across the TP to discuss the effect of various environmental factors on iGDGTs distribution. The results show that TEX86 is a promising proxy for lake water pH in high-elevation alkaline lakes, as water pH appears to be the most important factor to affect the cyclization of iGDGTs. We proposed the water pH calibration for lakes (salinity<20g/L) on TP, pH=1.8176×TEX86+8.2376 (n=31, r=0.86, RMSE=0.24). To evaluate its performance, we applied the calibration at Bangong Co in western TP and reconstructed past changes in lake water pH. The TEX86-derived pH at Bangong Co varied from 8.69 to 9.49 since the last 16 kyr BP, which is generally consistent with precipitation isotope variation that was reconstructed from leaf wax D/H ratios in the same sediment core, suggesting the lake water pH was mainly controlled by local hydrology. We believe that TEX86 will be able to infer past water pH of alkaline lakes over TP and could be a potentially useful tool for reconstructing pH in alkaline lakes worldwide after regional calibrated.

  4. Geochemistry of extremely alkaline (pH>12) ground water in slag-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Roadcap, George S; Kelly, Walton R; Bethke, Craig M

    2005-01-01

    Extremely alkaline ground water has been found underneath many shuttered steel mills and slag dumps and has been an impediment to the cleanup and economic redevelopment of these sites because little is known about the geochemistry. A large number of these sites occur in the Lake Calumet region of Chicago, Illinois, where large-scale infilling of the wetlands with steel slag has created an aquifer with pH values as high as 12.8. To understand the geochemistry of the alkaline ground water system, we analyzed samples of ground water and the associated slag and weathering products from four sites. We also considered several potential remediation schemes to lower the pH and toxicity of the water. The principal cause of the alkaline conditions is the weathering of calcium silicates within the slag. The resulting ground water at most of the sites is dominated by Ca2+ and OH- in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2. Where the alkaline ground water discharges in springs, atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the water and thick layers of calcite form. Iron, manganese, and other metals in the metallic portion of the slag have corroded to form more stable low-temperature oxides and sulfides and have not accumulated in large concentrations in the ground water. Calcite precipitated at the springs is rich in a number of heavy metals, suggesting that metals can move through the system as particulate matter. Air sparging appears to be an effective remediation strategy for reducing the toxicity of discharging alkaline water.

  5. SIMPLE WAYS TO IMPROVE PH AND ALKALINITY MEASUREMENTS FOR WATER UTILITIES AND LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both pH and total alkalinity determinations are critical in characterizing chemical properties of water, being important to implementing good process control, determining corrosivity and other water quality properties, and assessing changes in water characteristics. Poor charac...

  6. Potential benefits of pH 8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Koufman, Jamie A; Johnston, Nikki

    2012-07-01

    At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity. Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters. The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters. Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

  7. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding: Buffering at intermediate alkaline pH

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rudin, J.; Wasan, D.T.

    1993-11-01

    The alkaline flooding process involves injecting alkaline agents into the reservoir to produce more oil than is produced through conventional waterflooding. The interaction of the alkali in the flood water with the naturally occurring acids in the reservoir oil results in in-situ formation of soaps, which are partially responsible for lowering IFT and improving oil recovery. The extent to which IFT is lowered depends on the specific oil and injection water properties. Numerous investigators have attempted to clarify the relationship between system chemical composition and IFT. An experimental investigation of buffered alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine themore » influence of various species present on interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of pH and ionic strength. IFT was found to go through an ultralow minimum in certain pH ranges. This synergism results from simultaneous adsorption of un-ionized and ionized acid species on the interface.« less

  9. [Adaptability of abnormal tadpole (Rana chensinensis) to water pH, salinity and alkalinity in Changbai Mountain of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuyi; Shao, Qingchun; Li, Jinglin; Chen, Guoshuang

    2004-08-01

    Under field condition with 16-18 degree C water temperature, single-factor acute toxicity test was used to study the toxicity effects of water pH, salinity and carbonate-alkalinity on abnormal tadpole (R. chensinensis). The results showed that when the water salinity was 0.18 g x L(-1), carbonate-alkalinity was 1.41 mmol x L(-1), and water pH was 4.3-9.7, the survival rate of abnormal tadpole within 96 hours was not affected. The upper limit of LC50 for the pH within 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours was 10.33, 10.18, 10.08 and 10.02, and the prescribed minimum was 3.92, 4.07, 4.11 and 4.16, respectively. The upper limit of LC0 was 9.95, 9.80, 9.70 and 9.70, and the prescribed minimum was 4.23, 4.45, 4.30 and 4.30, and that of LC100 was 10.70, 10.55, 10.45 and 10.33, and the prescribed minimum was 3.55, 3.70, 3.92 and 4.03, respectively. The survival rate of abnormal tadpole within 96 hours was not affected in the water salinity between 2.0-3.0 g x L(-1). When water pH was 7.0-8.5 and carbonate-alkalinity was 1.41 mmol x L(-1), the LC50 of the salinity within 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours was 8.21, 7.25, 5.17 and 3.70 g x L(-1), the LC0 was 7.14, 6.00, 2.67 and 2.20 g x L(-1), and the LC100 was 9.98, 9.00, 7.67 and 5.20 g x L(-1), respectively, while the SC was 1.70 g x L(-1). Under the same water pH and when the water salinity was 0.18 g x L(-1), the LC50 of carbonate-alkalinity within 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours was 14.36, 11.83, 10.35, and 7.68 mmol x L(-1), the LC0 was 8.76, 8.51, 4.65 and 3.88 mmol x L(-1), and the LC100 was 19.96, 15.14, 16.05 and 11.48 mmol x L(-1), respectively, while the SC was 1.70 mmol x L(-1). The survival rate of abnormal tadpole (R. chensinensis) was decreased with increasing water pH, salinity and carbonate-alkalinity. The optimum water salinity and carbonate-alkalinity to the survival and the growth of abnormal tadpole (R. chensinensis) were below 2.0 g x L(-1) and 3.0 mmol x L(-1), respectively, and water pH was between 6.0 and 9.0.

  10. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  11. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications.

  12. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications. PMID:27199163

  13. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  14. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, nutrient concentrations, and plant nutrition and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liming agents in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient availability imbalan...

  15. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats

    PubMed Central

    Merne, Marina ET; Syrjänen, Kari J; Syrjänen, Stina M

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined. PMID:11493345

  16. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    PubMed

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  17. Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alex L; Mayes, William M

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problematic trace metals, and rapid rates of calcite precipitation which smother benthic habitats. A 36-year dataset was collated from the long-term ambient monitoring of physicochemical parameters and elemental concentrations of samples from two steel slag leachate-affected watercourses in northern England. Waters were typified by elevated pH (>10), high alkalinity, and were rich in dissolved metals (e.g. calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn)). Long-term trend analysis was performed upon pH, alkalinity, and Ca concentration which, in addition to Ca flux calculations, were used to highlight the longevity of pollution arising as a result of the dumping and subsequent leaching of steel slags. Declines in calcium and alkalinity have been modest over the monitoring period and not accompanied by significant declines in water pH. If the monotonic trends of decline in alkalinity and calcium continue in the largest of the receiving streams, it will be in the region of 50-80 years before calcite precipitation would be expected to be close to baseline levels, where ecological impacts would be negligible.

  18. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pK a of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pK a 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategies for regulation of hemolymph pH in acidic and alkaline water by the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera; Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas M; Vieira, Marcus A L; Huegel, Kara L; Flury, Dawn; Carper, Melissa

    2007-12-01

    The responses of larval Aedes aegypti to media of pH 4, 7 and 11 provide evidence for pH regulatory strategies. Drinking rates in pH 4 media were elevated 3- to 5-fold above those observed in pH 7 or 11. Total body water was elevated during acute exposure to acidic media. During chronic exposure, total body water was decreased and Malpighian tubule mitochondrial luminosity, quantified using Mitotracker Green FM, increased. Malpighian tubule secretion rates and energy demands thus appear to increase dramatically during acid exposure. In alkaline media, drinking rates were quite low. Larvae in pH 11 media excreted net acid (0.12 nequiv H(+) g(-1) h(-1)) and the pH indicators azolitmin and bromothymol blue revealed that the rectal lumen is acidic in vivo at all ambient pH values. The anal papillae (AP) were found to be highly permeant to acid-base equivalents. Ambient pH influenced the length, and the mass-specific length, of the AP in the presence of NaCl (59.9 mmol l(-1)). In contrast, the length and mass-specific length of AP were not influenced by ambient pH in low NaCl conditions. Mitochondrial luminosity was reduced in AP of larvae reared in acidic media, and was not elevated in alkaline media, relative to that of larvae reared in neutral media. These data suggest that the AP may compromise acid-base balance in acidic media, and may also be an important site of trade-offs between H(+) homeostasis and NaCl uptake in dilute, acidic media.

  20. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Liming agents (LA) in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient avail...

  1. Simultaneous generation of acidic and alkaline water using atmospheric air plasma formed in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Shin-ichi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiro; Shirafuji, Tatsuru

    2018-01-01

    Plasmas on water surfaces and in water can be generated at atmosphere pressure using several kinds of gases, including helium, argon, oxygen, and air. Nitrates are generated in water through the interaction between water and atmospheric plasma that uses ambient air. Water that has been made acidic by the generation of nitric acid and the acidic water can be used for the sterilization of medical instruments, toilet bowls, and washing machines. Dishwashers are another potential application, as alkaline water is needed to remove grease from tableware. To investigate the production of alkaline water and its mechanism, gas component analysis was performed using an atmospheric quadrupole mass spectrometer. It was found that hydrogen gas evolves from the water surrounding both the positive and negative electrodes. The gas and water analyses carried out in this study revealed that acidic water of pH 2.5 and alkaline water of pH 10 can be simultaneously generated by our ambient air plasma device, which has been altered from our original model. The alterative plasma device has a partition wall, which is made of conductive resin, between the positive and negative electrodes.

  2. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Surface pH and Total Alkalinity at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea in October 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J.; Kang, D.; Jin, Y.; Obzhirov, A.

    2008-12-01

    Surface pH, total alkalinity, temperature and salinity were measured at the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea (along a track from Vladivostok to the northeastern slope of Sakhalin Island through Soya Strait: 42°N, 132°E - 55°N, 145°E) in October 2007. Continuous pH measurements were conducted using an underway potentiometric pH system modified from Tishchenko et al. (2002) and discrete total alkalinity measurements were made by direct titration with hydrochloric acid. Warm saline surface waters were observed in the East Sea (from Vladivostok to Soya Strait), and relatively cold less-saline waters were observed in the Sea of Okhotsk (at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island). In the East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk, surface pH ranged from 8.063 to 8.158 and 8.047 to 8.226, and total alkalinity normalized to salinity 35 ranged from 2323 to 2344 μmol kg-1 and 2367 to 2422 μmol kg-1, respectively. Due to the freshwater input from rivers and geochemical activity in the water column and sediment, the Sea of Okhotsk generally showed much wider ranges of water properties and richer in carbonate parameters than those of the East Sea. Particularly, water properties changed dramatically at the eastern slopes of Sakhalin Island; surface salinity decreased southward by about 0.5-1 psu and pH and normalized total alkalinity increased southward by about 0.05-0.1 and 20-50 μmol kg-1, respectively. Thus, pCO2 concentration calculated from pH and total alkalinity, ranged from 350-375 μatm in the north to 280-300 μatm in the south of the Okhotsk Sea. The high pH and normalized total alkalinity, and low pCO2 and salinity in the south might be the result of surface water mixing with fresh water discharge from rivers and/or the results of massive primary production along the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island. In the most study area, surface pCO2 ranged from 280 to 370 μatm and was undersaturated relative to atmosphere. Therefore, the Sea of Okhotsk and the East Sea acted as

  4. Discomfort from an alkaline formulation delivered subcutaneously in humans: albumin at pH 7 versus pH 10.

    PubMed

    Ward, W Kenneth; Castle, Jessica R; Branigan, Deborah L; Massoud, Ryan G; El Youssef, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding tolerability of alkaline drugs administered subcutaneously. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability of alkaline preparations of human albumin delivered subcutaneously to healthy humans. We compared the tolerability of neutral versus alkaline (pH 10) formulations of human albumin in ten volunteers. With an intent to minimize the time required to reach physiological pH after injection, the alkaline formulation was buffered with a low concentration of glycine (20 mmol/L). Each formulation was given at two rates: over 5 seconds and over 60 seconds. A six-point scale was used to assess discomfort. For slow injections, there was a significant difference between pH 7.4 and pH 10 injections (0.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.1 ± 0.2, mean ± SEM; p = 0.025), though the degree of discomfort at pH 10 injections was only 'mild or slight'. For fast injections, the difference between neutral and alkaline formulations was of borderline significance. Inflammation and oedema, as judged by a physician, were very minimal for all injections, irrespective of pH. For subcutaneous drug administration (especially when delivered slowly), there was more discomfort associated with alkaline versus neutral formulations of albumin, though the discomfort was mild. This study suggests that there is little discomfort and inflammation resulting from subcutaneous administration of protein drugs formulated with weak buffers at alkaline pH.

  5. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  6. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated

  7. An alkaline active xylanase: insights into mechanisms of high pH catalytic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Gashaw; Thunnissen, Marjolein; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2009-09-01

    The alkaliphilic bacterium, Bacillus halodurans S7, produces an alkaline active xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8), which differs from many other xylanases in being operationally stable under alkaline conditions as well as at elevated temperature. Compared to non-alkaline active xylanases, this enzyme has a high percent composition of acidic amino acids which results in high ratio of negatively to positively charged residues. A positive correlation was observed between the charge ratio and the pH optima of xylanases. The recombinant xylanase was crystallized using a hanging drop diffusion method. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and the structure was determined at a resolution of 2.1 A. The enzyme has the common eight-fold TIM-barrel structure of family 10 xylanases; however, unlike non-alkaline active xylanases, it has a highly negatively charged surface and a deeper active site cleft. Mutational analysis of non-conserved amino acids which are close to the acid/base residue has shown that Val169, Ile170 and Asp171 are important to hydrolyze xylan at high pH. Unlike the wild type xylanase which has optimum pH at 9-9.5, the triple mutant xylanase (V169A, I170F and D171N), which was constructed using sequence information of alkaline sensitive xylanses was optimally active around pH 7. Compared to non-alkaline active xylanases, the alkaline active xylanases have highly acidic surfaces and fewer solvent exposed alkali labile residues. Based on these results obtained from sequence, structural and mutational analysis, the possible mechanisms of high pH stability and catalysis are discussed. This will provide useful information to understand the mechanism of high pH adaptation and engineering of enzymes that can be operationally stable at high pH.

  8. Is Your Drinking Water Acidic? A Comparison of the Varied pH of Popular Bottled Waters.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kellie F

    2015-06-01

    Dental professionals continually educate patients on the dangers of consuming acidic foods and beverages due to their potential to contribute to dental erosion and tooth decay. Excess acid in the diet can also lead to acidosis, which causes negative systemic side effects. However, water is not typically categorized as acidic. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the pH levels of several popular brands of bottled water and compare them to various other acidic beverages. Two different brands of marketed alkaline water (with a pH of 8.8 or higher) were also studied, tested for acidity and described. A pilot in-vitro study was conducted to determine the pH levels of a convenience sample of popular brands of bottled water, tap water and other known acidic beverages in comparison with the pH values reported on the respective manufacturers' website. Each beverage was tested in a laboratory using a calibrated Corning pH meter model 240, and waters were compared to the corresponding company's testified pH value. Waters were also compared and contrasted based on their process of purification. The data was then compiled and analyzed descriptively. The pH values for the tested beverages and bottled waters were found to be predominantly acidic. Ten out of the 14 beverages tested were acidic (pH<7), 2 municipal (or "tap") waters were neutral (pH=7) and 2 bottled waters were alkaline (pH>7). The majority of waters tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports. It is beneficial for the health care provider to be aware of the potential acidity of popular bottled drinking waters and educate patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Biochemical stabilization of glucagon at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicholas; Jackson, Melanie A; Castle, Jessica R; El Youssef, Joseph; Bakhtiani, Parkash A; Bergstrom, Colin P; Carroll, Julie M; Breen, Matthew E; Leonard, Gerald L; David, Larry L; Roberts, Charles T; Ward, W Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas system utilizing glucagon and insulin has been found to stabilize glycemic control. However, commercially available formulations of glucagon cannot currently be used in such systems because of physical instability characterized by aggregation and chemical degradation. Storing glucagon at pH 10 blocks protein aggregation but results in chemical degradation. Reductions in pH minimize chemical degradation, but even small reductions increase protein aggregation. We hypothesized that common pharmaceutical excipients accompanied by a new excipient would inhibit glucagon aggregation at an alkaline pH. As measured by tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence shift and optical density at 630 nm, protein aggregation was indeed minimized when glucagon was formulated with curcumin and albumin. This formulation also reduced chemical degradation, measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Biological activity was retained after aging for 7 days in an in vitro cell-based bioassay and also in Yorkshire swine. Based on these findings, a formulation of glucagon stabilized with curcumin, polysorbate-80, l-methionine, and albumin at alkaline pH in glycine buffer may be suitable for extended use in a portable pump in the setting of a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas.

  10. The impact of pH on floc structure characteristic of polyferric chloride in a low DOC and high alkalinity surface water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Baichuan; Gao, Baoyu; Liu, Xin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yang, Zhonglian; Yue, Qinyan

    2011-11-15

    The adjustment of pH is an important way to enhance removal efficiency in coagulation units, and in this process, the floc size, strength and structure can be changed, influencing the subsequent solid/liquid separation effect. In this study, an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric chloride (PFC) was used in a low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and high alkalinity surface water treatment. The influence of coagulation pH on removal efficiency, floc growth, strength, re-growth capability and fractal dimension was examined. The optimum dosage was predetermined as 0.150 mmol/L, and excellent particle and organic matter removal appeared in the pH range of 5.50-5.75. The structure characteristics of flocs formed under four pH conditions were investigated through the analysis of floc size, effect of shear and particle scattering properties by a laser scattering instrument. The results indicated that flocs formed at neutral pH condition gave the largest floc size and the highest growth rate. During the coagulation period, the fractal dimension of floc aggregates increased in the first minutes and then decreased and larger flocs generally had smaller fractal dimensions. The floc strength, which was assessed by the relationship of floc diameter and velocity gradient, decreased with the increase of coagulation pH. Flocs formed at pH 4.00 had better recovery capability when exposed to lower shear forces, while flocs formed at neutral and alkaline conditions had better performance under higher shear forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical Stabilization of Glucagon at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melanie A.; Castle, Jessica R.; El Youssef, Joseph; Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Bergstrom, Colin P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Breen, Matthew E.; Leonard, Gerald L.; David, Larry L.; Roberts, Charles T.; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas system utilizing glucagon and insulin has been found to stabilize glycemic control. However, commercially available formulations of glucagon cannot currently be used in such systems because of physical instability characterized by aggregation and chemical degradation. Storing glucagon at pH 10 blocks protein aggregation but results in chemical degradation. Reductions in pH minimize chemical degradation, but even small reductions increase protein aggregation. We hypothesized that common pharmaceutical excipients accompanied by a new excipient would inhibit glucagon aggregation at an alkaline pH. Methods and Results: As measured by tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence shift and optical density at 630 nm, protein aggregation was indeed minimized when glucagon was formulated with curcumin and albumin. This formulation also reduced chemical degradation, measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Biological activity was retained after aging for 7 days in an in vitro cell-based bioassay and also in Yorkshire swine. Conclusions: Based on these findings, a formulation of glucagon stabilized with curcumin, polysorbate-80, l-methionine, and albumin at alkaline pH in glycine buffer may be suitable for extended use in a portable pump in the setting of a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas. PMID:24968220

  12. Alkaline pH enhances farnesol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Obata, Shusei; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-07-01

    External environments affect prenyl alcohol production by squalene synthetase-deficient mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 64031. Cultivation of the yeast in medium with an initial pH ranging from 7.0 to 8.0 increased the amount of secreted farnesol (FOH). In contrast, acidic medium with a pH below 4.0 increased the intracellular FOH and its isomer nerolidol. These effects of alkaline pH were also observed on constant pH cultivation in a jar fermenter. On cultivation for 133 h, the FOH production reached 102.8 mg/l.

  13. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urbanization accelerates long-term salinization and alkalinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Doody, T.; Haq, S.; Smith, R. M.; Newcomer Johnson, T. A.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Gorman, J. K.; Bowman, N.; Mayer, P. M.; Wood, K. L.; Belt, K.; Stack, W.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated land-use increases transport a major ions in streams due to anthropogenic salts and accelerated weathering. We show long-term trends in calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, and hardness over 50 years in the Baltimore metropolitan region and elsewhere. We also examine how major ion concentrations have increased significantly with impervious surface cover in watersheds across land use. Base cations show strong relationships with acid anions, which illustrates the coupling of major biogeochemical cycles in urban watersheds over time. Longitudinal patterns in major ions can also show increasing trends from headwaters to coastal waters, which suggests coupled biogeochemical cycles over space. We present new results from manipulative experiments and long-term monitoring across different urban regions regarding patterns and processes of salinization and alkalinization. Overall, our work demonstrates that urbanization dramatically increases major ions, ionic strength, and pH over decades from headwaters to coastal waters, which impacts the integrity of aquatic life, infrastructure, drinking water, and coastal ocean alkalinization.

  15. Change of pH during excess sludge fermentation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Ye; Jin, Baodan; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2014-12-01

    The change in pH during excess sludge (ES) fermentation of varying sludge concentrations was investigated in a series of reactors at alkaline, acidic, and neutral pHs. The results showed that the changes were significantly affected by fermentative conditions. Under different conditions, pH exhibited changing profiles. When ES was fermented under alkaline conditions, pH decreased in a range of (10±1). At the beginning of alkaline fermentation, pH dropped significantly, at intervals of 4h, 4h, and 5h with sludge concentrations of 8665.6mg/L, 6498.8mg/L, and 4332.5mg/L, then it would become moderate. However, under acidic conditions, pH increased from 4 to 5. Finally, under neutral conditions pH exhibited a decrease then an increase throughout entire fermentation process. Further study showed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia nitrogen and cations contributed to pH change under various fermentation conditions. This study presents a novel strategy based on pH change to predict whether SCFAs reach their stable stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alkaline biodegradable implants for osteoporotic bone defects--importance of microenvironment pH.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wang, T; Yang, C; Darvell, B W; Wu, J; Lin, K; Chang, J; Pan, H; Lu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Change of microenvironment pH by biodegradable implants may ameliorate unbalanced osteoporotic bone remodeling. The present work demonstrated that a weak alkaline condition stimulated osteoblasts differentiation while suppressed osteoclast generation. In vivo, implants with an alkaline microenvironment pH (monitored by a pH microelectrode) exhibited a promising healing effect for the repair of osteoporotic bone defects. Under osteoporotic conditions, the response of the bone microenvironment to an endosseous implant is significantly impaired, and this substantially increases the risk of fracture, non-union and aseptic implant loosening. Acid-base equilibrium is an important factor influencing bone cell behaviour. The present purpose was to study the effect of a series of alkaline biodegradable implant materials on regeneration of osteoporotic bone defect, monitoring the microenvironment pH (μe-pH) over time. The proliferation and differentiation potential of osteoporotic rat bone marrow stromal cells and RAW 264.7 cells were examined under various pH conditions. Ovariectomized rat bone defects were filled with specific biodegradable materials, and μe-pH was measured by pH microelectrode. New osteoid and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclast-like cells were examined by Goldner's trichrome and TRAP staining, respectively. The intermediate layer between implants and new bone were studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) linear scanning. In vitro, weak alkaline conditions stimulated osteoporotic rat bone marrow stromal cells (oBMSC) differentiation, while inhibiting the formation of osteoclasts. In vivo, μe-pH differs from that of the homogeneous peripheral blood and exhibits variations over time particular to each material. Higher initial μe-pH was associated with more new bone formation, late response of TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and the development of an intermediate 'apatitic' layer in vivo. EDX suggested that

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland for treating extremely alkaline (pH 12) steel slag drainage.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Aumônier, J; Jarvis, A P

    2009-01-01

    High pH (> 12) leachates are an environmental problem associated with drainage from lime (CaO)-rich industrial residues such as steel slags, lime spoil and coal combustion residues. Recent research has highlighted the potential for natural ('volunteer') wetlands to buffer extremely alkaline influent waters. This appears ascribable to high CO(2) partial pressures in the wetland waters from microbial respiration, which accelerates precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), and the high specific surface area for mineral precipitation offered by macrophytes. The research presented here builds on this and provides preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland built in March 2008 to buffer drainage from steel slag heaps in north-east England. The drainage water from the slag mounds is characterised by a mean pH of 11.9, high concentrations of Ca (up to 700 mg/L), total alkalinity (up to 800 mg/L as CaCO(3)) and are slightly brackish (Na = 300 mg/L; Cl = 400 mg/L) reflecting native groundwaters at this coastal setting. Documented calcite precipitation rates (mean of 5 g CaCO(3)/m(2)/day) from nearby volunteer sites receiving steel slag drainage were used to scale the constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis; a species found to spontaneously grow in the vicinity of the discharge. Improved performance of the wetland during summer months may at least in part be due to biological activity which enhances rates of calcite precipitation and thus lowering of pH. Secondary Ca-rich precipitates also serve as a sink for some trace elements present at low concentrations in the slag leachate such as Ni and V. The implications for scaling and applying constructed wetlands for highly alkaline drainage are discussed.

  18. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs.

    PubMed

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-03-01

    Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05). An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH.

  19. Metabolism of 14C-azoxystrobin in water at different pH.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neera; Singh, Shashi B; Mukerjee, Irani; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Sharma, Praveen K; Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem

    2010-02-01

    Metabolism of (14)C-azoxystrobin was studied in water at pH 4, 7 and 9. The study suggested that volatilization losses of azoxystrobin were very low (3%) during 130 days of incubation. Only 2.5-4.2% of azoxystrobin was mineralised to CO(2) and pH of water did not have much effect on rate of mineralisation. The dissipation of azoxystrobin in water of all the three pHs followed first order kinetic with half-life values ranging from 143 to 158 d; degradation was the fastest at pH 9. Azoxystrobin acid, a major metabolite, was detected 4-7 day onwards and its concentration increased up to 130 days. The formation of azoxystrobin acid was more and faster under alkaline (pH 9) condition than neutral (pH 7) or acidic (pH 4) conditions.

  20. Mode of de-esterification of alkaline and acidic pectin methyl esterases at different pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Duvetter, Thomas; Fraeye, Ilse; Sila, Daniel N; Verlent, Isabel; Smout, Chantal; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2006-10-04

    Highly esterified citrus pectin was de-esterified at pH 4.5 and 8.0 by a fungal pectin methyl esterase (PME) that was shown to have an acidic isoelectric pH (pI) and an acidic pH optimum and by a plant PME that was characterized by an alkaline pI and an alkaline pH optimum. Interchain and intrachain de-esterification patterns were studied by digestion of the pectin products with endo-polygalacturonase and subsequent analysis using size exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography. No effect of pH was observed on the de-esterification mode of either of the two enzymes. Acidic, fungal PME converted pectin according to a multiple-chain mechanism, with a limited degree of multiple attack at the intrachain level, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0. A multiple-attack mechanism, with a high degree of multiple attack, was more appropriate to describe the action mode of alkaline, plant PME, both at pH 4.5 and at pH 8.0.

  1. Influences of pH and CO2 on the formation of Metasilicate mineral water in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2017-07-01

    Mineral dissolution reactions actively participate in controlling the composition of mineral water. In this study, water soluble, acidic-alkaline and carbonated solution experiments were designed, and mineral reaction mechanisms were researched using chemical kinetics and the minimum free-energy method. The results showed that the release of metasilicate was controlled by pH, CO2, and rock characteristics. In the water soluble experiment, the release process of metasilicate in powdered rocks reached equilibrium after 40 days, while metasilicate in solid rocks took 170 days. The release process of metasilicate in solid rocks satisfied an asymptotic model, while in powdered rocks it accorded with the Stanford reaction kinetic model. In the acidic-alkaline experiment, metasilicate was released earlier under acidic conditions (2.46 < pH < 7) than under alkaline conditions (7 < pH < 10.61). The release process of metasilicate under acidic conditions reached equilibrium in 40 days, compared with 60 days for alkaline conditions. The addition of CO2 to the water solution was beneficial to the formation of metasilicate. Under neutral pH conditions, the reaction barely occurred. Under alkaline conditions, metasilicate was produced by the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals. Under acidic and additional CO2 conditions, metasilicate formation was mainly via the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. From these results, we concluded that the metasilicate mineral water from the Changbai Mountains, Jingyu County, is generated by a combination of the hydrolysis of metasilicate minerals and the reaction of H+, CO2, and metasilicate minerals. These results can contribute to a better development and protection of the mineral water resources in the Changbai Mountains.

  2. Improved methane production from waste activated sludge with low organic content by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10.

    PubMed

    Feng, L Y; Yang, L Q; Zhang, L X; Chen, H L; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Sludge with low organic content always results in an unsatisfactory performance, even failure of anaerobic digestion. The alkaline pretreatment effect on anaerobic digestion of sludge with low organic content has seldom been studied although it gives many benefits for sludge with high organic content. In this study the influence of alkaline pretreatment (pH 10, an effective alkaline pH) on the solubilization and methane production from waste activated sludge (WAS) with low organic content was investigated. Results from biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments showed that anaerobic biodegradability of WAS was greatly improved by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10. Methane production from the current WAS under conditions of pretreatment time 4 h and digestion time 15 d was 139.6 mL/g VS (volatile solids), much higher than that from the unpretreated WAS with digestion time of 20 d (75.2 mL/g VS). Also, the solubilization of WAS was significantly accelerated by alkaline pretreatment. Mechanism exploration indicated that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, specific activities of key enzymes and the amounts of methanogens were enhanced by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10, showing good agreement with methane production.

  3. The Bbgas3 β-glucanosyltransferase contributes to fungal adaptation to extreme alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhibing; Zhang, Tongbing; Liu, Pengfei; Bai, Yuting; Chen, Qiyan; Zhang, Yongjun; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2018-05-25

    Fungal β-1,3-glucanosyltransferases are cell wall remodeling enzymes implicated in stress response, cell wall integrity, and virulence, with most fungal genomes containing multiple members. The insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana displays robust growth over a wide pH range (pH = 4-10). Random insertion mutant library screening for increased sensitivity to alkaline (pH 10) growth conditions resulted in the identification and mapping of a mutant to a β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase gene ( Bbgas3 ). Bbgas3 expression was pH dependent and regulated by the PacC transcription factor, that activates genes in response to neutral/alkaline growth conditions. Targeted gene-knockout of Bbgas3 resulted in reduced growth under alkaline conditions, with only minor effects of increased sensitivity to cell wall stress (Congo Red and calcofluor white), and no significant effects on fungal sensitivity to oxidative or osmotic stress. The cell walls of ΔBbgas3 aerial conidia were thinner than wild type and complemented strains in response to alkaline conditions, and β-1,3-glucan antibody and lectin staining revealed alterations in cell surface carbohydrate epitopes. The ΔBbgas3 mutant displayed alterations in cell wall chitin and carbohydrate content in response to alkaline pH. Insect bioassays revealed impaired virulence for the ΔBbgas3 mutant depending upon the pH of the media on which the conidia were grown and harvested. Unexpectedly, a decreased lethal time to kill (LT 50 , i.e. increased virulence) was seen for the mutant using intra-hemocoel injection assays using conidia grown at acidic pH (5.6). These data show that BbGas3 acts as a pH-responsive cell wall remodeling enzyme involved in resistance to extreme pH (>9). Importance Little is known about adaptations required for growth at high (>9) pH. Here, we show that a specific fungal membrane remodelling β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase ( Bbgas3 ), regulated by the pH-responsive PacC transcription factor forms a critical

  4. Sphagnum establishment in alkaline fens: Importance of weather and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vicherová, Eliška; Hájek, Michal; Šmilauer, Petr; Hájek, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    Sphagnum expansion to alkaline fens has accelerated during the last decades in Europe, leading to changes in diversity, habitat distributions and carbon storage. The causes are still not clearly understood and involve an interplay between climate change, hydrology, nutrient supply and Sphagnum physiology. We conducted a 4-year field experiment in eight fens in Central European highlands and assessed survival and establishment of individual apical shoot fragments of S. flexuosum, S. warnstorfii and S. squarrosum transplanted along the microtopographical gradient. In a laboratory experiment, we tested combined effects of desiccation and high calcium bicarbonate concentration on Sphagnum survival. We found that in unflooded positions, living shoots of Sphagnum and brown mosses lowered [Ca 2+ ] and pH in their capillary water, in contrast to dead fragments; yet without differences between species. Survival and expansion of Sphagnum fragments, which did not die of acute calcium toxicity during first weeks/months, was negatively affected by dry weather and alkaline water chemistry, reflecting Sphagnum intolerance to desiccation and to combined high [Ca 2+ ] and pH. Shoot fragments expanded to patches only when precipitation was high. Interestingly, non-toxic concentration of calcium bicarbonate reduced desiccation damage in Sphagnum, probably through protection of membranes or other cell components. This mechanism would facilitate Sphagnum survival in elevated, frequently desiccated microhabitats of calcareous fens such as brown-moss hummocks. However, since water-retaining capacity of few Sphagnum shoots is insufficient to change water chemistry in its surroundings, surface acidification may occur only once the environment (e.g. sufficient humidity) enabled expansion to larger mats. Then, the retained rainwater together with hardly decomposable Sphagnum litter would separate mire surface from groundwater, speeding up successional shift towards poor fens. Sphagnum

  5. Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In neutralophilic bacteria, monovalent metal cation/H+ antiporters play a key role in pH homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, only four antiporters (NhaA, NhaB, MdfA and ChaA) are identified to function in maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH under conditions of alkaline stress. We hypothesised that the multidrug resistance protein MdtM, a recently characterised homologue of MdfA and a member of the major facilitator superfamily, also functions in alkaline pH homeostasis. Results Assays that compared the growth of an E. coli ΔmdtM deletion mutant transformed with a plasmid encoding wild-type MdtM or the dysfunctional MdtM D22A mutant at different external alkaline pH values (ranging from pH 8.5 to 10) revealed a potential contribution by MdtM to alkaline pH tolerance, but only when millimolar concentrations of sodium or potassium was present in the growth medium. Fluorescence-based activity assays using inverted vesicles generated from transformants of antiporter-deficient (ΔnhaA, ΔnhaB, ΔchaA) E. coli TO114 cells defined MdtM as a low-affinity antiporter that catalysed electrogenic exchange of Na+, K+, Rb+ or Li+ for H+. The K+/H+ antiport reaction had a pH optimum at 9.0, whereas the Na+/H+ exchange activity was optimum at pH 9.25. Measurement of internal cellular pH confirmed MdtM as contributing to maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH, acid relative to the external pH, under conditions of alkaline stress. Conclusions Taken together, the results support a role for MdtM in alkaline pH tolerance. MdtM can therefore be added to the currently limited list of antiporters known to function in pH homeostasis in the model organism E. coli. PMID:23701827

  6. Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Law, Christopher J

    2013-05-23

    In neutralophilic bacteria, monovalent metal cation/H+ antiporters play a key role in pH homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, only four antiporters (NhaA, NhaB, MdfA and ChaA) are identified to function in maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH under conditions of alkaline stress. We hypothesised that the multidrug resistance protein MdtM, a recently characterised homologue of MdfA and a member of the major facilitator superfamily, also functions in alkaline pH homeostasis. Assays that compared the growth of an E. coli ΔmdtM deletion mutant transformed with a plasmid encoding wild-type MdtM or the dysfunctional MdtM D22A mutant at different external alkaline pH values (ranging from pH 8.5 to 10) revealed a potential contribution by MdtM to alkaline pH tolerance, but only when millimolar concentrations of sodium or potassium was present in the growth medium. Fluorescence-based activity assays using inverted vesicles generated from transformants of antiporter-deficient (ΔnhaA, ΔnhaB, ΔchaA) E. coli TO114 cells defined MdtM as a low-affinity antiporter that catalysed electrogenic exchange of Na+, K+, Rb+ or Li+ for H+. The K+/H+ antiport reaction had a pH optimum at 9.0, whereas the Na+/H+ exchange activity was optimum at pH 9.25. Measurement of internal cellular pH confirmed MdtM as contributing to maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH, acid relative to the external pH, under conditions of alkaline stress. Taken together, the results support a role for MdtM in alkaline pH tolerance. MdtM can therefore be added to the currently limited list of antiporters known to function in pH homeostasis in the model organism E. coli.

  7. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale.

    PubMed

    Slessarev, E W; Lin, Y; Bingham, N L; Johnson, J E; Dai, Y; Schimel, J P; Chadwick, O A

    2016-11-21

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility-rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  8. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slessarev, E. W.; Lin, Y.; Bingham, N. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Dai, Y.; Schimel, J. P.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  9. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    PubMed

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  10. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    PubMed

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  11. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  12. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  13. Removal of six pesticide residues in cowpea with alkaline electrolysed water.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; An, Quanshun; Pan, Canping

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta-cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. The residue magnitudes were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that the removal effect of AlEW solution on the six pesticides was superior to tap water, 5% sodium chloride, 5% sodium carbonate and 5% acetic acid solution. AlEW with pH 12.2 had more potential to eliminate the six pesticides in cowpeas. Moreover, the reduction of pesticide residues gradually increased with the increase of washing time. This study demonstrated that AlEW solution with pH of 12.2 could be used to reduce pesticide residues on fresh cowpea samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and system pH in semi-commercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When operating water recirculating systems (RAS) with high make-up water flushing rates in locations that have low alkalinity in the raw water, such as Norway, knowledge about the required RAS alkalinity concentration is important. Flushing RAS with make-up water containing low alkalinity washes out...

  15. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  16. [Degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid at neutral and alkaline pH values].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Miao, Xiao-lei; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA) in aqueous solution at 37 degrees C and different pH values (7.05, 7.96, 9.25) were investigated in the present work. The results indicated that 3-, 4- and 5-CQA tended to remain stable in acidic pH circumstance, and unstable in neutral and alkaline pH circumstance. With the increase of the alkalinity, the degradation of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA was increased leading to a less amount of total CQA and was satisfactorily described by the Weibull equation. Meanwhile, caffeic acid was not detected after the degradation of CQA. Moreover, the degradation of 3-CQA and 5-CQA tended to be converted to 4-CQA, and the degradation of 4-CQA tended to be converted to 3-CQA rather than 5-CQA. The comparison of the degradation kinetics parameters of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at neutral and alkaline pH values showed that the orders of the rate constant (k) values were 4-CQA > 3-CQA > 5-CQA, while the orders of the degradation half life (t½) values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA, indicating the orders of the stabilities of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at 37 degrees C and neutral and alkaline pH values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA.

  17. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  18. Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui-Peng; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Wang, Wen-Long; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates a hydroxyl radical (•OH) that exhibits strong oxidative potential. Thus, the ozonation of 1,4-dioxane in water under different pH conditions was investigated in this study. In neutral solution, with an inlet ozone feed rate of 0.19 mmol/(L·min), the removal efficiency of 1,4-dioxane was 7.6% at 0.5 h, whereas that in alkaline solution was higher (16.3-94.5%) within a pH range of 9-12. However, the removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon was considerably lower than that of 1,4-dioxane. This result indicates that several persistent intermediates were generated during 1,4-dioxane ozonation. The pseudo first-order reaction further depicted the reaction of 1,4-dioxane. The obvious kinetic constants (kobs) at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12 were 0.94, 2.41, 24.88 and 2610 L/(mol·s), respectively. Scavenger experiments on radical species indicated that •OH played a key role in removing 1,4-dioxane during ozonation under alkaline condition.

  19. Effects of prolonged exposure to moderate static magnetic field and its synergistic effects with alkaline pH on Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Huang, Zhuo; Fan, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Static magnetic field (SMF) has been shown to biologically affect various microorganisms, but its effects on Enterococcus faecalis, which is associated with multiple dental infections, have not been reported yet. Besides, Enterococcus faecalis was found to be resistant to the alkaline environment provided by a major dental antimicrobial, calcium hydroxide. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of prolonged exposure to moderate SMF (170 mT) and its possible synergistic activity with alkaline pH (pH = 9) were evaluated in the study. The ability to form a biofilm under these conditions was examined by crystal violet assay. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to evaluate the relative expression of stress (dnaK and groEL) and virulence (efaA, ace, gelE and fsrC) related genes. As the results indicated, cell proliferation was inhibited after 120 h of SMF exposure. What's more, the combined treatment of SMF and alkaline pH showed significantly improved antimicrobial action when compared to single SMF and alkaline pH treatment for more than 24 h and 72 h respectively. However, the ability to form a biofilm was also enhanced under SMF and alkaline pH treatments. SMF can induce stress response by up-regulating the expression of dnaK and elevate virulence gene expression (efaA and ace). These responses were more significant and more genes were up-regulated including groEL, gelE and fsrC when exposed to SMF and alkaline pH simultaneously. Hence, combination of SMF and alkaline pH could be a promising disinfection strategy in dental area and other areas associated with Enterococcus faecalis infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  1. Interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and oil-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interfacial behavior of alkaline protease at the air-water and n-hexane-water interfaces was investigated using interfacial tension, dilatational rheology and dynamic light scattering. Additionally, different adsorption models which are Langmuir, Frumkin, Reorientation-A and Reorientation-R were used to fitting the data of equilibrium interfacial tension for further understanding the interfacial behavior of alkaline protease. Data fitting of the equilibrium interfacial tension was achieved by IsoFit software. The results show that the molecules arrangement of the alkaline protease at the n-hexane-water interface is more tightly than at the air-water interface. The data were further analyzed to indicate that the hydrophobic chains of alkaline protease penetrate into oil phase deeper than the air phase. Also data indicate that the electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions at the n-hexane-water interface are stronger than at the air-water interface within molecules of the alkaline protease. Based on comprehensive analysis of the adsorption kinetics and interfacial rheological properties, interfacial structures mechanism of alkaline protease at n-hexane-water and air-water interfaces was proposed.

  2. Treatment of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with a sublethal concentration of trisodium phosphate or alkaline pH induces thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Balamurugan; Khachatourians, George G; Korber, Darren R

    2004-08-01

    The responses of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to a sublethal dose of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and its equivalent alkaline pH made with NaOH were examined. Pretreatment of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis cells with 1.5% TSP or pH 10.0 solutions resulted in a significant increase in thermotolerance, resistance to 2.5% TSP, resistance to high pH, and sensitivity to acid and H(2)O(2). Protein inhibition studies with chloramphenicol revealed that thermotolerance, unlike resistance to high pH, was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total cellular proteins from untreated control cells resolved as many as 232 proteins, of which 22 and 15% were absent in TSP- or alkaline pH-pretreated cells, respectively. More than 50% of the proteins that were either up- or down-regulated by TSP pretreatment were also up- or down-regulated by alkaline pH pretreatment. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis of detergent-insoluble outer membrane proteins revealed the up-regulation of at least four proteins. Mass spectrometric analysis showed the up-regulated proteins to include those involved in the transport of small hydrophilic molecules across the cytoplasmic membrane and those that act as chaperones and aid in the export of newly synthesized proteins by keeping them in open conformation. Other up-regulated proteins included common housekeeping proteins like those involved in amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. In addition to the differential expression of proteins following TSP or alkaline pH treatment, changes in membrane fatty acid composition were also observed. Alkaline pH- or TSP-pretreated cells showed a higher saturated and cyclic to unsaturated fatty acid ratio than did the untreated control cells. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane could play a significant role in the induction of thermotolerance and resistance to other stresses following TSP

  3. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  4. Net acidity indicates the whole effluent toxicity of pH and dissolved metals in metalliferous saline waters.

    PubMed

    Degens, Bradley P; Krassoi, Rick; Galvin, Lynette; Reynolds, Brad; Micevska, Tina

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of potential acidity in water are used to manage aquatic toxicity risks of discharge from acid sulfate soils or acid mine drainage. Net acidity calculated from pH, dissolved metals and alkalinity is a common measurement of potential acidity but the relevance of current risk thresholds to aquatic organisms are unclear. Aquatic toxicity testing was carried out using four halophytic organisms with water from four saline sources in southern Western Australia (3 acidic drains and one alkaline river; 39-40 g TDS/L) where acidity was varied by adjusting pH to 4.5-6.5. The test species were brine shrimps (Artemia salina), locally sourced ostracods (Platycypris baueri), microalgae (Dunaliella salina) and amphipods (Allorchestes compressa). Testing found the EC 10 and IC 10 of net acidity ranged from -7.8 to 10.5 mg CaCO 3 /L with no survival or growth of any species at >47 mg CaCO 3 /L. Reduced net acidity indicated reduced whole effluent toxicity more reliably than increased pH alone with organisms tolerating pH up to 1.1 units lower in the absence of dissolved metals. Variation in toxicity indicated by net acidity was mostly attributed to reduced concentrations of dissolved Al and Fe combined with higher pH and alkalinity and some changes in speciation of Al and Fe with pH. These results indicate that rapid in-field assessments of net acidity in acidic, Al dominated waters may be an indicator of potential acute and sub-chronic impacts on aquatic organisms. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defluoridation of drinking water by combined electrocoagulation: effects of the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-01

    The defluoridation efficiency (epsilon(F)) of electrocoagulation (EC) is closely related to the pH level of the F(-)-containing solution. The pH level usually needs to be adjusted by adding acid in order to obtain the highest epsilon(F) for the F(-)-containing groundwater. The use of combined EC (CEC), which is the combination of chemical coagulation with EC, was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water for the first time in this study. The optimal scheme for the design and operation of CEC were obtained through experiments on the treatment of F(-)-containing groundwater. It was found, with OH(-) being the only alkalinity of the raw water, that the highest efficiency would be obtained when the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III) (gamma(Alkalinity+F)) was controlled at 3.0. However, when the raw water contained HCO(3)(-) alkalinity, a correction coefficient was needed to correct the concentration of HCO(3)(-) to obtain the optimal defluoridation condition of gamma(Alkalinity+F)=3.0 for CEC. The correction coefficient of HCO(3)(-) concentration was concluded as 0.60 from the experiment. For the practical F(-)-containing groundwater treatment, CEC can achieve similar epsilon(F) as an acid-adding EC process. The consumption of aluminum electrode was decreased in CEC. The energy consumption also declined greatly in CEC, which is less than one third of that in the acid-adding EC process.

  6. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, François; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have

  7. Alkaline pH block of CLC-K kidney chloride channels mediated by a pore lysine residue.

    PubMed

    Gradogna, Antonella; Pusch, Michael

    2013-07-02

    CLC-K chloride channels are expressed in the kidney and the inner ear, where they are involved in NaCl reabsorption and endolymph production, respectively. These channels require the beta subunit barttin for proper function. Mutations in ClC-Kb and barttin, lead to Bartter's syndrome. Block of CLC-K channels by acid pH was described in a previous work, and we had identified His-497 as being responsible for the acidic block of CLC-K channels. Here, we show that ClC-K currents are blocked also by alkaline pH with an apparent pK value of ∼8.7 for ClC-K1. Using noise analysis, we demonstrate that alkaline block is mediated by an allosteric reduction of the open probability. By an extensive mutagenic screen we identified K165, a highly conserved residue in the extracellular vestibule of the channel, as the major element responsible for the alkaline pH modulation. Deprotonation of K165 underlies the alkaline block. However, MTS modification of the K165C mutant demonstrated that not only the charge but also the chemical and sterical properties of lysine 165 are determinants of CLC-K gating. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidity and Alkalinity in mine drainage: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we emphasize that the Standard Method hot peroxide treatment procedure for acidity determination (hot acidity) directly measures net acidity or net alkalinity, but that more than one water-quality measure can be useful as a measure of the severity of acid mine drainage. We demonstrate that the hot acidity is related to the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al in fresh mine drainage. We show that the hot acidity accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. We show that the hot acidity method gives consistent, interpretable results on fresh or aged samples. Regional data for mine-drainage quality in Pennsylvania indicated the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5 to 4) or near neutral (pH 6 to 7); approximately 25 percent of the samples had intermediate pH values. This bimodal frequency distribution of pH was distinctive for fully oxidized samples; oxidized samples had acidic or near-neutral pH, only. Samples that had nearneutral pH after oxidation had negative hot acidity; samples that had acidic pH after oxidation had positive hot acidity. Samples with comparable pH values had variable hot acidities owing to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. The hot acidity was comparable to net acidity computed on the basis of initial pH and concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity computed from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was comparable to that computed on the basis of aqueous species and FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the hot acidities were comparable for fresh and aged samples. Thus, meaningful “net” acidity can be determined from a measured hot acidity or by

  9. Naturally occurring alkaline amino acids function as efficient catalysts on Knoevenagel condensation at physiological pH: a mechanistic elucidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weina; Fedosov, Sergey; Tan, Tianwei; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    To maintain biological functions, thousands of different reactions take place in human body at physiological pH (7.0) and mild conditions, which is associated with health and disease. Therefore, to examine the catalytic function of the intrinsically occurring molecules, such as amino acids at neutral pH, is of fundamental interests. Natural basic α-amino acid of L-lysine, L-arginine, and L-histidine neutralized to physiological pH as salts were investigated for their ability to catalyze Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate. Compared with their free base forms, although neutralized alkaline amino acid salts reduced the catalytic activity markedly, they were still capable to perform an efficient catalysis at physiological pH as porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), one of the best enzymes that catalyze Knoevenagel condensation. In agreement with the fact that the three basic amino acids were well neutralized, stronger basic amino acid Arg and Lys showed more obvious variation in NH bend peak from the FTIR spectroscopy study. Study of ethanol/water system and quantitative kinetic analysis suggested that the microenvironment in the vicinity of amino acid salts and protonability/deprotonability of the amine moiety may determine their catalytic activity and mechanism. The kinetic study of best approximation suggested that the random binding might be the most probable catalytic mechanism for the neutralized alkaline amino acid salt-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation.

  10. Alkaline pH shock enhanced production of validamycin A in fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Sun, Ya-Fang; Tang, Xi; He, Chao-Nan; Shao, Ye-Lin; Tang, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Wen-Wen

    2018-02-01

    Validamycin A (Val-A) is produced by Streptomyces as a secondary metabolite with wide agricultural applications of controlling rice sheath blight, false smut and damping-off diseases. The effect of alkaline pH shock on enhancing Val-A production and its mechanism were investigated. A higher yield of Val-A was achieved by NaOH shock once or several times together with faster protein synthesis and sugar consumption and alkaline pH shock can increase Val-A production by 27.43%. Transcription of genes related to amino acid metabolism, carbon metabolism and electron respiratory chain was significantly up-regulated, accompanied by the substantial increase of respiratory activity and glutamate concentration. Val-A production was promoted by a series of complex mechanisms and made a response to pH stress signal, which led to the enhancement of glutamate metabolism and respiration activity. The obtained information will facilitate future studies for antibiotic yield improvement and the deep revealment of molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity, pH and Osmotic Pressure of Boar Semen***

    PubMed Central

    King, G. J.; Macpherson, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded in forty ejaculates of the sperm rich fraction of boar semen as 9,790 ± 5,250 Klein-Babson-Read units per 100 ml. of seminal plasma. Acid phosphatase activity in the same ejaculates was 681 ± 304 Babson-Read units per 100 ml. of seminal plasma. No alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in the seminal plasma of vasectomized boars. The pH of the sperm rich fractions was 7.69 ± 0.33 and the osmotic pressure was 313.56 ± 7.98 milliosmols. PMID:4226380

  12. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovski, Bosko M.; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Ferreira, Gloria C.

    2014-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5′phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0–3.0 and 7.5–10.5) and temperature (20 and 37 °C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH 2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH 10.5 and pH 9.5/37 °C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420 nm to 330 nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphtalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH 1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH 9.5/37 °C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme. PMID:25240868

  13. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2014-12-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5'phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0-3.0 and 7.5-10.5) and temperature (20 and 37°C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH10.5 and pH9.5/37°C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420nm to 330nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH9.5/37°C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    The apoplastic pH of intact Forsythiaxintermedia (cv. Lynwood) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants has been manipulated using buffered foliar sprays, and thereby stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf growth rate, and plant water loss have been controlled. The more alkaline the pH of the foliar spray, the lower the g(s) and/or leaf growth rate subsequently measured. The most alkaline pH that was applied corresponds to that measured in sap extracted from shoots of tomato and Forsythia plants experiencing, respectively, soil drying or a relatively high photon flux density (PFD), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and temperature in the leaf microclimate. The negative correlation between PFD/VPD/temperature and g(s) determined in well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate was eliminated by spraying the plants with relatively alkaline but not acidic buffers, providing evidence for a novel pH-based signalling mechanism linking the aerial microclimate with stomatal aperture. Increasing the pH of the foliar spray only reduced g(s) in plants of the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca mutant of tomato when ABA was simultaneously sprayed onto leaves or injected into stems. In well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate (variable PFD, VPD, and temperature), xylem pH and leaf ABA concentration fluctuated but were positively correlated. Manipulation of foliar apoplastic pH also affected the response of g(s) and leaf growth to ABA injected into stems of intact Forsythia plants. The techniques used here to control physiology and water use in intact growing plants could easily be applied in a horticultural context.

  15. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, C.; Buch, A.; Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Poch, O.; Ramirez, S.

    2013-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is known for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are objects of astrobiological interest. In this paper we focus on their potential chemical evolution when they reach the surface and interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have studied the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at ambient and low temperature. However, we identified oxygenated molecules in non-hydrolyzed tholins meaning that oxygen gets in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis [2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. After confirming the non-presence of oxygen in tholins produced with this new experimental setup, the study of oxygen-free tholins' evolution has been carried out. A recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), as previously described by other teams [2,4]. Thus new hydrolysis experiments will take this lower value into account. Additionally, a new report [5] provides upper and lower limits for the bulk content of Titan's interior for various gas species. It also shows that most of them are likely stored and dissolved in the subsurface water ocean. But considering the plausible acido-alkaline properties of the ammonia-water ocean, additional species could be dissolved in the ocean and present in the magma. They were also included in our hydrolysis experiments. Taking into account these new data, four different hydrolysis have been applied to oxygen-free tholins. For each type of hydrolysis, we also follow the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. The preliminary qualitative and quantitative

  16. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase regulates protective surface microclimate pH in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Misa; Ham, Maggie; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2009-07-15

    Regulation of localized extracellular pH (pH(o)) maintains normal organ function. An alkaline microclimate overlying the duodenal enterocyte brush border protects the mucosa from luminal acid. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates pH(o) due to pH-sensitive ATP hydrolysis as part of an ecto-purinergic pH regulatory system, comprised of cell-surface P2Y receptors and ATP-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). To test this hypothesis, we measured DBS in a perfused rat duodenal loop, examining the effect of the competitive alkaline phosphatase inhibitor glycerol phosphate (GP), the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor ARL67156, and exogenous nucleotides or P2 receptor agonists on DBS. Furthermore, we measured perfusate ATP concentration with a luciferin-luciferase bioassay. IAP inhibition increased DBS and luminal ATP output. Increased luminal ATP output was partially CFTR dependent, but was not due to cellular injury. Immunofluorescence localized the P2Y(1) receptor to the brush border membrane of duodenal villi. The P2Y(1) agonist 2-methylthio-ADP increased DBS, whereas the P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2179 reduced ATP- or GP-induced DBS. Acid perfusion augmented DBS and ATP release, further enhanced by the IAP inhibitor l-cysteine, and reduced by the exogenous ATPase apyrase. Furthermore, MRS2179 or the highly selective P2Y(1) antagonist MRS2500 co-perfused with acid induced epithelial injury, suggesting that IAP/ATP/P2Y signalling protects the mucosa from acid injury. Increased DBS augments IAP activity presumably by raising pH(o), increasing the rate of ATP degradation, decreasing ATP-mediated DBS, forming a negative feedback loop. The duodenal epithelial brush border IAP-P2Y-HCO(3-) surface microclimate pH regulatory system effectively protects the mucosa from acid injury.

  17. The Effect of Carbonate and pH on Hydrogen Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction on Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    John, Samuel St.; Atkinson, Robert W.; Roy, Asa; ...

    2016-01-11

    In this paper, we investigated the performance of several carbon-supported Ru xPt y electrocatalysts for their alkaline hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction performance in the presence of carbonate and compared their performance with monometallic, carbon-supported Pt. Our results indicate a strong dependence of HOR upon pH for the monometallic Pt catalysts (22 mV/pH) and a weak dependence upon pH for the Ru-containing electrocatalysts (3.7, 2.5, and 4.7 mV/pH on Ru 0.2Pt 0.8, Ru 0.4Pt 0.6, and Ru 0.8Pt 0.2, respectively). These results are consistent with our previous findings that illustrate a change in rds from electron transfer (on monometallic Pt)more » to dissociative hydrogen adsorption (on Ru xPt y catalysts). Analysis of the kinetic currents to determine the rate-determining step via Tafel slope analysis provides additional data supporting this conclusion. There is no difference in the performance at comparable pH values in the presence or absence of carbonate on monometallic Pt indicating that water/hydroxide is the primary proton acceptor for alkaline HOR in 0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Finally, we observe no pH or carbonate dependence for the ORR on monometallic Pt.« less

  18. The Effect of Carbonate and pH on Hydrogen Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction on Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    John, Samuel St.; Atkinson, Robert W.; Roy, Asa

    In this paper, we investigated the performance of several carbon-supported Ru xPt y electrocatalysts for their alkaline hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction performance in the presence of carbonate and compared their performance with monometallic, carbon-supported Pt. Our results indicate a strong dependence of HOR upon pH for the monometallic Pt catalysts (22 mV/pH) and a weak dependence upon pH for the Ru-containing electrocatalysts (3.7, 2.5, and 4.7 mV/pH on Ru 0.2Pt 0.8, Ru 0.4Pt 0.6, and Ru 0.8Pt 0.2, respectively). These results are consistent with our previous findings that illustrate a change in rds from electron transfer (on monometallic Pt)more » to dissociative hydrogen adsorption (on Ru xPt y catalysts). Analysis of the kinetic currents to determine the rate-determining step via Tafel slope analysis provides additional data supporting this conclusion. There is no difference in the performance at comparable pH values in the presence or absence of carbonate on monometallic Pt indicating that water/hydroxide is the primary proton acceptor for alkaline HOR in 0.1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Finally, we observe no pH or carbonate dependence for the ORR on monometallic Pt.« less

  19. Improvement of the optimum pH of Aspergillus niger xylanase towards an alkaline pH by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Xie, Jingcong; Zhang, Xuesong; Zhao, Linguo

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to shift the optimal pH of the xylanase B (XynB) from Aspergillus niger towards alkalinity, target mutation sites were selected by alignment between Aspergillus niger xylanase B and other xylanases that have alkalophilic pH optima that highlight charged residues in the eight-residues-longer loop in the alkalophilic xylanase. Multiple engineered XynB mutants were created by site-directed mutagenesis with substitutions Q164K and Q164K+D117N. The variant XynB-117 had the highest optimum pH (at 5.5), which corresponded to a basic 0.5 pH unit shift when compared with the wild-type enzyme. However, the optimal pH of the XynB- 164 mutation was not changed, similar to the wild type. These results suggest that the residues at positions 164 and 117 in the eight-residues-longer loop and the cleft's edge are important in determining the pH optima of XynB from Aspergillus niger.

  20. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  1. Solid State Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Total Alkalinity and pH of Seawater.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Ellen M; Sandoval, Sergio; Erten, Ahmet; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Kummel, Andrew C; Martz, Todd R

    2017-09-22

    A novel design is demonstrated for a solid state, reagent-less sensor capable of rapid and simultaneous measurement of pH and Total Alkalinity (A T ) using ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) technology to provide a simplified means of characterization of the aqueous carbon dioxide system through measurement of two "master variables": pH and A T . ISFET-based pH sensors that achieve 0.001 precision are widely used in various oceanographic applications. A modified ISFET is demonstrated to perform a nanoliter-scale acid-base titration of A T in under 40 s. This method of measuring A T , a Coulometric Diffusion Titration, involves electrolytic generation of titrant, H + , through the electrolysis of water on the surface of the chip via a microfabricated electrode eliminating the requirement of external reagents. Characterization has been performed in seawater as well as titrating individual components (i.e., OH - , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , B(OH) 4 - , PO 4 3- ) of seawater A T . The seawater measurements are consistent with the design in reaching the benchmark goal of 0.5% precision in A T over the range of seawater A T of ∼2200-2500 μmol kg -1 which demonstrates great potential for autonomous sensing.

  2. Oil recovery by alkaline waterflooding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cooke, C.E. Jr.; Williams, R.E.; Kolodzie, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    Flooding of oil containing organic acids with alkaline water under favorable conditions can result in recovery of around 50% of the residual oil left in a watered-out model. A high recovery efficiency results from the formation of a bank of viscous water-in-oil emulsion as surface active agents (soaps) are created by reactions of base in the water with the organic acids in the oil. The type and amount of organic acids in the oil, the pH and salt content of the water, and the amount of fines in the porous medium are the primary factors which determine the amount ofmore » additional oil recovered by this method. Interaction of alkaline water with reservoir rock largely determines the amount of chemical needed to flood a reservoir. Laboratory investigations using synthetic oils and crude oils show the importance of oil-water and liquid-solid interfacial properties to the results of an alkaline waterflood. A small field test demonstrated that emulsion banks can be formed in the reservoir and that chemical costs can be reasonable in selected reservoirs. Although studies have provided many qualitative guide lines for evaluating the feasibility of alkaline waterflooding, the economic attractiveness of the process must be considered on an individual reservoir.« less

  3. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Treesearch

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  4. Alkaline approach to treating cooling towers for control of Legionella pneumophila

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    States, S.J.; Conley, L.F.; Towner, S.G.

    1987-08-01

    Earlier field and laboratory studies have shown that Legionella species survive and multiply in the pH range 5.5 to 9.2. Additionally, the technical feasibility of operating cooling towers at elevated alkalinities and pH has previously been documented by published guidelines. The guidelines indicate that these conditions facilitate corrosion control and favor chlorine persistence which enhances the effectiveness of continuous chlorination in biofouling control. This information suggest that control of Legionella species in cooling towers can be accomplished by operating the towers under alkaline conditions. To test this possibility, we collected water samples over a period of months from a hospitalmore » cooling tower. The samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical parameters. Subsamples were pasteurized and inoculated with non-agar-passaged Legionella pneumophila which had been maintained in tap water. Correlation of subsequent Legionella growth with corresponding pH and alkalinity values revealed statistically significant inverse associations. These data support the hypothesis that operating cooling towers outside of the optimal conditions for Legionella growth (e.g., at elevated alkalinities and a pH greater than 9) may be a useful approach to controlling growth in this habitat.« less

  5. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  6. Mechanisms of Glucagon Degradation at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R.; Bergstrom, Colin P.; Carroll, Julie M.; Bakhtiani, Parkash A.; Jackson, Melanie A.; Roberts, Charles T.; David, Larry L.; Ward, W. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon is unstable and undergoes degradation and aggregation in aqueous solution. For this reason, its use in portable pumps for closed loop management of diabetes is limited to very short periods. In this study, we sought to identify the degradation mechanisms and the bioactivity of specific degradation products. We studied degradation in the alkaline range, a range at which aggregation is minimized. Native glucagon and analogs identical to glucagon degradation products were synthesized. To quantify biological activity in glucagon and in the degradation peptides, a protein kinase A-based bioassay was used. Aged, fresh, and modified peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LCMS). Oxidation of glucagon at the Met residue was common but did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation and isomerization were also common and were more prevalent at pH 10 than 9. The biological effects of deamidation and isomerization were unpredictable; deamidation at some sites did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation of Gln 3, isomerization of Asp 9, and deamidation with isomerization at Asn 28 all caused marked potency loss. Studies with molecular-weight-cutoff membranes and LCMS revealed much greater fibrillation at pH 9 than 10. Further work is necessary to determine formulations of glucagon that minimize degradation and fibrillation. PMID:23651991

  7. Mechanisms of glucagon degradation at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Nicholas; Castle, Jessica R; Bergstrom, Colin P; Carroll, Julie M; Bakhtiani, Parkash A; Jackson, Melanie A; Roberts, Charles T; David, Larry L; Ward, W Kenneth

    2013-07-01

    Glucagon is unstable and undergoes degradation and aggregation in aqueous solution. For this reason, its use in portable pumps for closed loop management of diabetes is limited to very short periods. In this study, we sought to identify the degradation mechanisms and the bioactivity of specific degradation products. We studied degradation in the alkaline range, a range at which aggregation is minimized. Native glucagon and analogs identical to glucagon degradation products were synthesized. To quantify biological activity in glucagon and in the degradation peptides, a protein kinase A-based bioassay was used. Aged, fresh, and modified peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LCMS). Oxidation of glucagon at the Met residue was common but did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation and isomerization were also common and were more prevalent at pH 10 than 9. The biological effects of deamidation and isomerization were unpredictable; deamidation at some sites did not reduce bioactivity. Deamidation of Gln 3, isomerization of Asp 9, and deamidation with isomerization at Asn 28 all caused marked potency loss. Studies with molecular-weight-cutoff membranes and LCMS revealed much greater fibrillation at pH 9 than 10. Further work is necessary to determine formulations of glucagon that minimize degradation and fibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  9. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  10. Alkaline pH activates the transport activity of GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gunnink, Stephen M; Kerk, Samuel A; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Alabi, Ola D; Kuipers, David P; Praamsma, Riemer C; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2014-04-01

    The widely expressed mammalian glucose transporter, GLUT1, can be acutely activated in L929 fibroblast cells by a variety of conditions, including glucose deprivation, or treatment with various respiration inhibitors. Known thiol reactive compounds including phenylarsine oxide and nitroxyl are the fastest acting stimulators of glucose uptake, implicating cysteine biochemistry as critical to the acute activation of GLUT1. In this study, we report that in L929 cells glucose uptake increases 6-fold as the pH of the uptake solution is increased from 6 to 9 with the half-maximal activation at pH 7.5; consistent with the pKa of cysteine residues. This pH effect is essentially blocked by the pretreatment of the cells with either iodoacetamide or cinnamaldehyde, compounds that form covalent adducts with reduced cysteine residues. In addition, the activation by alkaline pH is not additive at pH 8 with known thiol reactive activators such as phenylarsine oxide or hydroxylamine. Kinetic analysis in L929 cells at pH 7 and 8 indicate that alkaline conditions both increases the Vmax and decreases the Km of transport. This is consistent with the observation that pH activation is additive to methylene blue, which activates uptake by increasing the Vmax, as well as to berberine, which activates uptake by decreasing the Km. This suggests that cysteine biochemistry is utilized in both methylene blue and berberine activation of glucose uptake. In contrast a pH increase from 7 to 8 in HCLE cells does not further activate glucose uptake. HCLE cells have a 25-fold higher basal glucose uptake rate than L929 cells and the lack of a pH effect suggests that the cysteine biochemistry has already occurred in HCLE cells. The data are consistent with pH having a complex mechanism of action, but one likely mediated by cysteine biochemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish in low-alkalinity lakes: A critical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spry, D.J.; Wiener, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Fish in low-alkalinity lakes having pH of 6·0–6·5 or less often have higher body or tissue burdens of mercury, cadmium, and lead than do fish in nearby lakes with higher pH. The greater bioaccumulation of these metals in such waters seems to result partly from the greater aqueous abundances of biologically available forms (CH3 Hg+, Cd2+, and Pb2+) at low pH. In addition, the low concentrations of aqueous calcium in low-alkalinity lakes increase the permeability of biological membranes to these metals, which in fish may cause greater uptake from both water and food. Fish exposed to aqueous inorganic aluminum in the laboratory and field accumulate the metal in and on the epithelial cells of the gills; however, there is little accumulation of aluminum in the blood or internal organs. In low-pH water, both sublethal and lethal toxicity of aluminum has been clearly demonstrated in both laboratory and field studies at environmental concentrations. In contrast, recently measured aqueous concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead in low-alkalinity lakes are much lower than the aqueous concentrations known to cause acute or chronic toxicity in fish, although the vast majority of toxicological research has involved waters with much higher ionic strength than that in low-alkalinity lakes. Additional work with fish is needed to better assess (1) the toxicity of aqueous metals in low-alkalinity waters, and (2) the toxicological significance of dietary methylmercury and cadmium.

  12. Signaling pathways coordinating the alkaline pH response confer resistance to the hevein-type plant antimicrobial peptide Pn-AMP1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngho; Chiang, Jennifer; Tran, Grant; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Koo, Ja-Choon

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that signaling pathways related to the alkaline pH stress contribute to resistance to plant antimicrobial peptide, Pn-AMP1. Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be promising candidates for controlling phytopathogens. Pn-AMP1 is a hevein-type plant AMP that shows potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Genome-wide chemogenomic screening was performed using heterozygous and homozygous diploid deletion pools of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a chemogenetic model system to identify genes whose deletion conferred enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1. This assay identified 44 deletion strains with fitness defects in the presence of Pn-AMP1. Strong fitness defects were observed in strains with deletions of genes encoding components of several pathways and complex known to participate in the adaptive response to alkaline pH stress, including the cell wall integrity (CWI), calcineurin/Crz1, Rim101, SNF1 pathways and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT complex). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes revealed that the most highly overrepresented GO term was "cellular response to alkaline pH". We found that 32 of the 44 deletion strains tested (72 %) showed significant growth defects compared with their wild type at alkaline pH. Furthermore, 9 deletion strains (20 %) exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Pn-AMP1 at ambient pH compared to acidic pH. Although several hundred plant AMPs have been reported, their modes of action remain largely uncharacterized. This study demonstrates that the signaling pathways that coordinate the adaptive response to alkaline pH also confer resistance to a hevein-type plant AMP in S. cerevisiae. Our findings have broad implications for the design of novel and potent antifungal agents.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of temperature and pH of water in an Indian freshwater sponge.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Bhunia, Anindya Sundar; Bhunia, Niladri Sekhar; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-07-01

    Eunapius carteri, a freshwater sponge of India, inhabits the ponds and lakes and experiences variations of temperature and pH of water throughout the year. Sponges bear evolutionary and ecological importance with limited information on their immunological attribute and adaptational resilience in a changing environment. This paper reports temperature and pH specific responses of immune related parameters in sponge maintained in the experimental conditions of laboratory. Innate immunological parameters like phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase activity were estimated in E. carteri at different environmentally realistic water temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) and pH (6.4, 7.4 and 8.4). Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are established as important immune parameters of invertebrates. Calalase, an antioxidant enzyme and phosphatases are involved in pathogen destruction and are considered as components of innate immunity. Activities of catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatases were estimated in E. carteri at different thermal regimes and pH. Modulation of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses and the activities of catalase and phosphatases at different water temperatures and pH indicated temperature and pH specific immunological status of E. carteri. Present investigation deals with the effects of selected hydrological parameters on the fundamental immune related parameters in sponge indicating its adaptational plasticity. Immunological resilience of this species in the face of variation of water temperature and pH is thought to be a special adaptive feature of sponge, a reported "living fossil". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  15. Performance and application of a fluidized bed limestone reactor designed for control of alkalinity, hardness and pH at the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Mudrak, Vincent A.; Echevarria, Carlos; Sibrell, Philip; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Boyd, Claude E.

    2017-01-01

    Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels thatlie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone’s (CaCO3) ability to react away hydrogen ions (H+) and carbon dioxide (CO2) while increasing alkalinity (HCO3−) and calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, i.e. CaCO3 + H+ ↔ HCO3− + Ca2+ CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ↔ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Limestone sand was tested in both pilot and full scale fluidized bed reactors (CycloBio®). We first established the bed expansion characteristics of three commercial limestone products then evaluated the effect of hydraulic flux and bed height on dissolution rate of a single selected product (Type A16 × 120). Pilot scale testing at 18C showed limestone dissolution rates were relatively insensitive to flux over the range 1.51–3.03 m3/min/m2 but were sensitive (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.881) to changes in bed height (BH, cm) over the range 83–165 cm following the relation: (Alkalinity, mg/L) = 123.51 − (3788.76 (BH)). Differences between filtered and non-filtered alkalinity were small(P > 0.05) demonstrating that limestone was present in the reactor effluent primarily in the form of dissolved Ca(HCO3)2. Effluent alkalinity exceeded our target level of 50 mg/L under most operating conditions evaluated with typical pilot scale values falling within the range of 90–100 mg/L despite influent concentrations of about 4 mg/L. Concurrently, CO2 fell from an average of 50.6 mg/L to 8.3 mg/L (90%), providing for an increase in pH from 5.27 to a mean of 7.71. The ability of the test reactor to provide changes in water chemistry variables that exceeded required changes allowed for a dilution ratio of 0.6. Here, alkalinity still exceeded 50 mg/L, the CO2 concentration remained well below our limit of 20 mg/L (15.4 mg/L) and the pH was near neutral (7.17). Applying the

  16. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  17. Escherichia coli YqjA, a Member of the Conserved DedA/Tvp38 Membrane Protein Family, Is a Putative Osmosensing Transporter Required for Growth at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sujeet

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to persist and grow under alkaline conditions is an important characteristic of many bacteria. In order to survive at alkaline pH, Escherichia coli must maintain a stable cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Membrane cation/proton antiporters play a major role in alkaline pH homeostasis by catalyzing active inward proton transport. The DedA/Tvp38 family is a highly conserved membrane protein family of unknown function present in most sequenced genomes. YqjA and YghB are members of the E. coli DedA family with 62% amino acid identity and partially redundant functions. We have shown that E. coli with ΔyqjA and ΔyghB mutations cannot properly maintain the proton motive force (PMF) and is compromised in PMF-dependent drug efflux and other PMF-dependent functions. Furthermore, the functions of YqjA and YghB are dependent upon membrane-embedded acidic amino acids, a hallmark of several families of proton-dependent transporters. Here, we show that the ΔyqjA mutant (but not ΔyghB) cannot grow under alkaline conditions (ranging from pH 8.5 to 9.5), unlike the parent E. coli. Overexpression of yqjA restores growth at alkaline pH, but only when more than ∼100 mM sodium or potassium is present in the growth medium. Increasing the osmotic pressure by the addition of sucrose enhances the ability of YqjA to support growth under alkaline conditions in the presence of low salt concentrations, consistent with YqjA functioning as an osmosensor. We suggest that YqjA possesses proton-dependent transport activity that is stimulated by osmolarity and that it plays a significant role in the survival of E. coli at alkaline pH. IMPORTANCE The ability to survive under alkaline conditions is important for many species of bacteria. Escherichia coli can grow at pH 5.5 to 9.5 while maintaining a constant cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Under alkaline conditions, bacteria rely upon proton-dependent transporters to maintain a constant cytoplasmic pH. The DedA/Tvp38 protein family

  18. Systematic review of the association between dietary acid load, alkaline water and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Huang, Tian

    2016-06-13

    To evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship between dietary acid/alkaline and alkaline water for the aetiology and treatment of cancer. A systematic review was conducted on published and grey literature separately for randomised intervention and observational studies with either varying acid-base dietary intakes and/or alkaline water with any cancer outcome or for cancer treatment. Incidence of cancer and outcomes of cancer treatment. 8278 citations were identified, and 252 abstracts were reviewed; 1 study met the inclusion criteria and was included in this systematic review. No randomised trials were located. No studies were located that examined dietary acid or alkaline or alkaline water for cancer treatment. The included study was a cohort study with a low risk of bias. This study revealed no association between the diet acid load with bladder cancer (OR=1.15: 95% CI 0.86 to 1.55, p=0.36). No association was found even among long-term smokers (OR=1.72: 95% CI 0.96 to 3.10, p=0.08). Despite the promotion of the alkaline diet and alkaline water by the media and salespeople, there is almost no actual research to either support or disprove these ideas. This systematic review of the literature revealed a lack of evidence for or against diet acid load and/or alkaline water for the initiation or treatment of cancer. Promotion of alkaline diet and alkaline water to the public for cancer prevention or treatment is not justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J; Rooks, Dave J; Loughnane, J Paul; Laws, Andrew P; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK's intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.0<pH>13.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0.

  20. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge: The effect of feed-water pH on fate and risk of heavy metals in hydrochars.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Liu, Xiangmin; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zhu, Luo; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effect of feed-water pH (pH=2-12) on fate and risk of heavy metals (HMs) in hydrochars (HCs) was investigated. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge (SS) was carried out with different feed-water pH at 270°C. The research results showed that changing feed-water pH had a positive effect on accumulating Pb, Ni, Cd and Zn in HCs. Chemical forms of Cu and Cr converted from an unstable state to stable in the alkaline environment while in the acidic condition was opposite. The effect of feed-water pH on the chemical forms of HMs was variable but not significant. Risk assessments of Igeo, Er(i), RAC and RI were applied to evaluate the accumulation levels of individual metal, the potential ecological risks, the bio-availabilities and the comprehensive toxicity and sensitivity of HMs, respectively. The lowest pollution level of HMs was obtained at 270°C with pH=11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Varma, Siddhartha; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied for statistical analysis. The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  3. Escherichia coli YqjA, a Member of the Conserved DedA/Tvp38 Membrane Protein Family, Is a Putative Osmosensing Transporter Required for Growth at Alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sujeet; Doerrler, William T

    2015-07-01

    The ability to persist and grow under alkaline conditions is an important characteristic of many bacteria. In order to survive at alkaline pH, Escherichia coli must maintain a stable cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Membrane cation/proton antiporters play a major role in alkaline pH homeostasis by catalyzing active inward proton transport. The DedA/Tvp38 family is a highly conserved membrane protein family of unknown function present in most sequenced genomes. YqjA and YghB are members of the E. coli DedA family with 62% amino acid identity and partially redundant functions. We have shown that E. coli with ΔyqjA and ΔyghB mutations cannot properly maintain the proton motive force (PMF) and is compromised in PMF-dependent drug efflux and other PMF-dependent functions. Furthermore, the functions of YqjA and YghB are dependent upon membrane-embedded acidic amino acids, a hallmark of several families of proton-dependent transporters. Here, we show that the ΔyqjA mutant (but not ΔyghB) cannot grow under alkaline conditions (ranging from pH 8.5 to 9.5), unlike the parent E. coli. Overexpression of yqjA restores growth at alkaline pH, but only when more than ∼100 mM sodium or potassium is present in the growth medium. Increasing the osmotic pressure by the addition of sucrose enhances the ability of YqjA to support growth under alkaline conditions in the presence of low salt concentrations, consistent with YqjA functioning as an osmosensor. We suggest that YqjA possesses proton-dependent transport activity that is stimulated by osmolarity and that it plays a significant role in the survival of E. coli at alkaline pH. The ability to survive under alkaline conditions is important for many species of bacteria. Escherichia coli can grow at pH 5.5 to 9.5 while maintaining a constant cytoplasmic pH of about 7.6. Under alkaline conditions, bacteria rely upon proton-dependent transporters to maintain a constant cytoplasmic pH. The DedA/Tvp38 protein family is a highly conserved

  4. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-25

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO2(-)) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pKa2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r=((0.89±0.11)×10(-4) mM(1-(a+b))h(-1))×[NB](a=1.35±0.10)[AA](b=0.89±0.01). The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral textures in Serpentine-hosted Alkaline Springs from the Oman ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Bach, Wolfgang; Garrido, Carlos J.; Los, Karin; Fussmann, Dario; Monien, Monien

    2017-04-01

    Meteoric water infiltration in ultramafic rocks leads to serpentinization and the formation of subaerial, low temperature, hydrothermal alkaline springs. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the mineral precipitation mechanisms and textural features of mineral precipitates, along as the geochemical and hydrological characterization, of two alkaline spring systems in the Semail ophiolite (Nasif and Khafifah sites, Wadi Tayin massif). The main aim of the study is to provide new insights into mineral and textural variations in active, on-land, alkaline vents of the Oman ophiolite. Discharge of circulating fluids forms small-scale, localized hydrological catchments consisting in unevenly interconnected ponds. Three different types of waters can be distinguished within the pond systems: i) Mg-type; alkaline (7.9 < pH < 9.5), Mg-HCO3-rich waters; ii) Ca-type; hyper-alkaline (pH > 11.6), Ca-OH-rich waters; and iii) Mix-type waters arising from the mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type waters (9.6 < pH < 11.5). Phreeqc geochemical speciation software was used to determine the saturation state and the relationship between the theoretical supersaturation (S) and rate of supersaturation (S˚ ) of solid phases. Simple mixing models using Phreeqc MIX_code revealed good mixing correlation (R2 ≥0.93) between measured and predicted values for K, Na, Cl, Mg and sulphate. Al, Ca, Si, Ba, Sr and TIC showed poorer correlations. Mineral and textural characterization from different types of water and individual ponds were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Aragonite and calcite are the dominant minerals (95 vol.%) of the total mineralogical index in all sites. Mg-type waters host hydrated magnesium carbonates (nesquehonite) and magnesium hydroxycarbonate hydrates (artinite) due to evaporation. Brucite, hydromagnesite and dypingite presence in Mix-type waters

  6. pH regulation of recombinant glucoamylase production in Fusarium venenatum JeRS 325, a transformant with a Fusarium oxysporum alkaline (trypsin-like) protease promoter.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, M G; Robson, G D; Shuster, J R; Trinci, A P

    1999-08-05

    Fusarium venenatum (formerly Fusarium graminearum) JeRS 325 produces heterologous glucoamylase (GAM) under the regulation of a Fusarium oxysporum alkaline (trypsin-like) protease promoter. The glucoamylase gene was used as a reporter gene to study the effects of ammonium and pH on GAM production under the control of the alkaline protease promoter. Between pH 4.0 and 5.8, GAM production in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of JeRS 325 grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 (doubling time, 6.9 h) on (NH4)2SO4 medium increased in a linear manner with increase in pH. However, at pH 4.0 and below GAM production was almost completely repressed in glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown on (NH4)2SO4 or NaNO3 medium. Thus GAM production in JeRS 325 is regulated by culture pH, not by the nature of the nitrogen source in the medium. The difficulty of using unbuffered medium when investigating putative ammonium repression is also shown. The study demonstrates the potential for use of the alkaline protease promoter in F. graminearum for the production of recombinant proteins in a pH dependent man ner. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Chemically durable polymer electrolytes for solid-state alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Joo; Capuano, Christopher B.; Ayers, Katherine E.; Bae, Chulsung

    2018-01-01

    Generation of high purity hydrogen using electrochemical splitting of water is one of the most promising methods for sustainable fuel production. The materials to be used as solid-state electrolytes for alkaline water electrolyzer require high thermochemical stability against hydroxide ion attack in alkaline environment during the operation of electrolysis. In this study, two quaternary ammonium-tethered aromatic polymers were synthesized and investigated for anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based alkaline water electrolyzer. The membranes properties including ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling degree, and anion conductivity were studied. The membranes composed of all C-C bond polymer backbones and flexible side chain terminated by cation head groups exhibited remarkably good chemical stability by maintaining structural integrity in 1 M NaOH solution at 95 °C for 60 days. Initial electrochemical performance and steady-state operation performance were evaluated, and both membranes showed a good stabilization of the cell voltage during the steady-state operation at the constant current density at 200 mA/cm2. Although both membranes in current form require improvement in mechanical stability to afford better durability in electrolysis operation, the next generation AEMs based on this report could lead to potentially viable AEM candidates which can provide high electrolysis performance under alkaline operating condition.

  8. In vitro nonenzymatic glycation of DNA nucleobases: an evaluation of advanced glycation end products under alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Udayan; Cohenford, Menashi A; Guha, Madhumita; Dain, Joel A

    2006-11-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of DNA nucleobases have received little attention, perhaps due to the fact that adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine do not dissolve under mild pH conditions. To maintain nucleobases in solution, alkaline pH conditions are typically required. The objectives of this investigation were twofold: to study the susceptibility of DNA nucleobases to nonenzymatic attack by different sugars, and to evaluate the factors that influence the formation of nucleobase AGEs at pH 12, i.e., in an alkaline environment that promotes the aldo-keto isomerization and epimerization of sugars. Varying concentrations of adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine were incubated over time with constant concentrations of D-glucose, D-galactose or D/L-glyceraldehyde under different conditions of temperature and ionic strength. Incubation of the nucleobases with the sugars resulted in a heterogeneous assembly of AGEs whose formation was monitored by UV/fluorescence spectroscopy. Capillary electrophoresis and HPLC were used to resolve the AGEs of the DNA adducts and provided a powerful tool for following the extent of glycation in each of the DNA nucleobases. Mass spectrometry studies of DNA adducts of guanine established that glycation at pH 12 proceeded through an Amadori intermediate.

  9. Effect of pH on the Transformation of a New Readymix Formulation of the Herbicides Bispyribac Sodium and Metamifop in Water.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suman; Majumder, Sambrita; Das, Sushovan; Das, Tapan Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Roy, Sankhajit

    2018-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of pH on the persistence and the dissipation of the new readymix formulation of bispyribac sodium and metamifop. The experiment was conducted in water of three different pH viz. 4.0, 7.0 and 9.2. The spiking level of both the compounds in water was 1.0 and 2.0 µg/mL. The residues were extracted by a simple, quick and reliable method and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was justified based on the recovery study, which was > 85%. The dissipation of both compounds followed first order kinetics. The half-life values ranged between 19.86-36.29 and 9.92-19.69 days for bispyribac sodium and metamifop, respectively. The pH of water has a prominent effect on degradation of both the compounds. The rate of dissipation of both the compounds was highest in water of acidic pH followed by neutral and alkaline pH.

  10. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 3. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-06-01

    The databases of alkaline and alkaline earth sulfate solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from the publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed minerals have been calculated at various temperatures and represented by polynomial expressions.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  12. HYDROXYL RADICAL/OZONE RATIOS DURING OZONATION PROCESSES. II. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, PH, ALKALINITY, AND DOM PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and type and concentration of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of ozone (O3) decomposition, O3-exposure, .OH-exposure and the ratio Rct of the concentrations of .OH and O3 has been studied. For a standardized single ozon...

  13. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  14. [Alpha but not beta-adrenergic stimulation has a positive inotropic effect associated with alkalinization of intracellular pH].

    PubMed

    Gambassi, G; Lakatta, E G; Capogrossi, M C

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that alpha-adrenoceptors also exist in the myocardium and that an increase in force of contraction may be produced by stimulation of these sites. This positive inotropism seems to be dependent either on an increased amount of Ca++ released into the cytosol with each action potential or on increased myofilament responsiveness. In contrast, beta-adrenergic stimulation reduces the sensitivity of the contractile proteins and the positive inotropic effect is due to the activation of L-type calcium channels on the sarcolemma. We used single, isolated, enzymatically dissociated, adult rat ventricular myocytes. Cells were loaded either with the ester derivative of the Ca++ probe Indo-1 or with the intracellular pH probe Snarf-1 and at the same time we measured the contractile parameters and monitored the fluorescence as an index of intracellular calcium concentration or pH value. The single cells (bicarbonate buffer continuously gassed with O2 95%, CO2 5%, Ca++ 1.5 mM, field stimulation 0.5 Hz) were exposed to phenylephrine (50 microM) and nadolol (1 microM). Alpha-adrenergic stimulation increased twitch amplitude (delta ES = 1.93 +/- 0.77, n = 8; p less than 0.05) and showed only a slight increase in Ca++ transient. On the other end, the positive inotropic effect (delta ES = 2.84 +/- 0.86, n = 4; p less than 0.02) obtained with beta-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol 50 nM, bicarbonate buffer, Ca++ 0.5 mM, field stimulation 0.2 Hz) was always associated with a large increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration. Isoproterenol did not change intracellular pH (delta pH = 0.006 +/- 0.006, n = 4; NS) while phenylephrine increased it significantly (delta pH = 0.055 +/- 0.011, n = 8; p less than 0.002). Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation between delta ES and delta pH (R2 = 0.532; p less than 0.05) when phenylephrine was present. This alkalinization as well as the increased contractility was antagonized by treatment with

  15. Effects of Alkalinity and pH on Survival, Growth, and Enzyme Activities in Juveniles of the Razor Clam, Sinonovacula constricta

    PubMed Central

    Maoxiao, Peng; Bo, Ye; Xiaojun, Liu; Donghong, Niu; Tianyi, Lan; Zhiguo, Dong; Jiale, Li

    2018-01-01

    In order to clarify the possibility of rearing razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) in inland saline water (ISW) and to facilitate their breeding under these stressful conditions, we performed semi-static acute and chronic toxicity tests to determine the effects of carbonate alkalinity (CA) and pH on the survival and growth rate, and critical metabolic enzyme activity in juvenile of S. constricta (JSC). (1) Acute toxicity test. As the water CA increased from 1.22 to 45.00 mmol L-1, the survival rate decreased significantly, which was exacerbated by the increase in the pH. When the water CA was set at 2.5 mmol L-1, the 48 h lethal concentration 50% (LC50) for JSCs with respect to pH was 9.86. When the water pH was 9.0, 9.5, and 10.0, the 48 h LC50 values for JSCs with respect to CA were 10.38, 8.79, and 3.11 mmol L-1, respectively. (2) Chronic toxicity test. Four experimental groups comprising the control, CAS, pHS, and CA-pHS were designated according to the target ISW data. After 3 months of stress, the JSC survival rate in each group exceeded 85%, but survival was significantly lower in the CA-pHS group than the control group (p < 0.05) in the first month. For the JSCs in various groups, the shell length growth rate (SGR) and weight gain (WG) rate were significantly lower in the CA-pHS group than the other groups (p < 0.05 for SGR; p < 0.001 for WG) in the first month. However, the difference in the growth rate among groups decreased in the next 2 months. For the JSCs in the CA-pHS group, the oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, Na+/K+-ATPase, aspartate aminotransferase, and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher than those in the other groups during the first month, but there were no significant differences between the groups subsequently. The acetylcholinesterase and lysozyme levels did not differ significantly among groups during stress for 3 months. The integrated biomarker response index showed that stressors comprising high pH and CA

  16. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH) 4 . A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were -583.892 (NaOH), -569.048 [Ca(OH) 2 ], -547.393 (MgO), and -530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH) 4 ]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH) 2 > MgO > Zr(OH) 4 . Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH) 4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH) 4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic.

  17. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  18. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins.

  19. Two Pore Channel 2 (TPC2) Inhibits Autophagosomal-Lysosomal Fusion by Alkalinizing Lysosomal pH*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Hao, Bai-Xia; Graeff, Richard; Wong, Connie W. M.; Wu, Wu-Tian; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), one of the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing messengers, elicits Ca2+ release from lysosomes via the two pore channel 2 (TPC2) in many cell types. Here we found that overexpression of TPC2 in HeLa or mouse embryonic stem cells inhibited autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion, thereby resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes. Treatment of TPC2 expressing cells with a cell permeant-NAADP agonist, NAADP-AM, further induced autophagosome accumulation. On the other hand, TPC2 knockdown or treatment of cells with Ned-19, a NAADP antagonist, markedly decreased the accumulation of autophagosomes. TPC2-induced accumulation of autophagosomes was also markedly blocked by ATG5 knockdown. Interestingly, inhibiting mTOR activity failed to increase TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. Instead, we found that overexpression of TPC2 alkalinized lysosomal pH, and lysosomal re-acidification abolished TPC2-induced autophagosome accumulation. In addition, TPC2 overexpression had no effect on general endosomal-lysosomal degradation but prevented the recruitment of Rab-7 to autophagosomes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPC2/NAADP/Ca2+ signaling alkalinizes lysosomal pH to specifically inhibit the later stage of basal autophagy progression. PMID:23836916

  20. Effect of water-column pH on sediment-phosphorus release rates in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Lawrence H.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2004-01-01

    Sediment-phosphorus release rates as a function of pH were determined in laboratory experiments for sediment and water samples collected from Shoalwater Bay in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, in 2001. Aerial release rates for a stable sediment/water interface that is representative of the sediment surface area to water column volume ratio (1:3) observed in the lake and volumetric release rates for resuspended sediment events were determined at three different pH values (8.1, 9.2, 10.2). Ambient water column pH (8.1) was maintained by sparging study columns with atmospheric air. Elevation of the water column pH to 9.2 was achieved through the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide by sparging with carbon dioxide-reduced air, partially simulating water chemistry changes that occur during algal photosynthesis. Further elevation of the pH to 10.2 was achieved by the addition of sodium hydroxide, which doubled average alkalinities in the study columns from about 1 to 2 milliequivalents per liter. Upper Klamath Lake sediments collected from the lake bottom and then placed in contact with lake water, either at a stable sediment/water interface or by resuspension, exhibited an initial capacity to take up soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the water column rather than release phosphorus to the water column. At a higher pH this initial uptake of phosphorus is slowed, but not stopped. This initial phase was followed by a reversal in which the sediments began to release SRP back into the water column. The release rate of phosphorus 30 to 40 days after suspension of sediments in the columns was 0.5 mg/L/day (micrograms per liter per day) at pH 8, and 0.9 mg/L/day at pH 10, indicating that the higher pH increased the rate of phosphorus release by a factor of about two. The highest determined rate of release was approximately 10% (percent) of the rate required to explain the annual internal loading to Upper Klamath Lake from the sediments as calculated from a lake-wide mass balance

  1. Evaluation of alkaline electrolyzed water to replace traditional phosphate enhancement solutions: Effects on water holding capacity, tenderness, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rigdon, Macc; Hung, Yen-Con; Stelzleni, Alexander M

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-four pork loins were randomly assigned to one of four treatments to evaluate the use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water as a replacement for traditional enhancement solutions. Treatments included: alkaline electrolyzed reduced water (EOH; pH≈11.5), EOH plus 2.5% potassium-lactate (EOK), industry standard (IS; 0.35% sodium tri-polyphosphate, 0.14% sodium chloride, 2.5% potassium-lactate), and no enhancement (CON). After enhancement (targeting 110%) and rest period, chops were cut (2.54-cm) to test treatment effects on water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory attributes. Despite its alkaline nature EOH chops exuded more water (P<0.05) than EOK, IS, or CON chops. Control chops were similar (P>0.05) to EOK, however CON and EOK both lost more moisture (P<0.05) than IS. The use of alkaline electrolyzed reduced water did not improve WBSF or sensory characteristics compared to IS treated chops. As a stand-alone enhancement solution alkaline electrolyzed reduced water was not a suitable replacement for industry standard solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling CO2 degassing and pH in a stream-aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Hulseapple, S.M.; Conklin, M.H.; Harvey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Pinal Creek, Arizona receives an inflow of ground water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (57-75 mg/l) and low pH (5.8-6.3). There is an observed increase of in-stream pH from approximately 6.0-7.8 over the 3 km downstream of the point of groundwater inflow. We hypothesized that CO2 gas-exchange was the most important factor causing the pH increase in this stream-aquifer system. An existing transport model, for coupled ground water-surface water systems (OTIS), was modified to include carbonate equilibria and CO2 degassing, used to simulate alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon (C(T)), and pH in Pinal Creek. Because of the non-linear relation between pH and C(T), the modified transport model used the numerical iteration method to solve the non-linearity. The transport model parameters were determined by the injection of two tracers, bromide and propane. The resulting simulations of alkalinity, C(T) and pH reproduced, without fitting, the overall trends in downstream concentrations. A multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (MPSA) was used to identify the relative sensitivities of the predictions to six of the physical and chemical parameters used in the transport model. MPSA results implied that C(T) and pH in stream water were controlled by the mixing of ground water with stream water and CO2 degassing. The relative importance of these two processes varied spatially depending on the hydrologic conditions, such as stream flow velocity and whether a reach gained or lost stream water caused by the interaction with the ground water. The coupled transport model with CO2 degassing and generalized sensitivity analysis presented in this study can be applied to evaluate carbon transport and pH in other coupled stream-ground water systems.An existing transport model for coupled groundwater-surface water systems was modified to include carbonate equilibria and CO2 degassing. The modified model was used to simulate alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and

  3. Alkaline pH induces IRR-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in a pancreatic beta cell line.

    PubMed

    Deyev, Igor E; Popova, Nadezhda V; Serova, Oxana V; Zhenilo, Svetlana V; Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Secretion of mildly alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5) juice to intestines is one of the key functions of the pancreas. Recent reports indicate that the pancreatic duct system containing the alkaline juice may adjoin the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets. We have previously identified the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) that is expressed in islets as a sensor of mildly alkaline extracellular media. In this study, we show that those islet cells that are in contact with the excretory ducts are also IRR-expressing cells. We further analyzed the effects of alkaline media on pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Activation of endogenous IRR but not of the insulin receptor was detected that could be inhibited with linsitinib. The IRR autophosphorylation correlated with pH-dependent linsitinib-sensitive activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), the primary adaptor in the insulin signaling pathway. However, in contrast with insulin stimulation, no protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) phosphorylation was detected as a result of alkali treatment. We observed overexpression of several early response genes (EGR2, IER2, FOSB, EGR1 and NPAS4) upon alkali treatment of MIN6 cells but those were IRR-independent. The alkaline medium but not insulin also triggered actin cytoskeleton remodeling that was blocked by pre-incubation with linsitinib. We propose that the activation of IRR by alkali might be part of a local loop of signaling between the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas where alkalinization of the juice facilitate insulin release that increases the volume of secreted juice to control its pH and bicabonate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  5. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  6. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  7. Discomfort from an Alkaline Formulation Delivered Subcutaneously in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ward, W. Kenneth; Castle, Jessica R.; Branigan, Deborah L.; Massoud, Ryan G.; Youssef, Joseph El

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective There is a paucity of data regarding tolerability of alkaline drugs administered subcutaneously. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability of alkaline preparations of human albumin delivered subcutaneously to healthy humans. Methods We compared the tolerability of neutral versus alkaline (pH 10) formulations of human albumin in ten volunteers. With an intent to minimize the time required to reach physiological pH after injection, the alkaline formulation was buffered with a low concentration of glycine (20 mmol/L). Each formulation was given at two rates: over 5 seconds and over 60 seconds. A six-point scale was used to assess discomfort. Results For slow injections, there was a significant difference between pH 7.4 and pH 10 injections (0.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.1 ± 0.2, mean ± SEM; p = 0.025), though the degree of discomfort at pH 10 injections was only ‘mild or slight’. For fast injections, the difference between neutral and alkaline formulations was of borderline significance. Inflammation and oedema, as judged by a physician, were very minimal for all injections, irrespective of pH. Conclusion For subcutaneous drug administration (especially when delivered slowly), there was more discomfort associated with alkaline versus neutral formulations of albumin, though the discomfort was mild. This study suggests that there is little discomfort and inflammation resulting from subcutaneous administration of protein drugs formulated with weak buffers at alkaline pH. PMID:22568666

  8. TMC-1 mediates alkaline sensation in C. elegans through nociceptive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation has been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins, whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1 which was suggested to form a Na+-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9 which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  9. A surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopic study of pH dependent water adsorption on Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Marco; Yan, Yushan; Xu, Bingjun

    2016-08-01

    The potential dependent behavior of near-surface water on Au film electrodes in acidic and alkaline solutions is studied using a combination of attenuated total reflectance surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. In acid, sharp νOH peaks appear at 3583 cm- 1 at high potentials attributed to non-H-bonded water coadsorbed in the hydration sphere of perchlorate near the electrode surface. Adsorbed hydronium bending mode at near 1680 cm- 1 is observed at low potentials in low pH solutions (1.4, 4.0, 6.8). At high pH (10.0, 12.3), a potential-dependent OH stretching band assigned to adsorbed hydroxide emerges from 3400-3506 cm- 1. The observation of adsorbed hydroxide, even on a weakly oxophilic metal such as Au, provides the framework for further studies of hydroxide adsorption on other electrodes to determine the role of adsorbed hydroxide on important reactions such as the hydrogen oxidation reaction.

  10. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  11. Hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids accumulation of waste activated sludge enhanced by the combined use of nitrite and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Congcong; Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yinglu; Li, Rui; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow hydrolysis and/or poor substrate availability. Increased attention has been given to enhance the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS recently. This study presented an efficient and green strategy based on the combined use of nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH to stimulate hydrolysis and VFA accumulation from WAS. Results showed that both proteins and polysaccharides increased in the presence of nitrite, indicating the enhancement of sludge solubilization and hydrolysis processes. Mechanism investigations showed that nitrite pretreatment could disintegrate the sludge particle and disperse extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Then, anaerobic digestion tests demonstrated VFA production increased with nitrite treatment. The maximal VFA accumulation was achieved with 0.1 g N/L nitrite dosage and pH 10.0 at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 7 days, which was much higher VFA production in comparison with the blank, sole nitrite pretreatment, or sole pH 10. The potential analysis suggested that the combined nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH is capable of enhancing WAS digestion with a great benefit for biological nutrient removal (BNR).

  12. Human ASIC3 channel dynamically adapts its activity to sense the extracellular pH in both acidic and alkaline directions.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Anne; Gasull, Xavier; Salinas, Miguel; Noël, Jacques; Friend, Valérie; Lingueglia, Eric; Deval, Emmanuel

    2012-08-07

    In rodent sensory neurons, acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) has recently emerged as a particularly important sensor of nonadaptive pain associated with tissue acidosis. However, little is known about the human ASIC3 channel, which includes three splice variants differing in their C-terminal domain (hASIC3a, hASIC3b, and hASIC3c). hASIC3a transcripts represent the main mRNAs expressed in both peripheral and central neuronal tissues (dorsal root ganglia [DRG], spinal cord, and brain), where a small proportion of hASIC3c transcripts is also detected. We show that hASIC3 channels (hASIC3a, hASIC3b, or hASIC3c) are able to directly sense extracellular pH changes not only during acidification (up to pH 5.0), but also during alkalization (up to pH 8.0), an original and inducible property yet unknown. When the external pH decreases, hASIC3 display a transient acid mode with brief activation that is relevant to the classical ASIC currents, as previously described. On the other hand, an external pH increase activates a sustained alkaline mode leading to a constitutive activity at resting pH. Both modes are inhibited by the APETx2 toxin, an ASIC3-type channel inhibitor. The alkaline sensitivity of hASIC3 is an intrinsic property of the channel, which is supported by the extracellular loop and involves two arginines (R68 and R83) only present in the human clone. hASIC3 is thus able to sense the extracellular pH in both directions and therefore to dynamically adapt its activity between pH 5.0 and 8.0, a property likely to participate in the fine tuning of neuronal membrane potential and to neuron sensitization in various pH environments.

  13. Improving the Expression of Recombinant Proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under Acetate Stress: An Alkaline pH Shift Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Xueling; Wei, Dongzhi; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Excess acetate has long been an issue for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells. Recently, improvements in acetate tolerance have been achieved through the use of genetic strategies and medium supplementation with certain amino acids and pyrimidines. The aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative to improve the acetate tolerance of E. coli BL21 (DE3), a popular strain used to express recombinant proteins. In this work we reported the cultivation of BL21 (DE3) in complex media containing acetate at high concentrations. In the presence of 300 mM acetate, compared with pH 6.5, pH 7.5 improved cell growth by approximately 71%, reduced intracellular acetate by approximately 50%, and restored the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP). Further experiments showed that alkaline pHs up to 8.5 had little inhibition in the expression of GST, GFP and CYP. In addition, the detrimental effect of acetate on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by the cell membrane, an index of cellular metabolic capacity, was substantially alleviated by a shift to alkaline pH values of 7.5–8.0. Thus, we suggest an approach of cultivating E. coli BL21 (DE3) at pH 8.0±0.5 to minimize the effects caused by acetate stress. The proposed strategy of an alkaline pH shift is a simple approach to solving similar bioprocessing problems in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from sugars. PMID:25402470

  14. Improving the expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under acetate stress: an alkaline pH shift approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Xueling; Wei, Dongzhi; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Excess acetate has long been an issue for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells. Recently, improvements in acetate tolerance have been achieved through the use of genetic strategies and medium supplementation with certain amino acids and pyrimidines. The aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative to improve the acetate tolerance of E. coli BL21 (DE3), a popular strain used to express recombinant proteins. In this work we reported the cultivation of BL21 (DE3) in complex media containing acetate at high concentrations. In the presence of 300 mM acetate, compared with pH 6.5, pH 7.5 improved cell growth by approximately 71%, reduced intracellular acetate by approximately 50%, and restored the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP). Further experiments showed that alkaline pHs up to 8.5 had little inhibition in the expression of GST, GFP and CYP. In addition, the detrimental effect of acetate on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by the cell membrane, an index of cellular metabolic capacity, was substantially alleviated by a shift to alkaline pH values of 7.5-8.0. Thus, we suggest an approach of cultivating E. coli BL21 (DE3) at pH 8.0 ± 0.5 to minimize the effects caused by acetate stress. The proposed strategy of an alkaline pH shift is a simple approach to solving similar bioprocessing problems in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from sugars.

  15. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  16. Proximate composition of Karkadeh (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds and some functional properties of seed protein isolate as influenced by pH and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Salah, E O Mahgoub; Hayat, Z E Elbashir

    2009-05-01

    Seeds of an inbred line (B-11-90) of Karkadeh (Hibiscus sabdariffa) were investigated for their proximate composition (AOAC methods), nitrogen solubility and protein isolate (Karkadeh seed protein isolates [KSPI]) functional properties (standard methods). The fat and protein contents of the seeds were 22.43% and 32.46%, respectively. Nitrogen solubility was good in both water and 1.0 M NaCl at alkaline pH rather than at acidic pH, with better solubility at higher pH levels in water than in 1.0 M NaCl. The functional properties of the KSPI were as follows: water absorption capacity, 181 ml/100 g; fat absorption capacity, 110 ml/100 g; bulk density, 0.77 g/ml; and apparent viscosity (at 20 degrees C), 13.42 cps. KSPI showed a maximum foaming capacity at pH 12 and 1.6 M NaCl, a maximum emulsification capacity at pH 11 and 1.8 M NaCl, and a weaker foam stability at neutral pH than at acidic or alkaline pH, with a better foam stability at alkaline pH. The foam stability was considerably improved by treatment with 1.6 M NaCl.

  17. Alkalinity-salinity relationship in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintrón Del Valle, S. M.; Najjar, R.; Herrmann, M.; Goldberger, S.; Stets, E.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are a significant source of atmospheric CO2, a major greenhouse gas. However, it is not known whether the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a source or sink of CO2. Extensive pH measurements in the Bay offer the possibility of estimating the air-water CO2 flux if robust relationships between alkalinity, the acid neutralizing capacity of a water body, and salinity can be established. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the alkalinity-salinity relationship in the Chesapeake Bay based on more than 18,000 alkalinity measurements made between 1985 and 2015. It was found that seven segments of the Bay could be grouped into three different linear functions, suggesting that alkalinity is conserved in the Bay and has properties that change depending on the freshwater endmember (the riverine source). The highest freshwater endmember was 1.21 mol m-3 for the Potomac River, the lowest one was 0.41 mol m-3 for the York and Rappahannock Rivers, and an intermediate freshwater endmember was 0.79 mol m-3 for the remaining four segments. For some segments, most notably the Potomac River, the scatter of the data increases with decreasing salinity, which is due, in part, to seasonal and interannual variations in the freshwater endmember.

  18. Afforestation neutralizes soil pH.

    PubMed

    Hong, Songbai; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Anping; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Lingli; Peng, Shushi; Sardans, Jordi; Sun, Yan; Peñuelas, Josep; Zeng, Hui

    2018-02-06

    Soil pH regulates soil biogeochemical processes and has cascading effects on terrestrial ecosystem structure and functions. Afforestation has been widely adopted to increase terrestrial carbon sequestration and enhance water and soil preservation. However, the effect of afforestation on soil pH is still poorly understood and inconclusive. Here we investigate the afforestation-caused soil pH changes with pairwise samplings from 549 afforested and 148 control plots in northern China. We find significant soil pH neutralization by afforestation-afforestation lowers pH in relatively alkaline soil but raises pH in relatively acid soil. The soil pH thresholds (T pH ), the point when afforestation changes from increasing to decreasing soil pH, are species-specific, ranging from 5.5 (Pinus koraiensis) to 7.3 (Populus spp.) with a mean of 6.3. These findings indicate that afforestation can modify soil pH if tree species and initial pH are properly matched, which may potentially improve soil fertility and promote ecosystem productivity.

  19. Short chain aliphatic acid anions in oil field waters and their contribution to the measured alkalinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, L.M.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Presser, T.S.; Rapp, J.B.; Barnes, I.

    1975-01-01

    High alkalinity values found in some formation waters from Kettleman North Dome oil field are due chiefly to acetate and propionate ions, with some contribution from higher molecular weight organic acid ions. Some of these waters contain no detectable bicarbonate alkalinity. For waters such as these, high supersaturation with respect to calcite will be incorrectly indicated by thermodynamic calculations based upon carbonate concentrations inferred from traditional alkalinity measurements. ?? 1975.

  20. Mechanisms on the Impacts of Alkalinity, pH, and Chloride on Persulfate-Based Groundwater Remediation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Orozco, Ruben; Camargos, Natalia; Liu, Haizhou

    2017-04-04

    Persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- )-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has gained more attention in recent years due to the generation of highly reactive and selective sulfate radical (SO 4 •- ). This study examined the effects of important groundwater chemical parameters, i.e., alkalinity, pH, and chloride on benzene degradation via heterogeneous persulfate activation by three Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-containing aquifer minerals: ferrihydrite, goethite, and pyrolusite. A comprehensive kinetic model was established to elucidate the mechanisms of radical generation and mineral surface complexation. Results showed that an increase of alkalinity up to 10 meq/L decreased the rates of persulfate decomposition and benzene degradation, which was associated with the formation of unreactive surface carbonato complexes. An increase in pH generally accelerated persulfate decomposition due to enhanced formation of reactive surface hydroxo complexation. A change in the chloride level up to 5 mM had a negligibly effect on the reaction kinetics. Kinetics modeling also suggested that SO 4 •- was transformed to hydroxyl radical (HO • ) and carbonate radical (CO 3 •- ) at higher pHs. Furthermore, the yields of two major products of benzene oxidation, i.e., phenol and aldehyde, were positively correlated with the branching ratio of SO 4 •- reacting with benzene, but inversely correlated with that of HO • or CO 3 •- , indicating that SO 4 •- preferentially oxidized benzene via pathways involving fewer hydroxylation steps compared to HO • or CO 3 •- .

  1. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems.

  2. Nucleobase recognition at alkaline pH and apparent pKa of single DNA bases immobilised within a biological nanopore.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Lorenzo; Mikhailova, Ellina; Bayley, Hagan; Maglia, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    The four DNA bases are recognized in immobilized DNA strands at high alkaline pH by nanopore current recordings. Ionic currents through the biological nanopores are also employed to measure the apparent pK(a) values of single nucleobases within the immobilised DNA strands. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Endurance Test and Evaluation of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Andrew J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Chang, B. J.; Larkins, Jim T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to assess the state of alkaline water electrolysis cell technology and its potential as part of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) of a multikilowatt orbiting powerplant. The program evaluates the endurance capabilities of alkaline electrolyte water electrolysis cells under various operating conditions, including constant condition testing, cyclic testing and high pressure testing. The RFCS demanded the scale-up of existing cell hardware from 0.1 sq ft active electrode area to 1.0 sq ft active electrode area. A single water electrolysis cell and two six-cell modules of 1.0 sq ft active electrode area were designed and fabricated. The two six-cell 1.0 sq ft modules incorporate 1.0 sq ft utilized cores, which allow for minimization of module assembly complexity and increased tolerance to pressure differential. A water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated to allow testing of the six-cell modules. After completing checkout, shakedown, design verification and parametric testing, a module was incorporated into the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Breadboard (RFCSB) for testing at Life Systems, Inc., and at NASA JSC.

  4. Signaling alkaline pH stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the Wsc1 cell surface sensor and the Slt2 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Raquel; Martín, Humberto; Casamayor, Antonio; Ariño, Joaquín

    2006-12-29

    Alkalinization of the external environment represents a stress situation for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adaptation to this circumstance involves the activation of diverse response mechanisms, the components of which are still largely unknown. We show here that mutation of members of the cell integrity Pkc1/Slt2 MAPK module, as well as upstream and downstream elements of the system, confers sensitivity to alkali. Alkalinization resulted in fast and transient activation of the Slt2 MAPK, which depended on the integrity of the kinase module and was largely abolished by sorbitol. Lack of Wsc1, removal of specific extracellular and intracellular domains, or substitution of Tyr(303) in this putative membrane stress sensor rendered cells sensitive to alkali and considerably decreased alkali-induced Slt2 activation. In contrast, constitutive activation of Slt2 by the bck1-20 allele increased pH tolerance in the wsc1 mutant. DNA microarray analysis revealed that several genes encoding cell wall proteins, such as GSC2/FKS2, DFG5, SKT5, and CRH1, were induced, at least in part, by high pH in an Slt2-dependent manner. We observed that dfg5, skt5, and particularly dfg5 skt5 cells were alkali-sensitive. Therefore, our results show that an alkaline environment imposes a stress condition on the yeast cell wall. We propose that the Slt2-mediated MAPK pathway plays an important role in the adaptive response to this insult and that Wsc1 participates as an essential cell-surface pH sensor. Moreover, these results provide a new example of the complexity of the response of budding yeast to the alkalinization of the environment.

  5. Evaluation of the relation between lipid coat, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH.

    PubMed

    Algiert-Zielińska, Barbara; Batory, Mirella; Skubalski, Janusz; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2017-11-01

    The epidermis is an epidermal barrier which accumulates lipid substances and participates in skin moisturizing. An evaluation of the epidermal barrier efficiency can be made, among others, by the measurement of the following values: the lipid coat, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) index, and pH. The study involved 50 Caucasian, healthy women aged 19-35 years (mean 20.56). Measurements were made using Courage & Khazaka Multi Probe Adapter MPA 580: Tewameter TM 300, pH-Meter PH 905, Sebumeter SM 815. The areas of measurements included forehead, nose, left cheek, right cheek, chin, and thigh. In the T-zone, the lipid coat was in the range between 0 and 270 μg/cm 2 (mean 128 μg/cm 2 ), TEWL between 1 and 55 g/m 2 /h (mean 11.1 g/m 2 /h), and pH 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.39). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL greater than 30 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. In the U-zone the range of lipid coat was up to 200 μg/cm 2 (mean 65.2 μg/cm 2 ), the skin pH remained 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.47), and TEWL was in the range between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h (mean 8.7 g/m 2 /h). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. High values of the lipid coat between 180 and 200 μg/cm 2 were connected with TEWL of 1-15 g/m 2 /h. On the skin of the thigh, we observed a very thin lipid coat - 35 μg/cm 2 (mean 5.6 μg/cm 2 ), pH (mean 5.37), and TEWL (mean 8.5 g/m 2 /h) were considered by us to be within regular limits. In the T-zone, a thinner lipid coat resulted in relatively high TEWL and pH levels changing toward alkaline. In the U-zone, thinner lipid coat was accompanied by lower TEWL and pH changing toward alkaline. We also observed that lower values of lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were associated with higher pH values ranging toward the basic character pH 5.6-9.0). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Neutralisation of an acidic pit lake by alkaline waste products.

    PubMed

    Allard, Bert; Bäckström, Mattias; Karlsson, Stefan; Grawunder, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A former open pit where black shale (alum shale) was excavated during 1942-1965 has been water filled since 1966. The water chemistry was dominated by calcium and sulphate and had a pH of 3.2-3.4 until 1997-1998, when pH was gradually increasing. This was due to the intrusion of leachates from alkaline cement waste deposited close to the lake. A stable pH of around 7.5 was obtained after 6-7 years. The chemistry of the pit lake has changed due to the neutralisation. Concentrations of some dissolved metals, notably zinc and nickel, have gone down, as a result of adsorption/co-precipitation on solid phases (most likely iron and aluminium hydroxides), while other metals, notably uranium and molybdenum, are present at elevated levels. Uranium concentration is reaching a minimum of around pH 6.5 and is increasing at higher pH, which may indicate a formation of neutral and anionic uranyl carbonate species at high pH (and total carbonate levels around 1 mM). Weathering of the water-exposed shale is still in progress.

  7. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  8. Enhancing the antibacterial effect of 461 and 521 nm light emitting diodes on selected foodborne pathogens in trypticase soy broth by acidic and alkaline pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghate, Vinayak; Leong, Ai Ling; Kumar, Amit; Bang, Woo Suk; Zhou, Weibiao; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with their antibacterial effect present a novel method for food preservation. This effect may be influenced by environmental conditions such as the pH of the food contaminated by the pathogen. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the influence of pH on the antibacterial effect of LEDs before their application to real food matrices. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in trypticase soy broth were illuminated using 10-W 461 (22.1 mW/cm(2)) and 521 nm (16 mW/cm(2)) LEDs at pH values of 4.5, 6.0, 7.3, 8.0 and 9.5 for 7.5 h at 15 °C. Using the 461 nm LEDs, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased by 2.1 ± 0.02, 1.2 ± 0.08 and 4.1 ± 0.42 log CFU/ml at pH 4.5, 7.3 and 9.5 respectively, after a dosage of 596.7 J/cm(2). For L. monocytogenes, approximately a 5.8 ± 0.03 log reduction was observed after 238.7 J/cm(2) at pH 4.5 using the 461 nm LEDs, while the bacterial concentration was reduced by 1.8 ± 0.01 log at pH 9.5 after 596.7 J/cm(2). Bacterial inactivation using the 521 nm LEDs showed similar trends to the 461 nm LEDs at both acidic and alkaline pH conditions but with lower (1-2 log CFU/ml) reductions after 432 J/cm(2). Lower D-values were observed for L. monocytogenes when exposed to LEDs at acidic pH values, while the sensitivity of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium to LED was markedly increased at an alkaline pH. Regardless of the pH at which the cultures were illuminated, the percentage of sublethal injury increased with the treatment time. These results highlight the enhanced antibacterial effect of the 461 nm LED under acidic and alkaline pH conditions, proving its potential to preserve foods as well as to have synergistic effect with acidic and alkaline antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Redistribution of wastewater alkalinity with a microbial fuel cell to support nitrification of reject water.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, the reject water from the sludge treatment processes typically contains high ammonium concentrations, which constitute a significant internal nitrogen load in the plant. Often, a separate nitrification reactor is used to treat the reject water before it is fed back into the plant. The nitrification reaction consumes alkalinity, which has to be replenished by dosing e.g. NaOH or Ca(OH)(2). In this study, we investigated the use of a two-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) to redistribute alkalinity from influent wastewater to support nitrification of reject water. In an MFC, alkalinity is consumed in the anode compartment and produced in the cathode compartment. We use this phenomenon and the fact that the influent wastewater flow is many times larger than the reject water flow to transfer alkalinity from the influent wastewater to the reject water. In a laboratory-scale system, ammonium oxidation of synthetic reject water passed through the cathode chamber of an MFC, increased from 73.8 ± 8.9 mgN/L under open-circuit conditions to 160.1 ± 4.8 mgN/L when a current of 1.96 ± 0.37 mA (15.1 mA/L total MFC liquid volume) was flowing through the MFC. These results demonstrated the positive effect of an MFC on ammonium oxidation of alkalinity-limited reject water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of mineral-based alkaline water on hydration status and the metabolic response to short-term anaerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chycki, Jakub; Zając, Tomasz; Kurylas, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Previously it was demonstrated that mineralization and alkalization properties of mineral water are important factors influencing acid-base balance and hydration in athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking different types of water on urine pH, specific urine gravity, and post-exercise lactate utilization in response to strenuous exercise. Thirty-six male soccer players were divided into three intervention groups, consuming around 4.0 l/day of different types of water for 7 days: HM (n=12; highly mineralized water), LM (n=12; low mineralized water), and CON (n=12; table water). The athletes performed an exercise protocol on two occasions (before and after intervention). The exercise protocol consisted of 5 bouts of intensive 60-s (120% VO2max) cycling separated by 60 s of passive rest. Body composition, urinalysis and lactate concentration were evaluated – before (t0), immediately after (t1), 5’ (t2), and 30’ (t3) after exercise. Total body water and its active transport (TBW – total body water / ICW – intracellular water / ECW – extracellular water) showed no significant differences in all groups, at both occasions. In the post-hydration state we found a significant decrease of specific urine gravity in HM (1021±4.2 vs 1015±3.8 g/L) and LM (1022±3.1 vs 1008±4.2 g/L). We also found a significant increase of pH and lactate utilization rate in LM. In conclusion, the athletes hydrated with alkaline, low mineralized water demonstrated favourable changes in hydration status in response to high-intensity interval exercise with a significant decrease of specific urine gravity, increased urine pH and more efficient utilization of lactate after supramaximal exercise. PMID:29158619

  11. The effect of mineral-based alkaline water on hydration status and the metabolic response to short-term anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Chycki, Jakub; Zając, Tomasz; Maszczyk, Adam; Kurylas, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Previously it was demonstrated that mineralization and alkalization properties of mineral water are important factors influencing acid-base balance and hydration in athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of drinking different types of water on urine pH, specific urine gravity, and post-exercise lactate utilization in response to strenuous exercise. Thirty-six male soccer players were divided into three intervention groups, consuming around 4.0 l/day of different types of water for 7 days: HM (n=12; highly mineralized water), LM (n=12; low mineralized water), and CON (n=12; table water). The athletes performed an exercise protocol on two occasions (before and after intervention). The exercise protocol consisted of 5 bouts of intensive 60-s (120% VO 2max ) cycling separated by 60 s of passive rest. Body composition, urinalysis and lactate concentration were evaluated - before (t0), immediately after (t1), 5' (t2), and 30' (t3) after exercise. Total body water and its active transport (TBW - total body water / ICW - intracellular water / ECW - extracellular water) showed no significant differences in all groups, at both occasions. In the post-hydration state we found a significant decrease of specific urine gravity in HM (1021±4.2 vs 1015±3.8 g/L) and LM (1022±3.1 vs 1008±4.2 g/L). We also found a significant increase of pH and lactate utilization rate in LM. In conclusion, the athletes hydrated with alkaline, low mineralized water demonstrated favourable changes in hydration status in response to high-intensity interval exercise with a significant decrease of specific urine gravity, increased urine pH and more efficient utilization of lactate after supramaximal exercise.

  12. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  13. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  14. Acid Mine Drainage Passive Remediation: Potential Use of Alkaline Clay, Optimal Mixing Ratio and Long Term Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Liang, X.; Wen, Y.; Perone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry. Surface water and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and heavy metals. In this study, alkaline clay, an industrial waste with a high pH, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation. Through a series of batch and column experiments, complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and auto sustainable acid mine drainage remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an AMD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values near to neutral conditions, and, 3) the prediction of long term impacts, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a coal waste site located in Mather, Pennsylvania. Alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for AMD. It was found that 10% AC/CR is an adequate mixing ratio (i.e. the upper limit), which has been also indicated by field measurements. The concentrations of some contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate are significantly reduced with the remediation approach, compared to those representative concentrations found in mine tailings. Moreover, results suggest a very reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating and hardpan (i.e. cemented layer) on the surface. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increasing water retention and hindering oxygen diffusion.

  15. The origin of life in alkaline hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojo, V.; Herschy, B.; Whicher, A.; Camprubí, E.; Lane, N.

    2016-12-01

    The origin of life remains one of Science's greatest unresolved questions. The answer will no doubt involve almost all the basic disciplines, including Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, and Biology. Chiefly, it is the link between the latter two that must be elucidated: how geochemistry gave rise to biochemistry. Serpentinizing systems such as alkaline hydrothermal vents offer the most robust combination of conditions to have hosted the origin of life on the early Earth, while bearing many parallels to modern living cells. Stark gradients of concentration, pH, oxidation/reduction, and temperature provided the ability to synthesise and concentrate organic products, drive polymerisation reactions, and develop an autotrophic lifestyle independent of foreign sources of organics. In the oxygen-depleted waters of the Hadean, alkaline vents would have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with the relatively acidic CO2-rich waters of the ocean, through interconnected micropores made of thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. Perhaps not coincidentally, the unit cells of these Fe(Ni)S minerals closely resemble the active sites of crucial ancestral bioenergetic enzymes. Meanwhile, differences in pH across the thin barriers produced natural proton gradients similar to those used for carbon fixation in modern archaea and bacteria. At the earliest stages, the problem of the origin of life is the problem of the origin of carbon fixation. I will discuss work over the last decade that suggests several possible hypotheses for how simple one-carbon molecules could have given rise to more complex organics, particularly within a serpentinizing alkaline hydrothermal vent. I will discuss the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria, thought to be the earliest representatives of each domain, to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in

  16. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  17. Impacts of blending ground, surface, and saline waters on lead release in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Hong, Seungkwan; Xiao, Weizhong; Taylor, James

    2006-03-01

    The impacts of distribution water quality changes caused by blending different source waters on lead release from corrosion loops containing small lead coupons were investigated in a pilot distribution study. The 1-year pilot study demonstrated that lead release to drinking water increased as chlorides increased and sulfates decreased. Silica and calcium inhibited lead release to a lesser degree than sulfates. An additional 3-month field study isolated and verified the effects of chlorides and sulfates on lead release. Lead release decreased with increasing pH and increasing alkalinity during the 1-year pilot study; however, the effects of pH and alkalinity on lead release, were not clearly elucidated due to confounding effects. A statistical model was developed using nonlinear regression, which showed that lead release increased with increasing chlorides, alkalinity and temperature, and decreased with increasing pH and sulfates. The model indicated that primary treatment processes such as enhanced coagulation and RO (reverse osmosis membrane) were related to lead release by water quality. Chlorides are high in RO-finished water and increase lead release, while sulfates are high following enhanced coagulation and decrease lead release.

  18. Hydrology and water quality of the Forest County Potawatomi Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidwin, R.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality of three lakes on the Reservation is variable and depends on the degree of connection with the ground-water system. In general, Bug Lake and Devils Lake are in poor hydraulic connection with the ground-water system, and their waters contain low concentrations of dissolved solids and alkalinity and low pH. King Lake is in good hydraulic connection with the ground-water system, and its waters contain higher concentrations of dissolved solids and alkalinity and higher pH than Bug and Devils Lakes.

  19. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Influence of water source switching on water quality in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Niu, Zhang-bin; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the regularity of the change on the physical and chemical water qualities in the distribution system during the process of water source switching in A city. Due to the water source switching, the water quality is chemical-astable. Because of the differences between the two water sources, pH reduced from 7.54 to 7.18, alkalinity reduced from 188 mg x L(-1) to 117 mg x L(-1), chloride (Cl(-)) reduced from 310 mg x L(-1) to 132 mg x L(-1), conductance reduced from 0.176 S x m(-1) to 0.087 S x m(-1) and the ions of calcium and magnesium reduced to 15 mg x L(-1) and 11 mg x L(-1) respectively. Residual chlorine changed while the increase of the chlorine demand and the water quantity decreasing at night, and the changes of pH, alkalinity and residual chlorine brought the iron increased to 0.4 mg x L(-1) at the tiptop, which was over the standard. The influence of the change of the water parameters on the water chemical-stability in the drinking water distribution system is analyzed, and the controlling countermeasure is advanced: increasing pH, using phosphate and enhancing the quality of the water in distribution system especially the residual chlorine.

  1. Alkaline phosphatase activity of water column fractions and seagrass in a tropical carbonate estuary, Florida Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Marguerite S.; Kletou, Demetris C.; Tursi, Rosanna

    2009-08-01

    Few phosphorus-depleted coastal ecosystems have been examined for their ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoesters. We examined seasonal (August 2006-April 2007) alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay, a phosphorus-limited shallow estuary, using fluorescent substrate at low concentrations (≤2.0 μM). In situ dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus levels and phosphomonoester concentrations were also determined. Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was partitioned into two particulate size fractions (>1.2 and 0.2-1.2 μm) and freely dissolved enzymes (<0.2 μm). Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was also compared to leaf and epiphyte activity of the dominant tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Our results indicate: (1) potential alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay is high compared to other marine ecosystems, resulting in rapid phosphomonoester turnover times (˜2 h). (2) Water column alkaline phosphatase activity dominates, and is split equally between particulate and dissolved fractions. (3) Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest during cyanobacterial blooms, but not when normalized to chl a. These results suggest that dissolved, heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaline phosphatase activity is stimulated by phytoplankton blooms. (4) The dissolved alkaline phosphatase activity is relatively constant, while the particulate activity is seasonally and spatially dynamic, typically associated with phytoplankton blooms. (5) Phosphomonoester concentrations throughout the bay are low, even though potential hydrolysis rates are high. We propose that bioavailable dissolved organic P is hydrolyzed by dissolved and microbial alkaline phosphatase enzymes in Florida Bay. High alkaline phosphatase activity in the bay is also promoted by long hydraulic residence times. This background activity is primarily driven by carbon and phosphorus limitation of microorganisms, and regeneration of enzymes associated with cell lysis. Pulses of inorganic

  2. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O 2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  3. Pho4 Is Essential for Dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans to the Host Brain by Promoting Phosphate Uptake and Growth at Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman-Francis, Keren; Desmarini, Desmarini; Juillard, Pierre G.; Li, Cecilia; Stifter, Sebastian A.; Feng, Carl G.; Sorrell, Tania C.; Grau, Georges E. R.; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphate acquisition by fungi is regulated by the phosphate-sensing and acquisition (PHO) signaling pathway. Cryptococcus neoformans disseminates from the lung to the brain and is the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide. To investigate the contribution of PHO signaling to cryptococcal dissemination, we characterized a transcription factor knockout strain (hlh3Δ/pho4Δ) defective in phosphate acquisition. Despite little similarity with other fungal Pho4 proteins, Hlh3/Pho4 functioned like a typical phosphate-responsive transcription factor in phosphate-deprived cryptococci, accumulating in nuclei and triggering expression of genes involved in phosphate acquisition. The pho4Δ mutant strain was susceptible to a number of stresses, the effect of which, except for alkaline pH, was alleviated by phosphate supplementation. Even in the presence of phosphate, the PHO pathway was activated in wild-type cryptococci at or above physiological pH, and under these conditions, the pho4Δ mutant had a growth defect and compromised phosphate uptake. The pho4Δ mutant was hypovirulent in a mouse inhalation model, where dissemination to the brain was reduced dramatically, and markedly hypovirulent in an intravenous dissemination model. The pho4Δ mutant was not detected in blood, nor did it proliferate significantly when cultured with peripheral blood monocytes. In conclusion, dissemination of infection and the pathogenesis of meningitis are dependent on cryptococcal phosphate uptake and stress tolerance at alkaline pH, both of which are Pho4 dependent. IMPORTANCE Cryptococcal meningitis is fatal without treatment and responsible for more than 500,000 deaths annually. To be a successful pathogen, C. neoformans must obtain an adequate supply of essential nutrients, including phosphate, from various host niches. Phosphate acquisition in fungi is regulated by the PHO signaling cascade, which is activated when intracellular phosphate decreases below a critical

  4. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  5. Safety of an alkalinizing buffer designed for inhaled medications in humans.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael D; Walsh, Brian K; Dwyer, Scott T; Combs, Casey; Vehse, Nico; Paget-Brown, Alix; Pajewski, Thomas; Hunt, John F

    2013-07-01

    Airway acidification plays a role in disorders of the pulmonary tract. We hypothesized that the inhalation of alkalinized glycine buffer would measurably alkalinize the airways without compromising lung function or causing adverse events. We evaluated the safety of an inhaled alkaline glycine buffer in both healthy subjects and in subjects with stable obstructive airway disease. This work includes 2 open-label safety studies. The healthy controls were part of a phase 1 safety study of multiple inhalations of low-dose alkaline glycine buffer; nebulized saline was used as a comparator in 8 of the healthy controls. Subsequently, a phase 2 study in subjects with stable obstructive airway disease was completed using a single nebulized higher-dose strategy of the alkaline inhalation. We studied 20 non-smoking adults (10 healthy controls and 10 subjects with obstructive airway disease), both at baseline and after inhalation of alkaline buffer. We used spirometry and vital signs as markers of clinical safety. We used changes in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH as surrogate markers of airway pH modification. Alkaline glycine inhalation was tolerated by all subjects in both studies, with no adverse effects on spirometric parameters or vital signs. Airway alkalinization was confirmed by a median increase in EBC pH of 0.235 pH units (IQR 0.56-0.03, P = .03) in subjects after inhalation of the higher-dose alkaline buffer (2.5 mL of 100 mmol/L glycine). Alkalinization of airway lining fluid is accomplished with inhalation of alkaline glycine buffer and causes no adverse effects on pulmonary function or vital signs.

  6. Silicon Priming Created an Enhanced Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings in Response to High Alkaline Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Duo; Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiao-Long; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na 2 CO 3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings. In contrast, the application of Si to alfalfa seedlings 36 h prior to the alkaline treatment significantly alleviated the damage symptoms and greatly increased the biomass and chlorophyll content. Because of being concomitant with increasing photosynthesis and water use efficiency, decreasing membrane injury and malondialdehyde content, and increasing peroxidase and catalase ascorbate activities in alfalfa leaves, thereby alleviating the triggered oxidative damage by alkaline stress to the plant. Furthermore, Si priming significantly decreased the accumulation of protein and proline content in alfalfa, thus reducing photosynthetic feedback repression. Si priming significantly accumulated more Na in the roots, but led to a decrease of Na accumulation and an increase of K accumulation in the leaves under alkaline stress. Meanwhile, Si priming decreased the accumulation of metal ions such as Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the roots of alfalfa seedlings under alkaline stress. Collectively, these results suggested that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes and has a potent priming effect on the alkaline tolerance of alfalfa seedlings. The present study indicated that Si priming is a new approach to improve the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa and provides increasing information for further exploration of the alkaline stress response at the molecular level in alfalfa.

  7. Silicon Priming Created an Enhanced Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings in Response to High Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Duo; Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiao-Long; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Alkaline stress as a result of higher pH usually triggers more severe physiological damage to plants than that of saline stress with a neutral pH. In the present study, we demonstrated that silicon (Si) priming of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings increased their tolerance to high alkaline stress situations. Gongnong No. 1 seedlings were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH 11.2). Alkaline stress greatly decreased the biomass and caused severe lodging or wilting of alfalfa seedlings. In contrast, the application of Si to alfalfa seedlings 36 h prior to the alkaline treatment significantly alleviated the damage symptoms and greatly increased the biomass and chlorophyll content. Because of being concomitant with increasing photosynthesis and water use efficiency, decreasing membrane injury and malondialdehyde content, and increasing peroxidase and catalase ascorbate activities in alfalfa leaves, thereby alleviating the triggered oxidative damage by alkaline stress to the plant. Furthermore, Si priming significantly decreased the accumulation of protein and proline content in alfalfa, thus reducing photosynthetic feedback repression. Si priming significantly accumulated more Na in the roots, but led to a decrease of Na accumulation and an increase of K accumulation in the leaves under alkaline stress. Meanwhile, Si priming decreased the accumulation of metal ions such as Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the roots of alfalfa seedlings under alkaline stress. Collectively, these results suggested that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes and has a potent priming effect on the alkaline tolerance of alfalfa seedlings. The present study indicated that Si priming is a new approach to improve the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa and provides increasing information for further exploration of the alkaline stress response at the molecular level in alfalfa. PMID:29896213

  8. Structural Analysis of Alkaline β-Mannanase from Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5: Implications for Adaptation to Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueju; Zhang, Yunhua; Cao, Yang; Qi, Jianxun; Mao, Liangwei; Xue, Yanfen; Gao, Feng; Peng, Hao; Wang, Xiaowei; Gao, George F.; Ma, Yanhe

    2011-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in isolating novel alkaline β-mannanases, however, there is a paucity of information concerning the structural basis for alkaline tolerance displayed by these β-mannanases. We report the catalytic domain structure of an industrially important β-mannanase from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 (BSP165 MAN) at a resolution of 1.6 Å. This enzyme, classified into subfamily 8 in glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5), has a pH optimum of enzymatic activity at pH 9.5 and folds into a classic (β/α)8-barrel. In order to gain insight into molecular features for alkaline adaptation, we compared BSP165 MAN with previously reported GH5 β-mannanases. It was revealed that BSP165 MAN and other subfamily 8 β-mannanases have significantly increased hydrophobic and Arg residues content and decreased polar residues, comparing to β-mannanases of subfamily 7 or 10 in GH5 which display optimum activities at lower pH. Further, extensive structural comparisons show alkaline β-mannanases possess a set of distinctive features. Position and length of some helices, strands and loops of the TIM barrel structures are changed, which contributes, to a certain degree, to the distinctly different shaped (β/α)8-barrels, thus affecting the catalytic environment of these enzymes. The number of negatively charged residues is increased on the molecular surface, and fewer polar residues are exposed to the solvent. Two amino acid substitutions in the vicinity of the acid/base catalyst were proposed to be possibly responsible for the variation in pH optimum of these homologous enzymes in subfamily 8 of GH5, identified by sequence homology analysis and pK a calculations of the active site residues. Mutational analysis has proved that Gln91 and Glu226 are important for BSP165 MAN to function at high pH. These findings are proposed to be possible factors implicated in the alkaline adaptation of GH5 β-mannanases and will help to further understanding of alkaline

  9. Evaluating Carbonate System Algorithms in a Nearshore System: Does Total Alkalinity Matter?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan M; Sweet, Julia; Brzezinski, Mark A; McNair, Heather M; Passow, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously. Observed relationships between sea surface salinity and total alkalinity can frequently provide a second carbonate parameter thus allowing for the calculation of the entire carbonate system. Here, we assessed the rigor of estimating total alkalinity from salinity at a depth <15 m by routinely sampling water from a pier in southern California for several carbonate system parameters. Carbonate system parameters based on measured values were compared with those based on estimated TA values. Total alkalinity was not predictable from salinity or from a combination of salinity and temperature at this site. However, dissolved inorganic carbon and the calcium carbonate saturation state of these nearshore surface waters could both be estimated within on average 5% of measured values using measured pH and salinity-derived or regionally averaged total alkalinity. Thus we find that the autonomous measurement of pH and salinity can be used to monitor trends in coastal changes in DIC and saturation state and be a useful method for high-frequency, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification.

  10. Computational design of a pH stable enzyme: understanding molecular mechanism of penicillin acylase's adaptation to alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties.

  11. Computational Design of a pH Stable Enzyme: Understanding Molecular Mechanism of Penicillin Acylase's Adaptation to Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Švedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties. PMID:24959852

  12. Studies on the production of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18.

    PubMed

    Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Anthonia, Odiase

    2015-01-01

    Amylases are among the main enzymes used in food and other industries. They hydrolyse starch molecules into polymers composing glucose units. Amylases have potential applications in a number of industrial processes including foods and pharmaceutical industries. Alkaline α-amylase has the potential of hydrolysing starch under alkaline pH and is useful in the starch and textile industries and as an ingredient of detergents. Amylases are produced from plants, however, microbial production processes have dominated applications in the industries. Optimization of microbial production processes can result in improved enzyme yields. Amylase activity was assayed by incubating the enzyme solution (0.5 ml) with 1% soluble starch (0.5 ml) in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5). After 30 minutes, the reaction was stopped by the addition of 4 mL of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent then heated for 10 min in boiling water bath and cooled in a refrigerator. Absorbance readings were used to estimate the units of enzyme activity from glucose standard curve. Hydrolysed native starches from cassava, rice, corn, coco yam, maize and potato and soluble starch were adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to incubation with crude enzyme solution. Reducing sugars produced were therefore determined. The effect of pH on enzyme activity of the alkaline α-amylase was determined by using buffer solutions of different pH (potassium phosphate buffer, 6.0-7.0; Tris-HCl buffer 7.5 to 9.0 and carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, pH 9.5-11) for enzyme assay. The pH stability profile of the enzyme was determined by incubating 0.5 ml of α-amylase enzyme in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) and 0.5 ml of 1% (w/v) soluble starch (Merck) in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) for 3 h in various buffers. The effect of temperature on enzyme activity was studied by incubating 0.5 mL of the enzyme solution contained in the test tube and 0.5 mL of 1% soluble starch (Merck) solution prepared in 0.1 M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) for 3 h at

  13. Effects of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants.

    PubMed

    Gfatter, R; Hackl, P; Braun, F

    1997-01-01

    In adults the influence of cleansing preparations on the pH, fat content and hydration of the skin is well documented. Studies in newborn and small infants have not been reported. Our study aimed at examining whether similar effects can be ascertained in infants. Infants without skin disease, aged 2 weeks to 16 months, entered an open, controlled and randomized study. Ten infants each had skin washed with tap water (control group), liquid detergent (pH 5.5), compact detergent (pH 5.5) or alkaline soap (pH 9.5). The pH, fat content and hydration were measured before and 10 min after cleansing. Findings were statistically evaluated by parametric covariance analysis. The skin pH increased from an average of 6.60 after cleansing in all groups. The smallest increase (+0.19) was observed in the control group, the largest (+0.45) after washing with alkaline soap. After treatment with liquid or compact detergent, the increase of the pH was only 0.09 higher than for the control group. In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a significantly higher increase in pH. The fat content (mean starting value: 4.34 micrograms/cm2) decreased after washing in all groups; the smallest effect was observed in the control group (decrease of 0.93 micrograms/cm2), the highest for the alkaline soap group (decrease of 4.81 micrograms/cm2). In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a higher decrease in fat content. This difference was significant for compact detergents. No statistically significant differences were observed for hydration before versus after washing. Each cleansing agent, even normal tap water, influences the skin surface. The increase of the skin pH irritates the physiological protective 'acid mantle', changes the composition of the cutaneous bacterial flora and the activity of enzymes in the upper epidermis, which have an acid pH optimum. The dissolution of fat from the skin surface may influence the

  14. Floc Formation Reduces the pH Stress Experienced by Microorganisms Living in Alkaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Charles, C. J.; Rout, S. P.; Patel, K. A.; Akbar, S.; Laws, A. P.; Jackson, B. R.; Boxall, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The survival of microorganisms within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes heavily depends on their ability to survive the calcium-dominated, hyperalkaline conditions resulting from the dissolution of the cementitious materials. The results from this study show that the formation of flocs, composed of a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), provides protection against alkaline pH values up to 13.0. The flocs were dominated by Alishewanella and Dietzia spp., producing a mannose-rich carbohydrate fraction incorporating extracellular DNA, resulting in Ca2+ sequestration. EPS provided a ∼10-μm thick layer around the cells within the center of the flocs, which were capable of growth at pH values of 11.0 and 11.5, maintaining internal pH values of 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. Microorganisms survived at a pH of 12.0, where an internal floc pH of 11.6 was observed, as was a reduced associated biomass. We observed limited floc survival (<2 weeks) at a pH of 13.0. This study demonstrates that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to the hyperalkaline conditions expected to occur within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes and indicates that floc communities within such a facility can survive at pHs up to 12.0. IMPORTANCE The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the survival of microorganisms in hyperalkaline conditions is poorly understood. Here, we present the taxonomy, morphology, and chemical characteristics of an EPS-based microbial floc, formed by a consortium isolated from an anthropogenic hyperalkaline site. Short-term (<2 weeks) survival of the flocs at a pH of 13 was observed, with indefinite survival observed at a pH of 12.0. Measurements from micro-pH electrodes (10-μm-diameter tip) demonstrated that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to hyperalkaline conditions (pH 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0), demonstrating that floc formation and EPS

  15. Floc Formation Reduces the pH Stress Experienced by Microorganisms Living in Alkaline Environments.

    PubMed

    Charles, C J; Rout, S P; Patel, K A; Akbar, S; Laws, A P; Jackson, B R; Boxall, S A; Humphreys, P N

    2017-03-15

    The survival of microorganisms within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes heavily depends on their ability to survive the calcium-dominated, hyperalkaline conditions resulting from the dissolution of the cementitious materials. The results from this study show that the formation of flocs, composed of a complex mixture of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), provides protection against alkaline pH values up to 13.0. The flocs were dominated by Alishewanella and Dietzia spp., producing a mannose-rich carbohydrate fraction incorporating extracellular DNA, resulting in Ca 2+ sequestration. EPS provided a ∼10-μm thick layer around the cells within the center of the flocs, which were capable of growth at pH values of 11.0 and 11.5, maintaining internal pH values of 10.4 and 10.7, respectively. Microorganisms survived at a pH of 12.0, where an internal floc pH of 11.6 was observed, as was a reduced associated biomass. We observed limited floc survival (<2 weeks) at a pH of 13.0. This study demonstrates that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to the hyperalkaline conditions expected to occur within a cementitious geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes and indicates that floc communities within such a facility can survive at pHs up to 12.0. IMPORTANCE The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the survival of microorganisms in hyperalkaline conditions is poorly understood. Here, we present the taxonomy, morphology, and chemical characteristics of an EPS-based microbial floc, formed by a consortium isolated from an anthropogenic hyperalkaline site. Short-term (<2 weeks) survival of the flocs at a pH of 13 was observed, with indefinite survival observed at a pH of 12.0. Measurements from micro-pH electrodes (10-μm-diameter tip) demonstrated that flocs maintain lower internal pHs in response to hyperalkaline conditions (pH 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0), demonstrating that floc formation and EPS production are

  16. Modeling carbon dioxide, pH, and un-ionized ammonia relationships in serial reuse systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colt, J.; Watten, B.; Rust, M.

    2009-01-01

    In serial reuse systems, excretion of metabolic carbon dioxide has a significant impact on ambient pH, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia concentrations. This impact depends strongly on alkalinity, water flow rate, feeding rate, and loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. A reduction in pH from metabolic carbon dioxide can significantly reduce the un-ionized ammonia concentration and increase the carbon dioxide concentrations compared to those parameters computed from influent pH. The ability to accurately predict pH in serial reuse systems is critical to their design and effective operation. A trial and error solution to the alkalinity-pH system was used to estimate important water quality parameters in serial reuse systems. Transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the air-water interface, at overflow weirs, and impacts of substrate-attached algae and suspended bacteria were modeled. Gas transfer at the weirs was much greater than transfer across the air-water boundary. This simulation model can rapidly estimate influent and effluent concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia as a function of water temperature, elevation, water flow, and weir type. The accuracy of the estimates strongly depends on assumed pollutional loading rates and gas transfer at the weirs. The current simulation model is based on mean daily loading rates; the impacts of daily variation loading rates are discussed. Copies of the source code and executable program are available free of charge.

  17. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  18. Bile salts and alkaline pH reciprocally modulate the interaction between the periplasmic domains of Vibrio cholerae ToxR and ToxS.

    PubMed

    Midgett, Charles R; Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pellegrini, Maria; Taylor, Ronald K; Skorupski, Karen; Kull, F Jon

    2017-07-01

    ToxR is a transmembrane transcription factor that is essential for virulence gene expression and human colonization by Vibrio cholerae. ToxR requires its operon partner ToxS, a periplasmic integral membrane protein, for full activity. These two proteins are thought to interact through their respective periplasmic domains, ToxRp and ToxSp. In addition, ToxR is thought to be responsive to various environmental cues, such as bile salts and alkaline pH, but how these factors influence ToxR is not yet understood. Using NMR and reciprocal pull down assays, we present the first direct evidence that ToxR and ToxS physically interact. Furthermore, using NMR and DSF, it was shown that the bile salts cholate and chenodeoxycholate interact with purified ToxRp and destabilize it. Surprisingly, bile salt destabilization of ToxRp enhanced the interaction between ToxRp and ToxSp. In contrast, alkaline pH, which is one of the factors that leads to ToxR proteolysis, decreased the interaction between ToxRp and ToxSp. Taken together, these data suggest a model whereby bile salts or other detergents destabilize ToxR, increasing its interaction with ToxS to promote full ToxR activity. Subsequently, as V. cholerae alkalinizes its environment in late stationary phase, the interaction between the two proteins decreases, allowing ToxR proteolysis to proceed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Laboratory-Scale Demonstration Using Dilute Ammonia Gas-Induced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soil Contaminants (Chlorinated Propanes and Explosives)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Hydrolysis of Soil Contaminants (Chlorinated Propanes and Explosives) En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Victor F. Medina, Scott A. Waisner, Charles...Using Dilute Ammonia Gas-Induced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soil Contaminants (Chlorinated Propanes and Explosives) Victor F. Medina, Scott A. Waisner...hydrolysis. This project explored the use of ammonia gas to raise soil pH in order to stimulate alkaline hydrolysis. When ammonia gas dissolves in water

  20. Macrophyte and pH buffering updates to the Klamath River water-quality model upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Asbill-Case, Jessica R.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic, water temperature, and water-quality model of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the upper Klamath River was updated to account for macrophytes and enhanced pH buffering from dissolved organic matter, ammonia, and orthophosphorus. Macrophytes had been observed in this reach by field personnel, so macrophyte field data were collected in summer and fall (June-October) 2011 to provide a dataset to guide the inclusion of macrophytes in the model. Three types of macrophytes were most common: pondweed (Potamogeton species), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), and common waterweed (Elodea canadensis). Pondweed was found throughout the Link River to Keno Dam reach in early summer with densities declining by mid-summer and fall. Coontail and common waterweed were more common in the lower reach near Keno Dam and were at highest density in summer. All species were most dense in shallow water (less than 2 meters deep) near shore. The highest estimated dry weight biomass for any sample during the study was 202 grams per square meter for coontail in August. Guided by field results, three macrophyte groups were incorporated into the CE-QUAL-W2 model for calendar years 2006-09. The CE-QUAL-W2 model code was adjusted to allow the user to initialize macrophyte populations spatially across the model grid. The default CE-QUAL-W2 model includes pH buffering by carbonates, but does not include pH buffering by organic matter, ammonia, or orthophosphorus. These three constituents, especially dissolved organic matter, are present in the upper Klamath River at concentrations that provide substantial pH buffering capacity. In this study, CE-QUAL-W2 was updated to include this enhanced buffering capacity in the simulation of pH. Acid dissociation constants for ammonium and phosphoric acid were taken from the literature. For dissolved organic matter, the number of organic acid groups and each group's acid dissociation constant (Ka) and site density (moles of sites per mole of

  1. Early changes of the pH of the apoplast are different in leaves, stem and roots of Vicia faba L. under declining water availability.

    PubMed

    Karuppanapandian, T; Geilfus, C-M; Mühling, K-H; Novák, O; Gloser, V

    2017-02-01

    Changes in pH of the apoplast have recently been discussed as an important factor in adjusting transpiration and water relations under conditions of drought via modulatory effect on abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Using Vicia faba L., we investigated whether changes in the root, shoot and leaf apoplastic pH correlated with (1) a drought-induced reduction in transpiration and with (2) changes in ABA concentration. Transpiration, leaf water potential and ABA in leaves were measured and correlated with root and shoot xylem pH, determined by a pH microelectrode, and pH of leaf apoplast quantified by microscopy-based in vivo ratiometric analysis. Results revealed that a reduction in transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying could not be linked with changes in the apoplastic pH via effects on the stomata-regulating hormone ABA. Moreover, drought-induced increase in pH of xylem or leaf apoplast was not the remote effect of an acropetal transport of alkaline sap from root, because root xylem acidified during progressive soil drying, whereas the shoot apoplast alkalized. We reason that other, yet unknown signalling mechanism was responsible for reduction of transpiration rate in the early phase of soil drying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Average rainwater pH, concepts of atmospheric acidity, and buffering in open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljestrand, Howard M.

    The system of water equilibrated with a constant partial pressure of CO 2, as a reference point for pH acidity-alkalinity relationships, has nonvolatile acidity and alkalinity components as conservative quantities, but not [H +]. Simple algorithms are presented for the determination of the average pH for combinations of samples both above and below pH 5.6. Averaging the nonconservative quantity [H +] yields erroneously low mean pH values. To extend the open CO 2 system to include other volatile atmospheric acids and bases distributed among the gas, liquid and particulate matter phases, a theoretical framework for atmospheric acidity is presented. Within certain oxidation-reduction limitations, the total atmospheric acidity (but not free acidity) is a conservative quantity. The concept of atmospheric acidity is applied to air-water systems approximating aerosols, fogwater, cloudwater and rainwater. The buffer intensity in hydrometeors is described as a function of net strong acidity, partial pressures of acid and base gases and the water to air ratio. For high liquid to air volume ratios, the equilibrium partial pressures of trace acid and base gases are set by the pH or net acidity controlled by the nonvolatile acid and base concentrations. For low water to air volume ratios as well as stationary state systems such as precipitation scavenging with continuous emissions, the partial pressures of trace gases (NH 3, HCl, HNO 3, SO 2 and CH 3COOH) appear to be of greater or equal importance as carbonate species as buffers in the aqueous phase.

  3. Enhancing boron rejection in FO using alkaline draw solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ning; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Rong; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2017-07-01

    This study provides a novel method to enhance boron removal in a forward osmosis (FO) process. It utilizes the reverse solute diffusion (RSD) of ions from alkaline draw solutions (DSs) and the concentration polarization of the hydroxyl ions to create a highly alkaline environment near the membrane active surface. The results show that boron rejection can be significantly enhanced by increasing the pH of NaCl DS to 12.5 in the active-layer-facing-feed-solution (AL-FS) orientation. The effect of RSD enhanced boron rejection was further promoted in the presence of concentration polarization (e.g., in the active-layer-facing-draw-solution (AL-DS) orientation). The current study opens a new dimension for controlling contaminant removal by FO using tailored DS chemistry, where the RSD-induced localized water chemistry change is taken advantage in contrast to the conventional method of chemical dosing to the bulk feed water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    DOE PAGES

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; ...

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH) 2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potentialmore » measurements suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.« less

  5. Cyclic AMP and alkaline pH downregulate carbonic anhydrase 2 in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Pablo; Chang, Jung Chin; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J

    2014-06-01

    The hydration of CO2 catalyzed by the ubiquitous carbonic anhydrase 2 (Ca2) is central for bicarbonate transport, bone metabolism and acid-base homeostasis in metazoans. There is evidence that in some tissues Ca2 expression can be acutely induced by cAMP, whereas in other cell types it is unresponsive to cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation. We isolated fibroblasts from wild type and mice lacking the ubiquitous chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ae2a,b(-/-) mice). In these cells the regulation of carbonic anhydrase 2 by cAMP was studied. We show that Ca2 expression is strongly inhibited by chronic incubation with dibutyryl-cAMP, forskolin or alkaline pH in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, fibroblasts obtained from anion exchanger 2 deficient (Ae2a,b(-/-)) mice, which display intracellular alkalosis and increased cAMP production, express less than 10% of control Ca2 mRNA and protein. Surprisingly, inhibition of the bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was found to reduce CA2 expression instead of increasing it. CA2 expression is strongly regulated by intracellular pH and by cAMP, suggesting a role for soluble adenylyl cyclase. Regulation occurs in opposite directions which may be explained by an incoherent feedforward loop consisting of activation by pCREB and repression by ICER. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The application of alkaline and acidic electrolyzed water in the sterilization of chicken breasts and beef liver.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yuko; Shinke, Momoka; Hiraishi, Miki; Tsuchiya, Yusuke; Masuda, Shuichi

    2016-05-01

    The sterilization effect of a combination treatment with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) and strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) on fresh chicken breasts and beef liver was evaluated. Samples (1, 5, and 10 g) were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis NBRC3313, Escherichia coli ATCC 10798, Staphylococcus aureus FDA209P, and S. aureus C-29 [staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) productive strain] and subjected to a dipping combination treatment (4°C and 25°C for 3 min) with AlEW and StAEW. Combination treatment with AlEW and StAEW significantly reduced the bacteria, and reduction of more than 1 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g was achieved. Furthermore, this combination treatment significantly decreased the SEA gene expression level in samples. Some quality variables of the meat samples such as pH, lipid oxidation, color, amino-acid content, texture, and sensory characteristics showed no significant differences between the combination treatment with AlEW and StAEW and the untreated control.

  7. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical speciesmore » in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.« less

  8. Evaluating Carbonate System Algorithms in a Nearshore System: Does Total Alkalinity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Julia; Brzezinski, Mark A.; McNair, Heather M.; Passow, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification is a threat to many marine organisms, especially those that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The ability to accurately measure the carbonate system is the first step in characterizing the drivers behind this threat. Due to logistical realities, regular carbonate system sampling is not possible in many nearshore ocean habitats, particularly in remote, difficult-to-access locations. The ability to autonomously measure the carbonate system in situ relieves many of the logistical challenges; however, it is not always possible to measure the two required carbonate parameters autonomously. Observed relationships between sea surface salinity and total alkalinity can frequently provide a second carbonate parameter thus allowing for the calculation of the entire carbonate system. Here, we assessed the rigor of estimating total alkalinity from salinity at a depth <15 m by routinely sampling water from a pier in southern California for several carbonate system parameters. Carbonate system parameters based on measured values were compared with those based on estimated TA values. Total alkalinity was not predictable from salinity or from a combination of salinity and temperature at this site. However, dissolved inorganic carbon and the calcium carbonate saturation state of these nearshore surface waters could both be estimated within on average 5% of measured values using measured pH and salinity-derived or regionally averaged total alkalinity. Thus we find that the autonomous measurement of pH and salinity can be used to monitor trends in coastal changes in DIC and saturation state and be a useful method for high-frequency, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification. PMID:27893739

  9. A Comparison of Alkaline Water and Mediterranean Diet vs Proton Pump Inhibition for Treatment of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

    PubMed

    Zalvan, Craig H; Hu, Shirley; Greenberg, Barbara; Geliebter, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disorder with protean manifestations in the head and neck. In this retrospective study, we report the efficacy of a wholly dietary approach using alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions compared with that of the traditional treatment approach of proton pump inhibition (PPI) and standard reflux precautions. To determine whether treatment with a diet-based approach with standard reflux precautions alone can improve symptoms of LPR compared with treatment with PPI and standard reflux precautions. This was a retrospective medical chart review of 2 treatment cohorts. From 2010 to 2012, 85 patients with LPR that were treated with PPI and standard reflux precautions (PS) were identified. From 2013 to 2015, 99 patients treated with alkaline water (pH >8.0), 90% plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions (AMS) were identified. The outcome was based on change in Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Recorded change in the RSI after 6 weeks of treatment. Of the 184 patients identified in the PS and AMS cohorts, the median age of participants in each cohort was 60 years (95% CI, 18-82) and 57 years (95% CI, 18-93), respectively (47 [56.3%] and 61 [61.7%] were women, respectively). The percentage of patients achieving a clinically meaningful (≥6 points) reduction in RSI was 54.1% in PS-treated patients and 62.6% in AMS-treated patients (difference between the groups, 8.05; 95% CI, -5.74 to 22.76). The mean reduction in RSI was 27.2% for the PS group and 39.8% in the AMS group (difference, 12.10; 95% CI, 1.53 to 22.68). Our data suggest that the effect of PPI on the RSI based on proportion reaching a 6-point reduction in RSI is not significantly better than that of alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions, although the difference in the 2 treatments could be clinically meaningful in favor of the dietary approach. The

  10. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  11. Alkaline precipitation in Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Piccolo, M.C.; Perillo, G.M.E.; Varela, P.

    1988-02-01

    The spatial, meteorological, and seasonal factors associated with precipitation pH in Bahia Blanca and its surroundings are presented. From April 1984 to April 1985, 85 rain events were studied from 12 sites that represent significant land-use sectors of the city. Mean pH for all sites ranged from 6.5 to 7.2. The area is characterized by alkaline precipitation since most stations reported maximum values in excess of 7.6. The highest values of pH were observed under the influence of continental air masses, which have traveled over the pampas soil, thus introducing large amounts of alkaline cations. The lowest pH values weremore » obtained during the winter season when marine advection introduces high concentrations of spray. Stations located close to the estuary and the industrial park present the larger effect of sea spray but also of the incidence of an incipient atmospheric contamination.« less

  12. Control of New Copper Corrosion in High-Alkalinity Drinking Water using Orthophosphate - article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research and field experience have shown that high-alkalinity waters can be associated with elevated copper levels in drinking water. The objective of this study was to document the application of orthophosphate to the distribution system of a building with a copper problem asso...

  13. Measuring pH variability using an experimental sensor on an underwater glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, Michael P.; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen J.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Shitashima, Kiminori; Lee, Gareth; Legge, Oliver; Onken, Reiner

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000 m along an 80 km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2 m), but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31 %. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2)) measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2) values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ > 28. 8 kg m-3) highlighted the variability of water masses in the Sardinian

  14. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose–response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose–response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. Methods In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Results Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5. Conclusions Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose–response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:24589018

  15. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jinling; Shang, Guodong; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Saihara, Yasuhiro; Hou, Lingyan; Velasquez, Natalia; Liu, Wenjun; Lu, Yun

    2014-03-03

    Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose-response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose-response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5. Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose-response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress.

  16. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH− oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion. PMID:27199009

  17. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  18. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cellmore » with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.« less

  19. Coordinate responses to alkaline pH stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Alkalinization of the medium represents a stress condition for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to which this organism responds with profound remodeling of gene expression. This is the result of the modulation of a substantial number of signaling pathways whose participation in the alkaline response has been elucidated within the last ten years. These regulatory inputs involve not only the conserved Rim101/PacC pathway, but also the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, the Wsc1-Pkc1-Slt2 MAP kinase, the Snf1 and PKA kinases and oxidative stress-response pathways. The uptake of many nutrients is perturbed by alkalinization of the environment and, consequently, an impact on phosphate, iron/copper and glucose homeostatic mechanisms can also be observed. The analysis of available data highlights cases in which diverse signaling pathways are integrated in the gene promoter to shape the appropriate response pattern. Thus, the expression of different genes sharing the same signaling network can be coordinated, allowing functional coupling of their gene products. PMID:28357292

  20. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride using buffered alkaline ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Ting; Liang, Chenju

    2015-10-01

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) was recently discovered as a novel in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) reagent for remediating chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. For this ISCR process, the maintenance of an alkaline pH is essential. This study investigated the possibility of the reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CT) using alkaline AA solution buffered by phosphate and by NaOH. The results indicated that CT was reduced by AA, and chloroform (CF) was a major byproduct at a phosphate buffered pH of 12. However, CT was completely reduced by AA in 2M NaOH without CF formation. In the presence of iron/soil minerals, iron could be reduced by AA and Fe(2+) tends to precipitate on the mineral surface to accelerate CT degradation. A simultaneous transfer of hydrogenolysis and dichloroelimination would occur under phosphate buffered pH 12. This implies that a high alkaline environment is a crucial factor for maintaining the dominant pathway of two electron transfer from dianionic AA to dehydroascorbic acid, and to undergo dichloroelimination of CT. Moreover, threonic acid and oxalic acid were identified to be the major AA decomposition products in alkaline solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2015, Watts et al.

  2. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-09-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  3. Performance and application of a fluidized bed limestone reactor designed for control of alkalinity, hardness and pH at the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Springs serving the Warm Springs Regional Fisheries Center, Warm Springs, Georgia, have pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels that lie under the range required for successful fish propagation while free CO2 is well above allowable targets. We evaluate a pretreatment process that exploits limestone's (...

  4. Role of the Group 2 Mrp sodium/proton antiporter in rapid response to high alkaline shock in the alkaline- and salt-tolerant Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Qin, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Kai-Duan; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2018-04-01

    The six- and seven-subunit Na + /H + antiporters (Mrp) are widely distributed in bacteria. They are reported to be integral for pH homeostasis in alkaliphilic bacteria when adapting to high pH environments. In this study, operons encoding for the six-subunit Na + /H + antiporters were found in the genomes of all studied Dietzia strains, which have different alkaline-resistant abilities. Disruption of the operon in the strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b which leads to declined growth in presence of hypersaline and alkaline conditions suggested that the six-subunit Na + /H + antiporter played an important role in hypersaline and alkaline resistance. Although the complexes DqMrp from DQ12-45-1b (strain with high alkaline resistance) and DaMrp from D. alimentaria 72 T (strain with low alkaline resistance) displayed Na + (Li + )/H + antiport activities, they functioned optimally at different pH levels (9.0 for DQ12-45-1b and 8.0 for 72 T ). While both antiporters functioned properly to protect Escherichia coli cells from salt shock, only the DqMrp-containing strain survived the high alkaline shock. Furthermore, real-time PCR results showed that the expression of mrpA and mrpD induced only immediately after DQ12-45-1b cells were subjected to the alkaline shock. These results suggested that the expression of DqMrp might be induced by a pH gradient across the cell membrane, and DqMrp mainly functioned at an early stage to respond to the alkaline shock.

  5. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction withmore » different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions

  6. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay and impacts of vegetation and saturated sand barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Wen, Y.; Liang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) caused by abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits in mining regions requires adequate treatment to prevent serious water pollution due to its acidity and high concentrations of sulfate and metals/metalloids. Over the past decades, various approaches have been explored and developed to remediate ARD. This study uses laboratory experiments to investigate the effectiveness and impacts of ARD passive remediation using alkaline clay (AC), a by-product of the aluminum refining process. Twelve column kinetic leaching experiments were set up with CR/AC mixing ratios ranging from 1%AC to 10%AC. Samples were collected from these columns to measure the pH, sulfate, metals/metalloids, acidity and alkalinity. Additional tests of XRD and acid base accounting were also conducted to better characterize the mineral phase in terms of the alkalinity and acidity potential. Based on the leachate measurement results, these columns were further classified into two groups of neutral/near neutral pH and acidic pH for further analysis. In addition, impacts of the vegetation and saturated sand layer on the remediation effectiveness were explored. The results of our long-term (more than three years in some cases) laboratory experiments show that AC is an effective ARD remediation material for the neutralization of leachate pH and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. The CR/AC mixing ratios higher than 3%AC are found to be effective, with 10% close to optimal. Moreover, the results demonstrate the benefits of using vegetation and a saturated sand barrier. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked the oxygen and water diffusion downwards, leading to a reduction of the pyrite oxidation rate. Finally, the proposed remediation approach shows that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted

  7. Understanding short-chain fatty acids accumulation enhanced in waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation: kinetics and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi; Zheng, Xiong; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yuxiao

    2010-12-15

    Most of the studies on sewage sludge treatment in literature were conducted for methane generation under acidic or near neutral pH conditions. It was reported in our previous studies that the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the preferred carbon source of biological wastewater nutrient removal, was significantly enhanced when sludge was fermented under alkaline conditions, but the optimal pH was temperature-dependent (pH 10 at ambient temperature, pH 9 at mesophilic, and pH 8 at thermophilic), and the maximal SCFAs yields were in the following order: thermophilic pH 8 > mesophilic pH 9 > ambient pH 10 > ambient uncontrolled pH. In this study the kinetic and microbiological features of waste activated sludge fermented in the range of pH 7-10 were investigated to understand the mechanism of remarkably high SCFAs accumulation under alkaline conditions. The developed sludge alkaline fermentation model could be applied to predicate the experimental data in either batch or semicontinuous sludge alkaline fermentation tests, and the relationships among alkaline pH, kinetic parameters, and SCFAs were discussed. Further analyses with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library indicated that both the ratio of bacteria to archaea and the fraction of SCFAs producer accounting for bacteria were in the sequence of thermophilic pH 8 > mesophilic pH 9 > ambient pH 10 > ambient uncontrolled pH, which was in correspondence with the observed order of maximal SCFAs yields.

  8. Advanced oxidation of acridine orange by aqueous alkaline iodine.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Rafia; Qamar, Noshab; Naz, Raheela; Khursheed, Anum

    2016-11-01

    The advanced oxidation process is certainly used for the dye waste water treatment. In this continuation a new advanced oxidation via aqueous alkaline iodine was developed for the oxidation of acridine orange (AO) {3, 6 -bis (dimethylamino) acridine zinc chloride double salt}. Oxidation Kinetics of AO by alkaline solution of iodine was investigated spectrophotometrically at λ max 491 nm. The reaction was monitored at various operational parameters like several concentrations of dye and iodine, pH, salt electrolyte and temperature. The initial steps of oxidation kinetics followed fractional order reaction with respect to the dye while depend upon the incremental amount of iodine to certain extent whereas maximum oxidation of AO was achieved at high pH. Decline in the reaction rate in the presence of salt electrolyte suggested the presence of oppositely charged species in the rate determining step. Kinetic data revealed that the de-colorization mechanism involves triodate (I 3 - ) species, instead of hypoidate (OI - ) and hypiodous acid (HOI), in alkaline medium during the photo-excitation of hydrolyzed AO. Alleviated concentration of alkali result in decreasing of rate of reaction, clearly indicate that the iodine species are active oxidizing species instead of OH radical. Activation parameters at elevated temperatures were determined which revealed that highly solvated state of dye complex existed into solution. Reaction mixture was subjected to UV/Visible and GC mass spectrum analysis that proves the secondary consecutive reaction was operative in rate determining step and finally dye complex end into smaller fragments.

  9. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P.more » fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.« less

  10. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C; Coffey, Erin E; Laties, Alan M; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Reenstra, William W; Mitchell, Claire H

    2012-07-15

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTR(inh)-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4(-/-) mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization.

  11. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C.; Coffey, Erin E.; Laties, Alan M.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Reenstra, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTRinh-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4−/− mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization. PMID:22572847

  12. A laboratory study evaluating the pH of various modern root canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Pawińska, Małgorzata; Szczurko, Grzegorz; Kierklo, Anna; Sidun, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline pH is responsible for antibacterial activity and the stimulation of periapical tissue healing. It neutralizes the acidic environment of inflammatory tissues in the periapical region of the teeth and favors bone repair by activating tissue enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro the pH of 8 root canal filling materials (sealers and points) -AH Plus Jet (AH), Apexit Plus (AP), Endomethasone N (END), Epiphany (EP), GuttaFlow (GF), gutta-percha (G), Resilon (R), Tubliseal (T). 0.1 g of each material (n = 6) was placed in dialysis tubes and immersed in 20 mL of deionized water. The control contained deionized water (pH 6.6) with an empty tube. The pH values were recorded immediately after immersion (baseline) and after 1, 2, 24, 48, 120, and 192 h with a pH-meter. Data were statistically analyzed using the Student's -t test and 1-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Nearly all the materials had pH significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in the pH between the materials tested at each time point (p < 0.001). The highest pH was exhibited by EP, followed by AP and AH. The lowest pH was shown by GF, G and R. Among the materials studied, only EP, AP and AH Plus were able to elevate the pH level that would allow inactivation of microorganisms in the root canals and promote healing of inflamed periapical tissues. However, the low alkalizing potential of G and R can be modified by the concomitant application of sealers producing alkaline pH.

  13. In-Situ Formed Hydroxide Accelerating Water Dissociation Kinetics on Co3N for Hydrogen Production in Alkaline Solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Li, Wenchao; Yan, Yadong; Wang, HongXu; Zhu, Heng; Zhao, Meiming; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2018-06-21

    Sluggish water dissociation kinetics on nonprecious metal electrocatalysts limits the development of economical hydrogen production from water-alkali electrolyzers. Here, using Co 3 N electrocatalyst as a prototype, we find that during water splitting in alkaline electrolyte a cobalt-containing hydroxide formed on the surface of Co 3 N, which greatly decreased the activation energy of water dissociation (Volmer step, a main rate-determining step for water splitting in alkaline electrolytes). Combining the cobalt ion poisoning test and theoretical calculations, the efficient hydrogen production on Co 3 N electrocatalysts would benefit from favorable water dissociation on in-situ formed cobalt-containing hydroxide and low hydrogen production barrier on the nitrogen sites of Co 3 N. As a result, the Co 3 N catalyst exhibits a low water-splitting activation energy (26.57 kJ mol -1 ) that approaches the value of platinum electrodes (11.69 kJ mol -1 ). Our findings offer new insight into understanding the catalytic mechanism of nitride electrocatalysts, thus contributing to the development of economical hydrogen production in alkaline electrolytes.

  14. Alkaline Hypersaline Lakes as Analogs for Ancient Microbial Habitats on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, G. D.; Tsapin, A. I.; Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Nealson, K. H.; Brinton, K. L. F.; Sun, H.; Venkateswaren, K.; Tsapin, I.; Melack, J.; Jellison, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the climate of ancient Mars became colder and drier with time, open bodies of water would have entered a regime in which evaporation exceeded input from precipitation or runoff. This would have resulted in increases in salinity and perhaps pH. The last open water on Mars was most likely found in alkaline hypersaline lakes, and these lakes would have been the last surface aquatic habitats for life on Mars. It follows, then, that the biomarkers most likely to be found in ancient sedimentary basins on Mars are those left by organisms adapted to high salt and high pH environments. We have begun to investigate the nature of biological diversity and adaptation to these environments, and the potential for biomarker preservation in them, using Mono Lake as a terrestrial analog environment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  16. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction withmore » different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions

  17. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  18. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  19. pH Alkalinization by Chloroquine Suppresses Pathogenic Burkholderia Type 6 Secretion System 1 and Multinucleated Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Senft, Jeffrey L.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Brett, Paul J.; Burtnick, Mary N.; DeShazer, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on type 6 secretion system 1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine diphosphate (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape, and subsequent MNGC formation. This depends on CLQ's ability to neutralize the acid pH because other alkalinizing compounds similarly inhibit escape and MNGC formation. CLQ inhibits bacterial virulence protein expression because T6SS-1 and some effectors of type 3 secretion system 3 (T3SS-3), which is also required for virulence, are expressed at acid pH. We show that acid pH upregulates the expression of Hcp1 of T6SS-1 and TssM, a protein coregulated with T6SS-1. Finally, we demonstrate that CLQ treatment of Burkholderia-infected Madagascar hissing cockroaches (HCs) increases their survival. This study highlights the multiple mechanisms by which CLQ inhibits growth and virulence and suggests that CLQ be further tested and considered, in conjunction with antibiotic use, for the treatment of diseases caused by Burkholderia. PMID:27799332

  20. pH Alkalinization by Chloroquine Suppresses Pathogenic Burkholderia Type 6 Secretion System 1 and Multinucleated Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jennifer; Senft, Jeffrey L; Lockett, Stephen J; Brett, Paul J; Burtnick, Mary N; DeShazer, David; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively, in humans and animals. A hallmark of pathogenesis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and cell death. These processes depend on type 6 secretion system 1 (T6SS-1), which is required for virulence in animals. We examined the cell biology of MNGC formation and cell death. We found that chloroquine diphosphate (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, inhibits Burkholderia growth, phagosomal escape, and subsequent MNGC formation. This depends on CLQ's ability to neutralize the acid pH because other alkalinizing compounds similarly inhibit escape and MNGC formation. CLQ inhibits bacterial virulence protein expression because T6SS-1 and some effectors of type 3 secretion system 3 (T3SS-3), which is also required for virulence, are expressed at acid pH. We show that acid pH upregulates the expression of Hcp1 of T6SS-1 and TssM, a protein coregulated with T6SS-1. Finally, we demonstrate that CLQ treatment of Burkholderia-infected Madagascar hissing cockroaches (HCs) increases their survival. This study highlights the multiple mechanisms by which CLQ inhibits growth and virulence and suggests that CLQ be further tested and considered, in conjunction with antibiotic use, for the treatment of diseases caused by Burkholderia. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. The alkaline tide and ammonia excretion after voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the potential acid-base and nitrogenous waste excretion challenges created by voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout, with particular focus on the possible occurrence of an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion during digestion). Plasma metabolites (glucose, urea and ammonia) were measured at various time points before and after voluntary feeding to satiation (approximately 5% body mass meal of dry commercial pellets), as was the net flux of ammonia and titratable alkalinity to the water from unfed and fed fish. Arterial blood, sampled by indwelling catheter, was examined for post-prandial effects on pH, plasma bicarbonate and plasma CO2 tension. There was no significant change in plasma glucose or urea concentrations following feeding, whereas plasma ammonia transiently increased, peaking at threefold above resting values at 12 h after the meal and remaining elevated for 24 h. The increased plasma ammonia was correlated with an increase in net ammonia excretion to the water, with fed fish significantly elevating their net ammonia excretion two- to threefold between 12 and 48 h post feeding. These parameters did not change in unfed control fish. Fed fish likewise increased the net titratable base flux to the water by approximately threefold, which resulted in a transition from a small net acid flux seen in unfed fish to a large net base flux in fed fish. Over 48 h, this resulted in a net excretion of 13 867 micromol kg(-1) more base to the external water than in unfed fish. The arterial blood exhibited a corresponding rise in pH (between 6 and 12 h) and plasma bicarbonate (between 3 and 12 h) following feeding; however, no respiratory compensation was observed, as PaCO2 remained constant. Overall, there was evidence of numerous challenges created by feeding in a freshwater teleost fish, including the occurrence of an alkaline tide, and its compensation by excretion of base to the external water. The possible

  2. Methodology of analysis of very weak acids by isotachophoresis with electrospray-ionization mass-spectrometric detection: Anionic electrolyte systems for the medium-alkaline pH range.

    PubMed

    Malá, Zdena; Gebauer, Petr

    2018-01-15

    This work describes for the first time a functional electrolyte system setup for anionic isotachophoresis (ITP) with electrospray-ionization mass-spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection in the neutral to medium-alkaline pH range. So far no application was published on the analysis of very weak acids by anionic ITP-MS although there is a broad spectrum of potential analytes with pK a values in the range 5-10, where application of this technique promises interesting gains in both sensitivity and specificity. The problem so far was the lack of anionic ESI-compatible ITP systems in the mentioned pH range as all typical volatile anionic system components are fully ionized at neutral and alkaline pH and thus too fast to suit as terminators. We propose an original solution of the problem based on the combination of two ITP methods: (i) use of the hydroxyl ion as a natural and ESI-compatible terminator, and (ii) use of configurations based on moving-boundary ITP. The former method ensures effective stacking of analytes by an alkaline terminator of sufficiently low mobility and the latter offers increased flexibility for tuning of the separation window and selectivity according to actual needs. A theoretical description of the proposed model is presented and applied to the design of very simple functional electrolyte configurations. The properties of example systems are demonstrated by both computer simulation and experiments with a group of model analytes. Potential effects of carbon dioxide present in the solutions are demonstrated for particular systems. Experimental results confirm that the proposed methodology is well capable of performing sensitive and selective ITP-MS analyses of very weak acidic analytes (e.g. sulfonamides or chlorophenols). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The pH and ionic composition of stratiform cloud water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Raymond A.; Jiusto, James E.; Mclaren, Eugene

    Over 50 cloud water samples were collected during five comprehensive case studies of the water chemistry of stratiform clouds at Whiteface Mountain, New York. The water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity and ions of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, sulfate, chloride and nitrate. Trajectory analyses and cloud condensation nucleus concentrations at 0.5 % confirmed that the air masses in all five of these cases represented continental air that was relatively clean (low aerosol concentration) for the northeystern United States. The major ions related to cloud water pH were found to be sulfate, nitrate, potassium, ammonium and calcium. The results revealed a mean hydrogen ion concentration [ H+] = 0.239 meq ℓ -1 ( σ = ± 0.21) which converts to a mean pH = 3.6 for all collected cloud samples. The low pH values are related to a normal background of nitrate ions found in the rural continental air masses plus sulfate ions largely from the industrial emissions of the midwestern United States. The [NO -3], in two of the three cases presented, demonstrates the importance of the nitrate ions' contribution to the pH of cloud water. A dependent means analysis of 40 events yielded a significant difference (0.04 level of significance), with the mean pH of precipitation (4.2) being greater than the mean pH of cloud water (4.0) for event samples. The ion concentrations indicated that the cloud rainout process contributed from 67 % to almost 100% of the total ion concentration of the precipitation. The washout process, i.e. precipitation scavenging below the cloud base, contributed considerably less than the cloud/rainout process of those total precipitation anions associated with air pollution.

  4. Acid and alkaline solubilization (pH shift) process: a better approach for the utilization of fish processing waste and by-products.

    PubMed

    Surasani, Vijay Kumar Reddy

    2018-05-22

    Several technologies and methods have been developed over the years to address the environmental pollution and nutritional losses associated with the dumping of fish processing waste and low-cost fish and by-products. Despite the continuous efforts put in this field, none of the developed technologies was successful in addressing the issues due to various technical problems. To solve the problems associated with the fish processing waste and low-value fish and by-products, a process called pH shift/acid and alkaline solubilization process was developed. In this process, proteins are first solubilized using acid and alkali followed by precipitating them at their isoelectric pH to recover functional and stable protein isolates from underutilized fish species and by-products. Many studies were conducted using pH shift process to recover proteins from fish and fish by-products and found to be most successful in recovering proteins with increased yields than conventional surimi (three cycle washing) process and with good functional properties. In this paper, problems associated with conventional processing, advantages and principle of pH shift processing, effect of pH shift process on the quality and storage stability of recovered isolates, applications protein isolates, etc. are discussed in detail for better understanding.

  5. Pitting Corrosion of Copper in Waters with High pH and Low Alkalinity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

  6. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  7. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Syntheses and structures of alkaline earth metal bis(diphenylamides).

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Martin; Fischer, Reinald; Langer, Jens; Görls, Helmar; Walther, Dirk; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2007-06-11

    Various preparative procedures are employed in order to synthesize alkaline earth metal bis(diphenylamides) such as (i) metalation of HNPh2 with the alkaline earth metal M, (ii) metalation of HNPh2 with MPh2, (iii) metathesis reaction of MI2 with KNPh2, (iv) metalation of HNPh2 with PhMI in THF, and (v) metathesis reaction of PhMI with KNPh2 followed by a dismutation reaction yielding MPh2 and M(NPh2)2. The magnesium compounds [(diox)MgPh2]infinity (1) and (thf)2Mg(NPh2)2 (2) show tetracoordinate metal atoms, whereas in (dme)2Ca(NPh2)2 (3), (thf)4Sr(NPh2)2 (4), and (thf)4Ba(NPh2)2 (5) the metals are 6-fold coordinated. Additional agostic interactions between an ipso-carbon of one of the phenyl groups of the amide ligand and the alkaline earth metal atom lead to unsymmetric coordination of the NPh2 anions with two strongly different M-N-C angles in 3-5.

  9. The physiology of the Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) at pH 8.0.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Gonzalez, R J; Ferreira, Márcio Soares; Braz-Mota, Susana; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2018-05-01

    The Tambaqui is a model neotropical teleost which is of great economic and cultural importance in artisanal fisheries and commercial aquaculture. It thrives in ion-poor, often acidic Amazonian waters and exhibits excellent regulation of physiology down to water pH 4.0. Curiously, however, it is reported to perform poorly in aquaculture at pH 8.0, an only slightly alkaline pH which would be benign for most freshwater fish. In initial experiments with Tambaqui of intermediate size (30-50 g), we found that ammonia excretion rate was unchanged at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7, but elevated after 20-24 h at pH 8, exactly opposite the pattern seen in most teleosts. Subsequent experiments with large Tambaqui (150-300 g) demonstrated that only ammonia, and not urea excretion was increased at pH 8.0, and that the elevation was proportional to a general increase in MO 2 . There was an accompanying elevation in net acidic equivalent excretion and/or basic equivalent uptake which occurred mainly at the gills. Net Na + balance was little affected while Cl - balance became negative, implicating a disturbance of Cl - versus base exchange rather than Na + versus acid exchange. Arterial blood pH increased by 0.2 units at pH 8.0, reflecting combined metabolic and respiratory alkaloses. Most parameters recovered to control levels by 18-24 h after return to pH 6.0. With respect to large Tambaqui, we conclude that a physiology adapted to acidic pH performs inappropriately at moderately alkaline pH. In small Tambaqui (4-15 g), the responses were very different, with an initial inhibition of ammonia excretion rate at pH 8.0 followed by a subsequent restoration of control levels. Elevated ammonia excretion rate occurred only after return to pH 6.0. Furthermore, MO 2 , plasma cortisol, and branchial vH + ATPase activities all declined during pH 8.0 exposure in small Tambaqui, in contrast to the responses in larger fish. Overall, small Tambaqui appear to cope better at pH 8.0, a difference that

  10. Effect of CaCO3(S) nucleation modes on algae removal from alkaline water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Yong; Kinney, Kerry A; Katz, Lynn E

    2016-02-29

    The role of calcite heterogeneous nucleation was studied in a particle coagulation treatment process for removing microalgae from water. Batch experiments were conducted with Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. in the presence and absence of carbonate and in the presence and absence of Mg to delineate the role of CaCO 3(S) nucleation on microalgae removal. The results indicate that effective algae coagulation (e.g., up to 81 % algae removal efficiency) can be achieved via heterogeneous nucleation with CaCO 3(S) ; however, supersaturation ratios between 120 and 200 are required to achieve at least 50% algae removal, depending on ion concentrations. Algae removal was attributed to adsorption of Ca 2+ onto the cell surface which provides nucleation sites for CaCO 3(S) precipitation. Bridging of calcite particles between the algal cells led to rapid aggregation and formation of larger flocs. However, at higher supersaturation conditions, algae removal was diminished due to the dominance of homogeneous nucleation of CaCO 3(S) . Removal of algae in the presence of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ required higher supersaturation values; however, the shift from heteronucleation to homonucleation with increasing supersaturation was still evident. The results suggest that water chemistry, pH, ionic strength, alkalinity and Ca 2+ concentration can be optimized for algae removal via coagulation-sedimentation.

  11. Effects of hardness and alkalinity in culture and test waters on reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Hardin, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Ceriodaphnia dubia were cultured in four reconstituted water formulations with hardness and alkalinity concentrations ranging from soft to the moderately hard water that is required by whole-effluent toxicity (WET) testing methods for culturing test organisms. The effects of these culture formulations alone and in combination with two levels of Cl-, SO42, and HCO3- on reproduction of C. dubia were evaluated with the standard three-brood test. Reproduction was significantly reduced when test waters had lower hardness than culture waters. However, reproduction was not significantly different when animals cultured in low-hardness waters were exposed to moderately hard waters. The hardness of the culture water did not significantly affect the sensitivity of C. dubia to the three anions. Conversely, increased hardness in test waters significantly reduced the toxicities of Cl- and SO42-, with HCO3- toxicity following the same pattern. Alkalinity exhibited no consistent effect on Cl- and SO42- toxicity. The physiological stress of placing animals cultured in moderately hard water into softer test waters might contribute to marginal failures of otherwise nontoxic effluents. The standard WET protocol should be revised to allow the culture of C. dubia under lower hardness conditions to better represent local surface water chemistries.

  12. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  13. Development of a pH/alkalinity treatment model for applications of the lampricide TFM to streams tributary to the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Boogaard, Michael A.; Johnson, David A.; Brege, Dorance C.; Scholefield, Ronald J.; Westman, R. Wayne; Stephens, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been known that the toxicity of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is influenced by chemical and physical properties of water. As the pH, conductivity, and alkalinity of water increase, greater concentrations of TFM are required to kill sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae. Consequently, the concentration of TFM required for effective treatment varies among streams. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) and sea lamprey larvae were exposed to a series of TFM concentrations in a continuous-flow diluter for 12 h. Twenty five exposures were conducted at various water alkalinities and pHs that treatment personnel encounter during lampricide treatments. Survival/mortality data were analyzed for lampricide concentrations that produced 50 and 99.9% mortality (LC50 and LC99.9) for sea lamprey larvae and 25 and 50% mortality (LC25 and LC50) for brown trout. Linear regression analyses were performed for each set of tests for each selected alkalinity by comparing the 12-h post exposure LC99.9 sea lamprey data and LC25 brown trout data at each pH. Mortality data from on-site toxicity tests conducted by lampricide control personnel were compared to predicted values from the pH/alkalinity prediction model. Of the 31 tests examined, 27 resulted in the LC100s (lowest TFM concentration where 100% mortality of sea lamprey was observed after 12 h of exposure) falling within 0.2 mg/L of the predicted sea lamprey minimum lethal (LC99.9) range. The pH/alkalinity prediction model provides managers with an operational tool that reduces the amount of TFM required for effective treatment while minimizing the impact on non-target organisms.

  14. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  16. Regulation of the reserve carbohydrate metabolism by alkaline pH and calcium in Neurospora crassa reveals a possible cross-regulation of both signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Ambrosio, Daniela Luz; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2017-06-09

    Glycogen and trehalose are storage carbohydrates and their levels in microorganisms vary according to environmental conditions. In Neurospora crassa, alkaline pH stress highly influences glycogen levels, and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the response to pH stress also involves the calcineurin signaling pathway mediated by the Crz1 transcription factor. Recently, in yeast, pH stress response genes were identified as targets of Crz1 including genes involved in glycogen and trehalose metabolism. In this work, we present evidence that in N. crassa the glycogen and trehalose metabolism is modulated by alkaline pH and calcium stresses. We demonstrated that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa controls the accumulation of the reserve carbohydrates glycogen and trehalose via the PAC-3 transcription factor, which is the central regulator of the signaling pathway. The protein binds to the promoters of most of the genes encoding enzymes of glycogen and trehalose metabolism and regulates their expression. We also demonstrated that the reserve carbohydrate levels and gene expression are both modulated under calcium stress and that the response to calcium stress may involve the concerted action of PAC-3. Calcium activates growth of the Δpac-3 strain and influences its glycogen and trehalose accumulation. In addition, calcium stress differently regulates glycogen and trehalose metabolism in the mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. While glycogen levels are decreased in both strains, the trehalose levels are significantly increased in the wild-type strain and not affected by calcium in the mutant strain when compared to mycelium not exposed to calcium. We previously reported the role of PAC-3 as a transcription factor involved in glycogen metabolism regulation by controlling the expression of the gsn gene, which encodes an enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In this work, we extended the investigation by studying in greater detail the effects of pH on the metabolism of the

  17. Diversity and food web structure of nematode communities under high soil salinity and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Salamún, Peter; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Miklisová, Dana; Renčo, Marek; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-10-01

    A long-term and intensive magnesium (Mg) ore processing in Slovenské Magnezitové Závody a.s. in Jelšava has resulted in a high Mg content and alkaline pH of the soil environment, noticeable mainly in the close vicinity of the smelter. Nematode communities strongly reacted to the contamination mostly by a decrease in abundance of the sensitive groups. Nematodes from c-p 1 group and bacterivores, tolerant to pollution played a significant role in establishing the dominance at all sites. With increasing distance from the pollution source, the nematode communities were more structured and complex, with an increase in proportion of sensitive c-p 4 and 5 nematodes, composed mainly of carnivores and omnivores. Various ecological indices (e.g. MI2-5, SI, H') indicated similar improvement of farther soil ecosystems.

  18. Mathematics of the total alkalinity-pH equation - pathway to robust and universal solution algorithms: the SolveSAPHE package v1.0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munhoven, G.

    2013-08-01

    The total alkalinity-pH equation, which relates total alkalinity and pH for a given set of total concentrations of the acid-base systems that contribute to total alkalinity in a given water sample, is reviewed and its mathematical properties established. We prove that the equation function is strictly monotone and always has exactly one positive root. Different commonly used approximations are discussed and compared. An original method to derive appropriate initial values for the iterative solution of the cubic polynomial equation based upon carbonate-borate-alkalinity is presented. We then review different methods that have been used to solve the total alkalinity-pH equation, with a main focus on biogeochemical models. The shortcomings and limitations of these methods are made out and discussed. We then present two variants of a new, robust and universally convergent algorithm to solve the total alkalinity-pH equation. This algorithm does not require any a priori knowledge of the solution. SolveSAPHE (Solver Suite for Alkalinity-PH Equations) provides reference implementations of several variants of the new algorithm in Fortran 90, together with new implementations of other, previously published solvers. The new iterative procedure is shown to converge from any starting value to the physical solution. The extra computational cost for the convergence security is only 10-15% compared to the fastest algorithm in our test series.

  19. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  20. Ethylene Mediates Alkaline-Induced Rice Growth Inhibition by Negatively Regulating Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haifei; Zhang, Quan; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2017-01-01

    pH is an important factor regulating plant growth. Here, we found that rice was better adapted to low pH than alkaline conditions, as its growth was severely inhibited at high pH, with shorter root length and an extreme biomass reduction. Under alkaline stress, the expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in rice roots was strongly induced by high pH and exogenous ethylene precursor ACC and ethylene overproduction in etol1-1 mutant aggravated the alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of rice growth, especially for the root elongation with decreased cell length in root apical regions. Conversely, the ethylene perception antagonist silver (Ag+) and ein2-1 mutants could partly alleviate the alkaline-induced root elongation inhibition. The H+-ATPase activity was extremely inhibited by alkaline stress and exogenous ACC. However, the H+-ATPase-mediated rhizosphere acidification was enhanced by exogenous Ag+, while H+ efflux on the root surface was extremely inhibited by exogenous ACC, suggesting that ethylene negatively regulated H+-ATPase activity under high-pH stress. Our results demonstrate that H+-ATPase is involved in ethylene-mediated inhibition of rice growth under alkaline stress. PMID:29114258

  1. Reactivity of alkaline lignite fly ashes towards CO{sub 2} in water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Martin Back; Michael Kuehn; Helge Stanjek

    2008-06-15

    The reaction kinetics between alkaline lignite fly ashes and CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2} = 0.01-0.03 MPa) were studied in a laboratory CO{sub 2} flow-through reactor at 25-75{sup o}C. The reaction is characterized by three phases that can be separated according to the predominating buffering systems and the rates of CO{sub 2} uptake. Phase I (pH > 12, < 30 min) is characterized by the dissolution of lime, the onset of calcite precipitation and a maximum uptake, the rate of which seems to be limited by dissolution of CO{sub 2}. Phase II (pH < 10.5, 10-60 min) is dominated by themore » carbonation reaction. CO{sub 2} uptake in phase III (pH < 8.3) is controlled by the dissolution of periclase (MgO) leading to the formation of dissolved magnesium-bicarbonate. Phase I could be significantly extended by increasing the solid-liquid ratios and temperature, respectively. At 75{sup o}C the rate of calcite precipitation was doubled leading to the neutralization of approximately 0.23 kg CO{sub 2} per kg fly ash within 4.5 h, which corresponds to nearly 90% of the total acid neutralizing capacity. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  2. Oxidation Behavior of Carbon Steel: Effect of Formation Temperature and pH of the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vivekanand; Kain, Vivekanand

    2017-11-01

    The nature of surface oxide formed on carbon steel piping used in nuclear power plants affects flow-accelerated corrosion. In this investigation, carbon steel specimens were oxidized in an autoclave using demineralized water at various temperatures (150-300 °C) and at pH levels (neutral, 9.5). At low temperatures (< 240 °C), weight loss of specimens due to dissolution of iron in water occurred to a greater extent than weight gain due to oxide formation. With the increase in temperature, the extent of iron dissolution reduced and weight gain due to oxide formation increased. A similar trend was observed with the increase in pH as was observed with the increase in temperature. XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of magnetite. The oxide film formed by precipitation process was negligible at temperatures from 150 to 240 °C compared to that at higher temperatures (> 240 °C) as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance measurement followed by Mott-Schottky analysis indicated an increase in defect density with exposure duration at 150 °C at neutral pH but a low and stable defect density in alkaline environment. The defect density of the oxide formed at neutral pH at 150-300 °C was always higher than that formed in alkaline environment as reported in the literature.

  3. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  5. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment for granular cold water swelling starches.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jianli; Gao, Weidong

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the process optimization of ultrasonic assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment to prepare granular cold water swelling (GCWS) starches. In this work, three statistical approaches such as Plackett-Burman, steepest ascent path analysis and Box-Behnken design were successfully combined to investigate the effects of major treatment process variables including starch concentration, ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, ultrasonic power and treatment time, and drying operation, that is, vacuum degree and drying time on cold-water solubility. Results revealed that ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, applied power and ultrasonic treatment time were significant factors that affected the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. The maximum cold-water solubility was obtained when treated at 400W of applied power for 27.38min. Optimum volume fraction of ethanol and sodium hydroxide dosage were 66.85% and 53.76mL, respectively. The theoretical values (93.87%) and the observed values (93.87%) were in reasonably good agreement and the deviation was less than 1%. Verification and repeated trial results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment could be successfully used for the preparation of granular cold water swelling starches at room temperatures and had excellent improvement on the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Potassium extrusion by the moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic methanogen methanolobus taylorii GS-16 and homeostasis of cytosolic pH.

    PubMed Central

    Ni, S; Boone, J E; Boone, D R

    1994-01-01

    Methanolobus taylorii GS-16, a moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic methanogen, grows over a wide pH range, from 6.8 to 9.0. Cells suspended in medium with a pH above 8.2 reversed their transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH), making their cytosol more acidic than the medium. The decreased energy in the proton motive force due to the reversed delta pH was partly compensated by an increased electric membrane potential (delta psi). The cytosolic acidification by M. taylorii at alkaline pH values was accompanied by K+ extrusion. The cytosolic K+ concentration was 110 mM in cells suspended at pH 8.7, but it was 320 mM in cells suspended at neutral pH values. High external K+ concentrations (210 mM or higher) inhibited the growth of M. taylorii at alkaline pH values, perhaps by preventing K+ extrusion. Cells suspended at pH 8.5 and 300 mM external K+ failed to acidify their cytosol. The key observation indicative of the involvement of K+ transport in cytosolic acidification was that valinomycin (0.8 microM), a K+ uniporter, inhibited the growth of M. taylorii only at alkaline pH values. Experiments with resting cells indicated that at alkaline pH values valinomycin uncoupled catabolic reactions from ATP synthesis. Thus, K+/H+ antiport activity was proposed to account for the K+ extrusion and the uncoupling effect of valinomycin at alkaline pH values. Such antiport activity was demonstrated by the sharp drop in pH of the bulk medium of the cell suspension upon the addition of 0.1 M KCl. The antiporter appeared to be active only at alkaline pH values, which was in accordance with a possible role in pH homeostasis by M. taylorii growing at alkaline pH values. PMID:7961499

  7. Extending the working pH of nitrobenzene degradation using ultrasonic/heterogeneous Fenton to the alkaline range via amino acid modification.

    PubMed

    ElShafei, Gamal M S; Yehia, F Z; Dimitry, O I H; Badawi, A M; Eshaq, Gh

    2015-11-01

    Oxides of iron, α-Fe2O3 (I), and copper, CuO (II) prepared by usual precipitation method without surfactant were used at room temperature in the process of nitrobenzene (10mgL(-1)) degradation at different pH values with ultrasonic at 20kHz. The degradation was complete in 20 and 30min for (I) and (II), respectively in the pH range 2-7 using1.0gL(-1) of solids and 10mM of H2O2. A remarkable decrease in degradation efficiency was recorded on increasing the pH to values higher than the neutral range. This loss in efficiency was cancelled to a great extent through modifying the used oxides with amino acids. Arginine showed higher improving effect to (II) (1:1 weight ration) than glycine or glutamic acid. Modification of both oxides with increasing amounts of arginine increased the degradation efficiency of (I) in a more regular way than in case of (II). However, the extent of improvement due to amino acid modification was higher in case of (II) because of its originally low degradation efficiency in strongly alkaline media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF ALKALINE Α-AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC BACILL US SUBTILIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Nuha Bakeet; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Ahmed, Youssri Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Starch-degrading amylase enzyme is important in biotechnological applications as food, fermentation, textile, paper and pharmaceutical purposes. The aim of current study to isolate alkaline thermostable α-amylase bacteria and then study the composition of medium and culture conditions to optimize cells growth and a-amylase production. Thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot water-springs in Gazan city Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic analysis of 16 S rRNA sequence for the strain revealed that the strain have the same sequence of Bacillus subtilis . Maximum amylase production was observed, when B. subtilis cultured in medium containing starch at concentration 0.5%, and 10 g/L peptones as nitrogen source at pH 8.5 in when it was incubated for 48 h at 45°C. An amylase-producing bacterium were isolated from hot-spring water and was identified as B. subtilis . Amylase produced from B.subtilis had optimum temperature 45°C and pH 8.5 in shaking media.

  9. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification.

    PubMed

    Témoin-Fardini, S; Servant, J; Sellam, S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test method to evaluate the preservation efficacy for a specific product, a very high-alkaline liquid soap (pH around 10) made by a saponification process. Several manufacturers have experienced contamination issues with these high-pH soaps despite passing a classic preservative efficacy challenge test or even a multi-inoculation challenge test. Bacteria were isolated from contaminated soaps and were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High-alkaline-pH unpreserved soaps were tested using the Thor Personal Care internal multichallenge test method (TM206) with classical microorganisms and then with the bacterial strains isolated from various contaminated soaps (TM768). Preservatives were added to these soaps and assessed for their efficacy using the newly developed test. Four different species of bacteria (Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, Dermacoccus sp., Halomonas sp. and Roseomonas sp.) were identified by sequencing among the contaminants of the various soaps tested. Among these, only one bacterial species, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, appeared to be responsible for the specific contamination of these high-alkaline soaps. Thus, one specific wild-type strain of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, named as strain 768, was used in a new multi-inoculation test (TM768). Unlike the single inoculation challenge test, the multi-inoculation test using the Nesterenkonia strain 768 was able to predict the sensitivity of a product towards this bacterium. Among the 27 different preservatives tested, 10 were able to protect the formula against contamination with this bacterium. This study enabled the development of a test method to evaluate the efficacy of preservation using a specific bacterium, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, responsible for the contamination of very alkaline soaps made by saponification and identify an appropriate preservative system. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. A glass of water immediately increases gastric pH in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, George; Theofanidou, Ioanna; Yiasemidou, Marina; Giannoulis, Evangelos; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2008-12-01

    Onset of action of antisecretory agents is of pivotal importance for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated "on-demand." To study the acute effect of acid-inhibiting drugs and water administration on gastric pH. A cross-over study was performed in 12 H. pylori (-), healthy subjects (6 men; mean age: 26 years). A single oral dose of the following agents was received with a wash-out period between each study: a glass of water (200 ml), antacid, ranitidine, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole. Gastric pH was recorded for 6 h after drug intake. Water increased gastric pH >4 in 10/12 subjects after 1 min. The time (median) needed to pH >4 was for: antacid 2 min, ranitidine 50 min, omeprazole 171 min, esomeprazole 151 min, and rabeprazole 175 min. Gastric pH >4 lasted for 3 min after water and for 12 min after antacids; it remained >4 until the end of recording in: 4/12 subjects with ranitidine, 11/12 with rabeprazole, and all with omeprazole and esomeprazole. Water and antacid immediately increased gastric pH, while PPIs showed a delayed but prolonged effect compared to ranitidine.

  11. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  12. Seasonal and high-frequency measurements of pH, oxygen and aragonite saturation state in a coral reef: Cabo Pulmo, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norzagaray, O.; Martin Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Calderon Aguilera, L. E.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Castro, R.; Trasviña, A.

    2016-02-01

    Cabo Pulmo reef is located in the coastal area within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which has been reported as shallow as 70m, and characterized by CO2-rich waters (>2200 μmolkg-1) and low pH (<7.7). To date it is unknown whether the OMZ waters influence these coral reef at any point of the year, or during certain oceanographic episodes, therefore, it is important to know the temporal variability of these parameters. This study presents high frequency data series from November 2013 to June 2014 from a SeapHOX sensor deployed at 15 m depth and 1.5 km from shore. The pH series was calibrated with discrete samples (total carbon and alkalinity measurements). A high-resolution aragonite saturation state (< Ωar) series was calculated from pH series and total alkalinity. Discrete and continuous measurements showed the seasonal influence of two water masses, the Gulf of California water during winter (GCW), and the surface Tropical water (TSW) during spring-summer. From December to April the conditions with the lowest pH were found (<Ωar), related to GCW, and two months with TSW; the highest pH values (> Ωar) were from May to June. During winter-spring (mostly-TSW) were present the most optimal conditions for coral calcification (>Ωar). Dissolved oxygen (OD) was always up to 3.4 mlL-1. However, two events (5-10 days length) arose in winter (February/TSW) and summer (June/GCW) with low pH (<7.9), low Ωar (<2.6), low temperature (<22oC), and low DO (<4 mlL-1), threshold values reported to cause negative effects on coral calcification and with exposure times on the order of days.

  13. [Effect on iron release in drinking water distribution systems].

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhang-bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Chen, Chao; Wang, Sheng-hui

    2007-10-01

    Batch-scale experiments were done to quantitatively study the effect of inorganic chemical parameters on iron release in drinking water distribution systems. The parameters include acid-base condition, oxidation-reduction condition, and neutral ion condition. It was found that the iron release rate decreased with pH, alkalinity, the concentration of dissolved oxygen increasing, and the iron release rate increased with the concentration of chloride increasing. The theoretical critical formula of iron release rate was elucidated. According to the formula, the necessary condition for controlling iron release is that pH is above 7.6, the concentration of alkalinity and dissolved oxygen is more than 150 mg/L and 2 mg/L, and the concentration of chloride is less than 150 mg/L of distributed water.

  14. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  15. Heterologous expression, biochemical characterization, and overproduction of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus alcalophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkaline α-amylases have potential applications for hydrolyzing starch under high pH conditions in the starch and textile industries and as ingredients in detergents for automatic dishwashers and laundries. While the alkaline α-amylase gains increased industrial interest, the yield of alkaline α-amylases from wild-type microbes is low, and the combination of genetic engineering and process optimization is necessary to achieve the overproduction of alkaline α-amylase. Results The alkaline α-amylase gene from Bacillus alcalophilus JN21 (CCTCC NO. M 2011229) was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis strain WB600 with vector pMA5. The recombinant alkaline α-amylase was stable at pH from 7.0 to 11.0 and temperature below 40°C. The optimum pH and temperature of alkaline α-amylase was 9.0 and 50°C, respectively. Using soluble starch as the substrate, the Km and Vmax of alkaline α-amylase were 9.64 g/L and 0.80 g/(L·min), respectively. The effects of medium compositions (starch, peptone, and soybean meal) and temperature on the recombinant production of alkaline α-amylase in B. subtilis were investigated. Under the optimal conditions (starch concentration 0.6% (w/v), peptone concentration 1.45% (w/v), soybean meal concentration 1.3% (w/v), and temperature 37°C), the highest yield of alkaline α-amylase reached 415 U/mL. The yield of alkaline α-amylase in a 3-L fermentor reached 441 U/mL, which was 79 times that of native alkaline α-amylase from B. alcalophilus JN21. Conclusions This is the first report concerning the heterologous expression of alkaline α-amylase in B. subtilis, and the obtained results make it feasible to achieve the industrial production of alkaline α-amylase with the recombinant B. subtilis. PMID:21978209

  16. 1 H NMRS of carnosine combined with 31 P NMRS to better characterize skeletal muscle pH dysregulation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Reyngoudt, Harmen; Turk, Suna; Carlier, Pierre G

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (NMRI and NMRS) have been used more systematically as outcome measures in natural history and clinical trial studies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Whereas most of these studies have emphasized the evaluation of the fat fraction as an assessment for disease severity, less focus has been placed on metabolic indices measured by NMRS. 31 P NMRS in DMD reveals an alkaline inorganic phosphate (P i ) pool, originating from either leaky dystrophic myocytes or an increased interstitial space. 1 H NMRS, exploiting the pH-sensitive proton resonances of carnosine, an intracellular dipeptide, was used to distinguish between these two hypotheses. NMR data were obtained in 23 patients with DMD and 14 healthy subjects on a 3-T clinical NMR system. Both 31 P and 1 H NMRS data were acquired at the level of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle. A multi-slice multi-echo imaging acquisition was performed for the determination of water T 2 and fat fraction in the same region of interest. Whereas nearly all patients with DMD showed an elevated pH compared with healthy controls when using 31 P NMRS, 1 H NMRS-determined pH was not systematically increased. As expected, the carnosine-based intracellular pH was never found to be alkaline in the absence of a concurrent P i -based pH elevation. In addition, abnormal intracellular pH, based on carnosine, was never associated with normal water T 2 values. We conclude that, in one group of patients, both 1 H and 31 P NMRS showed an alkaline pH, originating from the intracellular compartment and reflecting ionic dysregulation in dystrophic myocytes. In the other patients with DMD, intracellular pH was normal, but an alkaline P i pool was still present, suggesting an extracellular origin, probably revealing an expanded interstitial volume fraction, often associated with fibrotic changes. The data demonstrate that 1 H NMRS could serve as a biomarker to assess the

  17. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  18. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  19. The mechanism of hydrolysis of beta-glycerophosphate by kidney alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlers, J

    1975-01-01

    1. To identify the functional groups that are involved in the conversion of beta-glycerophosphate by alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from pig kidney, the kinetics of alkaline phosphatase were investigated in the pH range 6.6-10.3 at substrate concentrations of 3 muM-30 mM. From the plots of log VH+ against pH and log VH+/KH+m against pH one functional group with pK = 7.0 and two functional groups with pK = 9.1 were identified. These groups are involved in substrate binding. Another group with pK = 8.8 was found, which in its unprotonated form catalyses substrate conversion. 2. GSH inhibits the alkaline phosphatase reversibly and non-competitively by attacking the bound Zn(II). 3. The influence of the H+ concentration on the activation by Mg2+ ions of alkaline pig kidney phosphate was investigated between pH 8.4 and 10.0. The binding of substrate and activating Mg2+ ions occurs independently at all pH values between 8.4 and 10.0. The activation mechanism is not affected by the H+ concentration. The Mg2+ ions are bound by a functional group with a pK of 10.15. 4. A scheme is proposed for the reaction between enzyme, substrate, Mg2+ and H+ and the overall rate equation is derived. 5. The mechanism of substrate binding and splitting by the functional groups of the active centre is discussed on the basis of a model. Mg2+ seems to play a role as an autosteric effector. PMID:995

  20. Cation–hydroxide–water coadsorption inhibits the alkaline hydrogen oxidation reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Martinez, Ulises; Matanovic, Ivana; ...

    2016-10-24

    Rotating disk electrode voltammograms and infrared reflection absorption spectra indicate that the hydrogen oxidation reaction of platinum in 0.1 M tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution is adversely impacted by time-dependent and potential-driven cation–hydroxide–water coadsorption. Impedance analysis suggests that the hydrogen oxidation reaction inhibition is mainly caused by the hydrogen diffusion barrier of the coadsorbed trilayer rather than intuitive catalyst site blocking by the adsorbed cation species. Finally, these results give useful insights on how to design ionomeric binders for advanced alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  1. A long lifetime chemical sensor: study on fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate and preparation of pH chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li Ying; Wang, Huai You; Xie, Hui; Xu, Li Xiao

    2004-07-01

    The fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in acid-alkaline medium was studied by spectrofluorimetry. The characteristic of FITC response to hydrogen ion has been examined in acid-alkaline solution. A novel pH chemical sensor was prepared based on the relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of FITC and pH. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried out at 362 nm with excitation at 250 nm. The excellent linear relationship was obtained between relative fluorescence intensity and pH in the range of pH 1-5. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is F = 66.871 + 6.605 pH (F is relative fluorescence intensity), with a correlation coefficient of linear regression of 0.9995. Effects of temperature, concentration of FITC on the response to hydrogen ion had been examined. It was important that this chemical sensor was long lifetime, and the property of response to hydrogen ion was stable for at least 70 days. This pH sensor can be used for measuring pH value in water solution. The accuracy is 0.01 pH unit. The results obtained by the pH sensor agreed with those by the pH meter. Obviously, this pH sensor is potential for determining pH change real time in biological system.

  2. A long lifetime chemical sensor: study on fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate and preparation of pH chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li Ying; Wang, Huai You; Xie, Hui; Xu, Li Xiao

    2004-07-01

    The fluorescence property of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in acid-alkaline medium was studied by spectrofluorimetry. The characteristic of FITC response to hydrogen ion has been examined in acid-alkaline solution. A novel pH chemical sensor was prepared based on the relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity of FITC and pH. The measurement of relative fluorescence intensity was carried out at 362 nm with excitation at 250 nm. The excellent linear relationship was obtained between relative fluorescence intensity and pH in the range of pH 1-5. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is F=66.871+6.605 pH ( F is relative fluorescence intensity), with a correlation coefficient of linear regression of 0.9995. Effects of temperature, concentration of FITC on the response to hydrogen ion had been examined. It was important that this chemical sensor was long lifetime, and the property of response to hydrogen ion was stable for at least 70 days. This pH sensor can be used for measuring pH value in water solution. The accuracy is 0.01 pH unit. The results obtained by the pH sensor agreed with those by the pH meter. Obviously, this pH sensor is potential for determining pH change real time in biological system.

  3. Mutual independence of alkaline- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus refutes the existence of a conserved druggable signalling nexus.

    PubMed

    Loss, Omar; Bertuzzi, Margherita; Yan, Yu; Fedorova, Natalie; McCann, Bethany L; Armstrong-James, Darius; Espeso, Eduardo A; Read, Nick D; Nierman, William C; Bignell, Elaine M

    2017-12-01

    Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca 2+ , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim101) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has, therefore, been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy. We examined the interdependency of pH- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus and found that calcium chelation severely impedes hyphal growth indicating a critical requirement for this ion independently of ambient pH. Transcriptomic responses to alkaline pH or calcium excess exhibited minimal similarity. Mutants lacking calcineurin, or its client CrzA, displayed normal alkaline tolerance and nuclear translocation of CrzA was unaffected by ambient pH. Expression of a highly conserved, alkaline-regulated, sodium ATPase was tolerant of genetic or chemical perturbations of calcium-mediated signalling, but abolished in null mutants of the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC, and PacC proteolytic processing occurred normally during calcium excess. Taken together our data demonstrate that in A. fumigatus the regulatory hierarchy governing alkaline tolerance circumvents calcineurin signalling. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  5. The pH of water from various sources: an overview for recommendation for patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Nuchkull, Piyavadee; Varothai, Supenya

    2013-07-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have increased susceptibility to irritants. Some patients have questions about types of water for bathing or skin cleansing. We studied the pH of water from various sources to give an overview for physicians to recommend patients with AD. Water from various sources was collected for measurement of the pH using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. Bottled drinking still water had pH between 6.9 and 7.5 while the sparkling type had pH between 4.9 and 5.5. Water derived from home water filters had an approximate pH of 7.5 as same as tap water. Swimming pool water had had pH between 7.2 and 7.5 while seawater had a pH of 8. Normal saline and distilled water had pH of 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. Facial mineral water had pH between 7.5 and 8, while facial makeup removing water had an acidic pH. Normal saline, distilled water, bottled sparkling water and facial makeup removing water had similar pH to that of normal skin of normal people. However, other factors including benefits of mineral substances in the water in terms of bacteriostatic and anti-inflammation should be considered in the selection of cleansing water.

  6. The pH of water from various sources: an overview for recommendation for patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have increased susceptibility to irritants. Some patients have questions about types of water for bathing or skin cleansing. Objective We studied the pH of water from various sources to give an overview for physicians to recommend patients with AD. Methods Water from various sources was collected for measurement of the pH using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. Results Bottled drinking still water had pH between 6.9 and 7.5 while the sparkling type had pH between 4.9 and 5.5. Water derived from home water filters had an approximate pH of 7.5 as same as tap water. Swimming pool water had had pH between 7.2 and 7.5 while seawater had a pH of 8. Normal saline and distilled water had pH of 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. Facial mineral water had pH between 7.5 and 8, while facial makeup removing water had an acidic pH. Conclusion Normal saline, distilled water, bottled sparkling water and facial makeup removing water had similar pH to that of normal skin of normal people. However, other factors including benefits of mineral substances in the water in terms of bacteriostatic and anti-inflammation should be considered in the selection of cleansing water. PMID:23956962

  7. [Inhibitory effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH environment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-xiang; Xia, Dan; Shi, Gao-xiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tian-ming; Tang, Chuan-chao; Wang, Chang-zhong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction ( BAEB) on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in alkaline pH. Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Baitouweng decoction extracts against C. albicans isolates from VVC, XTT assay was applied to determine the metabolic activity of C. albicans hypha treated by BAEB for 6 h. The morphological change of C. albicans treated by BAEB was inspected at different pH by inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid agar plate and semi-solid agar were utilized to evaluate colony morphology and invasive growth of C. albicans, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expressions of hyphae-specific genes including HWP1, ALS3, CSH1, SUN41 and CaPDE2. The MIC of BAEB against C. albicans is less than that of other extracts; hyphae grow best at pH 8. 0; 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB could inhibit formation of hyphae and influence colony morphology. When treated by 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became smooth; while by 0 and 256 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became wrinkled. In semi-solid agar, the length of hyphae decreased steadily as the concentration of BAEB lowered. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, CSHl, SUN41 were downregulated by 5.12, 4.26, 3.2 and 2.74 folds, and CaPDE2 was upregulated by 2.38 fold. BAEB could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH.

  8. Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

    2008-12-30

    The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing.

  9. Tight Coupling of Astrocyte pH Dynamics to Epileptiform Activity Revealed by Genetically Encoded pH Sensors.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Joseph V; Tomes, Hayley; Irkle, Agnese; Kay, Louise; Kellaway, Lauriston; Markram, Henry; Millar, Robert P; Akerman, Colin J

    2016-06-29

    Astrocytes can both sense and shape the evolution of neuronal network activity and are known to possess unique ion regulatory mechanisms. Here we explore the relationship between astrocytic intracellular pH dynamics and the synchronous network activity that occurs during seizure-like activity. By combining confocal and two-photon imaging of genetically encoded pH reporters with simultaneous electrophysiological recordings, we perform pH measurements in defined cell populations and relate these to ongoing network activity. This approach reveals marked differences in the intracellular pH dynamics between hippocampal astrocytes and neighboring pyramidal neurons in rodent in vitro models of epilepsy. With three different genetically encoded pH reporters, astrocytes are observed to alkalinize during epileptiform activity, whereas neurons are observed to acidify. In addition to the direction of pH change, the kinetics of epileptiform-associated intracellular pH transients are found to differ between the two cell types, with astrocytes displaying significantly more rapid changes in pH. The astrocytic alkalinization is shown to be highly correlated with astrocytic membrane potential changes during seizure-like events and mediated by an electrogenic Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter. Finally, comparisons across different cell-pair combinations reveal that astrocytic pH dynamics are more closely related to network activity than are neuronal pH dynamics. This work demonstrates that astrocytes exhibit distinct pH dynamics during periods of epileptiform activity, which has relevance to multiple processes including neurometabolic coupling and the control of network excitability. Dynamic changes in intracellular ion concentrations are central to the initiation and progression of epileptic seizures. However, it is not known how changes in intracellular H(+) concentration (ie, pH) differ between different cell types during seizures. Using recently developed pH-sensitive proteins, we

  10. Assessing mine drainage pH from the color and spectral reflectance of chemical precipitates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.J.; Bigham, J.M.; Cravotta, C.A.; Traina, S.J.; Anderson, J.E.; Lyon, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    The pH of mine impacted waters was estimated from the spectral reflectance of resident sediments composed mostly of chemical precipitates. Mine drainage sediments were collected from sites in the Anthracite Region of eastern Pennsylvania, representing acid to near neutral pH. Sediments occurring in acidic waters contained primarily schwertmannite and goethite while near neutral waters produced ferrihydrite. The minerals comprising the sediments occurring at each pH mode were spectrally separable. Spectral angle difference mapping was used to correlate sediment color with stream water pH (r2=0.76). Band-center and band-depth analysis of spectral absorption features were also used to discriminate ferrihydrite and goethite and/or schwertmannite by analyzing the 4T1??? 6A1 crystal field transition (900-1000 nm). The presence of these minerals accurately predicted stream water pH (r2=0.87) and provided a qualitative estimate of dissolved SO4 concentrations. Spectral analysis results were used to analyze airborne digital multispectral video (DMSV) imagery for several sites in the region. The high spatial resolution of the DMSV sensor allowed for precise mapping of the mine drainage sediments. The results from this study indicate that airborne and space-borne imaging spectrometers may be used to accurately classify streams impacted by acid vs. neutral-to-alkaline mine drainage after appropriate spectral libraries are developed.

  11. Effect of liposomes on the rate of alkaline hydrolysis of indomethacin and acemetacin.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Chaimovich, H; Lima, J L; Cuccovia, I M; Reis, S

    2001-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic drugs indomethacin (INDO) and acemetacin (ACE), extensively used for the treatment of diseases of degenerative or inflammatory character, exhibit marked gastric irritant action, have low water solubility at neutral pH, and decompose in alkali. Alternative formulations are being investigated to obtain products with lower toxicity and higher stability. Here we examine the effect of liposome charge on the rate of alkaline decomposition of INDO and ACE using micelles as reference. Binding of ACE and INDO to zwitterionic hexadecylphosphocholine (HDPC) micelles and phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes was analyzed using a two-phase separation model to quantify the effect of these aggregates on the rate of alkaline degradation. The substrate association constants to HDPC micelles were 1335 and 2192 M(-1) for INDO and ACE, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for PC vesicles were 612 and 3050 M(-1). The difference was attributed to the additional hydrophobicity of ACE. The inhibitory effect of HDPC micelles and PC vesicles was quantified by calculating the ratio between the rate constants in water (k(w)) and in the aggregate (k(m)). The values of the k(w)/k(m) ratios for INDO and ACE in HDPC micelles were, respectively, 80 and 42, and in PC liposomes these ratios were 21 and 3.7, respectively. Positively charged micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and vesicles containing varying proportions of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) and PC increase the rate of INDO and ACE alkaline decomposition. Vesicle effects were very sensitive to the DODAC/PC ratio, with rates increasing with the proportion of DODAC. The data were analyzed quantitatively using a pseudophase model with explicit consideration of ion exchange. The calculated second-order rate constants in micelles and vesicles were lower than that in water. The charge density in the liposome necessary to increase the entrapment efficiency

  12. In situ arsenic removal in an alkaline clastic aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, A.H.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Paul, A.P.; Maurer, D.K.; Halford, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    In situ removal of As from ground water used for water supply has been accomplished elsewhere in circum-neutral ground water containing high dissolved Fe(II) concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ As ground-water treatment approaches in alkaline ground-water (pH > 8) that contains low dissolved Fe (water in the two aquifers studied are similar except for the inorganic As species. Although total inorganic As concentrations were similar, one aquifer has dominantly aqueous As(III) and the other has mostly As(V). Dissolved O2, Fe(II), and HCl were added to water and injected into the two aquifers to form Fe-oxide and lower the pH to remove As. Cycles of injection and withdrawal involved varying Fe(II) concentrations in the injectate. The As concentrations in water withdrawn from the two aquifers were as low as 1 and 6 ??g/L, with greater As removal from the aquifer containing As(V). However, Fe and Mn concentrations increased to levels greater than US drinking water standards during some of the withdrawal periods. A balance between As removal and maintenance of low Fe and Mn concentrations may be a design consideration if this approach is used for public-supply systems. The ability to lower As concentrations in situ in high-pH ground water should have broad applicability because similar high-As ground water is present in many parts of the world. ?? 2008.

  13. Alleviation of the effects of saline-alkaline stress on maize seedlings by regulation of active oxygen metabolism by Trichoderma asperellum.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Li, Zuotong; Wang, Yufeng; Yang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Trichoderma asperellum on active oxygen production in maize seedlings under saline-alkaline stress conditions. Two maize cultivars were tested: 'Jiangyu 417' ('JY417'), which can tolerate saline-alkaline stress; and, 'Xianyu 335' ('XY335'), which is sensitive to saline-alkaline stress. The seedlings were grown on natural saline-alkaline soil (pH 9.30) in plastic pots. To each liter of saline-alkaline soil, 200 mL of T. asperellum spore suspension was applied; three fungal suspensions were used, namely, 1 × 103, 1 × 106, and 1 × 109 spores/L. A control with only the vehicle applied was also established, along with a second control in which untreated meadow soil (pH 8.23) was used. Root and leaf samples were collected when the seedlings had three heart-shaped leaves and the fourth was in the developmental phase. Physical and biochemical parameters related to oxidation resistance were assessed. The results indicated that the 'JY417' and 'XY335' seedlings showed different degrees of oxidative damage and differences in their antioxidant defense systems under saline-alkaline stress. As the spore density of the fungal suspension increased, the K+ and Ca2+ contents in the seedlings increased, but Na+ content decreased. Moreover, fungal treatment promoted the synthesis or accumulation of osmolytes, which enhanced the water absorbing capacity of the cells, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, enhanced the content of non-enzyme antioxidants, and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Fungal treatment alleviated oxidative damage caused by the saline-alkaline stress in roots and leaves of the seedlings. The application of T. asperellum overcame the inhibitory effect of saline-alkaline soil stress on the growth of maize seedlings. In the present experiment, application with 1 × 109 spores/L gave the optimal results.

  14. Characterizing the Effects of Inorganic Acid and Alkaline Shock on the Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome and Messenger RNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kelsi L.; Roux, Christelle M.; Olson, Matthew W.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia Y.; Olson, Robert; Dunman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis can be partially attributed to its ability to adapt to otherwise deleterious host-associated stresses. Here, Affymetrix GeneChips® were used to examine the S. aureus responses to inorganic acid and alkaline shock and to assess whether stress dependent changes in mRNA turnover are likely to facilitate the organism’s ability to tolerate pH challenge. Results indicate that S. aureus adapts to pH shock by eliciting responses expected of cells coping with pH alteration, including neutralizing cellular pH, DNA repair, amino acid biosynthesis and virulence factor expression. Further, the S. aureus response to alkaline conditions is strikingly similar to that of stringent response induced cells. Indeed, we show that alkaline shock stimulates accumulation of the stringent response activator (p)ppGpp. Results also revealed that pH shock significantly alters the mRNA properties of the cell. A comparison of the mRNA degradation properties of transcripts whose titers either increased or decreased in response to sudden pH change revealed that alterations in mRNA degradation may, in part, account for the changes in the mRNA levels of factors predicted to mediate pH tolerance. A set of small stable RNA molecules were induced in response to acid or alkaline shock conditions and may mediate adaptation to pH stress. PMID:21039920

  15. Alkaline stress response in Enterococcus faecalis: adaptation, cross-protection, and changes in protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Flahaut, S; Hartke, A; Giard, J C; Auffray, Y

    1997-01-01

    The alkaline shock response in Enterococcus faecalis was studied in this work. Cells adapted to an optimum pH of 10.5 were tolerate to pH 11.9 conditions but acquired sensitivity to acid damage. An analysis of stress proteins revealed that 37 polypeptides were amplified. Two of these are DnaK and GroEL. The combined results show that bile salts and alkaline stress responses are closely related. PMID:9023964

  16. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry.

  17. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Salinity and pH on Germination in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH≤8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

  18. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) increased cumulative methane yield (by 63%) over that of untreated biomass (217L/kgVS). LHW pretreatment obtained negative net electrical energy production due to high energy input. Alkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transepithelial potential in the Magadi tilapia, a fish living in extreme alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Bergman, Harold L; Bianchini, Adalto; Laurent, Pierre; Maina, John; Johannsson, Ora E; Bianchini, Lucas F; Chevalier, Claudine; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Ojoo, Rodi O

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L(-1), i.e. HCO(3) (-) and CO(3) (2-)) rather than Cl(-) (112 mmol L(-1)) represents the major anion matching Na(+) = 356 mmol L(-1), with very low concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (<1 mmol L(-1)). Immediately after fish capture, TEP was +4 mV (inside positive), but stabilized at +7 mV at 10-30 h post-capture when experiments were performed in Magadi water. Transfer to 250% Magadi water increased the TEP to +9.5 mV, and transfer to fresh water and deionized water decreased the TEP to -13 and -28 mV, respectively, effects which were not due to changes in pH or osmolality. The very negative TEP in deionized water was attenuated in a linear fashion by log elevations in [Ca(2+)]. Extreme cold (1 vs. 28°C) reduced the positive TEP in Magadi water by 60%, suggesting blockade of an electrogenic component, but did not alter the negative TEP in dilute solution. When fish were transferred to 350 mmol L(-1) solutions of NaHCO(3), NaCl, NaNO(3), or choline Cl, only the 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3) solution sustained the TEP unchanged at +7 mV; in all others, the TEP fell. Furthermore, after transfer to 50, 10, and 2% dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaHCO(3), the TEPs remained identical to those in comparable dilutions of Magadi water, whereas this did not occur with comparable dilutions of 350 mmol L(-1) NaCl-i.e. the fish behaves electrically as if living in an NaHCO(3) solution equimolar to Magadi water. We conclude that the TEP is largely a Na(+) diffusion potential attenuated by some permeability to anions. In Magadi water, the net electrochemical forces driving Na(+) inwards (+9.9 mV) and Cl(-) outwards (+3.4 mV) are small relative to the strong gradient driving HCO(3) (-) inwards (-82.7 m

  20. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus.

  1. Heavy metals stabilization in medical waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline assisted supercritical water technology.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Li, Xiaodong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the process of aluminosilicate formation in medical waste incinerator fly ash containing large amounts of heavy metals and treated with alkaline compounds at 375 degrees C and examined how this process affected the mobility and availability of the metals. As a consequence of the treatments, the amount of dissolved heavy metals, and thus their mobility, was greatly reduced, and the metal leaching concentration was below the legislative regulations for metal leachability. Moreover, this process did not produce a high concentration of heavy metals in the effluent. The addition of alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate can prevent certain heavy metal ions dissolving in water. In comparison with the alkaline-free condition, the extracted concentrations of As, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn were decreased by about 51.08, 97.22, 58.33, 96.77 and 86.89% by the addition of sodium hydroxide and 66.18, 86.11, 58.33, 83.87 and 81.91% by the addition of sodium carbonate. A mechanism for how the formation of aluminosilicate occurred in supercritical water and affected the mobility and availability of the heavy metals is discussed. The reported results could be useful as basic knowledge for planning new technologies for the hydrothermal stabilization of heavy metals in fly ash.

  2. Water uptake by Atlantic salmon ova as affected by low pH

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Peterson, R.H.; Martin-Robichaud, D.J.

    Fertilized ova of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were water-hardened at pH 6.8, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0. Water uptake was significantly decreased at 4.5 and 4.0. Ova hardened at pH 4.0 did not survive longer than 8 hours.

  3. Experimental and analytical analysis of polarization and water transport behaviors of hydrogen alkaline membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Sen; Zhou, Jiaxun; Wang, Tianyou; Chen, Rui; Jiao, Kui

    2018-04-01

    Experimental test and analytical modeling are conducted to investigate the operating behavior of an alkaline electrolyte membrane (AEM) fuel cell fed by H2/air (or O2) and explore the effect of various operating pressures on the water transfer mechanism. According to the experimental test, the cell performance is greatly improved through increasing the operating pressure gradient from anode to cathode which leads to significant liquid water permeation through the membrane. The high frequency resistance of the A901 alkaline membrane is observed to be relatively stable as the operating pressure varies based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method. Correspondingly, based on the modeling prediction, the averaged water content in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) does not change too much which leads to the weak variation of membrane ohmic resistance. This reveals that the performance enhancement should give the credit to better electro-chemical reaction kinetics for both the anode and cathode, also prone by the EIS results. The reversion of water back diffusion direction across the membrane is also observed through analytical solution.

  4. Modeling coliform-bacteria concentrations and pH in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haushild, W.L.; Prych, Edmund A.

    1976-01-01

    Total- and fecal-coliform bacteria, plus pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon are water-quality parameters that have been added to an existing numerical model of water quality in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary in Washington. The coliform bacteria are modeled using a first-order decay (death) rate, which is a function of the local salinity, temperature, and daily solar radiation. The pH is computed by solving a set of chemical-equilibrium equations for carbonate-bicarbonate buffered aqueous solutions. Concentrations of total- and fecal-coliform bacteria computed by the model for the Duwamish River estuary during June-September 1971 generally agreed with observed concentrations within about 40 and 60 percent, respectively. The computed pH generally agreed with observed pH within about a 0.2 pH unit; however, for one 3-week period the computed pH was about a 0.4 unit lower than the observed pH. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Reformation of casein particles from alkaline-disrupted casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; Vaia, Betsy; Smiddy, Mary A

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the properties of casein particles reformed from alkaline disrupted casein micelles were studied. For this purpose, micelles were disrupted completely by increasing milk pH to 10.0, and subsequently reformed by decreasing milk pH to 6.6. Reformed casein particles were smaller than native micelles and had a slightly lower zeta-potential. Levels of ionic and serum calcium, as well as rennet coagulation time did not differ between milk containing native micelles or reformed casein particles. Ethanol stability and heat stability, >pH 7.0, were lower for reformed casein particles than native micelles. Differences in heat stability, ethanol stability and zeta-potential can be explained in terms of the influence of increased concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in milk containing reformed casein particles. Hence, these results indicate that, if performed in a controlled manner, casein particles with properties closely similar to those of native micelles can be reformed from alkaline disrupted casein micelles.

  6. In situ Measurement of Pore-Water pH in Anoxic Sediments Using Laser Raman Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Luna, M.; Walz, P. M.; Zhang, X.; Brewer, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate measurement of the geochemical properties of sediment pore waters is of fundamental importance in ocean geochemistry and microbiology. Recent work has shown that the properties of pore waters can be measured rapidly in situ with a novel Raman based insertion probe (Zhang et al., 2010), and that data obtained from anoxic sediments on in situ dissolved methane concentrations are very different (~30x) than from recovered cores due the large scale degassing that occurs during core recovery (Zhang et al., submitted). Degassing of methane must carry with it via Henry’s Law partioning significant quantities of H2S, which is clearly detectable by smell during sample processing, and thus in situ measurement of H2S is also highly desirable. In practice, dissolved H2S is partitioned between the HS- and H2S species as a function of pH with pKa ~7 for the acid dissociation reaction. Since both species are Raman active full determination of the sulfide system is possible if the relative Raman cross sections are known. The diagenetic equations for these reactions are commonly summarized as: 2CH2O + SO4= ↔ 2HCO3- + H2S CH4 + SO4= ↔ HCO3- + HS- + H2O Three of the major components of these equations, CH4, SO4=, and H2S/HS-, are all observable directly by Raman spectroscopy; but the detection of HCO3- presents a challenge due to its low Raman cross section and thus poor sensitivity. We show that pore water pH, which is a good estimator of HCO3- if total CO2 or alkalinity are known, can be measured by observing the H2S / HS- ratio via the equation: pH = pKa + log([HS-]/[H2S]) thereby fully constraining these equations within a single measurement protocol. The Raman peak for HS- is at 2573 cm-1 and for H2S is at 2592 cm-1; thus the peaks are well separated and may easily be deconvoluted from the observed spectrum. We have determined the relative Raman cross sections by a series of laboratory measurements over a range of pH and by using the definition that when pH = p

  7. Post-prandial metabolic alkalosis in the seawater-acclimated trout: the alkaline tide comes in.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2009-07-01

    The consequences of feeding and digestion on acid-base balance and regulation in a marine teleost (seawater-acclimated steelhead trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated by tracking changes in blood pH and [HCO3-], as well as alterations in net acid or base excretion to the water following feeding. Additionally the role of the intestine in the regulation of acid-base balance during feeding was investigated with an in vitro gut sac technique. Feeding did not affect plasma glucose or urea concentrations, however, total plasma ammonia rose during feeding, peaking between 3 and 24 h following the ingestion of a meal, three-fold above resting control values (approximately 300 micromol ml(-1)). This increase in plasma ammonia was accompanied by an increase in net ammonia flux to the water (approximately twofold higher in fed fish versus unfed fish). The arterial blood also became alkaline with increases in pH and plasma [HCO3-] between 3 and 12 h following feeding, representing the first measurement of an alkaline tide in a marine teleost. There was no evidence of respiratory compensation for the measured metabolic alkalosis, as Pa CO2 remained unchanged throughout the post-feeding period. However, in contrast to an earlier study on freshwater-acclimated trout, fed fish did not exhibit a compensating increase in net base excretion, but rather took in additional base from the external seawater, amounting to approximately 8490 micromol kg(-1) over 48 h. In vitro experiments suggest that at least a portion of the alkaline tide was eliminated through increased HCO3- secretion coupled to Cl- absorption in the intestinal tract. This did not occur in the intestine of freshwater-acclimated trout. The marked effects of the external salinity (seawater versus freshwater) on different post-feeding patterns of acid-base balance are discussed.

  8. Characterizing the effects of inorganic acid and alkaline shock on the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome and messenger RNA turnover.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kelsi L; Roux, Christelle M; Olson, Matthew W; Luong, Thanh T; Lee, Chia Y; Olson, Robert; Dunman, Paul M

    2010-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis can be attributed partially to its ability to adapt to otherwise deleterious host-associated stresses. Here, Affymetrix GeneChips® were used to examine the S. aureus responses to inorganic acid and alkaline shock and to assess whether stress-dependent changes in mRNA turnover are likely to facilitate the organism's ability to tolerate a pH challenge. The results indicate that S. aureus adapts to pH shock by eliciting responses expected of cells coping with pH alteration, including neutralizing cellular pH, DNA repair, amino acid biosynthesis, and virulence factor expression. Further, the S. aureus response to alkaline conditions is strikingly similar to that of stringent response-induced cells. Indeed, we show that alkaline shock stimulates the accumulation of the stringent response activator (p)ppGpp. The results also revealed that pH shock significantly alters the mRNA properties of the cell. A comparison of the mRNA degradation properties of transcripts whose titers either increased or decreased in response to a sudden pH change revealed that alterations in mRNA degradation may, in part, account for the changes in the mRNA levels of factors predicted to mediate pH tolerance. A set of small stable RNA molecules were induced in response to acid- or alkaline-shock conditions and may mediate adaptation to pH stress. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many current approaches to managing groundwater contamination rely on further advances in amendment delivery in order to initiate and sustain contaminant degradation or immobilization. In fact, limited or ineffective delivery is often cited when treatment objectives are not attained. Emulsions, specifically oil-in-water emulsions, have demonstrated potential to aid delivery of remediation amendments. Emulsions also afford opportunities to control the release of active ingredients encapsulated within the droplets. Our research is currently focused on the controlled release of nanoparticle-based buffering agents using oil-in-water emulsions. This interest is motivated by the fact that chemical and biological processes employed for the remediation and stewardship of contaminated sites often necessitate control of pH during treatment and, in some cases, long thereafter. Alkalinity-release nanoparticles (e.g., CaCO3, MgO) were suspended within soybean oil and subsequently encapsulated by through the creation of oil-in-water emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions are designed to have physical properties which are favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 μm droplet diameter). Buffer capacity titrations suggest that MgO particles are moderately more accessible within the oil phase and nearly twice as effective (on a per mass basis) at releasing alkalinity (as compared to the CaCO3 particles). Results from experiments designed to assess the release kinetics suggest that a linear driving force model is capable of describing the release process and mass transfer coefficients are constant through the reactive life of the emulsion. The release kinetics in emulsions containing MgO particles were found to be three orders of magnitude faster than those quantified for emulsions containing CaCO3. The slower release kinetics of the emulsions containing CaCO3 particles may prove beneficial when considering pH control at sites

  10. Comparison of enteral and parenteral methods of urine alkalinization in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Jamie A; Burton, Bradley; Dabb, Alix; Brown, Vicky; Seung, Amy H; Kinsman, Katharine; Holdhoff, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hyperhydration and urinary alkalinization is implemented with all high-dose (HD)-methotrexate infusions to promote excretion and prevent precipitation of methotrexate in the renal tubules. Our institution utilized enteral alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate tablets and sodium citrate/citric acid solution) to alkalinize the urine of patients receiving HD-methotrexate during a parenteral sodium bicarbonate and sodium acetate shortage. The purpose of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of the enteral route for urine alkalinization. Methods A single-center, retrospective, cohort study was conducted comparing cycles of HD-methotrexate using enteral alkalinizing agents to parenteral sodium bicarbonate. The primary objective was to compare the time, in hours, from administration of first inpatient administered dose of alkalinizing agent to time of achieving goal urine pH. Secondary objectives evaluated total dose of sodium bicarbonate required to achieve goal urine pH, time from start of urine alkalinizing agent until time of achieving methotrexate level safe for discharge, and toxicities associated with methotrexate and the alkalinizing agents. Results A total of 118 patients were included in this study, equally divided into two cohorts based on parenteral versus enteral routes of administration. No statistical difference was determined between the two cohorts regarding time to goal urine pH (6.5 h versus 7.9 h, P = 0.051) or regarding time to methotrexate level deemed safe for discharge (63.5 h versus 62.5 h, p = 0.835). There were no significant differences in methotrexate-induced toxicities. Conclusion Our study found enteral routes of urine alkalinization to be a viable alternative to the traditional parenteral sodium bicarbonate, especially during parenteral sodium bicarbonate and acetate shortages.

  11. Water stress index for alkaline fen habitat based on UAV and continuous tower measurements of canopy infrared temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciężkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on developing water stress index for alkaline fen, to evaluate water stress impact on habitat protected within Natura 2000 network: alkaline fens (habitat code:7230). It is calculated based on continuous measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and canopy temperature from meteorological tower and several UAV flights for canopy temperature registration. Measurements were taken during the growing season in 2016 in the Upper Biebrza Basin in north-east Poland. Firstly methodology of the crop water stress index (CWSI) determination was used to obtained non-water stress base line based on continuous measurements (NWSBtower). Parameters of NWSBtower were directly used to calculate spatial variability of CWSI for UAV thermal infrared (TIR) images. Then for each UAV flight day at least 3 acquisition were performed to define NWSBUAV. NWSBUAV was used to calculate canopy waters stress for whole image relative to the less stressed areas. The spatial distribution of developed index was verified using remotely sensed indices of vegetation health. Results showed that in analysed area covered by sedge-moss vegetation NWSB cannot be used directly. The proposed modification of CWSI allows identifying water stress in alkaline fen habitats and was called as Sedge-Moss Water Stress Index (SMWSI). The study shows possibility of usage remotely sensed canopy temperature data to detect areas exposed to the water stress on wetlands. This research has been carried out under the Biostrateg Programme of the Polish National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR), project No.: DZP/BIOSTRATEG-II/390/2015: The innovative approach supporting monitoring of non-forest Natura 2000 habitats, using remote sensing methods (HabitARS).

  12. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Lawrence J.; Rounds, Caleb; Hepler, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN) and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth. PMID:28042810

  13. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes.

    PubMed

    Winship, Lawrence J; Rounds, Caleb; Hepler, Peter K

    2016-12-30

    Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily ( Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN) and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  14. Copper speciation in the gill microenvironment of carp (Cyprinus carpio) at various levels of pH.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shu; Long, Aimin; Xu, Fuliu; Dawson, R W

    2002-07-01

    The fish gill microenvironment of Cyprinus carpio under stress of copper exposure was investigated. pH and other parameters including free copper activity, alkalinity, and inorganic and organic carbons in the surrounding water (inspired water) and in the gill microenvironment (expired water) were measured or calculated at various levels of pH and varying total copper concentrations. The chemical equilibrium calculation (from MINEQA2) and complexation modeling (mucus-copper) were coupled to calculate both species distribution. The results indicate that the pH in the fish gill microenvironment was different from that in the surrounding water with a balance point around 6.9. The secretion of both CO(2) and mucus was affected in both linear and nonlinear ways when the fish were exposed to elevated concentrations of copper. The complexation capacity of the gill mucus was characterized by a conditional stability constant (logk(Cu-mucus)) of 5.37 along with a complexation equivalent concentration (L(Cu-mucus)) of 0.96 mmol Cu/mg C. For both the fish microenvironment and the surrounding water, the dominant copper species shifted from Cu(2+) to CuCO(3)(0) and to Cu(OH)(2)(0) when the pH of the surrounding water changed from 6.12 to 8.11. The change in copper speciation in the gill microenvironment is smaller than that in the surrounding water due to the pH buffering capacity of the fish gills.

  15. Slime coating of kaolinite on chalcopyrite in saline water flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-li; Rao, Feng; Song, Shao-xian; Li, Yan-mei; Liu, Wen-biao

    2018-05-01

    In saline water flotation, the salinity can cause a distinguishable slime coating of clay minerals on chalcopyrite particles through its effect on their electrical double layers in aqueous solutions. In this work, kaolinite was used as a representative clay mineral for studying slime coating during chalcopyrite flotation. The flotation of chalcopyrite in the presence and absence of kaolinite in tap water, seawater, and gypsum-saturated water and the stability of chalcopyrite and kaolinite particles in slurries are presented. Zeta-potential distributions and scanning electron microscopy images were used to characterize and explain the different slime coating degrees and the different flotation performances. Kaolinite particles induced slime coating on chalcopyrite surfaces and reduced chalcopyrite floatability to the greatest extent when the pH value was in the alkaline range. At 0.24wt% of kaolinite, the chalcopyrite floatability was depressed by more than 10% at alkaline pH levels in tap water. Salinity in seawater and gypsum-saturated water compressed the electrical double layers and resulted in extensive slime coating.

  16. Comparing alkaline and thermal disintegration characteristics for mechanically dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2011-10-01

    Thermal drying is one of the advanced technologies ultimately providing an alternative method of sludge disposal. In this study, the drying kinetics of mechanically dewatered sludge (MDS) after alkaline and thermal disintegration have been studied. In addition, the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) on specific resistance to filtration and sludge bound water content were also investigated on freshly collected sludge samples. The combined effect of pH and TOC on the thermal sludge drying rate for MDS was modelled using the two-factorial experimental design method. Statistical assessment of the obtained results proposed that sludge drying potential has increased exponentially for both increasing temperature and lime dosage. Execution of curve fitting algorithms also implied that drying profiles for raw and alkaline-disintegrated sludge were well fitted to the Henderson and Pabis model. The activation energy of MDS decreased from 28.716 to 11.390 kJ mol(-1) after disintegration. Consequently, the unit power requirement for thermal drying decreased remarkably from 706 to 281 W g(-1) H2O.

  17. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Deng, Yihuan; Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Chunping; Wu, Bingwen; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Nishimura, Fumitake

    2017-05-10

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Results showed that the manure disintegration degree was maximized of 63.91% at energy input of 54 J/g and pH of 12.0, and variance analysis indicated that pH value played a more important role in the pretreatment than in energy input. Anaerobic digestion results demonstrated that MW-A pretreatment not only significantly increased cumulative biogas production, but also shortened the duration for a stable biogas production rate. Therefore, the alkaline microwaving pretreatment could become an alternative process for effective treatment of swine manure.

  18. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from a lanthanum modified bentonite.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Kasper; Balslev, Kristiane Astrid; Jensen, Henning S

    2017-11-15

    A 12 days laboratory study on potential desorption of Lanthanum (La) from a commercial La modified clay (Phoslock) was conducted using lake water from 17 Danish lakes with alkalinities between 0.02 and 3.7 meq L -1 and varying concentrations of DOC and humic acids (HA's). A similar study was conducted in artificial lake water with alkalinities from 0 to 2.5 meq L -1 in order to exclude interference from dissolved HA's. To test if La in solution (FLa) was associated with fine particles, the water samples were filtered sequentially through three filter sizes (1.2 μm, 0.45 μm and 0.2 μm), and finally, ultracentrifugation was used in an attempt to separate colloidal La from dissolved La. The study showed that higher FLa (up to 2.5 mg L -1 or 14% of the total La in the Phoslock) concentrations were found in soft water lakes compared to hard water lakes, probably due to dispersion of the clay at low alkalinities. In addition, this study showed that HA's seem to increase the FLa concentrations in soft water lakes, most likely through complexation of La retained in the Phoslock matrix. In summary, we conclude that elevated La concentrations in lake water after a Phoslock treatment should only be expected in soft water lakes rich in DOC and HA's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanomaterials for the cleaning and pH adjustment of vegetable-tanned leather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, Michele; Bartoletti, Angelica; Bozec, Laurent; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Odlyha, Marianne; Pianorsi, Diletta; Poggi, Giovanna; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-02-01

    Leather artifacts in historical collections and archives are often contaminated by physical changes such as soiling, which alter their appearance and readability, and by chemical changes which occur on aging and give rise to excessive proportion of acids that promote hydrolysis of collagen, eventually leading to gelatinization and loss of mechanical properties. However, both cleaning and pH adjustment of vegetable-tanned leather pose a great challenge for conservators, owing to the sensitivity of these materials to the action of solvents, especially water-based formulations and alkaline chemicals. In this study, the cleaning of historical leather samples was optimized by confining an oil-in-water nanostructured fluid in a highly retentive chemical hydrogel, which allows the controlled release of the cleaning fluid on sensitive surfaces. The chemical gel exhibits optimal viscoelasticity, which facilitates its removal after the application without leaving residues on the object. Nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide and lactate, dispersed in 2-propanol, were used to adjust the pH up to the natural value of leather, preventing too high alkalinity which causes swelling of fibers and denaturation of the collagen. The treated samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, controlled environment dynamic mechanical analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. The analytical assessment validated the use of tools derived from colloid and materials science for the preservation of collagen-based artifacts.

  20. Fertilization Shapes Bacterial Community Structure by Alteration of Soil pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting; Shen, Hong; He, Xinhua; Thomas, Ben W; Lupwayi, Newton Z; Hao, Xiying; Thomas, Matthew C; Shi, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Application of chemical fertilizer or manure can affect soil microorganisms directly by supplying nutrients and indirectly by altering soil pH. However, it remains uncertain which effect mostly shapes microbial community structure. We determined soil bacterial diversity and community structure by 454 pyrosequencing the V1-V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes after 7-years (2007-2014) of applying chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers, composted manure or their combination to acidic (pH 5.8), near-neutral (pH 6.8) or alkaline (pH 8.4) Eutric Regosol soil in a maize-vegetable rotation in southwest China. In alkaline soil, nutrient sources did not affect bacterial Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) richness or Shannon diversity index, despite higher available N, P, K, and soil organic carbon in fertilized than in unfertilized soil. In contrast, bacterial OTU richness and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower in acidic and near-neutral soils under NPK than under manure or their combination, which corresponded with changes in soil pH. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance showed that bacterial community structure was significantly affected across these three soils, but the PCoA ordination patterns indicated the effect was less distinct among nutrient sources in alkaline than in acidic and near-neural soils. Distance-based redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community structures were significantly altered by soil pH in acidic and near-neutral soils, but not by any soil chemical properties in alkaline soil. The relative abundance (%) of most bacterial phyla was higher in near-neutral than in acidic or alkaline soils. The most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (24.6%), Actinobacteria (19.7%), Chloroflexi (15.3%) and Acidobacteria (12.6%); the medium dominant phyla were Bacterioidetes (5.3%), Planctomycetes (4.8%), Gemmatimonadetes (4.5%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Cyanobacteria (2.1%), Nitrospirae (1.8%), and candidate division TM7 (1

  1. Alkaline Response of a Halotolerant Alkaliphilic Halomonas Strain and Functional Diversity of Its Na+(K+)/H+ Antiporters*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bin; Meng, Yiwei; Cui, Yanbing; Li, Chunfang; Tao, Fei; Yin, Huijia; Yang, Chunyu; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas sp. Y2 is a halotolerant alkaliphilic strain from Na+-rich pulp mill wastewater with high alkalinity (pH >11.0). Transcriptome analysis of this isolate revealed this strain may use various transport systems for pH homeostasis. In particular, the genes encoding four putative Na+/H+ antiporters were differentially expressed upon acidic or alkaline conditions. Further evidence, from heterologous expression and mutant studies, suggested that Halomonas sp. Y2 employs its Na+/H+ antiporters in a labor division way to deal with saline and alkaline environments. Ha-NhaD2 displayed robust Na+(Li+) resistance and high transport activities in Escherichia coli; a ΔHa-nhaD2 mutant exhibited growth inhibition at high Na+(Li+) concentrations at pH values of 6.2, 8.0, and 10.0, suggesting its physiological role in osmotic homeostasis. In contrast, Ha-NhaD1 showed much weaker activities in ion exporting and pH homeostasis. Ha-Mrp displayed a combination of properties similar to those of Mrp transporters from some Bacillus alkaliphiles and neutrophiles. This conferred obvious Na+(Li+, K+) resistance in E. coli-deficient strains, as those ion transport spectra of some neutrophil Mrp antiporters. Conversely, similar to the Bacillus alkaliphiles, Ha-Mrp showed central roles in the pH homeostasis of Halomonas sp. Y2. An Ha-mrp-disrupted mutant was seriously inhibited by high concentrations of Na+(Li+, K+) but only under alkaline conditions. Ha-NhaP was determined to be a K+/H+ antiporter and shown to confer strong K+ resistance both at acidic and alkaline stresses. PMID:27777302

  2. Outcomes Associated with Reducing the Urine Alkalinization Threshold in Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Drost, Sarah A; Wentzell, Jason R; Giguère, Pierre; McLurg, Darcy L; Sabloff, Mitchell; Kanji, Salmaan; Nguyen, Tiffany T

    2017-06-01

    Urine alkalinization increases methotrexate (MTX) solubility and reduces the risk of nephrotoxicity. The objectives of this study were to determine whether a reduction in the urine pH threshold from 8 to 7 in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) results in a shorter length of hospital stay, delayed MTX clearance, or higher rates of nephrotoxicity; and to determine whether specific factors were associated with prolonged MTX clearance. Retrospective cohort study. Hematology service of a large university-affiliated teaching hospital in Ottawa, Canada. Sixty-five adults with 150 HDMTX exposures who had elective admissions for HDMTX between September 1, 2014, and December 18, 2015, were included. Thirty-four patients (with 79 HDMTX exposures) had their urine alkalinized to a pH of 8 or higher, and 31 patients (with 71 HDMTX exposures) had their urine alkalinized to a pH of 7 or higher, after an institutional change in the urine pH threshold from 8 to 7 was implemented on May 1, 2015. Data related to patient demographics, urine alkalinization, MTX serum concentration monitoring, hospital length of stay, and renal function were collected retrospectively from patients' electronic health records. Lowering the urine pH threshold from 8 to 7 did not significantly affect hospital length of stay (absolute difference 3.5 hrs, 95% confidence interval -4.0 to 10.9) or clearance of MTX (elimination rate constant 0.058 in the pH of 7 or higher group vs 0.064 in the pH of 8 or higher group, p=0.233). Nephrotoxicity rates were similar between groups (15.5% in the pH of 7 or higher group vs 10.1% in the pH of 8 or higher group, p=0.34). Higher MTX dose and interacting medications (e.g., proton pump inhibitors and sulfonamide antibiotics) were significantly associated with delayed MTX elimination. No significant differences in HDMTX-associated hospital length of stay, MTX clearance, or rates of nephrotoxicity were noted between patients in the urine pH of 7 or higher and 8

  3. Solubility of water in lunar basalt at low pH2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Brett, A.; Beckett, J. R.; Baker, M. B.; Newman, S.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    We report the solubility of water in Apollo 15 basaltic "Yellow Glass" and an iron-free basaltic analog composition at 1 atm and 1350 °C. We equilibrated melts in a 1-atm furnace with flowing H2/CO2 gas mixtures that spanned ∼8 orders of magnitude in fO2 (from three orders of magnitude more reducing than the iron-wüstite buffer, IW-3.0, to IW+4.8) and ∼4 orders of magnitude in pH2/pH2O (from 0.003 to 24). Based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), our quenched experimental glasses contain 69-425 ppm total water (by weight). Our results demonstrate that under the conditions of our experiments: (1) hydroxyl is the only H-bearing species detected by FTIR; (2) the solubility of water is proportional to the square root of pH2O in the furnace atmosphere and is independent of fO2 and pH2/pH2O; (3) the solubility of water is very similar in both melt compositions; (4) the concentration of H2 in our iron-free experiments is <∼4 ppm, even at oxygen fugacities as low as IW-2.3 and pH2/pH2O as high as 11; (5) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of water in iron-rich glasses equilibrated under variable fO2 conditions may be strongly influenced by matrix effects, even when the concentration of water in the glasses is low; and (6) Our results can be used to constrain the entrapment pressure of lunar melt inclusions and the partial pressures of water and molecular hydrogen in the carrier gas of the lunar pyroclastic glass beads. We find that the most water-rich melt inclusion of Hauri et al. (2011) would be in equilibrium with a vapor with pH2O ∼ 3 bar and pH2 ∼ 8 bar. We constrain the partial pressures of water and molecular hydrogen in the carrier gas of the lunar pyroclastic glass beads to be 0.0005 bar and 0.0011 bar respectively. We calculate that batch degassing of lunar magmas containing initial volatile contents of 1200 ppm H2O (dissolved primarily as hydroxyl) and 4-64 ppm C would produce enough vapor to reach the critical vapor

  4. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  5. RIM101-Dependent and -Independent Pathways Govern pH Responses in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dana; Wilson, R. Bryce; Mitchell, Aaron P.

    2000-01-01

    Growth and differentiation of Candida albicans over a broad pH range underlie its ability to infect an array of tissues in susceptible hosts. We identified C. albicans RIM101, RIM20, and RIM8 based on their homology to components of the one known fungal pH response pathway. PCR product-disruption mutations in each gene cause defects in three responses to alkaline pH: filamentation, induction of PRA1 and PHR1, and repression of PHR2. We find that RIM101 itself is an alkaline-induced gene that also depends on Rim20p and Rim8p for induction. Two observations indicate that a novel pH response pathway also exists. First, PHR2 becomes an alkaline-induced gene in the absence of Rim101p, Rim20p, or Rim8p. Second, we created strains in which Rim101p activity is independent of Rim20p and Rim8p; in these strains, filamentation remains pH dependent. Thus, pH governs gene expression and cellular differentiation in C. albicans through both RIM101-dependent and RIM101-independent pathways. PMID:10629054

  6. Controls on the pH of hyper-saline lakes - A lesson from the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golan, Rotem; Gavrieli, Ittai; Ganor, Jiwchar; Lazar, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    The pH of aqueous environments is determined by the dominant buffer systems of the water, defined operationally as total alkalinity (TA). The major buffer systems in the modern ocean are carbonic and boric acids of which the species bicarbonate, carbonate and borate make up about 77%, 19% and 4% of the TA, respectively. During the course of seawater evaporation (e.g. lagoons) the residual brine loses considerable portion of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate alkalinity (CA) already at the early stages of evaporation. DIC and CA decrease due to massive precipitation of CaCO3, while total boron (TB) increases conservatively, turning borate to the dominant alkalinity species in marine derived brines. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (KB‧) in saline and hypersaline waters, using the Dead Sea (DS) as a case study. We explain the DS low pH (∼6.3) and the effect of the boric and carbonic acid pK‧-s on the behavior of the brine's buffer system, including the pH increase that results from brine dilution. The KB‧ in DS was estimated from TB, TA, DIC and pH data measured in this study and early empirical data on artificial DS brines containing just carbonic acid. The KB‧ value was corroborated by Pitzer ion interaction model calculations using PHREEQC thermodynamic code applied to the chemical composition of the DS. Our results show that KB‧ increases considerably with the brine's ionic strength, reaching in the DS to a factor of 100 higher than in ;mean; seawater. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses of other natural brines it is suggested that brines' composition is a major factor in determining the KB‧ value and in turn the pH of such brines. We show that the higher the proportion of divalent cations in the brine the higher the dissociation constants of the weak acids (presumably due to formation of complexes). The low pH of the Dead Sea is accordingly explained by its extremely

  7. Modeling Carbon Dioxide, pH and Un-Ionized Ammonia Relationships in Serial Reuse Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, Barnaby J.; Rust, Michael; Colt, John

    2009-01-01

    In serial reuse systems, excretion of metabolic carbon dioxide has a significant impact on ambient pH, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia concentrations. This impact depends strongly on alkalinity, water flow rate, feeding rate, and loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. A reduction in pH from metabolic carbon dioxide can significantly reduce the un-ionized ammonia concentration and increase the carbon dioxide concentrations compared to those parameters computed from influent pH. The ability to accurately predict pH in serial reuse systems is critical to their design and effective operation. A trial and error solution to the alkalinity–pH system was used to estimate important water quality parameters in serial reuse systems. Transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the air–water interface, at overflow weirs, and impacts of substrate-attached algae and suspended bacteria were modeled. Gas transfer at the weirs was much greater than transfer across the air–water boundary. This simulation model can rapidly estimate influent and effluent concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and un-ionized ammonia as a function of water temperature, elevation, water flow, and weir type. The accuracy of the estimates strongly depends on assumed pollutional loading rates and gas transfer at the weirs. The current simulation model is based on mean daily loading rates; the impacts of daily variation loading rates are discussed. Copies of the source code and executable program are available free of charge.

  8. Analysis of ambient pH stress response mediated by iron and copper intake in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Mori, Hikari; Kubota, Takeo; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of tolerance to alkaline pH is well studied in model fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, how fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe survives under alkaline stress remains largely unknown, as the genes involved in the alkaline stress response pathways of A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae were not found in the genome of this organism. Since uptake of iron and copper into cells is important for alkaline tolerance in S. cerevisiae, here we examined whether iron and copper uptake processes were involved in conferring tolerance to alkaline stress in S. pombe. We first revealed that S. pombe wild-type strain could not grow at a pH higher than 6.7. We further found that the growths of mutants harboring disruption in the iron uptake-related gene frp1 + , fio1 + or fip1 + were severely inhibited under ambient pH stress condition. In contrast, derepression of these genes, by deletion of their repressor gene fep1 + , caused cells to acquire resistance to pH stress. Together, these results suggested that uptake of iron is essential for ambient pH tolerance in S. pombe. We also found that copper is required for the pH stress response because disruptants of ctr4 + , ctr5 + , ccc2 + and cuf1 + genes, all of which are needed for regulating intracellular Cu + , displayed ambient pH sensitivity. Furthermore, supplementing Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ions to the culture media improved growth under ambient pH stress. Taken together, our results suggested that uptake of iron and copper is the crucial factor needed for the adaptation of S. pombe to ambient pH stress. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparative Study: Taxonomic Grouping of Alkaline Protease Producing Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun; Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Karaca, Basar; Cokmus, Cumhur

    2017-03-30

    Alkaline proteases have biotechnological importance due to their activity and stability at alkaline pH. 56 bacteria, capable of growing under alkaline conditions were isolated and their alkaline protease activities were carried out at different parameters to determine their optimum alkaline protease production conditions. Seven isolates were showed higher alkaline protease production capacity than the reference strains. The highest alkaline protease producing isolates (103125 U/g), E114 and C265, were identified as Bacillus licheniformis with 99.4% and Bacillus mojavensis 99.8% based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. Interestingly, the isolates identified as Bacillus safensis were also found to be high alkaline protease producing strains. Genotypic characterizations of the isolates were also determined by using a wide range of molecular techniques (ARDRA, ITS-PCR, (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR). These different techniques allowed us to differentiate the alkaliphilic isolates and the results were in concurrence with phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA genes. While ITS-PCR provided the highest correlation with 16S rRNA groups, (GTG)5-PCR showed the highest differentiation at species and intra-species level. In this study, each of the biotechnologically valuable alkaline protease producing isolates was grouped into their taxonomic positions with multi-genotypic analyses.

  10. Solvation structures and dynamics of alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshri, Sonanki; Mandal, Ratnamala; Tembe, B. L.

    2016-09-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics simulations of alkaline earth metal halides have been carried out to investigate their structural and dynamical properties in supercritical water. Potentials of mean force (PMFs) for all the alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water have been computed. Contact ion pairs (CIPs) are found to be more stable than all other configurations of the ion pairs except for MgI2 where solvent shared ion pair (SShIP) is more stable than the CIP. There is hardly any difference in the PMFs between the M2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and the X- (X = F, Cl, Br, I) ions whether the second X- ion is present in the first coordination shell of the M2+ ion or not. The solvent molecules in the solvation shells diffuse at a much slower rate compared to the bulk. Orientational distribution functions of solvent molecules are sharper for smaller ions.

  11. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

  12. Structural Insight into and Mutational Analysis of Family 11 Xylanases: Implications for Mechanisms of Higher pH Catalytic Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenqin; Zhou, Cheng; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases, we compared the structures of alkaline, neutral, and acidic active xylanases and analyzed mutants of xylanase Xyn11A-LC from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. SN5. It was revealed that alkaline active xylanases have increased charged residue content, an increased ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, and decreased Ser, Thr, and Tyr residue content relative to non-alkaline active counterparts. Between strands β6 and β7, alkaline xylanases substitute an α-helix for a coil or turn found in their non-alkaline counterparts. Compared with non-alkaline xylanases, alkaline active enzymes have an inserted stretch of seven amino acids rich in charged residues, which may be beneficial for xylanase function in alkaline conditions. Positively charged residues on the molecular surface and ionic bonds may play important roles in higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases. By structure comparison, sequence alignment and mutational analysis, six amino acids (Glu16, Trp18, Asn44, Leu46, Arg48, and Ser187, numbering based on Xyn11A-LC) adjacent to the acid/base catalyst were found to be responsible for xylanase function in higher pH conditions. Our results will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of higher pH catalytic adaptation in family 11 xylanases and engineering xylanases to suit industrial applications.

  13. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311-318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm. 51

  14. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used to evaluate the acidity or alkalinity of urine as it relates to numerous renal and metabolic disorders and in...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1550 - Urinary pH (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to estimate the pH of urine. Estimations of pH are used to evaluate the acidity or alkalinity of urine as it relates to numerous renal and metabolic disorders and in...

  16. Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process for germanium extraction from zinc oxide dust and its analysis by response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wankun; Wang, Fuchun; Lu, Fanghai

    2017-12-01

    Microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process was proposed to improve the germanium (Ge) extraction from zinc oxide (ZnO) dust. The effects of important parameters were investigated and the process conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The Ge extraction is consistent with the linear polynomial model type. Alkali-material ratio, microwave heating temperature and leaching temperature are the significant factors for this process. The optimized conditions are obtained as follows, alkali-material ratio of 0.9 kg/kg, aging time of 1.12 day, microwave heating at 658 K for 10 min, liquid-solid ratio of 4.31 L/kg, leaching temperature at 330 K, leaching time of 47 min with the Ge extraction about 99.38%. It is in consistence with the predictive value of 99.31%. Compared to the existed alkaline roasting process heated by electric furnace in literature, the alkaline roasting temperature and holding time. It shows a good prospect on leaching Ge from ZnO dust with microwave alkaline roasting-water dissolving process.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  18. Microbial destruction by low concentrations of hypochlorite and iodophor germicides in alkaline and acidified water.

    PubMed

    Hays, H; Elliker, P R; Sandine, W E

    1967-05-01

    Hypochlorite and iodophor germicides were evaluated for their ability to destroy a variety of organisms at levels approximating those used for final sanitizing rinse for dairy and food equipment and beverage bottles (3 to 50 ppm). Test organisms included Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hypochlorites and iodophors demonstrated approximate rates of destruction at equivalent concentrations for the bacterial species tested, except where the hypochlorite contained excess alkalinity. The hypochlorite responded more readily to a downward shift to a pH of 5.0 than did the iodophor. Excess alkalinity of the hypochlorite significantly affected its bactericidal activity. The iodophor exhibited a consistently greater rate of destruction of yeast cells than the hypochlorite. Successive treatment with low levels of iodophor (6 ppm) followed by a hypochlorite (12 to 25 ppm) resulted in a high level of destruction of all test organisms. Possibilities for employing these measures in a sanitizing rinse of bottles for maximal destruction of organisms were discussed. Among the test organisms, S. lactis showed a comparatively high resistance and was a useful organism for comparing the halogen preparations.

  19. Spatial variability of surface-sediment porewater pH and related water-column characteristics in deep waters of the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Changgao; Sui, Yi; Tang, Danling; Legendre, Louis

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzes the pH of surface-sediment porewater (i.e. 2-3 cm below the water-sediment interface), and concentrations of CaCO3 and organic carbon (OC) in 1192 sediment cores from the northern South China Sea, in water depths ranging from 137 to 3702 m. This is the first study in the literature to analyze the large-scale spatial variability of deep-water surface-sediment pH over a large ocean basin. The data showed strong spatial variations in pH. The lowest pH values (<7.3) were observed south of Hainan Island, an area that is affected by summer upwelling and freshwater runoff from the Pearl and Red Rivers. Moderately low pH values (generally 7.3-7.5) occurred in two other areas: a submarine canyon, where sediments originated partly from the Pearl River and correspond to a paleo-delta front during the last glacial period; and southwest of Taiwan Island, where waters are affected by the northern branch of the Kuroshio intrusion current (KIC) and runoff from Taiwan rivers. The surface sediments with the highest pH (⩾7.5, and up to 8.3) were located in a fourth area, which corresponded to the western branch of the KIC where sediments have been intensively eroded by bottom currents. The pH of surface-sediment porewater was significantly linearly related to water depth, bottom-water temperature, and CaCO3 concentration (p < 0.05 for the whole sampling area). This study shows that the pH of surface-sediment porewater can be sensitive to characteristics of the overlying water column, and suggests that it will respond to global warming as changes in surface-ocean temperature and pH progressively reach deeper waters.

  20. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  1. Effects of water quality parameters on boron toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Gail M; Stubblefield, William A; Schlekat, Christian E

    2009-07-01

    The potential modifying effects of certain water quality parameters (e.g., hardness, alkalinity, pH) on the acute toxicity of boron were tested using a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. By comparison, boron acute toxicity was less affected by water quality characteristics than some metals (e.g., copper and silver). Increases in alkalinity over the range tested did not alter toxicity. Increases in water hardness appeared to have an effect with very hard waters (>500 mg/L as CaCO(3)). Decreased pH had a limited influence on boron acute toxicity in laboratory waters. Increasing chloride concentration did not provide a protective effect. Boron acute toxicity was unaffected by sodium concentrations. Median acute lethal concentrations (LC(50)) in natural water samples collected from three field sites were all greater than in reconstituted laboratory waters that matched natural waters in all respects except for dissolved organic carbon. Water effect ratios in these waters ranged from 1.4 to 1.8. In subsequent studies using a commercially available source of natural organic matter, acute toxicity decreased with increased dissolved organic carbon, suggesting, along with the natural water studies, that dissolved organic carbon should be considered further as a modifier of boron toxicity in natural waters where it exceeds 2 mg/L.

  2. Saliva and tongue coating pH before and after use of mouthwashes and relationship with parameters of halitosis

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; TARZIA, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH in oral healthy patients with morning bad breath before and after use of different oral mouthrinses. Material and Methods aliva and tongue coating pH of 50 patients allocated in 5 groups were measured respectively by a digital pHmeter and color pH indicators, before, immediately after and 30 min after rinsing 5 different mouthrinses: cetilpiridine chloride associated with sodium chloride, triclosan, enzymatic solution, essential oil and distilled water. Results Only triclosan and essential oil increased salivary pH immediately after rising. The enzymatic solution decreased salivary and tongue coating pH immediately after rinsing. Conclusion Salivary pH tended to be acidic while tongue coating pH tended to be alkaline, even after rising. Triclosan and essential oil mouthrinses increased salivary pH immediately after rinsing. Enzymatic solution decreased saliva and tongue coating pH immediately after rising. PMID:21552707

  3. Production of Alkaline Cellulase by Fungi Isolated from an Undisturbed Rain Forest of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Karin; Villena, Gretty K.; Sarmiento, Victor H.; Ludeña, Yvette; Vera, Nadia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate method was used for the enumeration and isolation of fast growing cellulolytic fungi on an enriched selective medium. Eleven out of 50 different morphological colonies were finally selected by using the plate clearing assay with CMC as substrate at different pH values. All 11 strains produced cellulases in liquid culture with activities at alkaline pH values without an apparent decrease of them indicating that they are true alkaline cellulase producers. Aspergillus sp. LM-HP32, Penicillium sp. LM-HP33, and Penicillium sp. LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (>3 U mL−1) with higher specific productivities (>30 U g−1 h−1). Three strains have been found suitable for developing processes for alkaline cellulase production. Soils from Amazonian rain forests are good sources of industrial fungi with particular characteristics. The results of the present study are of commercial and biological interest. Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry. PMID:23213539

  4. Production optimization of a heat-tolerant alkaline pectinase from Bacillus subtilis ZGL14 and its purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Zhang, Yishu; Gu, Donglu

    2017-09-03

    Alkaline pectinase has important applications in the pretreatment of waste water from food processing and in both the fabric and paper industries. In this study, a 2-level factorial design was used to screen significant factors that affect the activity of alkaline pectinase, and the response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize their concentrations. Starch, peptone, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 HPO 4 ·3H 2 O were found to significantly affect the activity of alkaline pectinase. Their optimal concentrations were as follows: 4.68% starch, 1.6% peptone, 0.26% KH 2 PO 4 and 0.68% K 2 HPO 4 ·3H 2 O. Under the above conditions, the activity of alkaline pectinase was significantly improved to 734.11 U/mL. Alkaline pectinase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery rate of 9.6% and a specific activity of 52372.52 U/mg. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50°C and 8.6, respectively. The purified enzyme showed strong thermo-stability and good alkali resistance. In addition, the activity of alkaline pectinase was improved in the presence of Mg 2+ . Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Co 2+ significantly inhibited its activity. This study provides an important basis for the future development and use of a heat-tolerant alkaline pectinase from B. subtilis ZGL14.

  5. Production optimization of a heat-tolerant alkaline pectinase from Bacillus subtilis ZGL14 and its purification and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Zhang, Yishu; Gu, Donglu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alkaline pectinase has important applications in the pretreatment of waste water from food processing and in both the fabric and paper industries. In this study, a 2-level factorial design was used to screen significant factors that affect the activity of alkaline pectinase, and the response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize their concentrations. Starch, peptone, KH2PO4 and K2HPO4·3H2O were found to significantly affect the activity of alkaline pectinase. Their optimal concentrations were as follows: 4.68% starch, 1.6% peptone, 0.26% KH2PO4 and 0.68% K2HPO4·3H2O. Under the above conditions, the activity of alkaline pectinase was significantly improved to 734.11 U/mL. Alkaline pectinase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery rate of 9.6% and a specific activity of 52372.52 U/mg. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50°C and 8.6, respectively. The purified enzyme showed strong thermo-stability and good alkali resistance. In addition, the activity of alkaline pectinase was improved in the presence of Mg2+. Cu2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ significantly inhibited its activity. This study provides an important basis for the future development and use of a heat-tolerant alkaline pectinase from B. subtilis ZGL14. PMID:28282260

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A priormore » fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to

  7. Effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yichao; Liu, Shijie; Li, Jiang; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping was investigated. The properties of black liquor and pulp strength of bagasse were analyzed. The extraction was conducted at 160 degrees C for 30min where 13.2% of the mass was dissolved in the extraction liquor. Untreated bagasse and extracted bagasse were digested by soda and soda-AQ processes at 17% and 15.5% (with 0.1% AQ) alkali charge (NaOH). Cooking temperatures were 160 degrees C and 155 degrees C respectively. The pulp from extracted bagasse had a lower Kappa number and a higher viscosity compared to the pulp from the untreated bagasse. The black liquor from pulping extracted bagasse had a lower solid content, a lower viscosity and a lower silica content, but a higher heating value than that from pulping of untreated bagasse. Hot-water extraction resulted in a significant decrease in bleaching chemical consumption and the formation of chlorinated organics. Pulp strength properties such as the tensile index and the burst index were found to be lower, but the tear index, bulk, opacity and pulp freeness were found to be higher when hot-water extraction was applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chapter A6. Section 6.6. Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2002-01-01

    Alkalinity (determined on a filtered sample) and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) (determined on a whole-water sample) are measures of the ability of a water sample to neutralize strong acid. Alkalinity and ANC provide information on the suitability of water for uses such as irrigation, determining the efficiency of wastewater processes, determining the presence of contamination by anthropogenic wastes, and maintaining ecosystem health. In addition, alkalinity is used to gain insights on the chemical evolution of an aqueous system. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the USGS field protocols for alkalinity/ANC determination using either the inflection-point or Gran function plot methods, including calculation of carbonate species, and provides guidance on equipment selection.

  9. The Nature of Surface Oxides on Corrosion-Resistant Nickel Alloy Covered by Alkaline Water

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A nickel alloy with high chrome and molybdenum content was found to form a highly resistive and passive oxide layer. The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. PMID:20672134

  10. Variation in pH optima of hydrolytic enzyme activities in tropical rain forest soils.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-10-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates.

  11. Turbulent acidic jets and plumes injected into an alkaline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulpre, Hendrik

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of a strong acidic turbulent jet or plume injected into an alkaline environment comprising of a weak/strong base are examined theoretically and experimentally. A chemistry model is developed to understand how the pH of a fluid parcel of monoprotic acid changes as it is diluted and reacts with the ambient fluid. A standard fluid model, based on a top-hat model for acid concentration and velocity is used to express how the dilution of acid varies with distance from the point of discharge. These models are applied to estimate the point of neutralisation and the travel time with distance within the jet/plume. An experimental study was undertaken to test the theoretical results. These experiments involved injecting jets or vertical plumes of dilute nitric acid into a large tank containing a variety of base salts dissolved in water. The injected fluid contained litmus indicator dye which showed a change in colour from red to blue close to the point of neutralisation. In order to obtain a range of neutralisation distances, additional basic salts were added to the water to increase its pH buffering capacity. The results are applied to discuss the environmental implications of an acidic jet/plume injected into the sea off the South East coast of Great Britain.

  12. Genotyping by alkaline dehybridization using graphically encoded particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaibin; DeConinck, Adam J; Slimmer, Scott C; Doyle, Patrick S; Lewis, Jennifer A; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2011-03-01

    This work describes a nonenzymatic, isothermal genotyping method based on the kinetic differences exhibited in the dehybridization of perfectly matched (PM) and single-base mismatched (MM) DNA duplexes in an alkaline solution. Multifunctional encoded hydrogel particles incorporating allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes in two distinct regions were fabricated by using microfluidic-based stop-flow lithography. Each particle contained two distinct ASO probe sequences differing at a single base position, and thus each particle was capable of simultaneously probing two distinct target alleles. Fluorescently labeled target alleles were annealed to both probe regions of a particle, and the rate of duplex dehybridization was monitored by using fluorescence microscopy. Duplex dehybridization was achieved through an alkaline stimulus using either a pH step function or a temporal pH gradient. When a single target probe sequence was used, the rate of mismatch duplex dehybridization could be discriminated from the rate of perfect match duplex dehybridization. In a more demanding application in which two distinct probe sequences were used, we found that the rate profiles provided a means to discriminate probe dehybridizations from both of the two mismatched duplexes as well as to distinguish at high certainty the dehybridization of the two perfectly matched duplexes. These results demonstrate an ability of alkaline dehybridization to correctly discriminate the rank hierarchy of thermodynamic stability among four sets of perfect match and single-base mismatch duplexes. We further demonstrate that these rate profiles are strongly temperature dependent and illustrate how the sensitivity can be compensated beneficially by the use of an actuating gradient pH field. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural Insight into and Mutational Analysis of Family 11 Xylanases: Implications for Mechanisms of Higher pH Catalytic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wenqin; Zhou, Cheng; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases, we compared the structures of alkaline, neutral, and acidic active xylanases and analyzed mutants of xylanase Xyn11A-LC from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. SN5. It was revealed that alkaline active xylanases have increased charged residue content, an increased ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, and decreased Ser, Thr, and Tyr residue content relative to non-alkaline active counterparts. Between strands β6 and β7, alkaline xylanases substitute an α-helix for a coil or turn found in their non-alkaline counterparts. Compared with non-alkaline xylanases, alkaline active enzymes have an inserted stretch of seven amino acids rich in charged residues, which may be beneficial for xylanase function in alkaline conditions. Positively charged residues on the molecular surface and ionic bonds may play important roles in higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases. By structure comparison, sequence alignment and mutational analysis, six amino acids (Glu16, Trp18, Asn44, Leu46, Arg48, and Ser187, numbering based on Xyn11A-LC) adjacent to the acid/base catalyst were found to be responsible for xylanase function in higher pH conditions. Our results will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of higher pH catalytic adaptation in family 11 xylanases and engineering xylanases to suit industrial applications. PMID:26161643

  14. Correlation between pH dependence of O2 evolution and sensitivity of Mn cations in the oxygen-evolving complex to exogenous reductants.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Davletshina, Lira N; Rubin, Andrei B

    2015-08-01

    Effects of pH, Ca(2+), and Cl(-) ions on the extraction of Mn cations from oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in Ca-depleted photosystem II (PSII(-Ca)) by exogenous reductants hydroquinone (H2Q) and H2O2 were studied. Two of 4 Mn cations are released by H2Q and H2O2 at pHs 5.7, 6.5, and 7.5, and their extraction does not depend on the presence of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) ions. One of Mn cations ("resistant" Mn cation) cannot be extracted by H2Q and H2O2 at any pH. Extraction of 4th Mn ion ("flexible" Mn cation) is sensitive to pH, Ca(2+), and Cl(-). This Mn cation is released by reductants at pH 6.5 but not at pHs 5.7 and 7.5. A pH dependence curve of the oxygen-evolving activity in PSII(-Ca) membranes (in the presence of exogenous Ca(2+)) has a bell-shaped form with the maximum at pH 6.5. Thus, the increase in the resistance of flexible Mn cation in OEC to the action of reductants at acidic and alkaline pHs coincides with the decrease in oxygen evolution activity at these pHs. Exogenous Ca(2+) protects the extraction of flexible Mn cation at pH 6.5. High concentration of Cl(-) anions (100 mM) shifts the pH optimum of oxygen evolution to alkaline region (around pH 7.5), while the pH of flexible Mn extraction is also shifted to alkaline pH. This result suggests that flexible Mn cation plays a key role in the water-splitting reaction. The obtained results also demonstrate that only one Mn cation in Mn4 cluster is under strong control of calcium. The change in the flexible Mn cation resistance to exogenous reductants in the presence of Ca(2+) suggests that Ca(2+) can control the redox potential of this cation.

  15. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots. PMID:27605716

  16. Survival of prokaryotes in a polluted waste dump during remediation by alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Lever, Mark Alexander; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2014-04-01

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques was used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities in a highly polluted waste dump and to assess the effect of remediation by alkaline hydrolysis on these communities. This waste dump (Breakwater 42), located in Denmark, contains approximately 100 different toxic compounds including large amounts of organophosphorous pesticides such as parathions. The alkaline hydrolysis (12 months at pH >12) decimated bacterial and archaeal abundances, as estimated by 16S rRNA gene-based qPCR, from 2.1 × 10(4) and 2.9 × 10(3) gene copies per gram wet soil respectively to below the detection limit of the qPCR assay. Clone libraries constructed from PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a significant reduction in bacterial diversity as a result of the alkaline hydrolysis, with preferential survival of Betaproteobacteria, which increased in relative abundance from 0 to 48 %. Many of the bacterial clone sequences and the 27 isolates were related to known xenobiotic degraders. An archaeal clone library from a non-hydrolyzed sample showed the presence of three main clusters, two representing methanogens and one representing marine aerobic ammonia oxidizers. Isolation of alkalitolerant bacterial pure cultures from the hydrolyzed soil confirmed that although alkaline hydrolysis severely reduces microbial community diversity and size certain bacteria survive a prolonged alkaline hydrolysis process. Some of the isolates from the hydrolyzed soil were capable of growing at high pH (pH 10.0) in synthetic media indicating that they could become active in in situ biodegradation upon hydrolysis.

  17. Narrow pH Range of Surface Water Bodies Receiving Pesticide Input in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Weyers, Arnd; Ebeling, Markus; Elsaesser, David; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Fate and toxicity of the active ingredients (AI's) of plant protection products in surface waters is often influenced by pH. Although a general range of pH values is reported in literature, an evaluation targeting aquatic ecosystems with documented AI inputs is lacking at the larger scale. Results show 95% of European surface waters (n = 3075) with a documented history of AI exposure fall within a rather narrow pH range, between 7.0 and 8.5. Spatial and temporal variability in the data may at least be partly explained by the calcareous characteristics of parental rock material, the affiliation of the sampling site to a freshwater ecoregion, and the photosynthetic activity of macrophytes (i.e., higher pH values with photosynthesis). Nonetheless, the documented pH range fits well with the standard pH of most ecotoxicological test guidelines, confirming the fate and ecotoxicity of AIs are usually adequately addressed.

  18. Elucidating Performance Limitations in Alkaline-Exchange- Membrane Fuel Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Shiau, Huai-Suen; Zenyuk, Iryna V.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2017-07-15

    Water management is a serious concern for alkaline-exchange-membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) because water is a reactant in the alkaline oxygen-reduction reaction and hydroxide conduction in alkaline-exchange membranes is highly hydration dependent. Here in this article, we develop and use a multiphysics, multiphase model to explore water management in AEMFCs. We demonstrate that the low performance is mostly caused by extremely non-uniform distribution of water in the ionomer phase. A sensitivity analysis of design parameters including humidification strategies, membrane properties, and water transport resistance was undertaken to explore possible optimization strategies. Furthermore, the strategy and issues of reducing bicarbonate/carbonate buildup inmore » the membrane-electrode assembly with CO 2 from air is demonstrated based on the model prediction. Overall, mathematical modeling is used to explore trends and strategies to overcome performance bottlenecks and help enable AEMFC commercialization.« less

  19. Formation of M-Like Intermediates in Proteorhodopsin in Alkali Solutions (pH ≥ ∼8.5) Where the Proton Release Occurs First in Contrast to the Sequence at Lower pH.

    PubMed

    Tamogami, Jun; Sato, Keitaro; Kurokawa, Sukuna; Yamada, Takumi; Nara, Toshifumi; Demura, Makoto; Miyauchi, Seiji; Kikukawa, Takashi; Muneyuki, Eiro; Kamo, Naoki

    2016-02-23

    Proteorhodopsin (PR) is an outward light-driven proton pump observed in marine eubacteria. Despite many structural and functional similarities to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in archaea, which also acts as an outward proton pump, the mechanism of the photoinduced proton release and uptake is different between two H(+)-pumps. In this study, we investigated the pH dependence of the photocycle and proton transfer in PR reconstituted with the phospholipid membrane under alkaline conditions. Under these conditions, as the medium pH increased, a blue-shifted photoproduct (defined as Ma), which is different from M, with a pKa of ca. 9.2 was produced. The sequence of the photoinduced proton uptake and release during the photocycle was inverted with the increase in pH. A pKa value of ca. 9.5 was estimated for this inversion and was in good agreement with the pKa value of the formation of Ma (∼ 9.2). In addition, we measured the photoelectric current generated by PRs attached to a thin polymer film at varying pH. Interestingly, increases in the medium pH evoked bidirectional photocurrents, which may imply a possible reversal of the direction of the proton movement at alkaline pH. On the basis of these findings, a putative photocycle and proton transfer scheme in PR under alkaline pH conditions was proposed.

  20. Nanofiltration of Mine Water: Impact of Feed pH and Membrane Charge on Resource Recovery and Water Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Mullett, Mark; Fornarelli, Roberta; Ralph, David

    2014-01-01

    Two nanofiltration membranes, a Dow NF 270 polyamide thin film and a TriSep TS 80 polyamide thin film, were investigated for their retention of ionic species when filtering mine influenced water streams at a range of acidic pH values. The functional iso-electric point of the membranes, characterized by changes in retention over a small pH range, were examined by filtering solutions of sodium sulphate. Both membranes showed changes in retention at pH 3, suggesting a zero net charge on the membranes at this pH. Copper mine drainage and synthetic solutions of mine influenced water were filtered using the same membranes. These solutions were characterized by pH values within 2 and 5, thus crossing the iso-electric point of both membranes. Retention of cations was maximized when the feed solution pH was less than the iso-electric point of the membrane. In these conditions, the membrane has a net positive charge, reducing the transmission rate of cations. From the recoveries of a range of cations, the suitability of nanofiltration was discussed relative to the compliance with mine water discharge criteria and the recovery of valuable commodity metals. The nanofiltration process was demonstrated to offer advantages in metal recovery from mine waste streams, concomitantly enabling discharge criteria for the filtrate disposal to be met. PMID:24957170

  1. Global Variability and Changes in Ocean Total Alkalinity from Aquarius Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, R. A.; Willey, D. A.; Millero, F. J., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    To document effects of ocean acidification it is important to have an understanding of the processes and parameters that influence alkalinity. Alkalinity is a gauge on the ability of seawater to neutralize acids. We use Aquarius satellite data, which allow unprecedented global mapping of surface total alkalinity as it correlates strongly with salinity and to a lesser extent with temperature. Spatial variability in total alkalinity and salinity exceed temporal variability, the latter includes seasonal and differences compared to climatological data. The northern hemisphere has more spatial and monthly variability in total alkalinity and salinity, while less variability in Southern Ocean alkalinity is due to less salinity variability and upwelling of waters enriched in alkalinity. Satellite alkalinity data are providing a global baseline that can be used for comparing with future carbon data, and for evaluating spatial and temporal variability and past trends. For the first time it is shown that recent satellite derived total alkalinity in the subtropics have increased as compared with climatological data; this is reflective of large scale changes in the global water cycle. Total alkalinity increases imply increased dissolution of calcareous minerals and difficulty for calcifying organisms to make their shells.

  2. Determination of water pH using absorption-based optical sensors: evaluation of different calculation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongliang; Liu, Baohua; Ding, Zhongjun; Wang, Xiangxin

    2017-02-01

    Absorption-based optical sensors have been developed for the determination of water pH. In this paper, based on the preparation of a transparent sol-gel thin film with a phenol red (PR) indicator, several calculation methods, including simple linear regression analysis, quadratic regression analysis and dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis, were used to calculate water pH. Results of MSSRR show that dual-wavelength absorbance ratio analysis can improve the calculation accuracy of water pH in long-term measurement.

  3. Accuracy of the evaluation method for alkaline agents’ bactericidal efficacies in solid, and the required time of bacterial inactivation

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; OTA, Mari; SUZUKI, Mayuko; KOMURA, Miyuki; YAMADA, Masashi; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa (OH)2) in the powder form, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chicken feces at pH 13. The point for this evaluation was neutralization of the alkaline agent’s pH at the time of bacterial recovery, since otherwise the results are substantially misleading. Without neutralization of the FdCa (OH)2 pH, the spiked bacteria were killed within min at the time of recovery in aqueous phase, but not in the solid form in feces, hence, it has been demonstrated that when bacteria were in solid, it took longer time than in liquid for the alkaline agent to inactivate them down to the acceptable level (≥3 log10 CFU/ml). PMID:27890906

  4. pH dependent green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by completely C6-carboxylated curdlan under high temperature and various pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wen-Yi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao-Yao; Ding, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Li-Xia; Cai, Wu-Dan; Yan, Jing-Kun

    2018-01-01

    A C6-carboxylated curdlan (C6-Cc) obtained from 4-acetamido-TEMPO-mediated oxidation of curdlan was used both as a reducing and stabilizing agent for green synthesis of pH-responsive AuNPs, which was carried out by controlling the pH of the C6-Cc solution at a high temperature (100°C). C6-Cc presented a semi-flexible random coil chain in the aqueous medium at pH 5.5 and became more expanded and rigid in alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0), though the primary chemical structure of C6-Cc was virtually unchanged with the pH variation. The AuNPs prepared with C6-Cc at various pHs were characterized by various instrumental measurements. The shapes and sizes of AuNPs were found to be strongly dependent on the pH of the C6-Cc solution. The C6-Cc-decorated AuNPs exhibited a more well-dispersed spherical morphology with smaller particle sizes under alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0). Through this study, a facile, simple, and green method has been demonstrated for preparation of stimuli-sensitive AuNPs using biocompatible polyanionic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Hydrochemistry on Mineral Precipitation and Textural Diversity in Serpentinization-driven Alkaline Environments; Insights from Thermal Springs in the Oman Ophiolite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, W.; Giampouras, M.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Garrido, C. J.; Los, C.; Fussmann, D.; Monien, P.

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between meteoric water and ultramafic rocks within Oman ophiolite give rise to the formation of thermal spring waters of variable composition and temperature. Discharge of two different types of water forms complex hydrological networks of streams and ponds, in which the waters mix, undergo evaporation, and take up atmospheric CO2. We conducted a pond-by-pond sampling of waters and precipitates in two spring sites within the Wadi Tayin massif, Nasif and Khafifah, and examined how hydrochemistry and associated mineral saturation states affect the variations in mineral phases and textures. Three distinctive types of waters were identified in the system: a) Mg-type (7.9 < pH < 9.5); Mg-HCO3-rich waters, b) Ca-type (pH > 11.6); Ca-OH-rich waters, and c) Mix-type (9.6 < pH < 11.5); waters arising upon mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type. PHREEQC was used to evaluate the role of mixing in aqueous speciation and the evolution of the saturation index value of different mineral phases. Mineral and textural characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were combined with these hydrogeochemical constraints to determine the factors controlling mineralogical and textural diversity in the system. In Ca-type waters, uptake of CO2 during the exposure of the fluids to the atmosphere is the predominant precipitation mechanism of CaCO3. High Mg:Ca ratios and high supersaturation rate of CaCO3 favor the growth of aragonite over calcite in mixed fluids. Changes in morphology and texture of aragonite crystals and crystal aggregates indicate the variations in the values of supersaturation and supersaturation rate of CaCO3 in the different water types. Brucite precipitation is common and driven by fluid mixing, while interaction with air-derived CO2 causes its alteration to hydromagnesite. The proximity of gabbroic lithologies appears to affect the presence of Al-bearing layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Furthermore, transformation of

  6. Alkaline thermal sludge hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Neyens, E; Baeyens, J; Creemers, C

    2003-02-28

    The waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment of wastewater produces excess sludge which needs further treatment prior to disposal or incineration. A reduction in the amount of excess sludge produced, and the increased dewaterability of the sludge are, therefore, subject of renewed attention and research. A lot of research covers the nature of the sludge solids and associated water. An improved dewaterability requires the disruption of the sludge cell structure. Previous investigations are reviewed in the paper. Thermal hydrolysis is recognized as having the best potential to meet the objectives and acid thermal hydrolysis is most frequently used, despite its serious drawbacks (corrosion, required post-neutralization, solubilization of heavy metals and phosphates, etc.). Alkaline thermal hydrolysis has been studied to a lesser extent, and is the subject of the detailed laboratory-scale research reported in this paper. After assessing the effect of monovalent/divalent cations (respectively, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) on the sludge dewaterability, only the use of Ca(2+) appears to offer the best solution. The lesser effects of K(+), Na(+) and Mg(2+) confirm previous experimental findings. As a result of the experimental investigations, it can be concluded that alkaline thermal hydrolysis using Ca(OH)(2) is efficient in reducing the residual sludge amounts and in improving the dewaterability. The objectives are fully met at a temperature of 100 degrees C; at a pH approximately 10 and for a 60-min reaction time, where all pathogens are moreover killed. Under these optimum conditions, the rate of mechanical dewatering increases (the capillary suction time (CST) value is decreased from approximately 34s for the initial untreated sample to approximately 22s for the hydrolyzed sludge sample) and the amount of DS to be dewatered is reduced to approximately 60% of the initial untreated amount. The DS-content of the dewatered cake will be increased from 28 (untreated) to 46

  7. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  8. Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH.

    PubMed

    Comeau, S; Tambutté, E; Carpenter, R C; Edmunds, P J; Evensen, N R; Allemand, D; Ferrier-Pagès, C; Tambutté, S; Venn, A A

    2017-01-25

    Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pH CF ) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pH CF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (A T ). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions. Our results show that despite constant pH in the surrounding seawater, pH CF is sensitive to shifts in carbonate chemistry associated with changes in [DIC] and [A T ], revealing that seawater pH is not the sole driver of pH CF Notably, when we synthesize our results with published data, we identify linear relationships of pH CF with the seawater [DIC]/[H + ] ratio, [A T ]/ [H + ] ratio and [[Formula: see text

  9. Effects of cement alkalinity, exposure conditions and steel-concrete interface on the time-to-corrosion and chloride threshold for reinforcing steel in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jingak

    Effects of (1) cement alkalinity (low, normal and high), (2) exposure conditions (RH and temperature), (3) rebar surface condition (as-received versus cleaned) and (4) density and distribution of air voids at the steel-concrete interface on the chloride threshold and time-to-corrosion for reinforcing steel in concrete have been studied. Also, experiments were performed to evaluate effects of RH and temperature on the diffusion of chloride in concrete and develop a method for ex-situ pH measurement of concrete pore water. Once specimens were fabricated and exposed to a corrosive chloride solution, various experimental techniques were employed to determine time-to-corrosion, chloride threshold, diffusion coefficient and void density along the rebar trace as well as pore water pH. Based upon the resultant data, several findings related to the above parameters have been obtained as summarized below. First, time for the corrosion initiation was longest for G109 concrete specimens with high alkalinity cement (HA). Also, chloride threshold increased with increasing time-to-corrosion and cement alkalinity. Consequently, the HA specimens exhibited the highest chloride threshold compared to low and normal alkalinity ones. Second, high temperature and temperature variations reduced time-to-corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete since chloride diffusion was accelerated at higher temperature and possibly by temperature variations. The lowest chloride threshold values were found for outdoor exposed specimens suggesting that variation of RH or temperature (or both) facilitated rapid chloride diffusion. Third, an elevated time-to-corrosion and chloride threshold values were found for the wire brushed steel specimens compared to as-received ones. The higher ratio of [OH-]/[Fe n+] on the wire brushed steel surface compared to that of as-received case can be the possible cause because the higher ratio of this parameter enables the formation of a more protective passive film on

  10. Natural and anthropogenic decadal pH decrease in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, E.; Flecha, S.; Murata, A.; Garcia Lafuente, J.; Pérez, F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Seawater pH is undergoing a decreasing trend due to atmospheric CO2 absorption, a phenomenon known as Ocean Acidification (OA) that has been documented in different ocean regions. Certain marine basins are more vulnerable to OA, such as the Mediterranean Sea (MS), which is attributed to particular water circulation processes and biogeochemical features. Considering previous studies on OA in Mediterranean and Atlantic water masses, the main aim of this work was to identify for the first time the natural and anthropogenic contribution to decadal pH variations. Therefore, an archetypal analysis was applied to pH measurements and other biogeochemical variables collected in the Strait of Gibraltar during 10 years. Our results reveal that the biological component of the pH change in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) (ΔpHWMDW) represents around 56% of the total decadal pH decrease observed, highlighting the relevance of the remineralization occurring in the Alboran basin, where the WMDW resides before leaving the MS. On the other hand, neither natural nor anthropogenic forcing on the pH change in the Levantine Intermediate Water (ΔpHLIW) was detected, as pH variation was negligible. As for the North Atlantic Central Water (NACW), atmospheric CO2 uptake was responsible of 58% of the ΔpHNACW, likely related to permanent contact with the atmosphere. Additionally, estimations of the approximated ages of the NACW, LIW and WMDW in the SG of about 8, 34 and 32 years respectively have been obtained. Our results show that Mediterranean waters undergo changes in their biogeochemical characteristics during transit through the SG and gives insights on the main mechanisms affecting pH variations occurring from their formation sites to the SG.

  11. Dependence of precipitation of trace elements on pH in standard water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shivcharan; Mohanty, Biraja P.; Singh, K. P.; Behera, B. R.; Kumar, Ashok

    2018-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the dependence of precipitation of trace elements on the pH of solution. A standard solution was prepared by using ultrapure deionized water (18.2 MΩ/cm) as the solvent and 11 water-soluble salts having different elements as solutes. Five samples of different pH values (2 acidic, 2 basic, and 1 neutral) were prepared from this standard solution. Sodium-diethyldithiocarbamate was used as the chelating agent to precipitate the metal ions present in these samples of different pH values. The targets were prepared by collecting these precipitates on mixed cellulose esters filter of 0.4 μm pore size by vacuum filtration. Elemental analysis of these targets was performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using 2.7 MeV protons from the single Dee variable energy cyclotron at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. PIXE data were analyzed using GUPIXWIN software. For most of the elements, except Hg with oxidation state +2, such as Co, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Cd, a general trend of enhancement in precipitation was observed with the increase in pH. However, for other elements such as V, As, Mo, Ag, and Bi, which have oxidation state other than +2, no definite pattern was observed. Precipitation of Ba and As using this method was negligible at all five pH values. From these results, it can be concluded that the precipitation and recovery of elements depend strongly on the pH of the water sample.

  12. Hydrogeochemistry of Big Soda Lake, Nevada: An alkaline meromictic desert lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Robinson, S.W.; Law, L.M.; Carothers, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    Big Soda Lake, located near Fallon, Nevada, occupies an explosion crater rimmed by basaltic debris; volcanic activity apparently ceased within the last 10,000 years. This lake has been selected for a detailed multidisciplinary study that will ultimately cover the organic and inorganic hydrogeochemistry of water and sediments because the time at which chemical stratification was initiated is known (~1920) and chemical analyses are available for a period of more than 100 years. Detailed chemical analyses of the waters show that the lake is at present alkaline (pH = 9.7), chemically stratified (meromictic) and is extremely anoxic (total reduced sulfur-410 mg/L as H2S) below a depth of about 35 m. The average concentrations (in mg/L) of Na, K, Mg, Ca, NH3, H2S, alkalinity (as HCO3), Cl, SO4, and dissolved organics (as C) in waters of the upper layer (depth 0 to 32 m) are 8,100, 320, 150, 5.0, < 0.1, < 0.5, 4,100, 7,100, 5,800, and 20 respectively; in the deeper layer (depth 37 to 64 m) they are 27,000, 1,200, 5.6, 0.8, 45, 410, 24,000, 27,500, 6,800, and 60, respectively. Chemical and stable isotope analyses of the waters, ??13C and ??14C values of dissolved total carbonate from this lake and surface and ground waters in the area together with mineral-water equilibrium computations indicate that the waters in the lake are primarily meteoric in origin with the present chemical composition resulting from the following geochemical processes: 1. (1) evaporation and exchange with atmosphere, the dominant processes, 2. (2) mineral-water interactions, including dissolution, precipitation and ion exchange, 3. (3) inflow and outflow of ground water and 4. (4) biological activity of macro- and microorganisms, including sulfate reduction in the water column of the deeper layer at a very high rate of 6.6 ??mol L-1 day-1. ?? 1984.

  13. A comparative review of cutaneous pH.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Jennifer L; Campbell, Karen L

    2002-12-01

    This review describes the role of pH in cutaneous structure and function. We first describe the molecules that contribute to the acidity or alkalinity of the skin. Next, differences in cutaneous pH among species, among individuals of the same species and within individuals are described. The potential functions of cutaneous pH in normal and diseased skin are analysed. For example, cutaneous pH has a role in the selection and maintenance of the normal cutaneous microbiota. In addition, cutaneous acidity may protect the skin against infection by microbes. Finally, there is evidence that a cutaneous pH gradient activates pH-dependent enzymes involved in the process of keratinization.

  14. Ambient pH Controls Glycogen Levels by Regulating Glycogen Synthase Gene Expression in Neurospora crassa. New Insights into the pH Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; de Paula, Renato Magalhães; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a polysaccharide widely distributed in microorganisms and animal cells and its metabolism is under intricate regulation. Its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively. These enzymes are highly regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. The existence of a DNA motif for the Aspergillus nidulans pH responsive transcription factor PacC in the promoter of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (gsn) in Neurospora crassa prompted us to investigate whether this transcription factor regulates glycogen accumulation. Transcription factors such as PacC in A. nidulans and Rim101p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae play a role in the signaling pathway that mediates adaptation to ambient pH by inducing the expression of alkaline genes and repressing acidic genes. We showed here that at pH 7.8 pacC was over-expressed and gsn was down-regulated in wild-type N. crassa coinciding with low glycogen accumulation. In the pacCKO strain the glycogen levels and gsn expression at alkaline pH were, respectively, similar to and higher than the wild-type strain at normal pH (5.8). These results characterize gsn as an acidic gene and suggest a regulatory role for PACC in gsn expression. The truncated recombinant protein, containing the DNA-binding domain specifically bound to a gsn DNA fragment containing the PacC motif. DNA-protein complexes were observed with extracts from cells grown at normal and alkaline pH and confirmed by ChIP-PCR analysis. The PACC present in these extracts showed equal molecular mass, indicating that the protein is already processed at normal pH, in contrast to A. nidulans. Together, these results show that the pH signaling pathway controls glycogen accumulation by regulating gsn expression and suggest the existence of a different mechanism for PACC activation in N. crassa. PMID:22952943

  15. Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  16. Usefulness of Organic Acid Produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on Neutralization of Alkaline Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry. PMID:22666107

  17. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Development of device producing electrolyzed water for home care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umimoto, K.; Nagata, S.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-06-01

    When water containing ionic substances is electrolyzed, electrolyzed water with strong bactericidal ability due to the available chlorine(AC) is generated on the anode side. Slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water (pH 6.5 to 7.5) is physiological pH and is suitable for biological applications. For producing slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water simply, a vertical-type electrolytic tank with an asymmetric structure was made. As a result, a small amount of strongly alkaline water was generated in the upper cathodic small chamber, and a large amount of weakly acidic water generated in the lower anodic large chamber. The pH and AC concentration in solutin mixed with both electrolyzed water were 6.3 and 39.5 ppm, respectively, This solution was slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water and had strong bactericidal activity. This device is useful for producing slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water as a disinfectant to employ at home care, when considering economic and environmental factors, since it returns to ordinary water after use.

  19. Pathways for external alkalinization in intact and in microwounded Chara cells are differentially sensitive to wortmannin

    PubMed Central

    Bulychev, Alexander A.; Foissner, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proton flows across the plant cell membranes play a major role in electrogenesis and regulation of photosynthesis and ion balance. The profiles of external pH along the illuminated internodal cells of characean algae consist of alternating high- and low-pH zones that are spatially coordinated with the distribution of photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts underlying these zones. The results based on confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, pH microsensors, and pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll microfluorometry revealed that the coordination of H+ transport and photosynthesis is disrupted by the 2 different environmental cues (low light and wounding) and by a chemical, wortmannin interfering with the inositol phospholipid metabolism. On the one hand, the transition from moderate to low irradiance diminished the peaks in the profiles of photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency but did not remove the pH bands. On the other hand, the microwounding of the internode with a glass micropipette, impacting primarily the cell wall, resulted in a rapid local alkalinization of the external medium (by 2–2.5 pH units) near the cell surface, thus mimicking the appearance of natural pH bands. Despite their seeming similarity, the alkaline bands of intact cells were eliminated by wortmannin, whereas the wound-induced alkalinization was insensitive to this drug. Furthermore, the attenuation of natural pH bands in wortmannin-treated cells was accompanied by the enhancement in spatial heterogeneity of PSII efficiency and electron transport rates, which indicates the complexity of chloroplast–plasma membrane interactions. The results suggest that the light- and wound-induced alkaline areas on the cell surface are associated with different ion-transport systems. PMID:28805493

  20. Impact of 6-month frozen storage of cervical specimens in alkaline buffer conditions on human papillomavirus genotyping.

    PubMed

    LaMere, Brandon J; Howell, Renee; Fetterman, Barbara; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E

    2008-08-01

    The impact of 6-month storage of cervical specimens under alkaline conditions that occurs as the result of Hybrid Capture 2 testing on human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is not well documented. To examine this issue, 143 frozen hc2-positive specimens in specimen transport medium were selected at random from each of the following groups: specimens stored for 6 months, 4 months, and 2.5 months under alkaline pH (pH 12-13) and specimens stored 1 month at neutral pH (pH 6-7) as controls. Specimens were tested in a masked fashion for 20 HPV genotypes (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, and 82) using a prototype, research-use-only GP5+/6+ L1 consensus PCR method and multiplex hybridization using Luminex xMAP for detection of specific HPV genotypes One control specimen had missing test results. There were no statistical differences in the number of HPV genotypes detected, number of carcinogenic HPV genotypes detected, or in the signal strength among HPV-positive results across groups. Six-month frozen storage of cervical specimens at alkaline pH had little impact on testing for HPV genotypes among hc2-positive women using this HPV genotyping method.

  1. pH dependence of cyanide binding to the ferric heme domain of the direct oxygen sensor from Escherichia coli and the effect of alkaline denaturation.

    PubMed

    Bidwai, Anil K; Ok, Esther Y; Erman, James E

    2008-09-30

    The spectrum of the ferric heme domain of the direct oxygen sensor protein from Escherichia coli ( EcDosH) has been measured between pH 3.0 and 12.6. EcDosH undergoes acid denaturation with an apparent p K a of 4.24 +/- 0.05 and a Hill coefficient of 3.1 +/- 0.6 and reversible alkaline denaturation with a p K a of 9.86 +/- 0.04 and a Hill coefficient of 1.1 +/- 0.1. Cyanide binding to EcDosH has been investigated between pH 4 and 11. The EcDosH-cyanide complex is most stable at pH 9 with a K D of 0.29 +/- 0.06 microM. The kinetics of cyanide binding are monophasic between pH 4 and 8. At pH >or=8.5, the reaction is biphasic with the fast phase dependent upon the cyanide concentration and the slow phase independent of cyanide. The slow phase is attributed to conversion of denatured EcDosH to the native state, with a pH-independent rate of 0.052 +/- 0.006 s (-1). The apparent association rate constant for cyanide binding to EcDosH increases from 3.6 +/- 0.1 M (-1) s (-1) at pH 4 to 520 +/- 20 M (-1) s (-1) at pH 11. The dissociation rate constant averages (8.6 +/- 1.3) x 10 (-5) s (-1) between pH 5 and 9, increasing to (1.4 +/- 0.1) x 10 (-3) s (-1) at pH 4 and (2.5 +/- 0.1) x 10 (-3) s (-1) at pH 12.2. The mechanism of cyanide binding is consistent with preferential binding of the cyanide anion to native EcDosH. The reactions of imidazole and H 2O 2 with ferric EcDosH were also investigated and show little reactivity.

  2. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease Prot 1 from Botrytis cinerea : biodetergent catalyst assay.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Ferid; Limam, Ferid; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline thiol protease named Prot 1 was isolated from a culture filtrate of Botrytis cinerea. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. Thus, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with specific activity of 30-fold higher than that of the crude broth. The purified alkaline protease has an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa under denaturing conditions as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native molecular mass (45 kDa), determined by gel filtration, indicated that the alkaline protease has a monomeric form. The purified protease was biochemically characterized. The enzyme is active at alkaline pH and has a suitable and high thermostability. The optimal pH and temperature for activity were 9.0-10.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. This protease was stable between pH 5.0 and 12.0. The enzyme retained 85% of its activity by treatment at 50 degrees C over 120 min; it maintained 50% of activity after 60 min of heating at 60 degrees C. Furthermore, the protease retained almost complete activity after 4 wk storage at 25 degrees C. The activity was significantly affected by thiol protease inhibitors, suggesting that the enzyme belongs to the alkaline thiol protease family. With the aim on industrial applications, we focused on studying the stability of the protease in several conditions. Prot 1 activity was not affected by ionic strength and different detergent additives, and, thus, the protease shows remarkable properties as a biodetergent catalyst.

  3. Alkalinity of non-industrial cleaning products and the likelihood of producing significant esophageal burns.

    PubMed

    Howell, J M

    1991-11-01

    Alkaline cleaning products are a cause of serious esophageal injury. Over time, legislation has diminished the concentration of many such non-industrial solutions and solids; however several products presently do not list either the pH or relative concentrations of alkaline constituents. This study measures the pHs of several non-industrial cleaning products containing either ammonium chloride, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide. Three pH measurements were performed on each of 10 non-industrial alkaline cleaning products (eight liquid, two solid). Two 0.1% ammonium chloride solutions had pHs of 12.06 +/- 0.00 and 12.06 +/- 0.01, whereas a pH of 12.43 +/- 0.00 was recorded in a 0.2% ammonium chloride solution. Concentrations of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were listed on only one of five liquid cleaning product labels. The pHs for these five products varied between 12.83 +/- 0.009 and 13.5 +/- .0.2. The pHs of three sodium hydroxide solutions differed from values reported in Micromedex (Micromedex Inc, Denver CO) by up to 0.32 pH units. Ten percent (v/v) solutions of two solid lye products had pHs of 13.62 +/- 0.008 and 13.74 +/- 0.02. The investigator found that selected non-industrial cleaning products, including ammonia solutions, retain the ability to cause clinically important esophageal damage.

  4. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  5. pH modulation ameliorates the red blood cell storage lesion in a murine model of transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Seitz, Aaron P; Schuster, Rebecca M; Pritts, Timothy A

    2017-05-15

    Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) induces a series of harmful biochemical and metabolic changes known as the RBC storage lesion. RBCs are currently stored in an acidic storage solution, but the effect of pH on the RBC storage lesion is unknown. We investigated the effect of modulation of storage pH on the RBC storage lesion and on erythrocyte survival after transfusion. Murine pRBCs were stored in Additive Solution-3 (AS3) under standard conditions (pH, 5.8), acidic AS3 (pH, 4.5), or alkalinized AS3 (pH, 8.5). pRBC units were analyzed at the end of the storage period. Several components of the storage lesion were measured, including cell-free hemoglobin, microparticle production, phosphatidylserine externalization, lactate accumulation, and byproducts of lipid peroxidation. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled erythrocytes were transfused into healthy mice to determine cell survival. Compared with pRBCs stored in standard AS3, those stored in alkaline solution exhibited decreased hemolysis, phosphatidylserine externalization, microparticle production, and lipid peroxidation. Lactate levels were greater after storage in alkaline conditions, suggesting that these pRBCs remained more metabolically viable. Storage in acidic AS3 accelerated erythrocyte deterioration. Compared with standard AS3 storage, circulating half-life of cells was increased by alkaline storage but decreased in acidic conditions. Storage pH significantly affects the quality of stored RBCs and cell survival after transfusion. Current erythrocyte storage solutions may benefit from refinements in pH levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-07

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) and Ir(IV)-Ir(IV)/Ir(IV)-Ir(V) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology.

  7. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Research notes : the pH of water in contact with fresh concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-02-01

    Fresh concrete can significantly change the pH of water. To study the impacts, the pH of a few drilled shaft pours on Bear Creek near Zigzag (US Highway 26, MP 42.6) were monitored in order to aid discussion on future similar work. The concrete was p...

  9. Evaluation of the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for monitoring anaerobic digesters treating solid waste.

    PubMed

    Vannecke, T P W; Lampens, D R A; Ekama, G A; Volcke, E I P

    2015-01-01

    Simple titration methods certainly deserve consideration for on-site routine monitoring of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and alkalinity during anaerobic digestion (AD), because of their simplicity, speed and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for measuring the VFA concentration and carbonate system alkalinity (H2CO3*-alkalinity) were assessed and compared. For this purpose, synthetic solutions with known H2CO3*-alkalinity and VFA concentration as well as samples from anaerobic digesters treating three different kind of solid wastes were analysed. The results of these two related titration methods were verified with photometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements. It was shown that photometric measurements lead to overestimations of the VFA concentration in the case of coloured samples. In contrast, the 5 pH point titration method provides an accurate estimation of the VFA concentration, clearly corresponding with the true value. Concerning the H2CO3*-alkalinity, the most accurate and precise estimations, showing very similar results for repeated measurements, were obtained using the 8 pH point titration. Overall, it was concluded that the 5 pH point titration method is the preferred method for the practical monitoring of AD of solid wastes due to its robustness, cost efficiency and user-friendliness.

  10. Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Markich, Scott J

    2005-07-01

    This study determined the influence of key water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], and hardness) on the aqueous speciation of copper and zinc and its relationship to the acute toxicity of these metals to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Immobilization tests were performed for 48-h in synthetic or natural waters buffered at various pH values from 5.5 to 8.4 (other chemical parameters held constant). The toxicity of copper to C. cf dubia decreased fivefold with increasing pH, whereas the toxicity of zinc increased fivefold with increasing pH. The effect of DOC on copper and zinc toxicity to C. cf dubia was determined using natural fulvic acid in the synthetic water. Increasing DOC was found to decrease linearly the toxicity of copper, with the mean effect concentration of copper that immobilized 50% of the cladocerans (EC50) value 45 times higher at 10 mg/L, relative to 0.1 mg/L DOC at pH 6.5. In contrast, the addition of 10 mg/L DOC only resulted in a very small (1.3-fold) reduction in the toxicity of zinc to C. cf dubia. Copper toxicity to C. cf dubia generally did not vary as a function of hardness, whereas zinc toxicity was reduced by a factor of only two, with an increase in water hardness from 44 to 374 mg CaCO3/L. Increasing bicarbonate alkalinity of synthetic waters (30-125 mg/L as CaCO3) decreased the toxicity of copper up to fivefold, which mainly could be attributed to the formation of copper-carbonate complexes, in addition to a pH effect. The toxicity of copper added to a range of natural waters with varying DOC content, pH, and hardness was consistent with the toxicity predicted using the data obtained from the synthetic waters.

  11. Low pressure ion chromatography with a low cost paired emitter-detector diode based detector for the determination of alkaline earth metals in water samples.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Diamond, Dermot; O'Toole, Martina; Lau, King Tong; Paull, Brett

    2006-09-01

    The use of a low pressure ion chromatograph based upon short (25 mm x 4.6 mm) surfactant coated monolithic columns and a low cost paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) based detector, for the determination of alkaline earth metals in aqueous matrices is presented. The system was applied to the separation of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in less than 7min using a 0.15M KCl mobile phase at pH 3, with post-column reaction detection at 570 nm using o-cresolphthalein complexone. A comparison of the performance of the PEDD detector with a standard laboratory absorbance detector is shown, with limits of detection for magnesium and calcium using the low cost PEDD detector equal to 0.16 and 0.23 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the developed system was used for the determination of calcium and magnesium in a commercial spring water sample.

  12. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of water-quality samples from streams in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, F.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are by necessity performed in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature; (2) specific conductance; (3) pH; (4) alkalinity; (5) dissolved oxygen; and (6) bacteria.

  13. Effects of pH and Magnetic Material on Immunomagnetic Separation of Cryptosporidium Oocysts from Concentrated Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Ryan C.; Rock, Channah M.; Oshima, Kevin H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect that magnetic materials and pH have on the recoveries of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunomagnetic separation (IMS). We determined that particles that were concentrated on a magnet during bead separation have no influence on oocyst recovery; however, removal of these particles did influence pH values. The optimal pH of the IMS was determined to be 7.0. The numbers of oocysts recovered from deionized water at pH 7.0 were 26.3% higher than those recovered from samples that were not at optimal pH. The results indicate that the buffers in the IMS kit did not adequately maintain an optimum pH in some water samples. By adjusting the pH of concentrated environmental water samples to 7.0, recoveries of oocysts increased by 26.4% compared to recoveries from samples where the pH was not adjusted. PMID:11916735

  14. Distinct pH regulation of slow and rapid anion channels at the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cells.

    PubMed

    Colcombet, Jean; Lelièvre, Françoise; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Frachisse, Jean-Marie

    2005-07-01

    Variations in both intracellular and extracellular pH are known to be involved in a wealth of physiological responses. Using the patch-clamp technique on Arabidopsis hypocotyl cells, it is shown that rapid-type and slow-type anion channels at the plasma membrane are both regulated by pH via distinct mechanisms. Modifications of pH modulate the voltage-dependent gating of the rapid channel. While intracellular alkalinization facilitates channel activation by shifting the voltage gate towards negative potentials, extracellular alkalinization shifts the activation threshold to more positive potentials, away from physiological resting membrane potentials. By contrast, pH modulates slow anion channel activity in a voltage-independent manner. Intracellular acidification and extracellular alkalinization increase slow anion channel currents. The possible role of these distinct modulations in physiological processes involving anion efflux and modulation of extracellular and/or intracellular pH, such as elicitor and ABA signalling, are discussed.

  15. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature...). Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1) were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations. PMID:22123072

  16. Cyclic, Early Diagenetic Dolomite Formation in Alkaline Lake Van

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Immenhauser, A.; Kwiecien, O.

    2017-12-01

    Modern dolomite-forming environments are commonly constrained to evaporitic marine or marginal marine settings such as lagoons and sabkhas. Beside microbial mediation, high temperatures and Mg2+ concentrations in solution are factors considered important in aiding dolomite formation. Accordingly, previous studies associate the presence of dolomite within deep sediments of alkaline Lake Van (Turkey) with periods of enhanced evaporation, low lake levels and high Mg/Ca ratio. We systematically studied dolomite within the sedimentary record of Lake Van by means of XRD, SEM and stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) mass spectrometry. First, we considered the origin of the dolomite; next, we focused on the wider implication of its presence. SEM imaging documents large dolomite crystals interwoven with clay minerals and individual crystals with different crystallographic orientations grown together, indicating space-limited growth within the sediment. According to recent climatic reconstructions for the same sequence (ICDP PALEOVAN project), the water depth of the coring site - today at 350 m - unlikely fell below 200 m. Consequently, dolomite formed below a thick water column at constantly low temperatures (supported by heavy δ18O signature). Within this environment, variations in Mg/Ca ratio, pH and alkalinity, which are constantly high, have no effect on the episodic nature of dolomite precipitation. These observations call for a re-evaluation of the palaeoenvironments often invoked to interpret intervals rich in dolomite within ancient sedimentary sequences (e.g., periods of enhanced aridity and evaporation). Further, and in contrast to previous interpretations, our dolomite concentration data backed up by ICDP PALEOVAN reconstructions suggest that intervals rich in dolomite coincide with periods of high lake level and increased humidity. High dolomite concentrations (20 - 85 % relative carbonate content) occur cyclically within the last glacial period and coincide with

  17. A proteomic investigation of Fusobacterium nucleatum alkaline-induced biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Gram negative anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the aetiology of periodontal diseases. Although frequently isolated from healthy dental plaque, its numbers and proportion increase in plaque associated with disease. One of the significant physico-chemical changes in the diseased gingival sulcus is increased environmental pH. When grown under controlled conditions in our laboratory, F. nucleatum subspecies polymorphum formed mono-culture biofilms when cultured at pH 8.2. Biofilm formation is a survival strategy for bacteria, often associated with altered physiology and increased virulence. A proteomic approach was used to understand the phenotypic changes in F. nucleatum cells associated with alkaline induced biofilms. The proteomic based identification of significantly altered proteins was verified where possible using additional methods including quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), enzyme assay, acidic end-product analysis, intracellular polyglucose assay and Western blotting. Results Of 421 proteins detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, spot densities of 54 proteins varied significantly (p < 0.05) in F. nucleatum cultured at pH 8.2 compared to growth at pH 7.4. Proteins that were differentially produced in biofilm cells were associated with the functional classes; metabolic enzymes, transport, stress response and hypothetical proteins. Our results suggest that biofilm cells were more metabolically efficient than planktonic cells as changes to amino acid and glucose metabolism generated additional energy needed for survival in a sub-optimal environment. The intracellular concentration of stress response proteins including heat shock protein GroEL and recombinational protein RecA increased markedly in the alkaline environment. A significant finding was the increased abundance of an adhesin, Fusobacterial outer membrane protein A (FomA). This surface protein is known for its capacity to bind to a vast number of

  18. Norcyanine dyes with benzo[c,d]indolium moiety: Spectral sensitivity with pH change for fluorescence pH imaging in living cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Borui; Wang, Lanying

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence pH imaging in living cells is a rapidly expanding research direction, however, it relies on the development of pH-sensitive fluorescent imaging agents. Here four norcyanine dyes with benzo[c,d]indolium moiety, exhibiting high spectral sensitivity with pH changes, were synthesized for fluorescence pH imaging in living cells, and characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV-Vis and HRMS. The investigation of their spectral properties in methanol and water showed that the absorption and emission maxima were in the region 488-618nm and 583-651nm, respectively, and four dyes exhibited high photostability. The pH spectral titrations showed that selective dye D1 had pH-dependent absorption spectral changes within the pH range of 2.4 to 9.4, and high fluorescent spectral sensitivity at pH5.0-8.0, with a pK a of 5.0. A cell association study indicated that dye D1 exhibited no or mild cytotoxicity at the application dose and duration, and could be accumulated in cells and mainly distributed in the cytoplasm, giving red fluorescence imaging. In particular, dye D1 could achieve pH-dependent fluorescence imaging in living cells with the increase of pH from 3.0 to 8.0, at excitation wavelength of 543nm and receiving wavelength of 655-755nm, which was valuable for studying the weak acidic, neutral and weak alkaline biological tissue compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial processes and factors controlling their activities in alkaline lakes of the Mongolian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto B.; Zaitseva, Svetlana V.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Kozyreva, Ludmila P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.

    2015-11-01

    A striking feature of the Mongolian plateau is the wide range of air temperatures during a year, -30 to 30°C. High summer temperatures, atmospheric weathering and the arid climate lead to formation of numerous alkaline soda lakes that are covered by ice during 6-7 months per year. During the study period, the lakes had pH values between 8.1 to 10.4 and salinity between 1.8 and 360 g/L. According to chemical composition, the lakes belong to sodium carbonate, sodium chloride-carbonate and sodium sulfate-carbonate types. This paper presents the data on the water chemical composition, results of the determination of the rates of microbial processes in microbial mats and sediments in the lakes studied, and the results of a Principal Component Analysis of environmental variables and microbial activity data. Temperature was the most important factor that influenced both chemical composition and microbial activity. pH and salinity are also important factors for the microbial processes. Dark CO2 fixation is impacted mostly by salinity and the chemical composition of the lake water. Total photosynthesis and sulfate-reduction are impacted mostly by pH. Photosynthesis is the dominant process of primary production, but the highest rate (386 mg C/(L•d)) determined in the lakes studied were 2-3 times lower than in microbial mats of lakes located in tropical zones. This can be explained by the relatively short warm period that lasts only 3-4 months per year. The highest measured rate of dark CO2 assimilation (59.8 mg C/(L•d)) was much lower than photosynthesis. The highest rate of sulfate reduction was 60 mg S/(L•d), while that of methanogenesis was 75.6 μL CN4/(L•d) in the alkaline lakes of Mongolian plateau. The rate of organic matter consumption during sulfate reduction was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that associated with methanogenesis.

  20. Sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic and mixotrophic denitrification processes for drinking water treatment: elimination of excess sulfate production and alkalinity requirement.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Dursun, Nesrin

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the elimination of alkalinity need and excess sulfate generation of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process by stimulating simultaneous autotrophic and heterotrophic (mixotrophic) denitrification process in a column bioreactor by methanol supplementation. Also, denitrification performances of sulfur-based autotrophic and mixotrophic processes were compared. In autotrophic process, acidity produced by denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was neutralized by the external NaHCO(3) supplementation. After stimulating mixotrophic denitrification process, the alkalinity need of the autotrophic process was satisfied by the alkalinity produced by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Decreasing and lastly eliminating the external alkalinity supplementation did not adversely affect the process performance. Complete denitrification of 75 mg L(-1) NO(3)-N under mixotrophic conditions at 4 h hydraulic retention time was achieved without external alkalinity supplementation and with effluent sulfate concentration lower than the drinking water guideline value of 250 mg L(-1). The denitrification rate of mixotrophic process (0.45 g NO(3)-N L(-1) d(-1)) was higher than that of autotrophic one (0.3 g NO(3)-N L(-1) d(-1)). Batch studies showed that the sulfur-based autotrophic nitrate reduction rate increased with increasing initial nitrate concentration and transient accumulation of nitrite was observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. No-core fiber-based highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of an optical fiber pH sensor using a sol–gel technique. The sensing head configuration is incorporated using a short section of no-core fiber, coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate and spliced at the end of a single mode fiber with a bulge. Different types of indicators (bromophenol blue, cresol red, and chlorophenol red) were used to achieve a wide pH range from 2 to 13. High sensitivities of the fabricated device were found to be 1.02 and ? 0.93 ?? nm / pH for acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. From the characterization results, it was noted that there is an impact of ionic strength and an effect of the temperature of liquid on the response characteristic, which is an advantage of the existing device over the other pH sensors. The fabricated sensor exhibited good reflection spectrum, indicating a blueshift in resonance wavelength for alkaline solutions and a redshift for acidic solutions.

  2. Acidic, neutral and alkaline forest ponds as a landscape element affecting the biodiversity of freshwater snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyra, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the number of areas remaining under the influence of acidity has increased. At all levels of ecosystems, biodiversity decreases with acidification, due to the elimination of species that are most sensitive to low pH. Forest ponds belong to a specific group that varied in location, a huge amount of leaf litter, and isolation from other aquatic environments. They are crucial in the industrial landscape with well-developed industry and human activity. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of water chemistry in explaining snail assemblage compositions and species richness in forest ponds of contrasting pH. Patterns in gastropod communities were determined from an analysis in 26 forest ponds with multivariate gradient analysis. Ponds ranged in a base mean pH from 3.0 to 9.0. pH has been found to be an important factor influencing gastropod fauna. Neutral ponds support diverse communities, typical of small water bodies. In two acidic pond types, snail fauna was different. Among the species characteristic for acidic ponds (pH < 6) were Anisus spirorbis and Aplexa hypnorum. The greatest distinct characterised alkaline ponds with the numerous appearance of alien Physa acuta. The most diverse gastropod fauna was found in neutral ponds, whereas the lowest degree of diversity was found in ponds with the lowest pH. Current knowledge of pH-associated changes in aquatic ecosystems is still incomplete because anthropogenic acidification is a recent phenomenon. It is extremely important in forest habitats, since they react more intensively to climatic factors and are often used in landscape management and planning.

  3. Alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge stimulated by saponin: volatile fatty acid production, mechanisms and pilot-scale application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Mu, Tianshuai; Shen, Changming; Lu, Lijun; Liu, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production stimulated by saponin (SP), an environmentally friendly bio-surfactant, was investigated during sludge alkaline fermentation in laboratory studies and pilot applications. The combined use of SP and pH 9 condition significantly enhanced VFA production to approximately 425 mg COD/g VSS, which was 4.7-fold of raw sludge and 1.5-fold of sole pH 10 adjustment (the optimum pH for alkaline fermentation). Further results indicated that SP & pH 9 condition provided sufficient substrates for acidification and decreased the consumption of VFAs through methanogenesis. Moreover, SP accompanied by moderate alkaline condition (i.e. pH 9) showed weaker inhibitory effects on key enzyme activities and metabolic potential of acidification microorganisms than sole pH 10 adjustment. On this basis, a pilot-scale system involving anaerobic fermentation and anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic step-feed bioreaction tanks was established to study the potential of VFAs as supplementary carbon sources for wastewater treatment. The influent of the pilot system was sanitary wastewater characterized by low C/N ratios from a scenic rural area. After flocculation and nutrient precipitation, the fermentation supernatant was mixed with the influent at a volume ratio of 1:30. With this approach, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in effluent fulfilled the first-A wastewater discharge standard in China.

  4. Primordial soup or vinaigrette: did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The RNA world concept has wide, though certainly not unanimous, support within the origin-of-life scientific community. One view is that life may have emerged as early as the Hadean Eon 4.3-3.8 billion years ago with an atmosphere of high CO2 producing an acidic ocean of the order of pH 3.5-6. Compatible with this scenario is the intriguing proposal that life arose within alkaline (pH 9-11) deep-sea hydrothermal vents like those of the 'Lost City', with the interface with the acidic ocean creating a proton gradient sufficient to drive the first metabolism. However, RNA is most stable at pH 4-5 and is unstable at alkaline pH, raising the possibility that RNA may have first arisen in the acidic ocean itself (possibly near an acidic hydrothermal vent), acidic volcanic lake or comet pond. As the Hadean Eon progressed, the ocean pH is inferred to have gradually risen to near neutral as atmospheric CO2 levels decreased. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that RNA is well suited for a world evolving at acidic pH. This is supported by the enhanced stability at acidic pH of not only the RNA phosphodiester bond but also of the aminoacyl-(t)RNA and peptide bonds. Examples of in vitro-selected ribozymes with activities at acid pH have recently been documented. The subsequent transition to a DNA genome could have been partly driven by the gradual rise in ocean pH, since DNA has greater stability than RNA at alkaline pH, but not at acidic pH. Testing the hypothesis We have proposed mechanisms for two key RNA world activities that are compatible with an acidic milieu: (i) non-enzymatic RNA replication of a hemi-protonated cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, and (ii) specific aminoacylation of tRNA/hairpins through triple helix interactions between the helical aminoacyl stem and a single-stranded aminoacylating ribozyme. Implications of the hypothesis Our hypothesis casts doubt on the hypothesis that RNA evolved in the vicinity of alkaline hydrothermal vents. The

  5. Influence of acid and alkaline sources on optical, structural and photovoltaic properties of CdSe nanoparticles precipitated from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monroy, C. Selene; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Hu, Hailin

    2016-06-01

    CdSe is a widely researched material for photovoltaic applications. One of the most important parameters of the synthesis is the pH value, since it determines the kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction and in consequence, the optical and morphological properties of the products. We present the synthesis of CdSe in solution with strict control of pH and the comparison of ammonia and KOH as alkaline sources and diluted HCl as acid medium. CdSe formation was monitored with photoluminescence emission spectra (main peak in 490 nm, bandgap of CdSe nanoparticles). XRD patterns indicated that CdSe nanoparticles are mainly of cubic structure for ammonia and HCl, but the hexagonal planes appear with KOH. Product yield decreases with pH and also decreases with KOH at constant pH value since ammonia has a double function, as complexing agent and alkaline source. Changes in morphology were observed in SEM images as well with the different alkaline source. The effect of alkaline sources on photovoltaic performance of hybrid organic solar cells with CdSe and poly(3-hexylthiophene) as active layers was clearly observed, indicating the importance of synthesis conditions on optoelectronic properties of promising semiconductor nanomaterials for solar cell applications.

  6. Effects of blending of desalinated water with treated surface drinking water on copper and lead release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Schonberger, Kenneth D; Korshin, Gregory V; Ferguson, John F; Meyerhofer, Paul; Desormeaux, Erik; Luckenbach, Heidi

    2010-07-01

    This study examined effects of desalinated water on the corrosion of and metal release from copper and lead-containing materials. A jar test protocol was employed to examine metal release from copper and lead-tin coupons exposed to water chemistries with varying blending ratios of desalinated water, alkalinities, pHs and orthophosphate levels. Increasing fractions of desalinated water in the blends resulted in non-monotonic changes of copper and lead release, with generally lower metal concentrations in the presence of desalinated water, especially when its contribution increased from 80% to 100%. SEM examination showed that the increased fractions of desalinated water were associated with pronounced changes of the morphology of the corrosion scales, likely due to the influence of natural organic matter. This hypothesis was corroborated by the existence of correlations between changes of the zeta-potential of representative minerals (malachite and hydrocerussite) and metal release. For practical applications, maintaining pH at 7.8 and adding 1 mg/L orthophosphate as PO(4) were concluded to be adequate to decrease copper and lead release. Lower alkalinity of desalinated water was beneficial for blends containing 50% or more desalinated water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Microenvironmental Control by Photosynthetic Biofilms under Changing Macroenvironmental Temperature and pH Conditions▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bissett, Andrew; Reimer, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; Shiraishi, Fumito; Arp, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Ex situ microelectrode experiments, using cyanobacterial biofilms from karst water creeks, were conducted under various pH, temperature, and constant-alkalinity conditions to investigate the effects of changing environmental parameters on cyanobacterial photosynthesis-induced calcification. Microenvironmental chemical conditions around calcifying sites were controlled by metabolic activity over a wide range of photosynthesis and respiration rates, with little influence from overlying water conditions. Regardless of overlying water pH levels (from 7.8 to 8.9), pH at the biofilm surface was approximately 9.4 in the light and 7.8 in the dark. The same trend was observed at various temperatures (4°C and 17°C). Biological processes control the calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω) in these and similar systems and are able to maintain Ω at approximately constant levels over relatively wide environmental fluctuations. Temperature did, however, have an effect on calcification rate. Calcium flux in this system is limited by its diffusion coefficient, resulting in a higher calcium flux (calcification and dissolution) at higher temperatures, despite the constant, biologically mediated pH. The ability of biological systems to mitigate the effects of environmental perturbation is an important factor that must be considered when attempting to predict the effects of increased atmospheric partial CO2 pressure on processes such as calcification and in interpreting microfossils in the fossil record. PMID:18689512

  8. Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite at high pH: effects on soft tissue and dentin.

    PubMed

    Jungbluth, Holger; Marending, Monika; De-Deus, Gustavo; Sener, Beatrice; Zehnder, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    When sodium hypochlorite solutions react with tissue, their pH drops and tissue sorption decreases. We studied whether stabilizing a NaOCl solution at a high pH would increase its soft-tissue dissolution capacity and effects on the dentin matrix compared with a standard NaOCl solution of the same concentration and similar initial pH. NaOCl solutions were prepared by mixing (1:1) a 10% stock solution with water (standard) or 2 mol/L NaOH (stabilized). Physiological saline and 1 mol/L NaOH served as the controls. Chlorine content and alkaline capacity of NaOCl solutions were determined. Standardized porcine palatal soft-tissue specimens and human root dentin bars were exposed to test and control solutions. Weight loss percentage was assessed in the soft-tissue dissolution assay. Three-point bending tests were performed on the root dentin bars to determine the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength. Values between groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α < .05). Both solutions contained 5% NaOCl. One milliliter of the standard and the stabilized solution consumed 4.0 mL and 13.7 mL of a 0.1-mol/L HCl solution before they reached a pH level of 7.5, respectively. The stabilized NaOCl dissolved significantly more soft tissue than the standard solution, and the pH remained high. It also caused a higher loss in elastic modulus and flexure strength (P < .05) than the control solutions, whereas the standard solution did not. NaOH-stabilized NaOCl solutions have a higher alkaline capacity and are thus more proteolytic than standard counterparts. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species leaching and Cu(II) sorption by biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Lou, Zhenjun; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhou, Jizhi; Qian, Guangren

    2015-01-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species water leaching and Cu(II) sorption by biochar prepared from two invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora (SA) and water hyacinth (WH), were explored in this work. Significant amounts of Na and K can be released (maximum leaching for Na 59.0 mg g(-1) and K 79.9 mg g(-1)) from SA and WH biochar when they are exposed to contact with water. Cu(II) removal by biochar is highly related with pyrolysis temperature and environmental pH with 600-700 °C and pH of 6 showing best performance (29.4 and 28.2 mg g(-1) for SA and WH biochar). Cu(II) sorption exerts negligible influence on Na/K/Mg leaching but clearly promotes the release of Ca. Biochars from these two plant species provide multiple benefits, including nutrient release (K), heavy metal immobilization as well as promoting the aggregation of soil particles (Ca) for soil amelioration. AAEM and Cu(II) equilibrium concentrations in sorption were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) to examine the factors underlying the leaching and sorption behavior of biochar. The identified factors can provide insightful understanding on experimental phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TASK-2 Channels Contribute to pH Sensitivity of Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Chemoreceptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Benamer, Najate; Zanella, Sébastien; Kumar, Natasha N.; Shi, Yingtang; Bévengut, Michelle; Penton, David; Guyenet, Patrice G.; Lesage, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Phox2b-expressing glutamatergic neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) display properties expected of central respiratory chemoreceptors; they are directly activated by CO2/H+ via an unidentified pH-sensitive background K+ channel and, in turn, facilitate brainstem networks that control breathing. Here, we used a knock-out mouse model to examine whether TASK-2 (K2P5), an alkaline-activated background K+ channel, contributes to RTN neuronal pH sensitivity. We made patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices from RTN neurons that were identified by expression of GFP (directed by the Phox2b promoter) or β-galactosidase (from the gene trap used for TASK-2 knock-out). Whereas nearly all RTN cells from control mice were pH sensitive (95%, n = 58 of 61), only 56% of GFP-expressing RTN neurons from TASK-2−/− mice (n = 49 of 88) could be classified as pH sensitive (>30% reduction in firing rate from pH 7.0 to pH 7.8); the remaining cells were pH insensitive (44%). Moreover, none of the recorded RTN neurons from TASK-2−/− mice selected based on β-galactosidase activity (a subpopulation of GFP-expressing neurons) were pH sensitive. The alkaline-activated background K+ currents were reduced in amplitude in RTN neurons from TASK-2−/− mice that retained some pH sensitivity but were absent from pH-insensitive cells. Finally, using a working heart–brainstem preparation, we found diminished inhibition of phrenic burst amplitude by alkalization in TASK-2−/− mice, with apneic threshold shifted to higher pH levels. In conclusion, alkaline-activated TASK-2 channels contribute to pH sensitivity in RTN neurons, with effects on respiration in situ that are particularly prominent near apneic threshold. PMID:24107938

  11. Recovery and characterization of proteins from pangas (Pangasius pangasius) processing waste obtained through pH shift processing.

    PubMed

    Surasani, Vijay Kumar Reddy; Kudre, Tanaji; Ballari, Rajashekhar V

    2018-04-01

    Study was conducted to recover proteins from pangas (Pangasius pangasius) processing waste (fillet frames) using pH shift method and to characterize the recovered isolates. pH 2.0 from acidic range and pH 13.0 from alkaline range were found to have maximum protein recovery (p < 0.05). During the recovery process, acidic pH (pH 2.0) was found to have minimal effect on proteins resulting in more stable isolates and strong protein gels. Alkaline pH (pH 13.0) caused protein denaturation resulting in less stable proteins and poor gel network. Both acidic and alkaline-aided processing caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in total lipid, myoglobin, and pigment content thus by resulting in whiter protein isolates and gels. The content of total essential amino acids increased during pH shift processing, indicating the enrichment of essential amino acids. No microbial counts were detected in any of the isolates prepared using acid and alkaline extraction methods. pH shift processing was found to be promising in the utilization of fish processing waste for the recovery of functional proteins from pangas processing waste thus by reducing the supply demand gap as well pollution problems.

  12. [Risks associated with unrestricted consumption of alkaline-reduced water].

    PubMed

    Henry, Marc; Chambron, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Minister of Health, Work and Wellbeing, for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Today, these devices are also freely available in France. The commercial information provided with the devices recommends the consumption of 1 to 1.5 liters per day, not only for gastrointestinal disorders but also for numerous other illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and inflammation. Academic research on this subject has been undergoing in Japan since 1990, and has established that the active ingredient is dissolved dihydrogen, which eliminates the free radical HO· in vivo. It has also been shown that electrode degradation during use of the devices releases highly reactive platinum nanoparticles, the toxicity of which is unknown. The authors of this report recommend alerting the French health authorities to the uncontrolled availability of these devices that generate drug substances and should therefore be subject to regulatory requirements.

  13. Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes

    PubMed Central

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H+/K+-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that the gastric alkalization machinery in sea urchin larvae is mainly based on direct H+ secretion from the stomach lumen and involves a conserved set of ion pumps and transporters. Hemichordate larvae additionally utilized HCO3− transport pathways to generate even more alkaline digestive conditions. Molecular analyses in combination with acidification experiments supported these findings and identified genes coding for ion pumps energizing gastric alkalization. Given that insect larval guts were also reported to be alkaline, our discovery raises the hypothesis that the bilaterian ancestor utilized alkaline digestive system while the vertebrate lineage has evolved a strategy to strongly acidify their stomachs. PMID:26051042

  14. Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-06-08

    The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that the gastric alkalization machinery in sea urchin larvae is mainly based on direct H(+) secretion from the stomach lumen and involves a conserved set of ion pumps and transporters. Hemichordate larvae additionally utilized HCO3(-) transport pathways to generate even more alkaline digestive conditions. Molecular analyses in combination with acidification experiments supported these findings and identified genes coding for ion pumps energizing gastric alkalization. Given that insect larval guts were also reported to be alkaline, our discovery raises the hypothesis that the bilaterian ancestor utilized alkaline digestive system while the vertebrate lineage has evolved a strategy to strongly acidify their stomachs.

  15. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    PubMed Central

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  16. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

    PubMed

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  17. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on Pt(111) in alkaline solution: Importance of chemisorbed water on surface

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Shizhong; White, Michael G.; Liu, Ping

    2016-06-30

    Here, we report a detailed mechanistic study of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt(111) in alkaline solution, combining density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. A complex reaction network including four possible pathways via either 2e – or 4e – transfer is established and is able to reproduce the experimental measured polarization curve at both low- and high-potential regions. Our results show that it is essential to account for solvation by water and the dynamic coverage of *OH to describe the reaction kinetics well. In addition, a chemisorbed water (*H 2O)-mediated mechanism including 4e – transfers is identified,more » where the reduction steps via *H 2O on the surface are potential-independent and only the final removal of *OH from the surface in the form of OH –(aq) contributes to the current. For the ORR in alkaline solutions, such a mechanism is more competitive than the associative and dissociative mechanisms typically used to describe the ORR in acid solution. Finally, *OH and **O 2 intermediates are found to be critically important for tuning the ORR activity of Pt in alkaline solution. To enhance the activity, the binding of Pt should be tuned in such a way that *OH binding is weak enough to release more surface sites under working conditions, while **O 2 binding is strong enough to enable the ORR via the 4e – transfer mechanism.« less

  18. Phosphotyrosine as a substrate of acid and alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Apostoł, I; Kuciel, R; Wasylewska, E; Ostrowski, W S

    1985-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method for following dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine has been described. The absorption spectra of phosphotyrosine and tyrosine were plotted over the pH range from 3 to 9. The change in absorbance accompanying the conversion of phosphotyrosine to tyrosine was the greatest at 286 nm. The difference absorption coefficients were calculated for several pH values. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine by acid phosphatases from human prostate gland, from wheat germ and potatoes obeys the Michaelis-Menten equation, whereas alkaline phosphatases calf intestine and E. coli are inhibited by excess of substrate.

  19. Experimental examination of the Mg-silicate-carbonate system at ambient temperature: Implications for alkaline chemical sedimentation and lacustrine carbonate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Tosca, Nicholas J.

    2018-03-01

    Despite their clear economic significance, Cretaceous presalt carbonates of the South Atlantic continental margins are not well-described by published facies models. This knowledge gap arises, in part, because the chemical processes that generate distinctive sedimentary products in alkaline, non-marine environments are poorly understood. Here, we use constraints inferred from reported mineralogical and geochemical features of presalt carbonate rocks to design and perform a suite of laboratory experiments to quantify the processes of alkaline chemical sedimentation. Using real-time observations of in-situ fluid chemistry, post-experiment analysis of precipitated solids, and geochemical modeling tools, we illustrate that spherulitic carbonates and Mg-silicate clays observed in presalt carbonates were likely precipitated from elevated pH (∼10-10.5) waters with high concentrations of silica and alkali cations typical of intermediate to felsic rocks, such as Na+ and K+. Charge balance constraints require that these cations were not counterbalanced to any significant degree by anions typical of seawater, such as Cl- and SO4-, which implies minimal seawater involvement in presalt deposition. Experimental data suggest that, at this alkaline pH, only modest concentrations (i.e., ∼0.5-1 mmol/kg) of Ca++ would have been required to precipitate spheroidal CaCO3. Given the rapid rates of CaCO3 nucleation and growth under such conditions, it is unlikely that Ca++ concentrations in lake waters ever exceeded these values, and sustained chemical fluxes are therefore required for extensive sediment accumulation. Moreover, our experiments indicate that the original mineralogy of presalt CaCO3 could have been calcite or aragonite, but the differing time scales of precipitation between CaCO3 and Mg-silicates would have tended to skew the Mg/Ca ratio in solution towards elevated values which favor aragonite. Mg-silicate nucleation and growth rates measured during our experiments

  20. Identification of metabolites of malathion in plant, water and soil by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kaur, I; Mathur, R P; Tandon, S N; Dureja, P

    1997-01-01

    Metabolism of malathion (O,O,-dimethyl S-[1,2-bis(ethoxy carbonyl)-ethyl]phosphorodithioate) has been studied in plants, water and soil. A number of products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), have been formed by de-esterification, oxidation and hydrolysis of malathion. Hydrolysis of the P-S and C-S bonds occur in alkaline pH 8.0 and acidic pH 5.5, respectively.

  1. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water for fish production using small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, Felix W.; Edema, Mojisola O.

    The physical-chemical and biological characteristics of water in fish ponds were investigated with a view to optimise the conditions for fish productivity using small ponds. Five fish ponds were used in the study. The water samples were collected in each pond at a depth of 10-15 cm from the surface over a period of six months and analysed for pH, temperature, DO, alkalinity. The fish activity and growth rates were also assessed. The results showed that the ponds were slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.69-7.66). The mean lowest and highest values of DO were 9.05 and 9.93 mg/L while the values for alkalinity were 67.86 and 90.57 mg/L respectively. The bacterial counts were in the order of 10 6 and the populations comprised Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Azotobacter, Arthrobacter species and Escherichia coli. It was also observed that the fish activity increased as the temperature of the water varied from April to September as given by the activity ranges of 55-95, 40-80, 55-80, 70-95 and 55-95/m 2 for ponds P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, respectively. The lowest values were in the months of April, May and June and highest values were in the months of July, August and September. The optimum conditions for increased fish productivity were found to be the warm temperatures (20 < t < 30 °C), adequate DO level (>4 mg/L) and appropriate pH (6 < pH < 9) and alkalinity (Alk) (80 < Alk < 200 mg/L). The correlations between characteristics were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels (2 tailed). Therefore, the fish productivity can be enhanced if the conditions in the ponds were maintained at optimum levels.

  2. Incontinence Briefs Containing Spiral-Shaped Fiber Acidify Skin pH of Older Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Bland, Peggy; Wiltzen, Kjerstie; Gannon, Alexandra; Wilhems, Anna; Mathiason, Michelle A; Turnbaugh, Robert

    The study's purpose was to assess the pH of the skin of older (aged ≥75 years) incontinent nursing home residents after exposure to an incontinence brief containing spiral-shaped fiber wet with an alkaline solution mimicking urine or fecal pH and compared to skin pH after exposure to an industry standard brief wet with the same solution and various controls. The design was experimental, as conditions were applied to skin and skin pH was measured in random order, and subjects served as their own controls. The setting was a Midwestern nonprofit nursing home. The sample was 26 nursing home residents; their mean age was 87 years (SD = 6 years); 77% were female. Most (69%) had urinary incontinence alone, and 31% had dual urinary and fecal incontinence. Skin pH was measured in duplicate on 6 areas of the inner thighs and 6 areas of the volar surface of the forearms. Each area was exposed to 1 of 6 conditions applied in random order: an incontinence brief containing spiral-shaped fiber wet with an alkaline solution and one that was dry; a standard incontinence brief (without spiral-shaped fiber) wet with the same alkaline solution and one that was dry; the alkaline solution alone; and normal skin. On both the thighs and the forearms, skin pH was significantly lower (more acidic) after exposure to the incontinence brief containing spiral-shaped fiber wet with an alkaline solution compared to the wet standard brief and all other control conditions (P < .001). On thighs, the mean skin pH was 5.7 (SD = 0.5) after exposure to the wet brief with spiral-shaped fiber versus 6.4 (SD = 0.5) after exposure to the wet standard brief. On forearms, the mean skin pH was 5.3 (SD = 0.4) after exposure to the wet brief with spiral-shaped fiber versus 6.0 (SD = 0.4) after exposure to the wet standard brief. Incontinence briefs containing a spiral-shaped fiber significantly acidify the pH of the skin exposed to an alkaline solution, while industry standard briefs do not. Since alkaline

  3. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  4. Method for Salmonella concentration from water at pH 3.5, using micro-fiber glass filters.

    PubMed Central

    Block, J C; Rolland, D

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the concentration of Salmonella from water. As is done with enterovirus, Salmonella bacteria were concentrated from water in two steps: by pH 3.5 adsorption on and pH 9.5 elution from 8-micron porosity micro-fiber glass filter tubes. This method worked in less than 30 min, and Salmonella typhimurium was inactivated only slightly in spite of rapid pH variations (pH 3.5 to 9.5). It was demonstrated that the retention by the filters stems from two phenomena: a low retention in the micro-fiber glass labyrinth for small filtered volumes, and a high retention by adsorption at pH 3.5 for any filtered volume (experiments done with 15- and 80-liter samples). Addition in tap water of trivalent ions like Al3+ did not increase Salmonella adsorption. In most of the trials, Salmonella recovery varied from 42 to 93%. Preliminary field investigations indicate that enterovirus and Salmonella may both be concentrated from the same water sample by this procedure. PMID:39501

  5. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-13

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter ( n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA ( p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC ( p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution ( p < 0.05).

  6. Effect of Exposed Surface Area, Volume and Environmental pH on the Calcium Ion Release of Three Commercially Available Tricalcium Silicate Based Dental Cements

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Vercruysse, Chris; Martens, Luc; Verbeeck, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Tricalcium silicate cements (TSC) are used in dental traumatology and endodontics for their bioactivity which is mostly attributed to formation of calcium hydroxide during TSC hydration and its subsequent release of calcium and hydroxide ions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of volume (Vol), exposed surface area (ESA) and pH of surrounding medium on calcium ion release. Three commercially available hydraulic alkaline dental cements were mixed and condensed into cylindrical tubes of varying length and diameter (n = 6/group). For the effect of ESA and Vol, tubes were immersed in 10 mL of deionized water. To analyze the effect of environmental pH, the tubes were randomly immersed in 10 mL of buffer solutions with varying pH (10.4, 7.4 or 4.4). The solutions were collected and renewed at various time intervals. pH and/or calcium ion release was measured using a pH glass electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively. The change of pH, short-term calcium ion release and rate at which calcium ion release reaches maximum were dependent on ESA (p < 0.05) while maximum calcium ion release was dependent on Vol of TSC (p < 0.05). Maximum calcium ion release was significantly higher in acidic solution followed by neutral and alkaline solution (p < 0.05). PMID:29342837

  7. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  8. The pH dependency of N-converting enzymatic processes, pathways and microbes: effect on net N2 O production.

    PubMed

    Blum, Jan-Michael; Su, Qingxian; Ma, Yunjie; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Smets, Barth F

    2018-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is emitted during microbiological nitrogen (N) conversion processes, when N 2 O production exceeds N 2 O consumption. The magnitude of N 2 O production vs. consumption varies with pH and controlling net N 2 O production might be feasible by choice of system pH. This article reviews how pH affects enzymes, pathways and microorganisms that are involved in N-conversions in water engineering applications. At a molecular level, pH affects activity of cofactors and structural elements of relevant enzymes by protonation or deprotonation of amino acid residues or solvent ligands, thus causing steric changes in catalytic sites or proton/electron transfer routes that alter the enzymes' overall activity. Augmenting molecular information with, e.g., nitritation or denitrification rates yields explanations of changes in net N 2 O production with pH. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria are of highest relevance for N 2 O production, while heterotrophic denitrifiers are relevant for N 2 O consumption at pH > 7.5. Net N 2 O production in N-cycling water engineering systems is predicted to display a 'bell-shaped' curve in the range of pH 6.0-9.0 with a maximum at pH 7.0-7.5. Net N 2 O production at acidic pH is dominated by N 2 O production, whereas N 2 O consumption can outweigh production at alkaline pH. Thus, pH 8.0 may be a favourable pH set-point for water treatment applications regarding net N 2 O production. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Calcium-pH crosstalks in rat mast cells: cytosolic alkalinization, but not intracellular calcium release, is a sufficient signal for degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, A; Cabado, A G; Vieytes, M R; Botana, L M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the relationship between intracellular alkalinization, calcium fluxes and histamine release in rat mast cells. Intracellular alkalinization was induced by nigericin, a monovalent cation ionophore, and by NH4Cl (ammonium chloride). Calcium cytosolic and intracellular pH were measured by fluorescence digital imaging using Fura-2-AM and BCECF-AM.In rat mast cells, nigericin and NH4Cl induce a dose-dependent intracellular alkalinization, a dose-dependent increase in intracellular calcium levels by releasing calcium from intracellular pools, and an activation of capacitative calcium influx.The increase in both intracellular calcium and pH activates exocytosis (histamine release) in the absence of external calcium. Under the same conditions, thapsigargin does not activate exocytosis, the main difference being that thapsigargin does not alkalinize the cytosol.After alkalinization, histamine release is intracellular-calcium dependent. With 2.5 mM EGTA and thapsigargin the cell response decreases by 62%.The cytosolic alkalinization, in addition to the calcium increase it is enough signal to elicit the exocytotic process in rat mast cells. PMID:10952669

  10. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Soto Obando, Alina; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-12-01

    Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40-230%) and food intake (5-50%) and extended survival (10-160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5-20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and mineralization but not osteogenic differentiation are strongly affected by extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Fliefel, Riham; Popov, Cvetan; Tröltzsch, Matthias; Kühnisch, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a serious complication in oral and maxillofacial surgery affecting bone healing. Bone remodeling is not only controlled by cellular components but also by ionic and molecular composition of the extracellular fluids in which calcium phosphate salts are precipitated in a pH dependent manner. To determine the effect of pH on self-renewal, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We selected three different pH values; acidic (6.3, 6.7), physiological (7.0-8.0) and severe alkaline (8.5). MSCs were cultured at different pH ranges, cell viability measured by WST-1, apoptosis detected by JC-1, senescence was analyzed by β-galactosidase whereas mineralization was detected by Alizarin Red and osteogenic differentiation analyzed by Real-time PCR. Self-renewal was affected by pH as well as matrix mineralization in which pH other than physiologic inhibited the deposition of extracellular matrix but did not affect MSCs differentiation as osteoblast markers were upregulated. The expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was upregulated whereas osteopontin was downregulated under acidic pH. pH affected MSCs self-renewal and mineralization without influencing osteogenic differentiation. Thus, future therapies, based on shifting acid-base balance toward the alkaline direction might be beneficial for prevention or treatment of osteomyelitis. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionomic and metabolic responses to neutral salt or alkaline salt stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Shi, LianXuan; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Gu, FengXue; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru

    2017-02-10

    Soil salinity and alkalinity present a serious threat to global agriculture. However, most of the studies have focused on neutral salt stress, and the information on the metabolic responses of plants to alkaline salt stress is limited. This investigation aimed at determining the influence of neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses on the content of metal elements and metabolites in maize plant tissues, by using mixtures of various proportions of NaCl, NaHCO 3 , Na 2 SO 4 , and Na 2 CO 3 . We found that alkaline salt stress suppressed more pronouncedly the photosynthesis and growth of maize plants than salinity stress. Under alkaline salt stress conditions, metal ions formed massive precipitates, which ultimately reduced plant nutrient availability. On the other hand, high neutral salt stress induced metabolic changes in the direction of gluconeogenesis leading to the enhanced formation of sugars as a reaction contributing to the mitigation of osmotic stress. Thus, the active synthesis of sugars in shoots was essential to the development of salt tolerance. However, the alkaline salt stress conditions characterized by elevated pH values suppressed substantially the levels of photosynthesis, N metabolism, glycolysis, and the production of sugars and amino acids. These results indicate the presence of different defensive mechanisms responsible for the plant responses to neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses. In addition, the increased concentration of organic acids and enhanced metabolic energy might be potential major factors that can contribute to the maintenance intracellular ion balance in maize plants and counteract the negative effects of high pH under alkaline salt stress.

  13. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    PubMed

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  14. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

  15. Oscillatory Increases in Alkalinity Anticipate Growth and May Regulate Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes of Lily[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lovy-Wheeler, Alenka; Kunkel, Joseph G.; Allwood, Ellen G.; Hussey, Patrick J.; Hepler, Peter K.

    2006-01-01

    Lily (Lilium formosanum or Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes, microinjected with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show oscillating pH changes in their apical domain relative to growth. An increase in pH in the apex precedes the fastest growth velocities, whereas a decline follows growth, suggesting a possible relationship between alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical actin fringe resides in the same region as the alkaline band in lily pollen tubes and elongation requires actin polymerization. A pH-sensitive actin binding protein, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), together with actin-interacting protein (AIP) localize to the cortical actin fringe region. Modifying intracellular pH leads to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the apical domain. Acidification causes actin filament destabilization and inhibits growth by 80%. Upon complete growth inhibition, the actin fringe is the first actin cytoskeleton component to disappear. We propose that during normal growth, the pH increase in the alkaline band stimulates the fragmenting activity of ADF/AIP, which in turn generates more sites for actin polymerization. Increased actin polymerization supports faster growth rates and a proton influx, which inactivates ADF/AIP, decreases actin polymerization, and retards growth. As pH stabilizes and increases, the activity of ADF/AIP again increases, repeating the cycle of events. PMID:16920777

  16. Alkaline transition of pseudoazurin Met16X mutant proteins: protein stability influenced by the substitution of Met16 in the second sphere coordination.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Rehab F; Obara, Yuji; Kohzuma, Takamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Several blue copper proteins are known to change the active site structure at alkaline pH (alkaline transition). Spectroscopic studies of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, Met16Trp, and Met16Val pseudoazurin variants were performed to investigate the second sphere role through alkaline transition. The visible electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp variants showed the increasing of axial component at pH approximately 11 like wild-type PAz. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16Val demonstrated that the destabilization of the protein structure was triggered at pH>11. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of PAz showed that the intensity-weighted averaged Cu-S(Cys) stretching frequency was shifted to higher frequency region at pH approximately 11. The higher frequency shift of Cu-S(Cys) bond is implied the stronger Cu-S(Cys) bond at alkaline transition pH approximately 11. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16X PAz revealed that the Met16Val variant is denatured at pH>11, but Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp mutant proteins are not denatured even at pH>11. These observations suggest that Met16 is important to maintain the protein structure through the possible weak interaction between methionine -SCH3 part and coordinated histidine imidazole moiety. The introduction of pi-pi interaction in the second coordination sphere may be contributed to the enhancement of protein structure stability.

  17. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  18. Approach of describing dynamic production of volatile fatty acids from sludge alkaline fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Liu, Yiwen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Chang; Yang, Qi; Peng, Lai; He, Dandan; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics of fermentation products in sludge alkaline fermentation systems for the first time. In this model, the impacts of alkaline fermentation on sludge disintegration, hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis processes are specifically considered for describing the high-level formation of fermentation products. The model proposed successfully reproduced the experimental data obtained from five independent sludge alkaline fermentation studies. The modeling results showed that alkaline fermentation largely facilitated the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes and severely inhibited methanogenesis process. With the pH increase from 7.0 to 10.0, the disintegration, acidogenesis, and acetogenesis processes respectively increased by 53%, 1030%, and 30% while methane production decreased by 3800%. However, no substantial effect on hydrolysis process was found. The model also indicated that the pathway of acetoclastic methanogenesis was more severely inhibited by alkaline condition than that of hydrogentrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15–30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H+ influx (OH− efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H+/HCO3− symport or OH−/HCO3− antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions. PMID:19820298

  20. Acidic, neutral and alkaline forest ponds as a landscape element affecting the biodiversity of freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Spyra, Aneta

    2017-08-22

    In recent years, the number of areas remaining under the influence of acidity has increased. At all levels of ecosystems, biodiversity decreases with acidification, due to the elimination of species that are most sensitive to low pH. Forest ponds belong to a specific group that varied in location, a huge amount of leaf litter, and isolation from other aquatic environments. They are crucial in the industrial landscape with well-developed industry and human activity. The aim was to investigate the relative importance of water chemistry in explaining snail assemblage compositions and species richness in forest ponds of contrasting pH. Patterns in gastropod communities were determined from an analysis in 26 forest ponds with multivariate gradient analysis. Ponds ranged in a base mean pH from 3.0 to 9.0. pH has been found to be an important factor influencing gastropod fauna. Neutral ponds support diverse communities, typical of small water bodies. In two acidic pond types, snail fauna was different. Among the species characteristic for acidic ponds (pH < 6) were Anisus spirorbis and Aplexa hypnorum. The greatest distinct characterised alkaline ponds with the numerous appearance of alien Physa acuta. The most diverse gastropod fauna was found in neutral ponds, whereas the lowest degree of diversity was found in ponds with the lowest pH. Current knowledge of pH-associated changes in aquatic ecosystems is still incomplete because anthropogenic acidification is a recent phenomenon. It is extremely important in forest habitats, since they react more intensively to climatic factors and are often used in landscape management and planning.

  1. Contribution of hydrolysis in the abiotic attenuation of RDX and HMX in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Paquet, Louise; Giroux, Romain; Hawari, Jalal

    2008-01-01

    Sinking of military ships, dumping of munitions during the two World Wars, and military training have resulted in the undersea deposition of numerous unexploded ordnances (UXOs). Leaching of energetic compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from these UXOs may cause adverse ecological effects so that the long-term fate of these chemicals in the sea should be known. The present study assesses the contribution of alkaline hydrolysis into the natural attenuation of RDX and HMX in coastal waters. Alkaline hydrolysis rates were shown to be unaffected by the presence of sodium chloride, the most common component in marine waters. Kinetic parameters (E(a), ln A, k(2)) quantified for the alkaline hydrolysis of RDX and HMX in deionized water (30-50 degrees C, pH 10-12) agreed relatively well with abiotic degradation rates determined in sterilized natural coastal waters (50 and 60 degrees C, variable salinity) even if the latter were generally slightly faster than the former. Furthermore, similar products (HCHO, NO(2)(-), O(2)NNHCH(2)NHCHO) were obtained on alkaline hydrolysis in deionized water and abiotic degradation in coastal waters. These two findings suggested that degradation of nitramines in sterilized natural coastal waters, away from light, was mainly governed by alkaline hydrolysis. Kinetic calculations using the present parameters showed that alkaline hydrolysis of RDX and HMX in marine waters at 10 degrees C would respectively take 112 +/- 10 and 2408 +/- 217 yr to be completed (99.0%). We concluded that under natural conditions hydrolysis should not contribute significantly to the natural attenuation of HMX in coastal waters whereas it could play an active role in the natural attenuation of RDX.

  2. Similar influence of stabilized alkaline and neutral sodium hypochlorite solutions on the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Souza, Erick Miranda; Calixto, Amanda Martins; Lima, Camila Nara E; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldo; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Stabilizing sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at an alkaline pH is proposed to increase solution stability and tissue dissolution ability; however, a reduction on the flexural strength of dentin discs has been found to be a side effect. This study sought to determine whether a stabilized alkaline NaOCl reduces the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth after root canal preparation compared with a neutral solution counterpart. The 4 anterior incisors were removed from 20 mandibular bovine jaws, and each 1 was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (20 teeth each). Teeth were prepared with a sequence of 6 K-type files. The following experimental groups received a different irrigation regimen: G1: distilled water (negative control), G2: 5% NaOCl at a pH of 7.2, and G3: 5% NaOCl at a pH of 12.8; in the positive control group (G4), teeth remained untreated. The time of contact and volume of solution were carefully standardized. After bone and periodontal ligament simulation, teeth were subjected to a fracture resistance test. A significant difference was observed among the 4 groups tested (analysis of variance, P < .05). The 5% NaOCl groups (G2 and G3) presented significantly lower resistance to fracture than the control (G1 and G4) (Tukey test, P < .05). Both NaOCl solutions similarly reduced the fracture resistance at approximately 30% (Tukey test, P > .05). No differences were observed between positive and negative control groups (Tukey test, P > .05). Stabilized alkaline and neutral NaOCl solutions similarly reduced the fracture resistance of root canal-treated bovine teeth by about 30%. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Drinking water quality indices in the Orenburg Region].

    PubMed

    Golubkina, N A; Burtseva, T I; Gatsenko, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The quality of underground waters from 22 areas of the Orenburg Region was studied from the values of mineralization and pH and the amounts of the ions of Se, Cl, Pb, Cd, F, and phenols. High fluorine ion concentrations (5-12 mg/l), high mineralization (> 1 g/l), and alkalinity (pH > 8.0) were shown to be human risk factors in a considerable number of areas. Districts with cadmium, lead, and phenol ion-polluted underground waters were identified. The amount of selenium in the drinking water (18-319 ng/l) and in the sera of donors in Orenburg, Buzuluk, and Orsk (86-97 microg/l) fails to support the data available in the literature on environmental selenium pollution and is comparable with the relevant data for the Moscow Region.

  4. Does Cholecystectomy Increase the Esophageal Alkaline Reflux? Evaluation by Impedance-pH Technique.

    PubMed

    Uyanikoglu, Ahmet; Akyuz, Filiz; Ermis, Fatih; Arici, Serpil; Bas, Gurhan; Cakirca, Mustafa; Baran, Bulent; Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reflux patterns in patients with galbladder stone and the change of reflux patterns after cholecystectomy in such patients. Fourteen patients with cholecystolithiasis and a control group including 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographical findings, reflux symptom score scale and 24-hour impedance pH values of the 14 cholecystolithiasis cases and the control group were evaluated. The impedance pH study was repeated 3 months after cholecystectomy. Age, gender, and BMI were not different between the two groups. Total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time (%) (1.0 vs 22.5, P = 0.028; 201.85 vs 9.65, P = 0.012), the longest episodes of total, upright and supine weakly alkaline reflux mediums (11 vs 2, P = 0.025; 8.5 vs 1.0, P = 0.035; 3 vs 0, P = 0.027), total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time in minutes (287.35 vs 75.10, P = 0.022; 62.5 vs 1.4, P = 0.017), the number of alkaline reflux episodes (162.5 vs 72.5, P = 0.022) were decreased with statistical significance. No statistically significant difference was found in the comparison of symptoms between the subjects in the control group and the patients with cholecystolithiasis, in preoperative, postoperative and postcholecystectomy status. Significant reflux symptoms did not occur after cholecystectomy. Post cholecystectomy weakly alkaline reflux was decreased, but it was determined that acid reflux increased after cholecystectomy by impedance pH-metry in the study group.

  5. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  6. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured