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Sample records for alkalinity dissolved oxygen

  1. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  2. Dissolved oxygen: Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senn, David; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Novick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration serves as an important indicator of estuarine habitat condition, because all aquatic macro-organisms require some minimum DO level to survive and prosper. The instantaneous DO concentration, measured at a specific location in the water column, results from a balance between multiple processes that add or remove oxygen (Figure 6.1): primary production produces O2; aerobic respiration in the water column and sediments consumes O2; abiotic or microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions utilize O2 as an oxidant (e.g., oxidation of ammonium, sulfide, and ferrous iron); O2 exchange occurs across the air:water interface in response to under- or oversaturated DO concentrations in the water column; and water currents and turbulent mixing transport DO into and out of zones in the water column. If the oxygen loss rate exceeds the oxygen production or input rate, DO concentration decreases. When DO losses exceed production or input over a prolonged enough period of time, hypoxia ((<2-3 mg/L) or anoxia can develop. Persistent hypoxia or anoxia causes stress or death in aquatic organism populations, or for organisms that can escape a hypoxic or anoxic area, the loss of habitat. In addition, sulfide, which is toxic to aquatic organisms and causes odor problems, escapes from sediments under low oxygen conditions. Low dissolved oxygen is a common aquatic ecosystem response to elevated organic

  3. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater.

  4. The Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlethwayte, D.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment in environmental chemistry which serves to determine the dissolved oxygen concentration in both fresh and saline water. Applications of the method at the undergraduate and secondary school levels are recommended. (CC)

  5. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Dissolved Oxygen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the dissolved oxygen module, when to list dissolved oxygen as a candidate cause, ways to measure dissolved oxygen, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for dissolved oxygen, references for the dissolved oxygen module.

  6. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  7. Purging dissolved oxygen by nitrogen bubble aeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2016-11-01

    We apply aeration with nitrogen microbubbles to water in order to see whether oxygen gas originally dissolved in the water at one atmosphere is purged by the aeration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) is detected by a commercial DO meter. To detect the dissolved nitrogen (DN) level, we observe the growth of millimetre-sized bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water and compare it with the Epstein-Plesset theory that accounts for DO/DN diffusions and the presence of the glass surfaces. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest that the DO in the water are effectively purged by the aeration.

  8. Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Lake Chabot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Pica, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen levels are crucial in every aquatic ecosystem; it allows for the fish to breathe and it is the best indicator of water quality. Lake Chabot is the main backup water source for Castro Valley, making it crucial that the lake stays in good health. Last year, research determined that the water in Lake Chabot was of good quality and not eutrophic. This year, an experiment was conducted using Lake Chabot's dissolved oxygen levels to ensure the quality of the water and to support the findings of the previous team. After testing three specifically chosen sites at the lake using a dissolved oxygen meter, results showed that the oxygen levels in the lake were within the healthy range. It was then determined that Lake Chabot is a suitable backup water source and it continues to remain a healthy habitat.

  9. A Quantitative Evaluation of Dissolved Oxygen Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijanowski, Barbara S.

    1971-01-01

    The implications of the presence of dissolved oxygen in water are discussed in terms of its deleterious or beneficial effects, depending on the functional consequences to those affected, e.g., the industrialist, the oceanographer, and the ecologist. The paper is devoted primarily to an examination of the performance of five commercially available dissolved oxygen meters. The design of each is briefly reviewed and ease or difficulty of use in the field described. Specifically, the evaluation program treated a number of parameters and user considerations including an initial check and trial calibration for each instrument and a discussion of the measurement methodology employed. Detailed test results are given relating to the effects of primary power variation, water-flow sensitivity, response time, relative accuracy of dissolved-oxygen readout, temperature accuracy (for those instruments which included this feature), error and repeatability, stability, pressure and other environmental effects, and test results obtained in the field. Overall instrument performance is summarized comparatively by chart.

  10. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  11. Modeling Fish Growth in Low Dissolved Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilan, Rachael Miller

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a computational project designed for undergraduate students as an introduction to mathematical modeling. Students use an ordinary differential equation to describe fish weight and assume the instantaneous growth rate depends on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Published laboratory experiments suggest that continuous…

  12. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Dissolved Oxygen - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the dissolved oxygen module, when to list dissolved oxygen as a candidate cause, ways to measure dissolved oxygen, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for dissolved oxygen, references for the dissolved oxygen module.

  13. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Dissolved Oxygen - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to the dissolved oxygen module, when to list dissolved oxygen as a candidate cause, ways to measure dissolved oxygen, simple and detailed conceptual model diagrams for dissolved oxygen, references for the dissolved oxygen module.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-09-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  15. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  16. Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen. Training Module 5.105.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the azide modification of the Winkler dissolved oxygen test and the electronic dissolved oxygen meter test procedures for determining the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand of a wastewater sample. Included are…

  17. Numerical simulation of dissolved oxygen in Jakarta Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdjaman, Susanna; Radjawane, Ivonne M.; Jamelina, Sripardi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an ecosystem model is proposed to study interaction between ecosystem compartment such as nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus on dissolved oxygen (DO) in Jakarta Bay. Three-Dimensional NPZD model with adding DO compartment is applied in this region. The average of current circulation in west and east season is used as input in the model. It is assumed that the nutrients are discharged into water body with constant rates. The analysis of the model shows that the concentration of dissolved oxygen was distributed with range value 3 - 4 ppm in the bay. The air-sea interaction plays important role in decrease of dissolved oxygen than the nutrient discharge from the river. Over all the decrease of dissolved oxygen mainly due to decrease of saturated dissolved oxygen which is caused by high water temperature. There is no significant variation of dissolved oxygen concentration in west and east seasons.

  18. Scavenging dissolved oxygen via acoustic droplet vaporization.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Holland, Christy K; Haworth, Kevin J

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of perfluorocarbon emulsions has been explored for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaporization of a liquid droplet results in a gas microbubble with a diameter 5-6 times larger than the initial droplet diameter. The expansion factor can increase to a factor of 10 in gassy fluids as a result of air diffusing from the surrounding fluid into the microbubble. This study investigates the potential of this process to serve as an ultrasound-mediated gas scavenging technology. Perfluoropentane droplets diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were insonified by a 2 MHz transducer at peak rarefactional pressures lower than and greater than the ADV pressure amplitude threshold in an in vitro flow phantom. The change in dissolved oxygen (DO) of the PBS before and after ADV was measured. A numerical model of gas scavenging, based on conservation of mass and equal partial pressures of gases at equilibrium, was developed. At insonation pressures exceeding the ADV threshold, the DO of air-saturated PBS decreased with increasing insonation pressures, dropping as low as 25% of air saturation within 20s. The decrease in DO of the PBS during ADV was dependent on the volumetric size distribution of the droplets and the fraction of droplets transitioned during ultrasound exposure. Numerically predicted changes in DO from the model agreed with the experimentally measured DO, indicating that concentration gradients can explain this phenomenon. Using computationally modified droplet size distributions that would be suitable for in vivo applications, the DO of the PBS was found to decrease with increasing concentrations. This study demonstrates that ADV can significantly decrease the DO in an aqueous fluid, which may have direct therapeutic applications and should be considered for ADV-based diagnostic or therapeutic applications.

  19. Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

    1980-05-20

    Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

  20. Chapter A6. Section 6.2. Dissolved Oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Lewis, Michael Edward

    2006-01-01

    Accurate data for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in surface and ground waters are essential for documenting changes in environmental water resources that result from natural phenomena and human activities. Dissolved oxygen is necessary in aquatic systems for the survival and growth of many aquatic organisms and is used as an indicator of the health of surface-water bodies. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) includes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for four methods to determine dissolved-oxygen concentrations: the amperometric, luminescent-sensor, spectrophotometric, and iodometric (Winkler) methods.

  1. Artificial neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen in reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Liu, Wen-Cheng

    2014-02-01

    The water quality of reservoirs is one of the key factors in the operation and water quality management of reservoirs. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in water column is essential for microorganisms and a significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, two artificial neural network (ANN) models including back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approaches and multilinear regression (MLR) model were developed to estimate the DO concentration in the Feitsui Reservoir of northern Taiwan. The input variables of the neural network are determined as water temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, and ammonium nitrogen. The performance of the ANN models and MLR model was assessed through the mean absolute error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient computed from the measured and model-simulated DO values. The results reveal that ANN estimation performances were superior to those of MLR. Comparing to the BPNN and ANFIS models through the performance criteria, the ANFIS model is better than the BPNN model for predicting the DO values. Study results show that the neural network particularly using ANFIS model is able to predict the DO concentrations with reasonable accuracy, suggesting that the neural network is a valuable tool for reservoir management in Taiwan.

  2. Reduction of Dissolved Oxygen at a Copper Rotating Disc Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kear, Gareth; Albarran, Carlos Ponce-de-Leon; Walsh, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduates from chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and environmental science courses, together with first-year postgraduate research students in electrochemical technology, are provided with an experiment that demonstrates the reduction of dissolved oxygen in aerated seawater at 25°C. Oxygen reduction is examined using linear sweep…

  3. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media. PMID:26287211

  4. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-08-14

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media.

  5. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  6. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  7. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: A COMPARISON OF METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to confidently measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in ground water is a key aspect of remedial selection and assessment. Presented here is a comparison of the commonly practiced methods for determining D.O. concentrations in ground water, including c...

  8. Analyzing sediment dissolved oxygen based on microprofile modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Shan, Baoqing; Zhang, Hong; Rong, Nan

    2014-09-01

    Sediment plays a key role in controlling the oxygen demand of aquatic systems. The reaction rate, penetration depth, and flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) are important factors in sediment oxygen consumption. However, there were few methods to collect these data until recently. In this study, methods were developed to simulate the oxygen microprofile and calculate the sediment oxygen consumption rate, oxygen penetration depth, and oxygen flux across the SWI. We constructed a sediment oxygen measuring system using an oxygen microelectrode and a control device. The simulation equations were derived from both zero and first-order kinetic models, while the penetration depth and the oxygen flux were calculated from the simulation results. The method was tested on four prepared sediment samples. Decreases in dissolved oxygen in surface sediment were clearly detected by the microelectrode. The modeled data were a good fit for the observed data (R (2) > 0.95), and zero-order kinetics were more suitable than first-order kinetics. The values for penetration depth (1.3-3.9 mm) and oxygen fluxes (0.061-0.114 mg/cm(2)/day) calculated by our methods are comparable with those from other studies.

  9. Alkaline static feed electrolyzer based oxygen generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, L. D.; Kovach, A. J.; Fortunato, F. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Grigger, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    In preparation for the future deployment of the Space Station, an R and D program was established to demonstrate integrated operation of an alkaline Water Electrolysis System and a fuel cell as an energy storage device. The program's scope was revised when the Space Station Control Board changed the energy storage baseline for the Space Station. The new scope was aimed at the development of an alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer for use in an Environmental Control/Life Support System as an oxygen generation system. As a result, the program was divided into two phases. The phase 1 effort was directed at the development of the Static Feed Electrolyzer for application in a Regenerative Fuel Cell System. During this phase, the program emphasized incorporation of the Regenerative Fuel Cell System design requirements into the Static Feed Electrolyzer electrochemical module design and the mechanical components design. The mechanical components included a Pressure Control Assembly, a Water Supply Assembly and a Thermal Control Assembly. These designs were completed through manufacturing drawing during Phase 1. The Phase 2 effort was directed at advancing the Alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer database for an oxygen generation system. This development was aimed at extending the Static Feed Electrolyzer database in areas which may be encountered from initial fabrication through transportation, storage, launch and eventual Space Station startup. During this Phase, the Program emphasized three major areas: materials evaluation, electrochemical module scaling and performance repeatability and Static Feed Electrolyzer operational definition and characterization.

  10. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, C.; Buch, A.; Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Poch, O.; Ramirez, S.

    2013-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is known for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are objects of astrobiological interest. In this paper we focus on their potential chemical evolution when they reach the surface and interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have studied the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at ambient and low temperature. However, we identified oxygenated molecules in non-hydrolyzed tholins meaning that oxygen gets in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis [2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. After confirming the non-presence of oxygen in tholins produced with this new experimental setup, the study of oxygen-free tholins' evolution has been carried out. A recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), as previously described by other teams [2,4]. Thus new hydrolysis experiments will take this lower value into account. Additionally, a new report [5] provides upper and lower limits for the bulk content of Titan's interior for various gas species. It also shows that most of them are likely stored and dissolved in the subsurface water ocean. But considering the plausible acido-alkaline properties of the ammonia-water ocean, additional species could be dissolved in the ocean and present in the magma. They were also included in our hydrolysis experiments. Taking into account these new data, four different hydrolysis have been applied to oxygen-free tholins. For each type of hydrolysis, we also follow the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. The preliminary qualitative and quantitative

  11. Isotope fractionation during oxidation of tetravalent uranium by dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lundstrom, Craig C.

    2015-02-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate isotopic fractionations during oxidation of tetravalent uranium, U(IV), by dissolved oxygen. In hydrochloric acid media with the U(IV) dissolved, the δ238U value of the remaining U(IV) increased as the extent of oxidation increased. The δ238U value of the product U(VI) paralleled, but was offset to 1.1 ± 0.2‰ lower than the remaining U(IV). In contrast, oxidation of solid U(IV) by dissolved oxygen in 20 mM NaHCO3 solution at pH = 9.4 caused only a weak fractionation (∼0.1‰ to 0.3‰), with δ238U being higher in the dissolved U(VI) relative to the solid U(IV). We suggest that isotope fractionation during oxidation of solid U(IV) is inhibited by a "rind effect", where the surface layer of the solid U(IV) must be completely oxidized before the next layer is exposed to oxidant. The necessity of complete conversion of each layer results in minimal isotopic effect. The weak shift in δ238U of U(VI) is attributed to adsorption of part of the product U(VI) to the solid U(IV) surfaces.

  12. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Bull Shoals Lake, Arkansas, 1994-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2003-01-01

    and dissolved-oxygen concentration through time. However, results from both scenarios for water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentration were within the boundaries of the error between measured and simulated water column profile values.

  13. Sources of dissolved oxygen in monitoring and pumping wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, Matthijs; Wols, Bas; Maas, Kees; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater monitoring and pumping wells set in anoxic aquifers require attention to keep the groundwater free of dissolved oxygen (DO). In properly constructed monitoring or pumping wells, two processes can however still introduce oxygen to anoxic groundwater: (1) permeation of oxygen through polymer materials such as silicone, PVC, HDPE or Teflon, and (2) thermally driven convection, which can occur in all types of piezometers or wells, regardless of construction material, when the water table or pressure head is close (<10 m) to the land surface. Here, field measurements (temperature and DO well loggings) from a monitoring well in Bilthoven, the Netherlands, are combined with analytical and numerical modelling to investigate the role of both processes on oxygenation of anoxic groundwater in wells. The results of numerical and analytical modeling show that both permeation and convection can introduce oxygen into anoxic wells to near saturation concentrations. In the field data gathered, convection is primarily responsible for oxygen intrusion up to a depth of around 12 m. Oxygen intrusion through convection and permeation in monitoring and pumping wells may influence groundwater sampling and analyses, and may contribute to well clogging, depending on site conditions. The combination of field and modelling provides new insights into these processes, which can be used for both groundwater sampling and pumping well design.

  14. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  15. Improved Arterial Blood Oxygenation Following Intravenous Infusion of Cold Supersaturated Dissolved Oxygen Solution

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. METHODS Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer’s lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. RESULTS Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. CONCLUSIONS A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model. PMID:25249764

  16. Biological nitrification process simulation in groundwater with dissolved oxygen controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinlong

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays groundwater contamination by nitrogenous fertilizer is a globally growing problem, but groundwater always serves as an important water source, especially in rural area. In order to tackle this problem, biological nitrification and denitrification process has been widely used for removal of nitrogenous pollutants from polluted water. To improve removal efficiency, the dissolved oxygen (DO) controller is presented. And the control strategies for the activated sludge process have been developed and evaluated by simulation. The results also showed that the DO controller will be applied widely in the control and management of the decentralization water treatment.

  17. A Dissolved Oxygen Threshold for Shifts in Bacterial Community Structure in a Seasonally Hypoxic Estuary.

    PubMed

    Spietz, Rachel L; Williams, Cheryl M; Rocap, Gabrielle; Horner-Devine, M Claire

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems can become depleted of dissolved oxygen as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic effects. As dissolved oxygen concentration decreases, energy shifts from macrofauna to microorganisms, which persist in these hypoxic zones. Oxygen-limited regions are rapidly expanding globally; however, patterns of microbial communities associated with dissolved oxygen gradients are not yet well understood. To assess the effects of decreasing dissolved oxygen on bacteria, we examined shifts in bacterial community structure over space and time in Hood Canal, Washington, USA-a glacial fjord-like water body that experiences seasonal low dissolved oxygen levels known to be detrimental to fish and other marine organisms. We found a strong negative association between bacterial richness and dissolved oxygen. Bacterial community composition across all samples was also strongly associated with the dissolved oxygen gradient, and significant changes in bacterial community composition occurred at a dissolved oxygen concentration between 5.18 and 7.12 mg O2 L(-1). This threshold value of dissolved oxygen is higher than classic definitions of hypoxia (<2.0 mg O2 L(-1)), suggesting that changes in bacterial communities may precede the detrimental effects on ecologically and economically important macrofauna. Furthermore, bacterial taxa responsible for driving whole community changes across the oxygen gradient are commonly detected in other oxygen-stressed ecosystems, suggesting that the patterns we uncovered in Hood Canal may be relevant in other low oxygen ecosystems.

  18. A Dissolved Oxygen Threshold for Shifts in Bacterial Community Structure in a Seasonally Hypoxic Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Spietz, Rachel L.; Williams, Cheryl M.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Horner-Devine, M. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems can become depleted of dissolved oxygen as a result of both natural processes and anthropogenic effects. As dissolved oxygen concentration decreases, energy shifts from macrofauna to microorganisms, which persist in these hypoxic zones. Oxygen-limited regions are rapidly expanding globally; however, patterns of microbial communities associated with dissolved oxygen gradients are not yet well understood. To assess the effects of decreasing dissolved oxygen on bacteria, we examined shifts in bacterial community structure over space and time in Hood Canal, Washington, USA−a glacial fjord-like water body that experiences seasonal low dissolved oxygen levels known to be detrimental to fish and other marine organisms. We found a strong negative association between bacterial richness and dissolved oxygen. Bacterial community composition across all samples was also strongly associated with the dissolved oxygen gradient, and significant changes in bacterial community composition occurred at a dissolved oxygen concentration between 5.18 and 7.12 mg O2 L-1. This threshold value of dissolved oxygen is higher than classic definitions of hypoxia (<2.0 mg O2 L-1), suggesting that changes in bacterial communities may precede the detrimental effects on ecologically and economically important macrofauna. Furthermore, bacterial taxa responsible for driving whole community changes across the oxygen gradient are commonly detected in other oxygen-stressed ecosystems, suggesting that the patterns we uncovered in Hood Canal may be relevant in other low oxygen ecosystems. PMID:26270047

  19. Continuous Dissolved Oxygen Measurements and Modelling Metabolism in Peatland Streams.

    PubMed

    Dick, Jonathan J; Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Malcolm, Iain; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2016-01-01

    Stream water dissolved oxygen was monitored in a 3.2km2 moorland headwater catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The stream consists of three 1st order headwaters and a 2nd order main stem. The stream network is fringed by peat soils with no riparian trees, though dwarf shrubs provide shading in the lower catchment. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is regulated by the balance between atmospheric re-aeration and the metabolic processes of photosynthesis and respiration. DO was continuously measured for >1 year and the data used to calibrate a mass balance model, to estimate primary production, respiration and re-aeration for a 1st order site and in the 2nd order main stem. Results showed that the stream was always heterotrophic at both sites. Sites were most heterotrophic in the summer reflecting higher levels of stream metabolism. The 1st order stream appeared more heterotrophic which was consistent with the evident greater biomass of macrophytes in the 2nd order stream, with resulting higher primary productivity. Comparison between respiration, primary production, re-aeration and potential physical controls revealed only weak relationships. However, the most basic model parameters (e.g. the parameter linking light and photosynthesis) controlling ecosystem processes resulted in significant differences between the sites which seem related to the stream channel geometry.

  20. Continuous Dissolved Oxygen Measurements and Modelling Metabolism in Peatland Streams

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jonathan J.; Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Malcolm, Iain; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2016-01-01

    Stream water dissolved oxygen was monitored in a 3.2km2 moorland headwater catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The stream consists of three 1st order headwaters and a 2nd order main stem. The stream network is fringed by peat soils with no riparian trees, though dwarf shrubs provide shading in the lower catchment. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is regulated by the balance between atmospheric re-aeration and the metabolic processes of photosynthesis and respiration. DO was continuously measured for >1 year and the data used to calibrate a mass balance model, to estimate primary production, respiration and re-aeration for a 1st order site and in the 2nd order main stem. Results showed that the stream was always heterotrophic at both sites. Sites were most heterotrophic in the summer reflecting higher levels of stream metabolism. The 1st order stream appeared more heterotrophic which was consistent with the evident greater biomass of macrophytes in the 2nd order stream, with resulting higher primary productivity. Comparison between respiration, primary production, re-aeration and potential physical controls revealed only weak relationships. However, the most basic model parameters (e.g. the parameter linking light and photosynthesis) controlling ecosystem processes resulted in significant differences between the sites which seem related to the stream channel geometry. PMID:27556278

  1. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-07-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

  2. Measurement of dissolved oxygen during red wines tank aging with chips and micro-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Nevares, I; del Alamo, M

    2008-07-21

    Nowadays, micro-oxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Considering the low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels used by micro-oxygenation technique it is necessary to choose the appropriate measurement principle to apply the precise oxygen dosage in wine at any time, in order to assure its correct assimilation. This knowledge will allow the oenologist to control and run the wine aging correctly. This work is a thorough revision of DO measurement main technologies applied to oenology. It describes the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, and draws a comparison of their workings in wine measurement. Both, the traditional systems by electrochemical probes, and the newest photoluminescence-based probes have been used. These probes adapted to red wines ageing study are then compared. This paper also details the first results of the dissolved oxygen content evolution in red wines during a traditional and alternative tank aging. Samples have been treated by three different ageing systems: oak barrels, stainless-steel tanks with small oak wood pieces (chips) and with bigger oak pieces (staves) with low micro-oxygenation levels. French and American oak barrels manufactured by the same cooperage have been used.

  3. Influence of dissolved oxygen convection on well sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Casey, C.C.; Lowery, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Convective transport of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) from shallow to deeper parts of wells was observed as the shallow water in wells in South Carolina became cooler than the deeper water in the wells due to seasonal changes. Wells having a relatively small depth to water were more susceptible to thermally induced convection than wells where the depth to water was greater because the shallower water levels were more influenced by air temperature. The potential for convective transport of D.O. to maintain oxygenated conditions in a well screened in an anaerobic aquifer was diminished as ground water exchange through the well screen increased and as oxygen demand increased. Transport of D.O. to the screened interval can adversely affect the ability of passive samplers to produce accurate concentrations of oxygen-sensitive solutes such as iron, other redox indicators, and microbiological data. A comparison of passive sampling to low-flow sampling in a well undergoing convection, however, showed general agreement of volatile organic compound concentrations. During low-flow sampling, the pumped water may be a mixture of convecting water from within the well casing and aquifer water moving inward through the screen. This mixing of water during low-flow sampling can substantially increase equilibration times, can cause false stabilization of indicator parameters, can give false indications of the redox state, and can provide microbiological data that are not representative of the aquifer conditions. Data from this investigation show that simple in-well devices can effectively mitigate convective transport of oxygen. The devices can range from inflatable packers to simple, inexpensive baffle systems. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Spatial variability of dissolved phosphorous concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chang, J.; Ho, T.; Gong, G.

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) have been determined at about 25 sampling stations in the East China Sea since 2003. The stations are mainly distributed from the Changjiang river mouth to northern Taiwan and east to the shelf break. In addition to the Changjiang discharge, we have found a specific nutrient source around a coastal site (122° 2’30’’ E, 28° 40’ N). Elevated DIP and nitrate concentrations have been constantly observed around the sampling station for 8 years, where the surface DIP concentrations are generally around 0.3 µM. The nutrient source may either originate from ground water discharge or coastal upwelling, where lower temperature has been observed in the water column around the station. In general, APA has been negatively correlated with DIP concentrations in the studies sites, with lowest APA around the high DIP station and the Changjiang river mouth.

  5. Dissolved oxygen as an indicator of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; McMahon, Peter B.; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) plotted vs. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater samples taken from a coastal plain aquifer of South Carolina (SC) showed a statistically significant hyperbolic relationship. In contrast, DO-DOC plots of groundwater samples taken from the eastern San Joaquin Valley of California (CA) showed a random scatter. It was hypothesized that differences in the bioavailability of naturally occurring DOC might contribute to these observations. This hypothesis was examined by comparing nine different biochemical indicators of DOC bioavailability in groundwater sampled from these two systems. Concentrations of DOC, total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS), total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), mole% glycine of THAA, initial bacterial cell counts, bacterial growth rates, and carbon dioxide production/consumption were greater in SC samples relative to CA samples. In contrast, the mole% glucose of THNS and the aromaticity (SUVA254) of DOC was greater in CA samples. Each of these indicator parameters were observed to change with depth in the SC system in a manner consistent with active biodegradation. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the bioavailability of DOC is greater in SC relative to CA groundwater samples. This, in turn, suggests that the presence/absence of a hyperbolic DO-DOC relationship may be a qualitative indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  6. Dissolved oxygen as an indicator of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; Bradley, Paul M; McMahon, Peter B; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) plotted vs. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater samples taken from a coastal plain aquifer of South Carolina (SC) showed a statistically significant hyperbolic relationship. In contrast, DO-DOC plots of groundwater samples taken from the eastern San Joaquin Valley of California (CA) showed a random scatter. It was hypothesized that differences in the bioavailability of naturally occurring DOC might contribute to these observations. This hypothesis was examined by comparing nine different biochemical indicators of DOC bioavailability in groundwater sampled from these two systems. Concentrations of DOC, total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS), total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), mole% glycine of THAA, initial bacterial cell counts, bacterial growth rates, and carbon dioxide production/consumption were greater in SC samples relative to CA samples. In contrast, the mole% glucose of THNS and the aromaticity (SUVA(254)) of DOC was greater in CA samples. Each of these indicator parameters were observed to change with depth in the SC system in a manner consistent with active biodegradation. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the bioavailability of DOC is greater in SC relative to CA groundwater samples. This, in turn, suggests that the presence/absence of a hyperbolic DO-DOC relationship may be a qualitative indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  7. Longitudinal distributions of dissolved barium, silica and alkalinity in the western and southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeandel, C.; Dupré, B.; Lebaron, G.; Monnin, C.; Minster, J.-F.

    1996-01-01

    Dissolved Ba, Si and alkalinity contents are reported for 11 vertical profiles along a longitudinal section in the western Indian and Southern Oceans, sampled during 1985, 1986 and 1987 in the French expedition INDIGO. Barium concentrations increase from 30 nmol/kg at the surface to 100 nmol/kg at depth in the Southern Ocean. North of the Polar Front, Ba values range from 40 nmol/kg at the surface to 120 nmol/kg in the bottom waters. These vertical variations result from mixing of water masses as well as biologically controlled uptake/regeneration processes. By means of a water-mass mixing model, the non-conservative Ba signal was determined and compared to that of silica. The Δ Ba/Δ Si uptake/regeneration molar ratio is 0.15 × 10 -3 in the south and 0.45 × 10 -3 in the north. In the south, curiously, no release of Ba is observed in Circumpolar Deep Waters, whereas Ba appears to be regenerated in the underlying Antarctic Bottom Waters. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ba is somewhat supersaturated with respect to barite in the upper 3000 m of the southern waters. Thus, whereas surface Ba uptake is probably governed by the biological activity, Ba regeneration in deep waters appears to be controlled by saturation. Barium is correlated linearly with alkalinity at each station, but the slopes of the regression line vary by a factor greater than 2 along the section. The variability of the Δ Ba/Δ Alk ratio between the Southern Ocean and the subtropical and tropical areas raises questions about the validity of applying Δ Ba/Δ Alk values established on a global scale to reconstruct paleo-alkalinity distributions in the Southern Ocean.

  8. Dissolved oxygen saturation controls PAH biodegradation in freshwater estuary sediments.

    PubMed

    Boyd, T J; Montgomery, M T; Steele, J K; Pohlman, J W; Reatherford, S R; Spargo, B J; Smith, D C

    2005-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in terrestrial and aquatic environments and can represent a significant constituent of the carbon pool in coastal sediments. We report here the results of an 18-month seasonal study of PAH biodegradation and heterotrophic bacterial production and their controlling biogeochemical factors from 186 sediment samples taken in a tidally influenced freshwater estuary. For each sampling event, measurements were averaged from 25-45 stations covering approximately 250 km(2). There was a clear relationship between bacterial production and ambient temperature, but none between production and bottom water dissolved oxygen (DO) % saturation or PAH concentrations. In contrast with other studies, we found no effect of temperature on the biodegradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, or fluoranthene. PAH mineralization correlated with bottom water DO saturation above 70% (r(2) > 0.99). These results suggest that the proportional utilization of PAH carbon to natural organic carbon is as much as three orders of magnitude higher during cooler months, when water temperatures are lower and DO % saturation is higher. Infusion of cooler, well-oxygenated water to the water column overlying contaminated sediments during the summer months may stimulate PAH metabolism preferentially over non-PAH organic matter.

  9. Smart oxygen cuvette for optical monitoring of dissolved oxygen in biological blood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabhi, Harish; Alla, Suresh Kumar; Shahriari, Mahmoud R.

    2010-02-01

    A smart Oxygen Cuvette is developed by coating the inner surface of a cuvette with oxygen sensitive thin film material. The coating is glass like sol-gel based sensor that has an embedded ruthenium compound in the glass film. The fluorescence of the ruthenium is quenched depending on the oxygen level. Ocean Optics phase fluorometer, NeoFox is used to measure this rate of fluorescence quenching and computes it for the amount of oxygen present. Multimode optical fibers are used for transportation of light from an LED source to cuvette and from cuvette to phase fluorometer. This new oxygen sensing system yields an inexpensive solution for monitoring the dissolved oxygen in samples for biological and medical applications. In addition to desktop fluorometers, smart oxygen cuvettes can be used with the Ocean Optics handheld Fluorometers, NeoFox Sport. The Smart Oxygen Cuvettes provide a resolution of 4PPB units, an accuracy of less than 5% of the reading, and 90% response in less than 10 seconds.

  10. Correlation between the sorption of dissolved oxygen onto chitosan and its antimicrobial activity against Esherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gylienė, Ona; Servienė, Elena; Vepštaitė, Iglė; Binkienė, Rima; Baranauskas, Mykolas; Lukša, Juliana

    2015-10-20

    The ability of chitosan to adsorb dissolved oxygen from solution depends on its physical shape and is related to the surface area. Depending on conditions chitosan is capable of adsorbing or releasing oxygen. Chitosan, modificated by the substances possessing antimicrobial activity, such as succinic acid, Pd(II) ions, metallic Pd or Ag, distinctly increases the ability to adsorb the dissolved oxygen. The additional treatment of chitosan with air oxygen or electrochemically produced oxygen also increases the uptake of dissolved oxygen by chitosan. A strong correlation between the amount of oxygen adsorbed onto chitosan and its antimicrobial activity against Esherichia coli has been observed. This finding suggests that one of the sources of antimicrobial activity of chitosan is the ability to sorb dissolved oxygen, along with other well-known factors such as physical state and chemical composition.

  11. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  12. Monitoring sediment oxygen demand for assessment of dissolved oxygen distribution in river.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Bo

    2012-09-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) has become an integral part of modeling dissolved oxygen (DO) within surface water bodies. Because very few data on SOD are available, it is common for modeler to take SOD values from literature for use within DO models. SOD is such an important parameter in modeling DO that this approach may lead to erroneous results. This paper reported on developing an approach for monitoring sediment oxygen demand conducted with undisturbed sediment core samples, where the measured results were incorporated into a water quality model for simulating and assessing dissolved oxygen distribution in the Xindian River of northern Taiwan. The measured results indicate that a higher freshwater discharge results in a lower SOD. Throughout a 1-year observation in 2004, the measured SOD ranged from 0.367 to 1.246 g/m(2)/day at the temperature of 20°C. The mean values of the measured SOD at each station were adopted in a vertical two-dimensional water quality model to simulate the DO distribution along the Xindian River. The simulating results accurately depict the field-measured DO distribution during the low and high flow conditions. Model sensitivity analyses were also conducted with increasing and decreasing SOD values for the low and high flow conditions and revealed that SOD had a significant impact on the DO distribution along the Xindian River. The present work combined with field measurements and numerical simulation should assist in river water quality management.

  13. Consumption and diffusion of dissolved oxygen in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Manaka, M; Takeda, M

    2016-10-01

    Fe(II)-bearing minerals (e.g., biotite, chlorite, and pyrite) are a promising reducing agent for the consumption of atmospheric oxygen in repositories for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. To estimate effective diffusion coefficients (De, in m(2)s(-1)) for dissolved oxygen (DO) and the reaction rates for the oxidation of Fe(II)-bearing minerals in a repository environment, we conducted diffusion-chemical reaction experiments using intact rock samples of Mizunami sedimentary rock. In addition, we conducted batch experiments on the oxidation of crushed sedimentary rock by DO in a closed system. From the results of the diffusion-chemical reaction experiments, we estimated the values of De for DO to lie within the range 2.69×10(-11)

  14. Consumption and diffusion of dissolved oxygen in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaka, M.; Takeda, M.

    2016-10-01

    Fe(II)-bearing minerals (e.g., biotite, chlorite, and pyrite) are a promising reducing agent for the consumption of atmospheric oxygen in repositories for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. To estimate effective diffusion coefficients (De, in m2 s- 1) for dissolved oxygen (DO) and the reaction rates for the oxidation of Fe(II)-bearing minerals in a repository environment, we conducted diffusion-chemical reaction experiments using intact rock samples of Mizunami sedimentary rock. In addition, we conducted batch experiments on the oxidation of crushed sedimentary rock by DO in a closed system. From the results of the diffusion-chemical reaction experiments, we estimated the values of De for DO to lie within the range 2.69 × 10- 11 < De < 6.30 × 10- 11. Values of the second-order rate constant (k, in L mol-1 s- 1) were in the range - 3.66 < log k < - 2.83 (from batch experiments) and in the range - 3.87 < log k < - 2.22 (from diffusion-chemical reaction experiments). Many of these values are within the range of previously published rates for reaction between O2(aq) and Fe(II) surface complexes. The average value for the total concentration of reactive sites was about 10- 4 mol m- 2 from batch experiments. In contrast, the value of reactive sites estimated from the physical surface area was about 10- 8 mol m- 2, indicating that the reaction within intact rock is limited to the sites that originally existed with accessible porosity for O2(aq). This difference arises because the batch experiments used powdered samples, meaning that new sites which formed during milling were added to the original reaction sites. On the basis of these observations and interpretations, diffusion-chemical reaction experiments make it possible to determine the values of the kinetic parameter and diffusivity for an intact rock sample simultaneously.

  15. Biological Apatite Formed from Polyphosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase May Exchange Oxygen Isotopes from Water through Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, S. J.; Stanley, S. Y.; Gorelikov, I.; Matsuura, N.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition in bone mineral phosphate is known to reflect the local water composition, environmental humidity, and diet1. Once ingested, biochemical processes presumably equilibrate PO43- with "body water" by the many biochemical reactions involving PO43- 2. Blake et al. demonstrated that enzymatic release of PO43- from organophosphorus compounds, and microbial metabolism of dissolved orthophosphate, significantly exchange the oxygen in precipitated apatite within environmental water3,4, which otherwise does not exchange with water at low temperatures. One of the enzymes that can cleave phosphates from organic substrates is alkaline phosphastase5, the enzyme also associated with bone mineralization. The literature often states that the mineral in bone in hydroxylapatite, however the mineral in bone is carbonated apatite that also contains some fluoride6. Deprotonation of HPO32- occurs at pH 12, which is impossibly high for biological system, and the predominate carbonate species in solution at neutral pH is HCO3-. To produce an apatite mineral without a significant hydroxyl content, it is possible that apatite biomineralization occurs through a polyphosphate pathway, where the oxygen atom required to transform polyphosphate into individual phosphate ions is from carbonate: [PO3-]n + CO32- -> [PO3-]n-1 + PO43- + CO2. Alkaline phosphatase can depolymerise polyphosphate into orthophosphate5. If alkaline phosphatase cleaves an oxygen atom from a calcium-carbonate complex, then there is no requirement for removing a hydrogen atom from the HCO3- or HPO43- ions of body water to form bioapatite. A mix of 1 mL of 1 M calcium polyphosphate hydogel, or nano-particles of calcium polyphosphate, and amorphous calcium carbonate were reacted with alkaline phosphatase, and maintained at neutral to basic pH. After two weeks, carbonated apatite and other calcium phosphate minerals were identified by powder x-ray diffraction. Orthophosphate and unreacted

  16. Using 18O as a Tracer of Oxygen in the Photochemical Alteration of Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Stubbins, A.; Helms, J.; Dias, R. F.; Mopper, K.

    2006-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is affected by numerous processes, including photochemical alteration. Photochemical processes result in the net oxidation and mineralization of DOM concomitant with dissolved oxygen consumption and production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; principally CO2). The photochemical oxygen budget is not well constrained while DIC production accounts for nearly all the dissolved oxygen consumed, conflicting data suggests that more than half of the oxygen consumed is required to account for observed DOM oxidation and hydrogen peroxide production. An alternate source of oxygen is required to balance this budget; water itself may provide the answer. In order to determine the source of oxygen, a number of time series irradiations were performed using Great Dismal Swamp water (southeast Virginia) with 18O enrichments as either dissolved oxygen or water. Early results, upon irradiation in a UV solar simulator, show significant incorporation of 18O-enriched oxygen into high molecular weight (HMW) DOM from both sources. While the majority of the incorporated oxygen originated from the dissolved oxygen, at least 5 percent originated from water. Data will be presented showing the rate and degree of incorporation of 18O-enriched oxygen from both sources as well as the production of 18O-enriched carbon dioxide. The movement of 18O label will be discussed in relation to shifts in spectral qualities, including photobleaching and spectral slope, of the irradiated samples and selective incorporation as detailed by FT-ICRMS.

  17. Interannual variability of Dissolved Oxygen values around the Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbín, R.; Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Flexas, M. M.

    2012-04-01

    Periodic movements of the trawl fishing fleet at Mallorca Island suggest a seasonal variability of the demersal resources, associated with hydrodynamic variability. The area where these commercial fisheries operate extends from the north to the southeast of Mallorca channel, between Mallorca and Ibiza Islands. It is thus affected by the different hydrodynamic conditions of the two sub-basins of the western Mediterranean (the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins), with different geomorphologic and hydrodynamic characteristics. To characterize this hydrodynamic variability, hydrographic data collected around the Balearic Islands since 2001 with CTDs were analized [1]. Hydrographic parameters were processed according to the standard protocols. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was calibrated onboard using the winkler method. Temperature and salinity were used to characterize the different water masses. At the Western Mediterranean, the maximum values of DO in the water column are observed in the sur- face waters during winter (> 6.0 ml /l), when these water in contact with the atmosphere absorb large amount of oxygen, favored by low winter temperatures and notable turbulence. Later in the spring, the gradual increase of temperature, and the beginning of stratification and biological activity, lead to a decrease of oxygen concentration mainly in surface waters. During summer, these values continue to reduce in the surface mixed layer. Below it, and due to the biological activity, an increase is observed, giving rise to the absolute maximum of this parameter (> 6.5 ml /l). During autumn, the atmospheric forcing breaks the stratification producing a homogenization of surface water. At this moment, DO shows intermediate values. Below the surface waters, about 200 m, a relative maximum corresponding to the seasonal Winter Intermediate Waters (WIW) can be observed. Intermediate waters, between 400 and 600 m, reveal an oxygen minimum (4.0 ml /l) associated to the Levantine Intermediate

  18. Links between oxygen fugacity, slab fluids, and calc-alkaline differentiation of arc magmas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Calc-alkaline differentiation, a process by which magmas become depleted in Fe early in their crystallization history, is observed in magmas at subduction zone settings and is thought to drive arc magmas towards the bulk composition of continental crust. Basaltic arc magmas may achieve calc-alkaline affinity through some combination of high magmatic H2O, which delays the crystallization of silicates (most notably plagioclase), and high magmatic oxygen fugacity (fO2), which enhances the onset of magnetite crystallization. The relative importance of H2O, fO2, and magmatic bulk composition in generating calc-alkaline magma series, however, is not yet clearly resolved. Here, we present new measurements of the oxidation state of Fe (expressed as Fe3+/∑Fe ratio; a proxy for magmatic fO2), in combination with previously-published analyses, of mafic (Mg#≥0.5) olivine-hosted melt inclusions from global arc volcanoes (Galunggung, Paricutin, Cerro Negro, and several volcnaoes from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs), acquired using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. We use the Tholeiitic Index (THI) of Zimmer et al., 2010 to quantify the calc-alkaline affinity of arc magma series (<1 is more calc-alkaline, >1 is more tholeiitic). These volcanoes span a range of calc-alkaline affinity, with THI ranging from 0.65 to 1.3. The Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of arc basalts, corrected for fractional crystallization to 6 wt.% MgO (i.e., Fe3+/∑Fe6.0) range globally from 0.15-0.31 and all but Galunggung are more oxidized than the more tholeiitic basaltic glasses from the Mariana trough back-arc basin (THI=1.4; Fe3+/∑Fe6.0=0.185) or normal MORB (THI=1.6; Fe3+/∑Fe6.0=0.167×0.01). Our results show a strong correlation between THI and Fe3+/∑Fe6.0 ratios at these volcanoes, such that more calc-alkaline magmas contain a greater proportion of oxidized Fe. At the same time, the maximum dissolved H2O contents of basaltic melt inclusions from these volcanoes also strongly correlate

  19. Vertical distribution of triple oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Osamu; Honda, Makio; Saino, Toshiro

    2013-04-01

    Oxygen-17 excess of dissolved oxygen calculated from δ18O and δ17O is not affected by oxygen consumption process but controlled only by processes of primary production and air-water gas transfer. Evaluating gross primary productivity using the 17O-excess in ocean surface water are one of the most advanced geochemical researches for last 10 years. Oxygen-17 excess below ocean mixed/photic layer has not been much investigated because it might be out of focus for estimating present primary productivity, except for the purpose to correct diapycnal mixing effect on surface water. In principle, water mass which has not been affected both by photosynthesis and gas transfer after its separation from ocean surface could preserve 17O-excess value where the water mass was at the surface. The purpose of this study is to determine the vertical distribution of 17O-excess from the surface to the bottom of northwestern Pacific to know whether 17O-excess could really preserve its "original" value after the long and dark travel. Near stations K2 and KNOT, water mass which has a density of 26.8 ?? is observed at depth between 100 and 300 m. This water mass is mainly originated from bottom water in the Okhotsk Sea and spreading widely to entire northwestern Pacific, which is called North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). NPIW is found at depth of 700 m at station S1. Samplings were conducted by two R/V Mirai cruises (MR10-06, Oct-Nov 2010; MR11-02, Feb-Mar 2011). Dissolved oxygen gas was purified by the method of Sarma et al. (2003) and its isotopic composition was determined by dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific Delta Plus). Gross primary productivities at mixed layer estimated by 17O-excess were well consistent with those by conventional light and dark bottle incubations for stations K2 and S1.

  20. Oxygen isotope fractionation of dissolved oxygen during reduction by ferrous iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Poulson, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation factor of dissolved oxygen gas has been measured during inorganic reduction by aqueous FeSO 4 at 10-54 °C under neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 2) conditions, with Fe(II) concentrations ranging up to 0.67 mol L -1, in order to better understand the geochemical behavior of oxygen in ferrous iron-rich groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes. The rate of oxygen reduction increased with increasing temperature and increasing Fe(II) concentration, with the pseudo-first-order rate constant k ranging from 2.3 to 82.9 × 10 -6 s -1 under neutral conditions and 2.1 to 37.4 × 10 -7 s -1 under acidic conditions. The activation energy of oxygen reduction was 30.9 ± 6.6 kJ mol -1 and 49.7 ± 13.0 kJ mol -1 under neutral and acidic conditions, respectively. Oxygen isotope enrichment factors ( ɛ) become smaller with increasing temperature, increasing ferrous iron concentration, and increasing reaction rate under acidic conditions, with ɛ values ranging from -4.5‰ to -11.6‰. Under neutral conditions, ɛ does not show any systematic trends vs. temperature or ferrous iron concentration, with ɛ values ranging from -7.3 to -10.3‰. Characterization of the oxygen isotope fractionation factor associated with O 2 reduction by Fe(II) will have application to elucidating the process or processes responsible for oxygen consumption in environments such as groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes, where a number of possible processes (e.g. biological respiration, reduction by reduced species) may have taken place.

  1. Influence of dissolved oxygen on the protectiveness and morphological characteristics of calcareous deposits with galvanostatic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengjie; Du, Min; Gao, Rongjie

    2017-04-01

    The influence of dissolved oxygen on calcareous deposits formed under galvanostatic polarization mode was studied. When the dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 7 mg L-1, the cathodic protection potential showed a plateau at the initial polarization, and then quickly shifted negatively. While the dissolved oxygen was more than 9 mg L-1, the potential shifted negatively in a linear form. After 168 h of polarization, the final protection potential shifted negatively with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The deposition progress was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and only one single loop was found in Nyquist diagram, indicating deposits of ineffective protectiveness precipitation under the experimental conditions. The protection factor of deposits increased with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration which was detected by linear polarization resistance technique. The cathodic electrochemical reaction could change very shortly from oxygen reduction to hydrogen evolution after cathodic protection under very low dissolved oxygen concentration, such as 1 mg L-1, resulting in the hydrogen bubbling from the metallic surface and the decrease of deposits protection factor. Observation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the deposits were mainly of calcite under the experimental conditions, and that dissolved oxygen had no effect on the crystalline types of calcium carbonate.

  2. Diurnal variations in, and influences on, concentrations of particulate and dissolved arsenic and metals in the mildly alkaline Wallkill River, New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Wilson, T.P.; Szabo, Z.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Smith, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variations in particulate and dissolved As and metal concentrations were observed in mildly alkaline water from a wetlands site on the Wallkill River in northwestern New Jersey. The site, underlain by glacial sediments over dolomite bedrock, is 10 km downstream from a mined area of the Franklin Marble, host to Zn ores, also As and Mn minerals. In mid-September 2005, maxima and minima in dissolved-oxygen-concentration and pH, typically caused by photosynthesis and respiration, occurred at 2000 and 0800 hours. Concentrations of dissolved As (1.52-1.95 ??g/L) peaked at dusk (2000 hours), whereas dissolved Mn and Zn concentrations (76.5-96.9 and 8.55-12.8 ??g/L, respectively) were lowest at dusk and peaked at 1000 hours. These opposing cycles probably reflect sorption and desorption of As (an anion), and Mn and Zn (cations) as pH varied throughout the 24-h period. Doubly-peaked cycles of B, Cl, SO4, and nutrients also were observed; these may result from upstream discharges of septic-system effluent. Both recoverable amd particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations peaked between 0200 and 0600 hours. The particulate metals cycle, with perturbations at 0400 hours, may be influenced by biological activity. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  4. Dissolved-oxygen regimen of the Willamette River, Oregon, under conditions of basinwide secondary treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Evaluation of planning alternatives for maintaining desirable dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickert, David A.; Rinella, F.A.; Hines, W.G.; McKenzie, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Steady-state dissolved oxygen model of the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Stuart W.; Hines, W.G.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1979-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Fiber-optic dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide sensors using fluorophores encapsulated in sol gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeog-Chan

    Fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved CO2 sensing using thin films of fluorophores encapsulated in sol-gel matrices were made and tested. The DO/O2 sensor used ruthenium(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) perchlorate (Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2) as the oxygen sensitive fluorophore and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) sol-gel as the encapsulating matrix material. For the DCO2 sensor, 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) co-doped with sodium bicarbonate was used as the DCO2 sensitive fluorophore-chemical system and diisobutoxy-alumino triethoxysilane (ASE) sol-gel was used as the encapsulating matrix material. It was found that oxygen quenches the excited state Ru(Ph2Phen)Cl 2 by diffusing through the MTMS matrix. Continuous excitation of Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2 during MTMS drying resulted in long, single exponential lifetimes of the metal complex and increased sensor sensitivity. When the sensor was field tested, it was found to have an excellent match compared to conventional titration method for determining dissolved oxygen concentrations and had fast response times. It was determined that this sensor measured the vapor pressure of oxygen rather than the absolute concentration of dissolved oxygen. For DCO2 sensing, it was found that the dynamic response of the senor could be tuned by varying the HPTS to NaHCO3 ratios. The sensor had fast response times compared to other fiber optic DCO 2 sensors reported which typically have response times of minutes.

  8. Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration on biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Shaler, T A; Klecka, G M

    1986-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to examine the effects of dissolved oxygen concentration on the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by an enrichment culture of 2,4-D-utilizing bacteria. A modified Monod equation was found to describe the relationship between the specific growth rate and the concentrations of both the organic substrate and dissolved oxygen. Values for the maximum specific growth rate, yield, and Monod coefficient for growth on 2,4-D were 0.09 h-1, 0.14 g/g, and 0.6 mg/liter, respectively. The half-saturation constant for dissolved oxygen was estimated to be 1.2 mg/liter. These results suggest that dissolved oxygen concentrations below 1 mg/liter may be rate limiting for the biodegradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds such as 2,4-D, which have a requirement for molecular oxygen as a cosubstrate for metabolism. PMID:3729394

  9. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  10. Electrochemically reduced water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Harada, Gakuro; Nakamichi, Noboru; Kabayama, Shigeru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) is produced near a cathode during electrolysis and exhibits an alkaline pH, contains richly dissolved hydrogen, and contains a small amount of platinum nanoparticles. ERW has reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity and recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen-dissolved water exhibits ROS-scavenging activity. Thus, the antioxidative capacity of ERW is postulated to be dependent on the presence of hydrogen levels; however, there is no report verifying the role of dissolved hydrogen in ERW. In this report, we clarify whether the responsive factor for antioxidative activity in ERW is dissolved hydrogen. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity of ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water was tested by both fluorescent stain method and immuno spin trapping assay. We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water. ERW retained its ROS-scavenging activity after removal of dissolved hydrogen, but lost its activity when autoclaved. An oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and chemiluminescence assay could not detect radical-scavenging activity in both ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water. These results indicate that ERW contains electrolysis-dependent hydrogen and an additional antioxidative factor predicted to be platinum nanoparticles. PMID:28182635

  11. Electrochemically reduced water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Harada, Gakuro; Nakamichi, Noboru; Kabayama, Shigeru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Gong, Wei; Sakata, Ichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) is produced near a cathode during electrolysis and exhibits an alkaline pH, contains richly dissolved hydrogen, and contains a small amount of platinum nanoparticles. ERW has reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity and recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen-dissolved water exhibits ROS-scavenging activity. Thus, the antioxidative capacity of ERW is postulated to be dependent on the presence of hydrogen levels; however, there is no report verifying the role of dissolved hydrogen in ERW. In this report, we clarify whether the responsive factor for antioxidative activity in ERW is dissolved hydrogen. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity of ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water was tested by both fluorescent stain method and immuno spin trapping assay. We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water. ERW retained its ROS-scavenging activity after removal of dissolved hydrogen, but lost its activity when autoclaved. An oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and chemiluminescence assay could not detect radical-scavenging activity in both ERW and hydrogen-dissolved water. These results indicate that ERW contains electrolysis-dependent hydrogen and an additional antioxidative factor predicted to be platinum nanoparticles.

  12. Climatological variations of total alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemayel, E.; Hassoun, A. E. R.; Benallal, M. A.; Goyet, C.; Rivaro, P.; Abboud-Abi Saab, M.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Touratier, F.; Ziveri, P.

    2015-12-01

    A compilation of data from several cruises between 1998 and 2013 was used to derive polynomial fits that estimate total alkalinity (AT) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) from measurements of salinity and temperature in the Mediterranean Sea surface waters. The optimal equations were chosen based on the 10-fold cross-validation results and revealed that second- and third-order polynomials fit the AT and CT data respectively. The AT surface fit yielded a root mean square error (RMSE) of ± 10.6 μmol kg-1, and salinity and temperature contribute to 96 % of the variability. Furthermore, we present the first annual mean CT parameterization for the Mediterranean Sea surface waters with a RMSE of ± 14.3 μmol kg-1. Excluding the marginal seas of the Adriatic and the Aegean, these equations can be used to estimate AT and CT in case of the lack of measurements. The identified empirical equations were applied on the 0.25° climatologies of temperature and salinity, available from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. The 7-year averages (2005-2012) showed that AT and CT have similar patterns with an increasing eastward gradient. The variability is influenced by the inflow of cold Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and by the oligotrophic and thermohaline gradient that characterize the Mediterranean Sea. The summer-winter seasonality was also mapped and showed different patterns for AT and CT. During the winter, the AT and CT concentrations were higher in the western than in the eastern basin. The opposite was observed in the summer where the eastern basin was marked by higher AT and CT concentrations than in winter. The strong evaporation that takes place in this season along with the ultra-oligotrophy of the eastern basin determines the increase of both AT and CT concentrations.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; McCatty, S. A.

    1991-09-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  15. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  16. Effects of dilution on dissolved oxygen depletion and microbial populations in the biochemical oxygen demand determination.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyo Seong; Chang, Ho Nam; Park, Joong Kon; Choo, Kwang-Ho

    2007-09-01

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value is still a key parameter that can determine the level of organics, particularly the content of biodegradable organics in water. In this work, the effects of sample dilution, which should be done inevitably to get appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion, on the measurement of 5-day BOD (BOD(5)), was investigated with and without seeding using natural and synthetic water. The dilution effects were also evaluated for water samples taken in different seasons such as summer and winter because water temperature can cause a change in the types of microbial species, thus leading to different oxygen depletion profiles during BOD testing. The predation phenomenon between microbial cells was found to be dependent on the inorganic nutrients and carbon sources, showing a change in cell populations according to cell size after 5-day incubation. The dilution of water samples for BOD determination was linked to changes in the environment for microbial growth such as nutrition. The predation phenomenon between microbial cells was more important with less dilution. BOD(5) increased with the specific amount of inorganic nutrient per microbial mass when the natural water was diluted. When seeding was done for synthetic water samples, the seed volume also affected BOD due to the rate of organic uptake by microbes. BOD(5) increased with the specific bacterial population per organic source supplied at the beginning of BOD measurement. For more accurate BOD measurements, specific guidelines on dilution should be established.

  17. Evaluation of sampling strategies to characterize dissolved oxygen conditions in northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Engle, V.D.

    1993-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen was continuously monitored in eight sites of northern Gulf of Mexico estuaries in August, 1990. Monte Carlo analyses on subsamples of the data were used to evaluate several commonly used monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies which involve single point sampling of dissolved oxygen may often misclassify an estuary as having good water quality. In the case of shallow, often well-mixed estuaries that experience diurnal cycles, such monitoring often does not occur at night, during the time of lowest dissolved oxygen concentration. The authors' objective was to determine the minimum sampling effort required to correctly classify a site in terms of the observed frequency of hypoxia. Tests concluded that the most successful classification strategy used the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration from a continuously sampled 24-hour period. (Copyright (c) 199e Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  19. Field comparison of optical and clark cell dissolved-oxygen sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.; Garcia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Three multi-parameter water-quality monitors equipped with either Clark cell type or optical type dissolved-oxygen sensors were deployed for 30 days in a brackish (salinity <10 parts per thousand) environment to determine the sensitivity of the sensors to biofouling. The dissolved-oxygen sensors compared periodically to a hand-held dissolved oxygen sensor, but were not serviced or cleaned during the deployment. One of the Clark cell sensors and the optical sensor performed similarly during the deployment. The remaining Clark cell sensor was not aged correctly prior to deployment and did not perform as well as the other sensors. All sensors experienced substantial biofouling that gradually degraded the accuracy of the dissolved-oxygen measurement during the last half of the deployment period. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  20. Dissolved oxygen and pH relationships in northern Australian mangrove waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Boto, K.G.; Bunt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Consistent, highly significant linear correlations (R2 greater than or equal to 0.8) between pH and dissolved oxygen levels have been found in northern Australian mangrove waterways. These properties seem to be influenced by dissolved organic matter, mainly polyphenolic compounds, present in the creeks and tidal channel waters.

  1. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Oxygen Consumption and Development of Channel Catfish Eggs and Fry: Implications for Hatchery Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns were incubated under controlled conditions to determine the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on development and survival. Routine metabolic rate and limiting oxygen concentration were determined on eggs, sac fry and swim-up fry. Eight channel catfish spawns were s...

  2. Techniques for the conversion to carbon dioxide of oxygen from dissolved sulfate in thermal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nehring, N.L.; Bowen, P.A.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between dissolved sulfate ions and water provides a useful geothermometer for geothermal waters. The oxygen isotope composition of dissolved sulfate may also be used to indicate the source of the sulfate and processes of formation. The methods described here for separation, purification and reduction of sulfate to prepare carbon dioxide for mass spectrometric analysis are modifications of methods by Rafter (1967), Mizutani (1971), Sakai and Krouse (1971), and Mizutani and Rafter (1969). ?? 1976.

  3. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  4. Measuring Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Dissolved Oxygen in Streambed Sediments Using Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, K. T.; Salus, A.; Xie, M.; Roche, K. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure sensitive paints (PSP) have been largely used in aerodynamic applications to measure pressure distributions on complex bodies such as aircraft. One common family of PSPs employ fluorescent pigments that are quenched in the presence of oxygen, yielding an inverse relationship between fluorescence intensity and oxygen concentration that is used to measure pressure in aerodynamic applications through the partial pressure of oxygen. These PSPs offer unexplored potential for visualizing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration distributions on surfaces underwater. PSP was used to measure dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed sediments in a laboratory flume. Two PSP-coated 2.5 cm diameter spheres were emplaced in a bed of similar material, and imaged under varying DO concentrations. Calibration curves relating fluorescence intensity to dissolved oxygen concentration were developed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, enabling spatial patterns of oxygen to be resolved in the sediment bed. This method of measuring dissolved oxygen concentration is advantageous because of its fast response time and ability to measure heterogeneous oxygen distributions in sediments. Future work will explore the combined effects of stream flow and biofilm growth on oxygen distributions in streambed sediments.

  5. Refining the Use of Sodium Azide to Counteract Nitrite Interference in Dissolved Oxygen Analysis of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    High nitrite concentrations are known to interfere with the analysis of dissolved oxygen in seawater samples, though the affected range has yet to be defined. This error can be counteracted by the addition of sodium azide to the hydroxide-iodide pickling reagent. The 2013 US GEOTRACES zonal transect included stations off the coast of Peru with nitrite values up to 10μmol/kg in the upper 400 meters of the water column. Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen were also present in the upper 800 meters, providing an opportunity to study the effect of high nitrite levels on dissolved oxygen analysis over a range of concentrations. Without the addition of azide, the error in dissolved oxygen measurement increased linearly with nitrite concentration. The interference was only significant in samples with nitrite concentrations higher than 1.5 μmol/kg, all of which also had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (<45μmol/kg). The unique combination of high nitrite and low dissolved oxygen is present in such well known and relatively small areas of the world's oceans that the addition of azide is not necessary as a standard procedure for the vast majority of oceanographic measurements.

  6. A New Optical Oxygen Sensor Reveals Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen at Ecohydrological Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Vieweg, M.; Harjung, A.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) at highly reactive aquatic interfaces, e.g. in the hyporheic zone (HZ), is a primary indicator of redox and interlinked biogeochemical zonations. However, continuous measuring of DO over time and depths is challenging due to the dynamic and potentially heterogenic nature of the HZ. We further developed a novel technology for spatially continuous in situ vertical oxygen profiling based on optical sensing (Vieweg et al, 2013). Continuous vertical measurements to a depth of 50 cm are obtained by the motor-controlled insertion of a side-firing Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) into tubular DO probes. Our technology allows minimally invasive DO measurements without DO consumption at high spatial resolution in the mm range. The reduced size of the tubular probe (diameter 5 mm) substantially minimizes disturbance of flow conditions. We tested our technology in situ in the HZ of an intermittent stream during the drying period. Repeated DO measurements were taken over a total duration of six weeks at two locations up- and downstream of a pool-cascade sequence. We were able to precisely map the spatial DO distribution which exhibited sharp gradients and rapid temporal changes as a function of changing hydrologic conditions. Our new vertical oxygen sensing technology will help to provide new insights to the coupling of transport of DO and biogeochemical reactions at aquatic interfaces. Vieweg, M., Trauth, N., Fleckenstein, J. H., Schmidt, C. (2013): Robust Optode-Based Method for Measuring in Situ Oxygen Profiles in Gravelly Streambeds. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/es401040w

  7. Storage/Turnover rate of inorganic carbon and its dissolvable part in the profile of saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m(-2) yr(-1) respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m(-2) yr(-1)respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.

  8. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.; Ganoe, R.

    2013-12-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle experiment has demonstrated the ability to remotely detect dissolved oxygen and nitrogen in pure water (also Chesapeake Bay water) using a 355nm Nd:YAG laser and a simple monochromater to detect the shifted Raman oxygen and nitrogen backscattered signals at 376.2 and 387.5 nm respectively. The theoretical basis for the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented. A 1.3-m water cell had an attached vertical column to house a Troll 9500 dissolved oxygen in-situ monitor (In-Situ Inc Troll 9500). The Raman oxygen signal could be calibrated with this devise. While Raman backscattered water signals are low a potential aircraft remote system was designed and will be presented.

  9. Effects of Environmental Oxygen Content and Dissolved Oxygen on the Surface Tension and Viscosity of Liquid Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SanSoucie, M. P.; Rogers, J. R.; Kumar, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Xiao, X.; Matson, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has recently added an oxygen partial pressure controller. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled in the range from approximately 10^{-28} {to} 10^{-9} bar, while in a vacuum atmosphere. The oxygen control system installed in the ESL laboratory's main chamber consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity in two gas compartments (inside the chamber and the air outside of the chamber) separated by an electrolyte. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. The controller performs temperature control for the sensor and pump, has a PID-based current loop and a control algorithm. Oxygen partial pressure has been shown to play a significant role in the surface tension of liquid metals. Oxide films or dissolved oxygen may lead to significant changes in surface tension. The effects on surface tension and viscosity by oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding environment and the melt dissolved oxygen content will be evaluated, and the results will be presented. The surface tension and viscosity will be measured at several different oxygen partial pressures while the sample is undercooled. Surface tension and viscosity will be measured using the oscillating droplet method.

  10. Photochemistry of Dissolved Black Carbon Released from Biochar: Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Phototransformation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heyun; Liu, Huiting; Mao, Jingdong; Chu, Wenying; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Qu, Xiaolei; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-02-02

    Dissolved black carbon (BC) released from biochar can be one of the more photoactive components in the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Dissolved BC was mainly composed of aliphatics and aromatics substituted by aromatic C-O and carboxyl/ester/quinone moieties as determined by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. It underwent 56% loss of absorbance at 254 nm, almost complete loss of fluorescence, and 30% mineralization during a 169 h simulated sunlight exposure. Photoreactions preferentially targeted aromatic and methyl moieties, generating CH2/CH/C and carboxyl/ester/quinone functional groups. During irradiation, dissolved BC generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) including singlet oxygen and superoxide. The apparent quantum yield of singlet oxygen was 4.07 ± 0.19%, 2-3 fold higher than many well-studied DOM. Carbonyl-containing structures other than aromatic ketones were involved in the singlet oxygen sensitization. The generation of superoxide apparently depended on electron transfer reactions mediated by silica minerals in dissolved BC, in which phenolic structures served as electron donors. Self-generated ROS played an important role in the phototransformation. Photobleaching of dissolved BC decreased its ability to further generate ROS due to lower light absorption. These findings have significant implications on the environmental fate of dissolved BC and that of priority pollutants.

  11. Nutrients, Water Temperature, and Dissolved Oxygen: Are Water Quality Standards Achievable for Forest Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ice, G. G.

    2002-12-01

    Water quality standards provide a performance measure for watershed managers. Three of the most important standards for rivers and streams are the key nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus; water temperature; and dissolved oxygen. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in waterbodies affects primary production and productivity. Too little nutrients and streams are sterile and unproductive. Too much and they are eutrophic. Water temperature is important because it influences chemical reaction rates in streams and metabolic rates in fish. Dissolved oxygen is necessary for respiration. Salmon, the focus of much of the conservation efforts in the Northwest, are known as organisms that require cool, highly oxygenated water to thrive. Still, it is important when setting a performance standard to determine if those standards are achievable. A survey of nutrient data for small forested streams has found that the ecoregion guidelines proposed by EPA are often unachievable, sometimes even for small, unmanaged reference watersheds. A pilot survey of water temperatures in Oregon wilderness areas and least impaired watersheds has found temperatures frequently exceed the state standards. While natural temperature exceedances are addressed in the water quality standards for Oregon for unmanaged watersheds, these temperatures for managed watersheds might be presumed to result from management activities, precipitating an expensive Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Less is known about dissolved oxygen for small forest streams because work 20 years ago showed little risk of significant dissolved oxygen concentrations where shade was maintained near the stream and fine slash was kept out of the stream. However, work from the 1970's on intergravel dissolved oxygen also shows that stream with greater large woody debris (LWD) can have lower intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations, presumably due to trapping of fine organic and inorganic materials. Efforts to add LWD to

  12. Microfluidic dissolved oxygen gradient generator biochip as a useful tool in bacterial biofilm studies.

    PubMed

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Nielsen, Martin Weiss; Emnéus, Jenny; Molin, Søren; Taboryski, Rafael; Sternberg, Claus; Dufva, Martin; Geschke, Oliver

    2010-08-21

    A microfluidic chip for generation of gradients of dissolved oxygen was designed, fabricated and tested. The novel way of active oxygen depletion through a gas permeable membrane was applied. Numerical simulations for generation of O(2) gradients were correlated with measured oxygen concentrations. The developed microsystem was used to study growth patterns of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in medium with different oxygen concentrations. The results showed that attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the substrate changed with oxygen concentration. This demonstrates that the device can be used for studies requiring controlled oxygen levels and for future studies of microaerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  13. Production Responses of Channel Catfish to Minimum Daily Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Earthen Ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the minimum daily dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on production parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in earthen ponds. Fifteen one-acre ponds (5 ponds per treatment) were managed as High Oxygen (minimum DO concentrations aver...

  14. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  15. Patterns of dissolved oxygen dynamics in a Pacific Northwest slough and tide channel - CERF 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries and tide channels are habitats or migratory corridors for societally prized salmonids. These fish have high oxygen requirements, and an adequate level of dissolved oxygen is considered an important gauge of a PNW water body’s condition. W...

  16. Evaluation parameters for the alkaline fuel cell oxygen electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were made of Pt- and Au-catalyzed porous electrodes, designed for the cathode of the alkaline H2/O2 fuel cell, employing cyclic voltammetry and the floating half-cell method. The purpose was to obtain parameters from the cyclic voltammograms which could predict performance in the fuel cell. It was found that a satisfactory relationship between these two types of measurement could not be established; however, useful observations were made of relative performance of several types of carbon used as supports for noble metal catalysts and of some Au catalysts. The best half-cell performance with H2/O2 in a 35 percent KOH electrolyte at 80 C was given by unsupported fine particle Au on Teflon; this electrode is used in the Orbiter fuel cell.

  17. Dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon, during winter flow conditions, 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the winter period, November through April, wastewater treatment plants in the Tualatin River Basin discharge from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds per day of biochemical oxygen demand to the river. These loads often increase substantially during storms when streamflow is high. During the early winter season, when streamflow is frequently less than the average winter flow, the treatment plants discharge about 2,000 pounds per day of ammonia. This study focused on the capacity of the Tualatin River to assimilat oxygen-demanding loads under winter streamflow conditions during the 1992 water year, with an emphasis on peak-flow conditions in the river, and winter-base-flow conditions during November 1992. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the main stem of the river during the winter remained generally high relative to the State standard for Oregon of 6 milligrams per liter. The most important factors controlling oxygen consumption during winter-low-flow conditions were carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and input of oxygen-depleted waters from tributaries. During peak-flow conditions, reduced travel time and increased dilution associated with the increased streamflow minimized the effect of increased oxygen-demanding loads. During the base-flow period in November 1992, concentrations of dissolved oxygen were consistently below 6 milligrams per liter. A hydrodynamic water-quality model was used to identify the processes depleting dissolved oxygen, including sediment oxygen demand, nitrification, and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. Sediment oxygen demand was the most significant factor; nitrification was also important. Hypothetical scenarios were posed to evaluate the effect of different wastewater treatment plant loads during winter-base-flow conditions. Streamflow and temperature were significant factors governing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the main-stem river.

  18. Quantifying consumption rates of dissolved oxygen along bed forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2016-04-01

    Streambed interfaces represent hotspots for nutrient transformations because they host different microbial species, and the evaluation of these reaction rates is important to assess the fate of nutrients in riverine environments. In this work we analyze a series of flume experiments on oxygen demand in dune-shaped hyporheic sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions. We employ a new modeling code to quantify oxygen consumption rates from observed vertical profiles of oxygen concentration. The code accounts for transport by molecular diffusion and water advection, and automatically determines the reaction rates that provide the best fit between observed and modeled concentration values. The results show that reaction rates are not uniformly distributed across the streambed, in agreement with the expected behavior predicted by hyporheic exchange theory. Oxygen consumption was found to be highly influenced by the presence of gaining or losing flow conditions, which controlled the delivery of labile DOC to streambed microorganisms.

  19. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  20. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  1. Simultaneous Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen Pressure and Oxyhemoglobin Spectra in Solution.

    PubMed

    Litorja, Maritoni; Hwang, Jeeseong C

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the spatial distribution of oxygen saturation (sO2) in superficial tissues using optical reflectance imaging has been useful in the clinical venue especially in temporally demanding applications such as monitoring tissue oxygenation during surgery. The measurement is based on relative spectrometry of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in tissues. We titrated deoxyhemoglobin with oxygen gas and simultaneously measured the dissolved oxygen pressure and the visible absorbance spectra to verify spectral shapes at different saturations. sO2 values derived from the measured pO2 are compared to those derived from the hemoglobin spectra at various stages of oxygenation.

  2. Dissolved oxygen content prediction in crab culture using a hybrid intelligent method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huihui; Chen, Yingyi; Hassan, ShahbazGul; Li, Daoliang

    2016-01-01

    A precise predictive model is needed to obtain a clear understanding of the changing dissolved oxygen content in outdoor crab ponds, to assess how to reduce risk and to optimize water quality management. The uncertainties in the data from multiple sensors are a significant factor when building a dissolved oxygen content prediction model. To increase prediction accuracy, a new hybrid dissolved oxygen content forecasting model based on the radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) data fusion method and a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) with an optimal improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) is developed. In the modelling process, the RBFNN data fusion method is used to improve information accuracy and provide more trustworthy training samples for the IPSO-LSSVM prediction model. The LSSVM is a powerful tool for achieving nonlinear dissolved oxygen content forecasting. In addition, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal parameters for the LSSVM with high accuracy and generalizability. In this study, the comparison of the prediction results of different traditional models validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed hybrid RBFNN-IPSO-LSSVM model for dissolved oxygen content prediction in outdoor crab ponds. PMID:27270206

  3. Assessing the Effects of Water Rights Purchases on Dissolved Oxygen, Stream Temperatures, and Fish Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzon, N. R.; Null, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Human impacts from land and water development have degraded water quality and altered the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of Nevada's Walker River. Reduced instream flows and increased nutrient concentrations affect native fish populations through warm daily stream temperatures and low nightly dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water rights purchases are being considered to maintain instream flows, improve water quality, and enhance habitat for native fish species, such as Lahontan cutthroat trout. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate streamflows, temperatures, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Walker River. We simulate thermal and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that water purchases most enhance native trout habitat. Stream temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations are proxies for trout habitat. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach currently acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage.

  4. Dissolved oxygen content prediction in crab culture using a hybrid intelligent method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huihui; Chen, Yingyi; Hassan, Shahbazgul; Li, Daoliang

    2016-06-01

    A precise predictive model is needed to obtain a clear understanding of the changing dissolved oxygen content in outdoor crab ponds, to assess how to reduce risk and to optimize water quality management. The uncertainties in the data from multiple sensors are a significant factor when building a dissolved oxygen content prediction model. To increase prediction accuracy, a new hybrid dissolved oxygen content forecasting model based on the radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) data fusion method and a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) with an optimal improved particle swarm optimization(IPSO) is developed. In the modelling process, the RBFNN data fusion method is used to improve information accuracy and provide more trustworthy training samples for the IPSO-LSSVM prediction model. The LSSVM is a powerful tool for achieving nonlinear dissolved oxygen content forecasting. In addition, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal parameters for the LSSVM with high accuracy and generalizability. In this study, the comparison of the prediction results of different traditional models validates the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed hybrid RBFNN-IPSO-LSSVM model for dissolved oxygen content prediction in outdoor crab ponds.

  5. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-05-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  6. Multi-decadal increases in dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity flux from the Mackenzie drainage basin to the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Striegl, Robert G.; McClelland, James W.; Kokelj, Steven V.

    2016-01-01

    Riverine exports of organic and inorganic carbon (OC, IC) to oceans are intricately linked to processes occurring on land. Across high latitudes, thawing permafrost, alteration of hydrologic flow paths, and changes in vegetation may all affect this flux, with subsequent implications for regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Using a unique, multi-decadal dataset of continuous discharge coupled with water chemistry measurements for the Mackenzie River, we show major increases in dissolved OC (DOC) and IC (as alkalinity) fluxes since the early 1970s, for a watershed that covers 1.8 M km2 of northwestern Canada, and provides substantial inputs of freshwater and biogeochemical constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Over a 39-year period of record, DOC flux at the Mackenzie mouth increased by 39.3% (44.5 ± 22.6 Gmol), while alkalinity flux increased by 12.5% (61.5 ± 60.1 Gmol). Isotopic analyses and substantial increases in sulfate flux indicate that increases in alkalinity are driven by accelerating sulfide oxidation, a process that liberates IC from rock and soils in the absence of CO2 consumption. Seasonal and sub-catchment trends suggest that permafrost thaw plays an important role in the observed increases in DOC and alkalinity: sub-catchment increases for all constituents are confined to northern, permafrost-affected regions, while observed increases in autumn to winter are consistent with documented landscape-scale changes that have resulted from changing thaw dynamics. This increase in DOC and sulfide-derived alkalinity represents a substantial intensification of land-to-ocean C mobilization, at a level that is significant within the regional C budget. The change we observe, for example, is similar to current and projected future rates of CO2 consumption by weathering in the Mackenzie basin.

  7. EFFECT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON PHENOLS BREAKTHROUGH FROM GAC ADSORBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that molecular oxygen plays an important role in the adsorption of organic compounds from water by activated carbon. It was determined that the adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon (GAC) for o-cresol can increase by almost 200% as a result of...

  8. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    DOEpatents

    Krot, Nikolai N.; Charushnikova, Iraida A.

    1997-01-01

    A method of reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH.sup.- concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO.sub.2 (O.sub.2).sub.3 ].sup.4- ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu.sup.+2, Co.sup.+2 or Fe.sup.+2 with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60.degree. C. or 85.degree. C., depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste.

  9. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.N.; Charushnikova, I.A.

    1997-06-17

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH{sup {minus}} concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup 4{minus}} ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu{sup +2}, Co{sup +2} or Fe{sup +2} with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60 C or 85 C, depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste. 2 figs.

  10. Oxygen reduction reaction on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Rizo, Ruben; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M

    2013-10-07

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M NaOH on platinum single crystal electrodes has been studied using hanging meniscus rotating disk electrode configuration. Basal planes and stepped surfaces with (111) and (100) terraces have been employed. The results indicate that the Pt(111) electrode has the highest electrocatalytic activity among all the studied surfaces. The addition of steps on this electrode surface significantly diminishes the reactivity of the surface towards the ORR. In fact, the reactivity of the steps on the surfaces with wide terraces can be considered negligible with respect to that measured for the terrace. On the other hand, Pt(100) and Pt(110) electrodes have much lower activity than the Pt(111) electrode. These results have been compared with those obtained in acid media to understand the effect of the pH and the adsorbed OH on the mechanism. It is proposed that the surface covered by adsorbed OH is active for the reduction of the oxygen molecules.

  11. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  12. The importance of dissolved free oxygen during formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry Clifford; Warren, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    One factor which distinguishes t, he genesis of roll-type uranium deposits from the Uravan Mineral Belt and other sandstone-type uranium deposits may be the presence and concentration of dissolved free oxygen in the ore-forming. solutions. Although dissolved oxygen is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of roll-type deposits, it is proposed that a lack of dissolved oxygen is a prerequisite for the Uravan deposits. Solutions that formed both types of deposits probably had a supergene origin and originated as meteoric water in approximate equilibrium with atmospheric oxygen. Roll-type deposits were formed where the Eh dropped abruptly following consumption of the oxygen by iron sulfide minerals and creation of kinetically active sulfur species that could reduce uranium. The solutions that formed the Uravan deposits, on the other hand, probably first equilibrated with sulfide-free ferrous-ferric detrital minerals and fossil organic matter in the host rock. That is, the uraniferous solutions lost their oxygen without lowering their Eh enough to precipitate uranium. Without oxygen, they then. became incapable of oxidizing iron sulfide minerals. Subsequent localization and formation of ore bodies from these oxygen-depleted solutions, therefore, was not necessarily dependent on large reducing capacities.

  13. Poly(decyl methacrylate)-based fluorescent PEBBLE swarm nanosensors for measuring dissolved oxygen in biosamples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Youfu; Lee Koo, Yong-Eun; Kopelman, Raoul

    2004-08-01

    150-250 nm Poly(decyl methacrylate)(PDMA) fluorescent ratiometric nanosensors for dissolved oxygen have been developed. Platinum octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK), the oxygen-sensitive dye, and octaethylporphyrin (OEP), the oxygen-insensitive dye, have been incorporated into PDMA nanoparticles to make the sensors ratiometric. Based on the corresponding Stern-Volmer plot, these nanosensors exhibit almost complete linearity over the whole range of dissolved molecular oxygen from 0 to 42.5 ppm (deoxygenated to pure oxygen-bubbled water). The overall quenching response is up to 97.5%, the best so far for all dissolved oxygen optical sensors. These PEBBLE nanosensors also show very good reversibility and stability to leaching and photobleaching, as well as very short response times and no perturbation by proteins. In human plasma they demonstrate a robust oxygen sensing capability, little affected by light scattering and autofluorescence. Potential applications include intracellular oxygen imaging and microresolved pressure profiles in biological and other heterogenous environments.

  14. Simulation of Temperature, Nutrients, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Dissolved Oxygen in the Catawba River, South Carolina, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Sanders, Curtis L.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2003-01-01

    Time-series plots of dissolved-oxygen concentrations were determined for various simulated hydrologic and point-source loading conditions along a free-flowing section of the Catawba River from Lake Wylie Dam to the headwaters of Fishing Creek Reservoir in South Carolina. The U.S. Geological Survey one-dimensional dynamic-flow model, BRANCH, was used to simulate hydrodynamic data for the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. Waterquality data were used to calibrate the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model and included concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and biochemical oxygen demand in water samples collected during two synoptic sampling surveys at 10 sites along the main stem of the Catawba River and at 3 tributaries; and continuous water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations measured at 5 locations along the main stem of the Catawba River. A sensitivity analysis of the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations to model coefficients and data inputs indicated that the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were most sensitive to watertemperature boundary data due to the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics and the solubility of dissolved oxygen. Of the model coefficients, the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentration was most sensitive to the biological oxidation rate of nitrite to nitrate. To demonstrate the utility of the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model for the Catawba River, the model was used to simulate several water-quality scenarios to evaluate the effect on the 24-hour mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations at selected sites for August 24, 1996, as simulated during the model calibration period of August 23 27, 1996. The first scenario included three loading conditions of the major effluent discharges along the main stem of the Catawba River (1) current load (as sampled in August 1996); (2) no load (all point-source loads were removed from the main stem of the Catawba River; loads from the main tributaries were not removed); and (3

  15. Hypolimnetic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace elements in Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    1989-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho done from May through November 1987 assessed water quality throughout the lake. Particular emphasis was on hypolimnetic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace elements. Study results enabled refinement of the sampling protocol in a U.S. Geological Survey research proposal for a large-scale investigation of nutrient enrichment and trace element contamination problems affecting the 129.5 sq kilometer lake in northern Idaho. Hypolimnetic dissolved-oxygen concentrations as low as 4.1 mg/L in November and the frequent occurrence of supersaturated dissolved-oxygen concentrations during June through August indicated nutrient enrichment. Secchi-disc depths in the lake 's central and southern areas were typical of mesotrophic conditions, whereas oligotrophic conditions prevailed in the northern area. Throughout the study, hypolimnetic concentrations of total recoverable zinc exceeded chronic and acute toxicity criteria for freshwater aquatic life. (USGS)

  16. Measuring Flow Rate in Crystalline Bedrock Wells Using the Dissolved Oxygen Alteration Method.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Sarah A; Robbins, Gary A

    2017-03-22

    Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time. Measurements were taken for upward and downward flows, and under ambient and pumping conditions. Vertical flow rates from 0.06 to 2.30 Lpm were measured. To validate the method, flow rates determined with the DOAM were compared to pump discharge rates and found to be in agreement within 2.5%.

  17. Amphiphilic Fluorinated Polymer Nanoparticle Film Formation and Dissolved Oxygen Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Zhu, Huie; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    Fluorinated polymer nanoparticle films were prepared by dissolving amphiphilic fluorinated polymer, poly (N-1H, 1H-pentadecafluorooctylmethacrylamide) (pC7F15MAA) in two miscible solvents (AK-225 and acetic acid). A superhydrophobic and porous film was obtained by dropcasting the solution on substrates. With higher ratios of AK-225 to acetic acid, pC7F15MAA was densified around acetic acid droplets, leading to the formation of pC7F15MAA nanoparticles. The condition of the nanoparticle film preparation was investigated by varying the mixing ratio or total concentration. A highly sensitive dissolved oxygen sensor system was successfully prepared utilizing a smart surface of superhydrophobic and porous pC7F15MAA nanoparticle film. The sensitivity showed I0/I40 = 126 in the range of dissolved oxygen concentration of 0 ~ 40 mg L-1. The oxygen sensitivity was compared with that of previous reports.

  18. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  19. Aqueous pyrite oxidation by dissolved oxygen and by ferric iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moses, Carl O.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Herman, Janet S.; Mills, Aaron L.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of aqueous, abiotic pyrite oxidation were measured in oxygen-saturated and anaerobic Fe(III)-saturated solutions with initial pH from 2 to 9. These studies included analyses of sulfite, thiosulfate, polythionates and sulfate and procedures for cleaning oxidation products from pyrite surfaces were evaluated. Pyrite oxidation in oxygen-saturated solutions produced (1) rates that were only slightly dependent on initial pH, (2) linear increases in sulfoxy anions and (3) thiosulfate and polythionates at pH > 3.9. Intermediate sulfoxy anions were observed only at high stirring rates. In anaerobic Fe(III)-saturated solutions, no intermediates were observed except traces of sulfite at pH 9. The faster rate of oxidation in Fe(III)-saturated solutions supports a reaction mechanism in which Fe(III) is the direct oxidant of pyrite in both aerobic and anaerobic systems. The proposal of this mechanism is also supported by theoretical considerations regarding the low probability of a direct reaction between paramagnetic molecular oxygen and diamagnetic pyrite. Results from a study of sphalerite oxidation support the hypothesis that thiosulfate is a key intermediate in sulfate production, regardless of the bonding structure of the sulfide mineral.

  20. Simulation of hydrodynamics, temperature, and dissolved oxygen in Table Rock Lake, Missouri, 1996-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, W. Reed; Galloway, Joel M.; Richards, Joseph M.; Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    2003-01-01

    Outflow from Table Rock Lake and other White River reservoirs support a cold-water trout fishery of substantial economic yield in south-central Missouri and north-central Arkansas. The Missouri Department of Conservation has requested an increase in existing minimum flows through the Table Rock Lake Dam from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to increase the quality of fishable waters downstream in Lake Taneycomo. Information is needed to assess the effect of increased minimum flows on temperature and dissolved- oxygen concentrations of reservoir water and the outflow. A two-dimensional, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic, temperature, and dissolved-oxygen model, CE-QUAL-W2, was developed and calibrated for Table Rock Lake, located in Missouri, north of the Arkansas-Missouri State line. The model simulates water-surface elevation, heat transport, and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. The model was developed to assess the effects of proposed increases in minimum flow from about 4.4 cubic meters per second (the existing minimum flow) to 11.3 cubic meters per second (the increased minimum flow). Simulations included assessing the effect of (1) increased minimum flows and (2) increased minimum flows with increased water-surface elevations in Table Rock Lake, on outflow temperatures and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In both minimum flow scenarios, water temperature appeared to stay the same or increase slightly (less than 0.37 ?C) and dissolved oxygen appeared to decrease slightly (less than 0.78 mg/L) in the outflow during the thermal stratification season. However, differences between the minimum flow scenarios for water temperature and dissolved- oxygen concentration and the calibrated model were similar to the differences between measured and simulated water-column profile values.

  1. A dissolved cobalt plume in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawco, Nicholas J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Resing, Joseph A.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Saito, Mak A.

    2016-10-01

    Cobalt is a nutrient to phytoplankton, but knowledge about its biogeochemical cycling is limited, especially in the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report sections of dissolved cobalt and labile dissolved cobalt from the US GEOTRACES GP16 transect in the South Pacific. The cobalt distribution is closely tied to the extent and intensity of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific with highest concentrations measured at the oxycline near the Peru margin. Below 200 m, remineralization and circulation produce an inverse relationship between cobalt and dissolved oxygen that extends throughout the basin. Within the oxygen minimum zone, elevated concentrations of labile cobalt are generated by input from coastal sources and reduced scavenging at low O2. As these high cobalt waters are upwelled and advected offshore, phytoplankton export returns cobalt to low-oxygen water masses underneath. West of the Peru upwelling region, dissolved cobalt is less than 10 pM in the euphotic zone and strongly bound by organic ligands. Because the cobalt nutricline within the South Pacific gyre is deeper than in oligotrophic regions in the North and South Atlantic, cobalt involved in sustaining phytoplankton productivity in the gyre is heavily recycled and ultimately arrives from lateral transport of upwelled waters from the eastern margin. In contrast to large coastal inputs, atmospheric deposition and hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise appear to be minor sources of cobalt. Overall, these results demonstrate that oxygen biogeochemistry exerts a strong influence on cobalt cycling.

  2. Dissolved oxygen distribution during micro-oxygenation. Determination of representative measurement points in hydroalcoholic solution and wines.

    PubMed

    Nevares, I; del Alamo, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, C

    2010-02-15

    Red wine tank aging is monitored by organoleptic analysis, therefore, it is necessary to use an objective parameter representing the process. Among the possible parameters to be checked, it stands out the knowledge of dissolved oxygen because it offers the possibility of anticipating undesirable situations that bring about too much oxidation. Dissolved oxygen measurement, with non-intrusive luminescent technology is becoming an effective alternative. Uncertainty arises when trying to choose the measuring point able to represent the entire tank since previous works have considered the existence of gradients throughout the volume of the treated wine. This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the existence and the quantification of gradients of the dissolved oxygen in a 15% hydroalcoholic solution during the micro-oxygenation process. Different measuring point placements are studied and the solutions to monitor the process by controlling a representative point are set out. A successful monitoring of a red wine tank aging with alternative oak products and adaptative micro-oxygenation has proved that an objective control of the process is, indeed, possible.

  3. A novel isotopic fractionation during dissolved oxygen consumption in mesopelagic waters inferred from observation and model simulation of dissolved oxygen δ18O in open oceanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, N.; Oka, A.; Gamo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratio (δ18O) of dissolved oxygen is a useful for bioactive tracer of the subsurface aphotic (mesopelagic) ocean since it varies nonlinearly related to oxygen consumption via stoichiometry of organic matter decomposition. Therefore, along with global circulation model (GCM), observed δ18O and their vertical/geographical distribution can be effectively used to quantitatively determine how marine biological and ocean physical processes contribute to varying dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the ocean, in particular mesopelagic zone where pronounced biological activity alters DO concentration significantly. In the central north Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, including Arabian Sea, one of the few regions in the open ocean which has oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, a layer with severely depleted DO), vertical profiles of DO and δ18O were observed. These observed data are compared with a GCM simulation in which a constant isotopic fractionation factor of DO by marine biological respiration and a fixed Redfield molar ratio between P and O are assumed. Even in the Arabian Sea OMZ, relationship between DO and δ18O was found to be similar to those observed in other open oceans, indicating that no specific oxygen consumption process occurred in the OMZ. Using the GCM model, we attempted to reproduce the observed overall relationship between DO and δ18O, but it failed when we adopted the previously reported isotopic fractionation factor: Discrepancy became larger when oxygen saturation level decreased, in particular in thermocline water (at 20% oxygen saturation level, modeled δ18O was heavier than observed values by +7‰). Sensitivity simulations with the GCM model revealed that (1) simply changing the intensity of oxygen consumption by respiration/organic matter decomposition nor physical processes (diffusion and/or advection) could explain the observed relationship between DO and δ18O, (2) applying a smaller isotopic fractionation for deep waters

  4. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, K. D.; Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Thomson, N. R.; Donaldson, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5 h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O 2/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3 mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4 m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation.

  5. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer.

    PubMed

    Greer, K D; Molson, J W; Barker, J F; Thomson, N R; Donaldson, C R

    2010-10-21

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O₂/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation.

  6. Ventilation and dissolved oxygen cycle in Lake Superior: Insights from a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy S.; Gregory, Chad

    2015-09-01

    Ventilation and dissolved oxygen in Lake Superior are key factors that determine the fate of various natural and anthropogenic inputs to the lake. We employ an idealized age tracer and biogeochemical tracers in a realistically configured numerical model of Lake Superior to characterize its ventilation and dissolved O2 cycle. Our results indicate that Lake Superior is preferentially ventilated over rough bathymetry and that spring overturning following a very cold winter does not completely ventilate the lake interior. While this is unexpected for a dimictic lake, no part of the lake remains isolated from the atmosphere for more than 300 days. Our results also show that Lake Superior's oxygen cycle is dominated by solubility changes; as a result, the expected relationship between biological consumption of dissolved O2 and ventilation age does not manifest.

  7. Influence of arterial dissolved oxygen level on venous oxygen saturation: don't forget the PaO2!

    PubMed

    Legrand, Matthieu; Vallée, Fabrice; Mateo, Joaquim; Payen, Didier

    2014-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen (i.e., unbound to hemoglobin) is often neglected as a determinant of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in review articles and textbooks. These statements may lead to potential misinterpretation of SCvO2 value across FiO2 changes. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of PaO2 and FiO2 on ScvO2 in ventilated critically ill patients. This was a prospective observational study in two surgical intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated and sedated patients with cardiac output and ScvO2 monitoring and PaO2/FiO2 > 200 with inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 0.5 were enrolled (cohort [ScvO2]). A second cohort of brain-injured patients with jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring was studied to assess the application of the results to regional circulation (cohort [SjvO2]). Central venous oxygen saturation was measured at baseline FiO2 and at FiO2 = 1. We finally estimated the participation of the dissolved oxygen (PadissolvO2) to the ScvO2 variations. Twenty patients formed the cohort ScvO2 and eight formed the cohort SjvO2. Central venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (69%-76%) to 84% (78%-88%) after increasing FiO2, whereas PaO2 rose from 100 (85-124) mmHg to 387 (360-449) mmHg. The rise of ScvO2 was mostly ascribable to the dissolved oxygen. The increase of ScvO2 was not explained by changes in cardiac output or hemoglobin levels. Jugular venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (58%-78%) to 83% (78%-89%) after increasing FiO2. Arterial dissolved oxygen level can significantly influence the ScvO2 value. Therefore, PaO2 should not be overlooked while considering the ScvO2 value as a therapeutic goal. Interpretation of ScvO2 variations in response to a therapeutic challenge (i.e., fluid challenge, inotropic drug initiation) should be performed at constant FiO2.

  8. Productivity Estimation of Hypersaline Microbial Mat Communities - Diurnal Cycles of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Less, G.; Cohen, Y.; Luz, B.; Lazar, B.

    2002-05-01

    Hypersaline microbial mat communities (MMC) are the modern equivalents of the Archean stromatolities, the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth. An estimate of their oxygen production rate is important to the understanding of oxygen evolution on Earth ca. 2 b.y.b.p. Here we use the diurnal cycle of dissolved oxygen, O2/Ar ratio and the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen to calculate net and gross primary productivity of MMC growing in a large scale (80 m2) experimental pan. The pan is inoculated with MMC taken from the Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt and filled with 90\\permil evaporated Red Sea water brine up to a depth of ca. 0.25 m. It is equipped with computerized flow through system that is programmed to pump pan water at selected time intervals into a sampling cell fitted with dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature sensors connected to a datalogger. Manual brine samples were taken for calibrating the sensors, mass spectrometric analyses and for measurements of additional relevant parameters. Dissolved oxygen concentrations fluctuate during the diurnal cycle being highly supersaturated except for the end of the night. The O2 curve varies seasonally and has a typical "shark fin" shape due to the MMC metabolic response to the shape of the diurnal light curve. The dissolved oxygen data were fitted to a smooth curve that its time derivative (dO2 /dt) is defined as: Z dO2 /dt=GP-R-k(O2(meas)- O2(sat)) where z is the depth (m); GP and R are the MMC gross production and respiration (mol m-2 d-1), respectively; k is the gas exchange coefficient (m d-1); O2(meas) and O2(sat) (mol L-1) are the measured and equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentrations, respectively. The high resolution sampling of the automated system produces O2 curves that enable the calculation of smooth and reliable time derivatives. The calculations yield net production values that vary between 1,000 10-6 to -100 10-6 mol O2 m-2 h-1 and day respiration rates between 60 10-6 to 30 10

  9. SIMULATED CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN CHARACTERISTICS IN ICE-COVERED LAKES. (R824801)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic, one-dimensional model is presented which simulates daily dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles and associated water temperatures, ice covers and snow covers for dimictic and polymictic lakes of the temperate zone. The lake parameters required as model input are surface ...

  10. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  11. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  12. Effect of daily minimum pond dissolved oxygen concentration on hybrid striped bass fingerling yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of hybrid striped ...

  13. Effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on production of channel x blue hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to pond dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the production and water quality responses of the cha...

  14. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series

    EPA Science Inventory

    In aquatic systems, time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of ecosystem metabolism. Central to this open-water method is the assumption that the DO time series is a Lagrangian specification of the flow field. However, most DO time series are coll...

  15. Organic carbon and dissolved oxygen budgets for a commerical-size, in-pond raceway system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive production of Ictalurid catfish in the United States has increased over the past several years and a better understanding of the amount of organic carbon (OC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) in these culture environments is needed. Budgets for OC and DO were estimated over a production season (M...

  16. RESEARCH AT THE GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION ON THE EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON ESTUARINE ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concerns about hypoxia and its effects on saltwater organisms are increasing as environmental conditions in the inshore and nearshore marine environments are better understood. Along the Gulf of Mexico coast, periods of very low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations have been re...

  17. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155).

    There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  18. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  19. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection - March 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean–estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO w...

  20. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: Importance of the ocean-estuary connection

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  1. DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND METHANE IN WATER BY A GC HEADSPACE EQUILIBRATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical procedure is described for the determination of dissolved oxygen and methane in groundwater samples. The method consists of generating a helium gas headspace in a water filled bottle, and analysis of the headspace by gas chromatography. Other permanent gases such as...

  2. A Simplified and Inexpensive Method for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John

    1983-01-01

    A modified Winkler method for determining dissolved oxygen in water is described. The method does not require use of a burette or starch indicator, is simple and inexpensive and can be used in the field or laboratory. Reagents/apparatus needed and specific procedures are included. (JN)

  3. Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Organisms Used in Freshwater Sediment Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes the results of tests to determine the tolerance of three benthic organisms to reduced dissolved oxygen (DO). These three organisms are those recommended by EPA for use in toxicity testing of contaminated sediments. The results of the exposures indicate ...

  4. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NEAR-BOTTOM DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND SEDIMENT PROFILE CAMERA MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and other environmental authorities regulate concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a measure of nutrient-related eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters. However, in situ DO concentrations are extremely var...

  5. USE OF SEDIMENT PROFILE IMAGERY TO ESTIMATE NEAR-BOTTOM DISSOLVED OXYGEN REGIMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA, Atlantic Ecology Division is developing empirical stressor-response models for nitrogen pollution in partially enclosed coastal systems using dissolved oxygen (DO) as one of the system responses. We are testing a sediment profile image camera as a surrogate indicat...

  6. Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes

    PubMed Central

    Harniman, Robert; Merritt, Thomas J S; Chapman, Lauren J; Lesbarrères, David; Martinez, Mery L

    2013-01-01

    Population level response to hypoxia has become an issue of global significance because of increased frequency and intensity of hypoxic events worldwide, and the potential for global warming to exacerbate hypoxic stress. In this study, we sequenced two nuclear intronic regions and a single mitochondrial region across seven populations of the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri from two river drainages in Uganda: the Rwembaita Swamp-Njuguta River System and the Dura River. We then examined two indices of population structure, GST and Jost's D, to detect links between oxygen availability and genetic variation and to determine if population genetic structure was associated with (i) dissolved oxygen regime (hypoxia or normoxia), (ii) geographical distance, or (iii) a combination of dissolved oxygen regime and geographical distance. Our results indicate that over a large scale (between drainages), geographical distance significantly affects the genetic structure of populations. However, within a single drainage, dissolved oxygen regime plays a key role in determining the genetic structure of populations. Within the Rwembaita-Njuguta system, gene flow was high between locations of similar oxygen regimes, but low between areas characterized by divergent oxygen regimes. Interestingly, GST analyses appear to yield less realistic measures of population structure than Jost's D, suggesting that caution must be taken when interpreting and comparing the results from different studies. These results support the idea that aquatic dissolved oxygen can act as a selective force limiting gene flow among populations of aquatic species and therefore should be considered when implementing conservation plans and assessing environmental impact of human activities. PMID:23789062

  7. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded.

  8. Development of a novel electrochemical system for oxygen control (ESOC) to examine dissolved oxygen inhibition on algal activity.

    PubMed

    Keymer, Philip C; Pratt, Steven; Lant, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    The development of an Electrochemical System for Oxygen Control (ESOC) for examining algal photosynthetic activity as a function of dissolved oxygen (DO) is outlined. The main innovation of the tool is coulombic titration in order to balance the electrochemical reduction of oxygen with the oxygen input to achieve a steady DO set-point. ESOC allows quantification of algal oxygen production whilst simultaneously maintaining a desired DO concentration. The tool was validated abiotically by comparison with a mass transfer approach for quantifying oxygenation. It was then applied to quantify oxygen inhibition of algal activity. Five experiments, using an enriched culture of Scenedesmus sp. as the inoculum, are presented. For each experiment, ESOC was used to quantify algal activity at a series of DO set-points. In all experiments substantial oxygen inhibition was observed at DO >30 mgO2 L-1. Inhibition was shown to fit a Hill inhibition model, with a common Hill coefficient of 0.22±0.07 L mg-1 and common log10  CI50 of 27.2±0.7 mg L-1. This is the first time that the oxygen inhibition kinetic parameters have been quantified under controlled DO conditions.

  9. Oxygen isotope fractionation in phosphates: the role of dissolved complex anions in isotope exchange.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors for phosphates were calculated by means of the increment method. The results suggest that Ag3PO4 and BiPO4 are enriched in (18)O relative to AgPO4, and the three phosphates are consistently depleted in (18)O relative to Ba3[PO4]2; fluorapatite and chlorapatite exhibit a similar behaviour of oxygen isotope fractionation with consistent enrichment of (18)O relative to hydroxyapatite. The valence, radii and coordination of metal cations play a quantitative role in dictating the (18)O/(16)O partitioning in these phosphates of different compositions. The calculated fractionation factors for the Ag3PO4-H2O system are in agreement with experimental determinations derived from enzyme-catalysed isotope exchange between dissolved inorganic phosphate and water at the longest reaction durations at low temperatures. This demonstrates that the precipitated Ag3PO4 has completely captured the oxygen isotope fractionation in the dissolved inorganic phosphate. The calculated fractionation factors for the F/Cl-apatite-water systems are in agreement with the enzyme-catalysed experimental fractionations for the dissolved phosphate-water system at the longest reaction durations but larger than fractionations derived from bacteria-facilitated exchange and inorganic precipitation experiments as well as natural observations. For the experimental calibrations of oxygen isotope fractionation involving the precipitation of dissolved phosphate species from aqueous solutions, the fractionation between precipitate and water is primarily dictated by the isotope equilibration between the dissolved complex anions and water prior to the precipitation. Therefore, the present results provide a quantitative means to interpret the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation in inorganic and biogenic phosphates.

  10. Upwelling and dissolved oxygen variability over the continental shelf off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to the legendary upwelling that is present along the Peruvian and northern Chilean coasts, the coastal ocean off central Chile presents a highly seasonal upwelling regime that extends from early spring to mid fall. This region is also affected by a strong subsurface poleward flow, which transports southward low-oxygen water from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Coastal waters are highly productive due to upwelling, but the upwelled source waters are very low in oxygen and may produce hypoxia near the bottom over the continental shelf. The spatial structure and main scales of variability of the upwelling cells and dissolved oxygen are poorly understood off central Chile. One of the main limitations has been the lack of direct information. During the last years an observational program has been conducted over the relatively wide continental shelf off Concepción (36°30' S). This program has included ship-based (monthly) time-series, underwater glider observations and time-series based on moored sensors. Here, based on physical (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity), biological (chlorophyll fluorescence) and chemical (dissolved oxygen) information, we analyze the main scales of time variability of the upwelling, the coastal currents and their impact on the dissolved oxygen. The cross-shelf structure of the upwelling region was sampled using underwater gliders capable of sampling the entire water column to a maximum of 1000 m and from near shore to 200 km offshore.

  11. Effects of climate events driven hydrodynamics on dissolved oxygen in a subtropical deep reservoir in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cheng-Wei; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2008-04-15

    The seasonal concentrations of dissolved oxygen in a subtropical deep reservoir were studied over a period of one year. The study site was the Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan. It is a dam-constructed reservoir with a surface area of 10.24 km(2) and a mean depth of 39.6 m, with a maximum depth of 113.5 m near the dam. It was found that certain weather and climate events, such as typhoons in summer and autumn, as well as cold fronts in winter, can deliver oxygen-rich water, and consequently have strong impacts on the dissolved oxygen level. The typhoon turbidity currents and winter density currents played important roles in supplying oxygen to the middle and bottom water, respectively. The whole process can be understood by the hydrodynamics driven by weather and climate events. This work provides the primary results of dissolved oxygen in a subtropical deep reservoir, and the knowledge is useful in understanding water quality in subtropical regions.

  12. Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.

  13. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Cu Corrosion in Single Wafer Cleaning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Yukinari; Futatsuki, Takashi; Shiohara, Morio; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi

    2009-04-01

    We investigated Cu corrosion at the via bottom of multi-layered Cu interconnects that occurred after post-etching wet cleaning and caused via open failures. We found that oxygen was dissolved into de-ionized water (DIW) on the wafer edge from the air atmosphere during the rinse step after chemical cleaning and that Cu was oxidized due to the high oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the rinse DIW. To prevent Cu interconnects from being corroded, control of the dissolved oxygen and the ORP of the rinse DIW by decreasing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere in the cleaning machine as well as by using H2 water is required. This will become indispensable in the cleaning process of the next generation Cu interconnects.

  14. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  15. Dissolved Oxygen and Sulfide Define the Boundaries of Thermophilic Microbial Iron Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial iron cycling can be found in hot springs throughout Yellowstone National Park, where the process is often visibly apparent as red iron oxyhydroxide staining. We measured rates of microbial and abiotic iron oxidation and reduction in systems ranging from pH 2 to 6 and 40° to 90°C. Measurements of numerous solutes, including oxygen, sulfide, and iron, were also made on outflow channels of springs containing apparent iron metabolism. In all cases, > 16 μM dissolved oxygen was required for visible iron oxidation products to occur. Oxygen concentrations below this level do not necessarily preclude microbial iron oxidation coupled to oxygen, only the accumulation of oxidation products. Kinetics experiments conducted at these iron mats suggest that the rate of microbial iron oxidation falls below the rate of microbial reduction when dissolved oxygen falls below this concentration. In outflow channels, this is often visibly apparent as a sharp boundary between the presence and lack of red iron oxidation products. Locations with changing temperature, pH, flow rate and other factors experience changing oxygen concentrations, which causes the boundary to shift from year to year. The boundaries of iron mats are also influenced in several locations by the concentration of total dissolved sulfide. Experiments with enrichment cultures and field observations show that sulfide is not toxic to iron oxidizers, but rather inhibits the accumulation of dissolved oxygen. Microbial and abiotic sulfide oxidation, leading to visible sulfur precipitation, together with degassing of hydrogen sulfide, contribute to keeping oxygen levels low. Typically, only where sulfide concentrations fall below 20 μM are iron mats able to form. Enrichment cultures of iron oxidizers, however, grow easily at levels exceeding 100 μM sulfide. Only a handful of field locations appear to have simultaneous sulfur and iron precipitation zones. Formation of iron oxidation mats occurs at highly

  16. Nitrogen fixation in the activated sludge treatment of thermomechanical pulping wastewater: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Slade, A H; Anderson, S M; Evans, B G

    2003-01-01

    N-ViroTech, a novel technology which selects for nitrogen-fixing bacteria as the bacteria primarily responsible for carbon removal, has been developed to treat nutrient limited wastewaters to a high quality without the addition of nitrogen, and only minimal addition of phosphorus. Selection of the operating dissolved oxygen level to maximise nitrogen fixation forms a key component of the technology. Pilot scale activated sludge treatment of a thermomechanical pulping wastewater was carried out in nitrogen-fixing mode over a 15 month period. The effect of dissolved oxygen was studied at three levels: 14% (Phase 1), 5% (Phase 2) and 30% (Phase 3). The plant was operated at an organic loading of 0.7-1.1 kg BOD5/m3/d, a solids retention time of approximately 10 d, a hydraulic retention time of 1.4 d and a F:M ratio of 0.17-0.23 mg BOD5/mg VSS/d. Treatment performance was very stable over the three dissolved oxygen operating levels. The plant achieved 94-96% BOD removal, 82-87% total COD removal, 79-87% soluble COD removal, and >99% total extractives removal. The lowest organic carbon removals were observed during operation at 30% DO but were more likely to be due to phosphorus limitation than operation at high dissolved oxygen, as there was a significant decrease in phosphorus entering the plant during Phase 3. Discharge of dissolved nitrogen, ammonium and oxidised nitrogen were consistently low (1.1-1.6 mg/L DKN, 0.1-0.2 mg/L NH4+-N and 0.0 mg/L oxidised nitrogen). Discharge of dissolved phosphorus was 2.8 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 0.6 mg/L DRP in Phases 1, 2 and 3 respectively. It was postulated that a population of polyphosphate accumulating bacteria developed during Phase 1. Operation at low dissolved oxygen during Phase 2 appeared to promote biological phosphorus uptake which may have been affected by raising the dissolved oxygen to 30% in Phase 3. Total nitrogen and phosphorus discharge was dependent on efficient secondary clarification, and improved over the course of

  17. Alkaline earth metal cation exchange: effect of mobile counterion and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Indarawis, Katrina; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-04-17

    The goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the interactions between alkaline earth metals and DOM under conditions that are encountered during drinking water treatment with particular focus on cation exchange. Both magnetically enhanced and nonmagnetic cation exchange resins were converted to Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba mobile counterion forms as a novel approach to investigate the exchange behavior between the cations and the interactions between the cations and DOM. The results show that cation exchange is a robust process for removal of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) considering competition with cations on the resin surface and presence of DOM. DOM was actively involved during the cation exchange process through complexation, adsorption, and coprecipitation reactions. In addition to advancing the understanding of ion exchange processes for water treatment, the results of this work are applicable to membrane pretreatment to minimize fouling, treatment of membrane concentrate, and precipitative softening.

  18. Optimizations on supply and distribution of dissolved oxygen in constructed wetlands: A review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaqing; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Lu, Shaoyong; Wu, Haiming

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important factors that can influence pollutants removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). However, problems of insufficient oxygen supply and inappropriate oxygen distribution commonly exist in traditional CWs. Detailed analyses of DO supply and distribution characteristics in different types of CWs were introduced. It can be concluded that atmospheric reaeration (AR) served as the promising point on oxygen intensification. The paper summarized possible optimizations of DO in CWs to improve its decontamination performance. Process (tidal flow, drop aeration, artificial aeration, hybrid systems) and parameter (plant, substrate and operating) optimizations are particularly discussed in detail. Since economic and technical defects are still being cited in current studies, future prospects of oxygen research in CWs terminate this review.

  19. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution.

  20. Derivation of habitat-specific dissolved oxygen criteria for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batiuk, R.A.; Breitburg, D.L.; Diaz, R.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Secor, D.H.; Thursby, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake 2000 Agreement committed its state and federal signatories to "define the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources" in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) and its tidal tributaries. Hypoxia is one of the key water quality issues addressed as a result of the above Agreement. This paper summarizes the protection goals and specific criteria intended to achieve those goals for addressing hypoxia. The criteria take into account the variety of Bay habitats and the tendency towards low dissolved oxygen in some areas of the Bay. Stressful dissolved oxygen conditions were characterized for a diverse array of living resources of the Chesapeake Bay by different aquatic habitats: migratory fish spawning and nursery, shallow-water, open-water, deep-water, and deep-channel. The dissolved oxygen criteria derived for each of these habitats are intended to protect against adverse effects on survival, growth, reproduction and behavior. The criteria accommodate both spatial and temporal aspects of low oxygen events, and have been adopted into the Chesapeake Bay states - Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware - and the District of Columbia's water quality standards regulations. These criteria, now in the form of state regulatory standards, are driving an array of land-based and wastewater pollution reduction actions across the six-watershed.

  1. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide as a novel oxygen storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Yoshida, Mizuki; Wu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Bin; Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Sato, Tsugio

    2015-09-15

    Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 50 nm have been synthesized successfully via a facial solvothermal route in a very simple system composed of only ethanol, acetic acid, SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and A(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The synthesized undoped SnO{sub 2} and A-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were characterized by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique. The OSC values of all samples were measured using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The incorporation of alkaline earth metal ion into tin oxide greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. Especially, Ba-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 61 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 457 μmol-O g{sup −1} and good thermal stability. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide has the potential to be a novel oxygen storage material.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Bacillus subtilis responding to dissolved oxygen in adenosine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-Bang; Gao, Shu-Hong; Yin, Chun-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor for adenosine fermentation. Our previous experiments have shown that low oxygen supply in the growth period was optimal for high adenosine yield. Herein, to better understand the link between oxygen supply and adenosine productivity in B. subtilis (ATCC21616), we sought to systematically explore the effect of DO on genetic regulation and metabolism through transcriptome analysis. The microarrays representing 4,106 genes were used to study temporal transcript profiles of B. subtilis fermentation in response to high oxygen supply (agitation 700 r/min) and low oxygen supply (agitation 450 r/min). The transcriptome data analysis revealed that low oxygen supply has three major effects on metabolism: enhance carbon metabolism (glucose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and carbon overflow), inhibit degradation of nitrogen sources (glutamate family amino acids and xanthine) and purine synthesis. Inhibition of xanthine degradation was the reason that low oxygen supply enhanced adenosine production. These provide us with potential targets, which can be modified to achieve higher adenosine yield. Expression of genes involved in energy, cell type differentiation, protein synthesis was also influenced by oxygen supply. These results provided new insights into the relationship between oxygen supply and metabolism.

  3. Shallow Remineralization in the Sargasso Sea Estimated from Seasonal Variations in Oxygen and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Ennyu, A.; Najjar, R. G.; Bates, N.

    1998-01-01

    A diagnostic model of the mean annual cycles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and oxygen below the mixed layer at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site is presented and used to estimate organic carbon remineralization in the seasonal thermocline. The model includes lateral and vertical advection as well as vertical, diffusion. Very good agreement is found for the remineralization estimates based on oxygen and DIC. Net remineralization averaged from mid-spring to early fall is found to be a maximum between 120 and 140 in. Remineralization integrated between 100 (the compensation depth) and 250 m during this period is estimated to be about 1 mol C/sq m. This flux is consistent with independent estimates of the loss of particulate and dissolved organic carbon.

  4. PdNi hollow nanoparticles for improved electrocatalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Jiazhao; Wexler, David; Poynton, Simon D; Slade, Robert C T; Liu, Huakun; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Kerr, Robert; Shi, Dongqi; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-11

    Palladium-nickel (PdNi) hollow nanoparticles were synthesized via a modified galvanic replacement method using Ni nanoparticles as sacrificial templates in an aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are alloyed nanostructures and have hollow interiors with an average particle size of 30 nm and shell thickness of 5 nm. Compared with the commercially available Pt/C or Pd/C catalysts, the synthesized PdNi/C has superior electrocatalytic performance towards the oxygen reduction reaction, which makes it a promising electrocatalyst for alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells and alkali-based air-batteries. The electrocatalyst is finally examined in a H2/O2 alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell; the results show that such electrocatalysts could work in a real fuel cell application as a more efficient catalyst than state-of-the-art commercially available Pt/C.

  5. Episodes of low dissolved oxygen indicated by ostracodes and sediment geochemistry at Crystal Lake, Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B. Brandon; Filippelli, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen during the summer and early fall controls profundal continental ostracode distribution in Crystal Lake (McHenry County), Illinois, favoring Cypria ophthalmica and Physocypria globula at water depths from 6 to 13 m. These species also thrived in the lake's profundal zone from 14,165 to 9600 calendar year before present (cal yr b.p.) during the late Boiling, Allerod, and Younger Dryas chronozones, and early Holocene. Characterized by sand, cemented tubules, large aquatic gastropod shells, and littoral ostracode valves, thin (1-6 cm) tempestite deposits punctuate thicker deposits of organic gyttja from 16,080 to 11,900 cal yr b.p. The succeeding 2300 yr (11,900-9600 cal yr b.p.) lack tempestites, and reconstructed water depths were at their maximum. Deposition of marl under relatively well-oxygenated conditions occurred during the remainder of the Holocene until the arrival of Europeans, when the lake returned to a pattern of seasonally low dissolved oxygen. Such conditions are also indicated in the lake sediment by the speciation of phosphorus, high concentrations of organic carbon, and abundant iron and manganese occluded to mineral grains. Initial low dissolved oxygen was probably caused by the delivery of dissolved P and Fe in shallow groundwater, the chemistry of which was influenced by Spodosol pedogenesis under a spruce forest. The triggering may have been regionally warm and wet conditions associated with retreat of the Lake Michigan lobe (south-central Laurentide Ice Sheet). ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Inc.

  6. Study of fluorescence quenching in aluminum-doped ceria nanoparticles: potential molecular probe for dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Shehata, N; Meehan, K; Leber, D

    2013-05-01

    This work investigates a novel usage of aluminum-doped ceria nanoparticles (ADC-NPs), as the molecular probe in optical fluorescence quenching for sensing the dissolved oxygen (DO). Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles can be considered one of the most unique nanomaterials that are being studied today due to the diffusion and reactivity of oxygen vacancies in ceria, which contributes to its high oxygen storage capability. Aluminum can be considered a promising dopant to increase the oxygen ionic conductivity in ceria nanoparticles which can improve the sensitivity of ceria nanoparticles to DO. The fluorescence intensity of ADC-NPs, synthesized via chemical precipitation, is found to have a strong inverse relationship with the DO concentration in aqueous solutions. Stern-Volmer constant of ADC-NPs at room temperature is determined to be 454.6 M(-1), which indicates that ADC-NPs have a promising sensitivity to dissolved oxygen, compared to many presently used fluorophores. In addition, Stern-Volmer constant is found to have a relatively small dependence on temperature between 25 °C to 50 °C, which shows excellent thermal stability of ADC-NPs sensitivity. Our work suggests that ADC-NPs, at 6 nm, are the smallest diameter DO molecular probes between the currently used optical DO sensors composed of different nanostructures. This investigation can improve the performance of fluorescence-quenching DO sensors for industrial and environmental applications.

  7. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture.

  8. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium during cell culture: Defects and improvements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; He, Yunlin; Zhou, Yanzhao; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-03-01

    In vitro cell culture has provided a useful model to study the effects of oxygen on cellular behavior. However, it remains unknown whether the in vitro operations themselves affect the medium oxygen levels and the living states of cells. In addition, a prevailing controversy is whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is induced by continuous hypoxia or reoxygenation. In this study, we have measured the effects of different types of cell culture containers and the oxygen environment where medium replacement takes place on the actual oxygen tension in the medium. We found that the deviations of oxygen concentrations in the medium are much greater in 25-cm(2) flasks than in 24-well plates and 35-mm dishes. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in the medium were increased after medium replacement in normoxia, but remained unchanged in glove boxes in which the oxygen tension remained at a low level (11.4, 5.7, and 0.5% O2 ). We also found that medium replacement in normoxia increased the number of ROS-positive cells and reduced the cell viability; meanwhile, medium replacement in a glove box did not produce the above effects. Therefore, we conclude that the use of 25-cm(2) flasks should be avoided and demonstrate that continuous hypoxia does not produce ROS, whereas the reoxygenation that occurs during the harvesting of cells leads to ROS and induces cell death.

  9. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH-->Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH- oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion.

  10. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH− oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion. PMID:27199009

  11. Separating hydrogen and oxygen evolution in alkaline water electrolysis using nickel hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-05-20

    Low-cost alkaline water electrolysis has been considered a sustainable approach to producing hydrogen using renewable energy inputs, but preventing hydrogen/oxygen mixing and efficiently using the instable renewable energy are challenging. Here, using nickel hydroxide as a redox mediator, we decouple the hydrogen and oxygen production in alkaline water electrolysis, which overcomes the gas-mixing issue and may increase the use of renewable energy. In this architecture, the hydrogen production occurs at the cathode by water reduction, and the anodic Ni(OH)2 is simultaneously oxidized into NiOOH. The subsequent oxygen production involves a cathodic NiOOH reduction (NiOOH→Ni(OH)2) and an anodic OH(-) oxidization. Alternatively, the NiOOH formed during hydrogen production can be coupled with a zinc anode to form a NiOOH-Zn battery, and its discharge product (that is, Ni(OH)2) can be used to produce hydrogen again. This architecture brings a potential solution to facilitate renewables-to-hydrogen conversion.

  12. Enhanced alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon release in intertidal sands from the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands) induced by a natural macrofaunal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Heiko; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip

    2014-05-01

    The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands) on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generation was examined using measurements of sediment-water fluxes of bromide, oxygen, nutrients, TA and DIC. Sediments from the Oosterschelde typically contain the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina, the sub-surface bioturbator Macoma balthica and the surface bioturbator Cerastoderma edule. Measurements were carried out in six tanks (106 cm x 87 cm x 20 cm). The sediment was collected in November 2012. Measurements were started in June 2013. Each tank was sampled twice for benthic fluxes over the course of one month. Prior measurements three tanks were defaunated by covering the sediment surface with a black plastic sheet. Benthic flux measurements were carried out in closed plastic chambers (diameter 66 cm). These chambers typically contained about 10 cm sediment and 20 cm overlying water. The tank was completely covered with opaque a black plastic sheet during measurements. The incubation time ranged from 6 to 8 hours. Here we present preliminary results from both experimental runs. High benthic fluxes of TA (10 - 70 mmol m-2 d-1) and DIC (35 - 150 mmol m-2 d-1) were observed in all tanks. Whereas benthic TA and DIC fluxes were significantly higher in faunated tanks, total oxygen uptake (TOU: 30 - 75 mmol m-2 d-1) did not show any meaningful trend between the two treatments. Therefore, the apparent community respiratory quotient (CRQ = DIC/TOU) varied between 0.9 and 3.3, with significant higher values in faunated tanks, suggesting enhanced flushing of DIC produced in deeper layers and released by bioirrigation. This DIC was either produced by anaerobic respiration or carbonate dissolution. To unravel the contribution of carbonate dissolution and anaerobic respiration on the observed TA and DIC fluxes, we further present estimations for relevant

  13. One-dimensional simulation of stratification and dissolved oxygen in McCook Reservoir, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Chicagoland Underflow Plan/Tunnel and Reservoir Plan, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, plans to build McCook Reservoir.a flood-control reservoir to store combined stormwater and raw sewage (combined sewage). To prevent the combined sewage in the reservoir from becoming anoxic and producing hydrogen sulfide gas, a coarse-bubble aeration system will be designed and installed on the basis of results from CUP 0-D, a zero-dimensional model, and MAC3D, a three-dimensional model. Two inherent assumptions in the application of MAC3D are that density stratification in the simulated water body is minimal or not present and that surface heat transfers are unimportant and, therefore, may be neglected. To test these assumptions, the previously tested, one-dimensional Dynamic Lake Model (DLM) was used to simulate changes in temperature and dissolved oxygen in the reservoir after a 1-in-100-year event. Results from model simulations indicate that the assumptions made in MAC3D application are valid as long as the aeration system, with an air-flow rate of 1.2 cubic meters per second or more, is operated while the combined sewage is stored in the reservoir. Results also indicate that the high biochemical oxygen demand of the combined sewage will quickly consume the dissolved oxygen stored in the reservoir and the dissolved oxygen transferred through the surface of the reservoir; therefore, oxygen must be supplied by either the rising bubbles of the aeration system (a process not incorporated in DLM) or some other technique to prevent anoxia.

  14. Effects of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations on physiology and fluorescence of hermatypic corals and benthic algae.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Thompson, Melissa; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2014-01-01

    While shifts from coral to seaweed dominance have become increasingly common on coral reefs and factors triggering these shifts successively identified, the primary mechanisms involved in coral-algae interactions remain unclear. Amongst various potential mechanisms, algal exudates can mediate increases in microbial activity, leading to localized hypoxic conditions which may cause coral mortality in the direct vicinity. Most of the processes likely causing such algal exudate induced coral mortality have been quantified (e.g., labile organic matter release, increased microbial metabolism, decreased dissolved oxygen availability), yet little is known about how reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations affect competitive dynamics between seaweeds and corals. The goals of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of oxygen including hypoxic conditions on a common hermatypic coral Acropora yongei and the common green alga Bryopsis pennata. Specifically, we examined how photosynthetic oxygen production, dark and daylight adapted quantum yield, intensity and anatomical distribution of the coral innate fluorescence, and visual estimates of health varied with differing background oxygen conditions. Our results showed that the algae were significantly more tolerant to extremely low oxygen concentrations (2-4 mg L(-1)) than corals. Furthermore corals could tolerate reduced oxygen concentrations, but only until a given threshold determined by a combination of exposure time and concentration. Exceeding this threshold led to rapid loss of coral tissue and mortality. This study concludes that hypoxia may indeed play a significant role, or in some cases may even be the main cause, for coral tissue loss during coral-algae interaction processes.

  15. Oxygen-transfer strategy and its regulation effects in serine alkaline protease production by Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Calik, P; Calik, G; Ozdamar, T H

    2000-08-05

    The effects of oxygen transfer on the production and product distribution in serine alkaline protease (SAP) fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis and oxygen-transfer strategy in relation to the physiology of the bacilli were investigated on a defined medium with citric acid as sole carbon source in 3.5-dm(3) batch bioreactor systems. By forming a 3 x 3 matrix with the parameters air-inlet rates of Q(O)/V(R) = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 vvm, and agitation rates of N = 150, 500, 750 min(-1), the effects of oxygen transfer were investigated at nine different conditions. The concentrations of the product SAP and by-products, i.e., neutral protease, alpha-amylase, amino acids, and organic acids, and SAP activities were determined throughout the bioprocess. Among the constant air-flow and agitation-rate fermentations, Q(O)/V(R) = 0.5 vvm, N = 750 min(-1) oxygen-transfer conditions produced maximum SAP activity that was 500 U cm(-3), at t = 37 h. With the increase in Q(O)/V(R) and/or N, Damköhler number that is the oxygen-transfer limitation decreases; and the process passes from oxygen-transfer limited conditions to biochemical-reaction limited conditions. Further increase in SAP activity, A = 680 U cm(-3) was achieved by applying an oxygen-transfer strategy based on the analysis of the data obtained with the constant oxygen-transfer condition experiments, with a step increase in air-inlet rate, from Q(O)/V(R) = 0.2 to Q(O)/V(R) = 0.5 vvm at N = 750 min(-1) constant agitation rate at t = 24 h. Organic acids and amino acids that were excreted to the fermentation medium varied depending on the oxygen-transfer conditions. With the increase in oxygen-transfer rate acetic acid concentration increased; contrarily, with the decrease in the oxygen-transfer rate the TCA-cycle organic acids alpha-ketoglutaric and succinic acids, and gluconic acid were excreted to the fermentation broth; nevertheless, the application of the oxygen-transfer strategy prevented the increase in acetic acid

  16. Measurements of the effective diffusion coefficient of dissolved oxygen and oxidation rate of pyrite by dissolved oxygen in compacted sodium bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Manaka, Mitsuo; Kawasaki, Manabu; Honda, Akira

    2000-05-01

    The redox condition of the near field is expected to affect the performance of engineered barrier systems. In particular, the oxygen initially existing in the pore spaces of compacted bentonites strongly affects the redox condition of the near field. To assess the influence of the oxygen, research was done to assess its transport parameters in the compacted bentonite and consumption process. To understand the diffusion of dissolved oxygen (DO) in compacted bentonite and to predict the effect of the DO, the measurements of the effective diffusion coefficient of DO in compacted sodium bentonite were made by electro-chemistry. As a result, the following relationship between the dry density of compacted sodium bentonite and the effective diffusion coefficient of DO in compacted sodium bentonite was derived: D{sub e} = 3.0 {+-} 0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} exp({minus}3.7 {+-} 0.2 {times} 10{sup -3}p), where D{sub e} is the effective diffusion coefficient (m{sup 2}s{sup -1}) of DO in compacted sodium bentonite and p is the dry density (kg m{sup -3})of compacted sodium bentonite. The oxygen concentration in the bentonite is expected to be controlled by the oxidation of pyrite as an impurity in the bentonite. To investigate this idea, the rates of pyrite oxidation by DO in compacted sodium bentonite were estimated from the experimental data in pyrite-bentonite systems using the obtained effective diffusion coefficient of DO. The results show that the average of the rate constants of pyrite oxidation by DO in compacted sodium bentonite was 1.16 {+-} 0.35 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}m s{sup {minus}1}, whereas the rate constant in a carbonate-buffered solution (pH = 9.24) was 1.46 {+-} 0.09 {times}10{sup {minus}9}m s{sup {minus}1}.

  17. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  18. Cycling of Dissolved Organic Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Euphotic Zone of the Western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for marine organisms. In oligotrophic environments, concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphate (SRP), the most bioavailable form of phosphorus, are low and have been hypothesized to constrain the primary productivity. Evidence has been found that dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) supports a significant fraction of primary production through hydrolytic remineralization of DOP to SRP by alkaline phosphatase (APA). In this study, DOP biogeochemistry was investigated at three locations of the open-ocean environment in the Kuroshio region and at a semi-eutrophic coastal site of the western North Pacific. Concentrations of SRP, DOP and hydrolyzable ester-P were measured in the euphotic zone. Kinetic parameters of APA were determined using a fluorogenic substrate, including potential maximum velocity (Vmax), apparent Michaelis-Menten half-saturation constant (Km), and turnover time (TA) of APA hydrolyzable DOP. SRP concentrations were quite low (≤ 10 nM) in the surface seawater and rapidly increased below the chlorophyll a maximum layer (CML). DOP concentration ranged from 29 to 223 nM. Above the CML, DOP composed a major fraction accounting for 60-100% of dissolved total P. A significant linear relationship was found between the concentrations of SRP and hydrolyzable ester-P (R2 = 0.83, P < 0.01). This suggests active utilization of ester-P under phosphate-depleted conditions. In the Kuroshio region, Vmax of APA exhibited the highest value at the surface water (0 m) and decreased rapidly with depth, while at the coastal site the peak value was found at CML. TA of hydrolyzable DOP was quite variable among the locations and increased with depth especially below CML. The estimated values of in situ hydrolysis rate were much lower (2-34%) than the potential Vmax which was determined with the addition of an excess amount of the substrate. The results suggest that marine microbes can efficiently and rapidly utilize hydrolyzable DOP

  19. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White rivers, Washington, August and September 2000 and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians conducted a study in August and September 2001 to assess factors affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers, Washington. The study was initiated because observed concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River fell to levels ranging from less than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) to about 6 mg/L on several occasions in September 2000. The water quality standard for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Puyallup River is 8 mg/L.This study concluded that inundation of the sensors with sediment was the most likely cause of the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed in September 2000. The conclusion was based on (1) knowledge gained when a dissolved-oxygen sensor became covered with sediment in August 2001, (2) the fact that, with few exceptions, concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers did not fall below 8 mg/L in August and September 2001, and (3) an analysis of other mechanisms affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen.The analysis of other mechanisms indicated that they are unlikely to cause steep declines in concentrations of dissolved oxygen like those observed in September 2000. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 0.22 to 1.78 mg/L (mean of 0.55 mg/L), and river water takes only about 24 hours to flow through the study reach. Photosynthesis and respiration cause concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River to fluctuate as much as about 1 mg/L over a 24-hour period in August and September. Release of water from Lake Tapps for the purpose of hydropower generation often lowered concentrations of dissolved oxygen downstream in the White River by about 1 mg/L. The effect was smaller farther downstream in the Puyallup River at river mile 5.8, but was still observable as a slight decrease in concentrations of dissolved oxygen caused by

  20. Self-emulsification of alkaline-dissolved clove bud oil by whey protein, gum arabic, lecithin, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-05-14

    Low-cost emulsification technologies using food ingredients are critical to various applications. In the present study, a novel self-emulsification technique was studied to prepare clove bud oil (CBO) emulsions, without specialized equipment or organic solvents. CBO was first dissolved in hot alkaline solutions, added at 1% v/v into neutral solutions with 1% w/v emulsifier composed of whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic, lecithin, or their equal mass mixtures, and adjusted to pH 7.0. The self-emulsification process did not affect UV-vis absorption spectrum, reversed-phase HPLC chromatogram, or antimicrobial activity of CBO against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, and Salmonella Enteritidis. The entrapment efficiency after extraction by petroleum ether was determined to be about 80%. Most emulsions were stable during 7 days of storage. Emulsions prepared with WPC had smaller particles, whereas emulsions prepared with emulsifier mixtures had more stable particle dimensions. The studied self-emulsification technique may find numerous applications in the preparation of low-cost food emulsions.

  1. Long-term changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the ocean caused by protracted global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matear, R. J.; Hirst, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    In the Earth's geological record massive marine ecological change has been attributed to the occurrence of widespread anoxia in the ocean [, 2002; , 2002; , 1996]. Climate change projection till the end of this century predict a 4 to 7% decline in the dissolve oxygen in the ocean [, 2002; , 2000; , 2001; , 1998] suggesting the potential for global warming to eventually drive the deep ocean anoxic. To examine the multicentury impact of protracted global warming on oceanic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, we use a climate system model and a low-order oceanic biogeochemical model. The models are integrated for an atmospheric equivalent CO2 concentration, which is specified to triple according to a standard scenario from the late nineteenth to the late twenty-first century, and then is subsequently held constant at that elevated level for an additional 6 centuries. For the present day, the model successfully reproduced the large-scale features of the dissolved oxygen field in the ocean. In the global warming simulation, the physical model displays marked changes in high-latitude oceanic stratification and overturning, including near-cessation of deep water renewal for depths greater than about 1.5 km during the period of elevated stable CO2 concentration. Our model predicts a decline in oxygen concentration through most of the subsurface ocean. Concentration changes in the thermocline waters result mainly from solubility changes in the upstream source waters, while changes in the deep waters result mainly from lack of ventilation and ongoing consumption of oxygen by remineralization of sinking particulate organic matter. Changes in the upper 2 km of the ocean generally show signs of equilibration by the end of the integration, but at greater depths, there occurs a slow but steady decline through to the end of the integration. By the end of the integration, we simulate a doubling of the volume of hypoxic water (less than 10 μmol/kg) in the thermocline of the eastern

  2. Evaluation studies on carbon supported catalysts for oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Vakula S.; Singer, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes tests designed to predict the performance of fuel cell electrodes, as applied to an alkaline oxygen-fuel cell having specially fabricated porous-carbon electrodes with various amounts of dispersed platinum or gold as active catalysts. The tests are based on information obtained from the techniques of cyclic voltammetry and polarization. The parameters obtained from cyclic voltammetry were of limited use in predicting fuel cell performance of the cathode. On the other hand, half-cell polarization measurements offered close simulation of the oxygen electrode, although a predictor of the electrode life is still lacking. The very low polarization of the Au-10 percent Pt catalytic electrode suggests that single-phase catalysts should be considered.

  3. Direct and dissolved oxygen involved photodegradation of MeO-PBDEs in water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weifeng; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing

    2016-04-15

    Photodegradation has been proved to be a crucial way of elimination for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs). However, it is still unknown whether methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) can also undergo photodegradation. In this study, 4'-MeO-BDE-17, 5-MeO-BDE-47, 5'-MeO-BDE-99, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 were selected as targets to investigate their photodegradation in water. Meanwhile, the effects of dissolved oxygen on the photoreactions of MeO-PBDEs were also unveiled. Simulated sunlight experiments indicate that 6-MeO-BDE-47 resisted photodegradation for 20h, while other MeO-PBDEs underwent relatively fast photodegradation, which was greatly susceptible to the substitution patterns of methoxyl and bromine. Photo-excited MeO-PBDEs (except 6-MeO-BDE-47) can sensitize dissolved oxygen to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)). The generated (1)O2 cannot degrade the MeO-PBDEs, whereas O2(-) was reactive with MeO-PBDEs. The contribution of dissolved oxygen to the photodegradation of 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 was negligible; while the negative contribution was observed for 5-MeO-BDE-47 and 5'-MeO-BDE-99. Hydrodebromination was a crucial photodegradation pathway for MeO-PBDEs (excluding 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-47). Eventually, direct photolysis half-lives of MeO-PBDEs except 6-MeO-BDE-47 in the surface waters at 40 N latitude were calculated to be 1.35-3.46d in midsummer and 6.39-17.47d in midwinter.

  4. Two-level multivariable control system of dissolved oxygen tracking and aeration system for activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The problem of tracking dissolved oxygen is one of the most complex and fundamental issues related to biological processes. The dissolved oxygen level in aerobic tanks has a significant influence on the behavior and activity of microorganisms. Aerated tanks are supplied with air from an aeration system (blowers, pipes, throttling valves, and diffusers). It is a complex, dynamic system governed by nonlinear hybrid dynamics. Control of the aeration system is also difficult in terms of control of the dissolved oxygen. In this article, a two-level multivariable control system for tracking dissolved oxygen and controlling an aeration system is designed. A nonlinear model predictive control algorithm was applied to design controllers for each level. This overall hierarchical control system was validated by simulation based on real data records provided by a water resource recovery facility located in Kartuzy, Northern Poland. The effect of control system parameters and disturbances was also investigated.

  5. The Influence of Physical Forcing on Bottom-water Dissolved Oxygen within the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, temperature, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and chlorophyll a in the Caloosahatchee Riv...

  6. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  7. The Fluorescent Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter and Assessment of Total Nitrogen in Overlying Water with Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang Hua; Kuan, Wang; Song, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ming; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Shan; Wang, Meng

    2016-03-01

    This paper used excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) to probe the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the overlying water with different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, investigating the relationship between protein-like fluorescence intensity and total nitrogen concentration. The resulting fluorescence spectra revealed three protein-like components (high-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tryptophan) and two fulvic-like components (ultraviolet fulvic-like components, visible fulvic-like components) in the overlying water. Moreover, the protein-like components were dominant in the overlying water's DOM. The fluorescence intensity of the protein-like components decreased significantly after aeration. Two of the protein-like components--the low-excitation wavelength tyrosine and the low-excitation wavelength tryptophan--were more susceptible to degradation by microorganisms within the degradable organic matter with respect to the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine. In contrast, the ultraviolet and visible fulvic-like fluorescence intensity increased along with increasing DO concentration, indicating that the fulvic-like components were part of the refractory organics. The fluorescence indices of the DOM in the overlying water were between 1.65-1.80, suggesting that the sources of the DOM were related to terrigenous sediments and microbial metabolic processes, with the primary source being the contribution from microbial metabolism. The fluorescence indices increased along with DO growth, which showed that microbial biomass and microbial activity gradually increased with increasing DO while microbial metabolism also improved, which also increased the biogenic components in the overlying water. The fluorescence intensity of the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine peak A showed a good linear relationship with the total nitrogen concentration at higher DO concentrations of 2

  8. The Effects of Dissolved Oxygen upon Amide Proton Relaxation and Chemical Shift in a Perdeuterated Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Tobias S.; Campbell, Iain D.; Boyd, Jonathan

    2002-08-01

    The effects of dissolved molecular oxygen upon amide proton ( 1H N) longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates and chemical shifts were studied for a small protein domain, the second type 2 module of fibronectin ( 2F2)—isotopically enriched to 99% 2H, 98% 15N. Longitudinal relaxation rate enhancements, R O 2( 1H N), of individual backbone 1H N nuclei varied up to 14 fold between a degassed and oxygenated (1 bar) solution, indicating that the oxygen distribution within the protein is inhomogeneous. On average, smaller relaxation rate enhancements were observed for 1H N nuclei associated with the core of the protein compared to 1H N nuclei closer to the surface, suggesting restricted oxygen accessibility to some regions. In agreement with an O 2- 1H N hyperfine interaction in the extreme narrowing limit, the 1H N transverse relaxation rates showed no significant change, up to an oxygen pressure of 9.5 bar (the maximum pressure used in this study). For most 1H N resonances, small Δδ O 2( 1H N) hyperfine chemical shifts could be detected between oxygen pressures of 1 bar and 9.5 bar.

  9. Characterization of water quality and simulation of temperature, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen in the Wateree River, South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Kershaw County Water and Sewer Authority to characterize and simulate the water quality in the Wateree River, South Carolina. Longitudinal profiling of dissolved-oxygen concentrations during the spring and summer of 1996 revealed dissolved-oxygen minimums occurring upstream from the point-source discharges. The mean dissolved-oxygen decrease upstream from the effluent discharges was 2.0 milligrams per liter, and the decrease downstream from the effluent discharges was 0.2 milligram per liter. Several theories were investigated to obtain an improved understanding of the dissolved-oxygen dynamics in the upper Wateree River. Data suggest that the dissolved-oxygen concentration decrease is associated with elevated levels of oxygen-consuming nutrients and metals that are flowing into the Wateree River from Lake Wateree. Analysis of long-term streamflow and water-quality data collected at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations suggests that no strong correlation exists between streamflow and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River. However, a strong negative correlation does exist between dissolved-oxygen concentrations and water temperature. Analysis of data from six South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control monitoring stations for 1980.95 revealed decreasing trends in ammonia nitrogen at all stations where data were available and decreasing trends in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand at three river stations. The influence of various hydrologic and point-source loading conditions on dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River were determined by using results from water-quality simulations by the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. The effects of five tributaries and four point-source discharges were included in the model. Data collected during two synoptic water-quality samplings on June 23.25 and August 11.13, 1997, were used to calibrate

  10. Dissolved oxygen determination by electrocatalysed chemiluminescence with in-line solid phase media.

    PubMed

    Atwater, J E; DeHart, J; Wheeler, R R

    1998-01-01

    Dissolved elemental oxygen is determined in a flowing aqueous stream using glucose oxidase to catalyse the reaction between D-glucose and O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide. The levels of the resulting H2O2 are detected and quantified by luminol chemiluminescence using in-line solid phase media for pH adjustment of the reagent stream and for controlled release of the luminophore. The reaction is initiated by electrochemical catalysis. By the use of excess D-glucose in the reagent flow stream, the intensity of chemiluminescence is rendered proportional only to fluctuations in the dissolved O2 concentration. The methodology provides a means for the detection of aqueous O2 in the range 0-10 mg/L.

  11. Oxygen transfer dynamics and activated sludge floc structure under different sludge retention times at low dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haitao; Liu, Xiuhong; Wang, Hao; Han, Yunping; Qi, Lu; Wang, Hongchen

    2017-02-01

    In activated sludge systems, the aeration process consumes the most energy. The energy cost can be dramatically reduced by decreasing the operating dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. However, low DO may lead to incomplete nitrification and poor settling performance of activated sludge flocs (ASFs). This study investigates oxygen transfer dynamics and settling performances of activated sludge under different sludge retention times (SRTs) and DO conditions using microelectrodes and microscopic techniques. Our experimental results showed that with longer SRTs, treatment capacity and settling performances of activated sludge improved due to smaller floc size and less extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term low DO conditions produced larger flocs and more EPS per unit sludge, which produced a more extensive anoxic area and led to low oxygen diffusion performance in flocs. Long SRTs mitigated the adverse effects of low DO. According to the microelectrode analysis and fractal dimension determination, smaller floc size and less EPS in the long SRT system led to high oxygen diffusion property and more compact floc structure that caused a drop in the sludge volume index (SVI). In summary, our results suggested that long SRTs of activated sludge can improve the operating performance under low DO conditions.

  12. Biomarkers of dissolved oxygen stress in oysters: a tool for restoration and management efforts.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather K; Boettcher, Anne; Carmichael, Ruth H

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of anoxic and hypoxic events are increasing worldwide, creating stress on the organisms that inhabit affected waters. To understand the effects of low dissolved oxygen stress on oysters, hatchery-reared oysters were placed in cages and deployed along with continuously recording environmental data sondes at a reef site in Mobile Bay, AL that typically experiences low oxygen conditions. To detect and measure sublethal stress, we measured growth and survival of oysters as well as expression of three biomarkers, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and phospho-p38 MAP kinase, in tissues from juvenile and adult oysters. Survival rates were high for both juvenile and adult oysters. Expression levels of each of the 3 isoforms of HSP 70 were negatively correlated to dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, suggesting that HSP 70 is useful to quantify sublethal effects of DO stress. Results for HIF and phospho-p38 MAP kinase were inconclusive. Test deployments of oysters to assess expression of HSP 70 relative to environmental conditions will be useful, in addition to measuring abiotic factors, to identify appropriate sites for restoration, particularly to capture negative effects of habitat quality on biota before lethal impacts are incurred.

  13. An optical sensor for monitoring of dissolved oxygen based on phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhou, Na; Chen, Lingxin; Li, Bowei

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring is of vital importance to water treatment, sewage treatment, aquaculture and biological research. The traditional method for DO detection is an electrochemical method called the Clark electrode. This electrochemical method has been widely used as it is simple and inexpensive; however, the critical drawback for this kind of sensor is that it is easily affected by pH variations, and by the concentration of H2S and SO2. Optical sensing for DO detection is a newly developed technology, which can avoid most of the drawbacks of the electrochemical sensors. A DO sensor using fluorescence detection is described in this paper. The oxygen concentration measurement principle is based on optical phase detection, which is more precise than the traditional intensity detection method. Emission is carried out by a low-cost, specially designed light emitting diode (LED) source. To avoid an unwanted phase shift, a reference LED is used to improve the degree of accuracy. The sensing material for fluorescence is a ruthenium complex. A discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm was used for the phase calculation. The system was designed into a stainless steel probe, and dissolved oxygen concentration measurement results for various applications are presented in this paper.

  14. Investigation of the fluorescence quenching of 1-aminoanthracene by dissolved oxygen in cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Todd; Carcamo, Nelsy; Kenny, Jonathan E

    2014-12-11

    This study provides a detailed investigation of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms of the fluorophore, 1-aminoanthracene, by dissolved oxygen in cyclohexane. Dynamic/collisional quenching dominates in the system studied, but there is also a small component of static quenching. Stern-Volmer plots revealed that the dynamic quenching constant is 0.445 ± 0.014 mM(-1) and represents ∼95% of total quenching in the system. The static quenching rate constant is 0.024 ± 0.001 mM(-1), and mechanisms by complex formation and "sphere of action" static quenching were examined. Compensation of steady-state fluorescence data for solvent loss during the gradual deoxygenation period of the experiment was found to be important in order to conduct a thorough evaluation of the different quenching mechanisms of the system. The enhancement factors, (F(o)/F) and (τ(o)/τ), for 1-aminoanthracene were determined to be 2.20 ± 0.01 and 2.08 ± 0.01, respectively, and the diffusion-controlled bimolecular rate constant was found to be 2.1 × 10(10) ± 0.2 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). The work involved the development of a novel instrumental setup that simultaneously measures several important spectroscopic parameters (steady-state fluorescence intensity, absorbance, fluorescence lifetime, and dissolved oxygen concentration) for the careful study of oxygen quenching mechanisms of 1-aminoanthracene in a cyclohexane solution.

  15. Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen content on oxygen consumption rate of Chinese prawn, giant tiger prawn and giant freshwater prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xi-Lin; Zang, Wei-Ling; Wang, Wei-Dong; Shi, Yong-Hai; Liu, Wen-Cui; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1999-06-01

    Temperature and the dissolved oxygen content affect the oxygen consumption of juveniles of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus chinensis), giant tiger prawn ( P. monodon) and giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii). There is good correlation between the oxygen consumption rate ( V, mg/g·h) of the above three prawn species and the water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. In the range of test temperature, V increased with water temperature and dissolved oxygen content. The V of the above three prawn species increased 0.085 mg/g·h, 0.093 mg/g·h and 0.08 mg/g·h respectively with each °C of rising temperature. The comatose point and stifling point of the juveniles rose obviously at unsuitable temperature.

  16. [Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time and Dissolved Oxygen on a CANON Reactor with Haydite as Carrier].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-fang; Fu, Kun-ming; Zuo, Zao-rong; Qiu, Fu-guo

    2015-11-01

    One Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Over Nitrite ( CANON) reactor with haydite as carrier was investigated to study the effects of different hydraulic retention time ( HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on CANON reactors by seeding sludge from another mature CANON reactor and using synthetic inorganic ammonia-rich waste water as influent. During the experiment, the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen was basically unchanged, the HRT of the reactor were 9, 7, 5 h in turn and the range of DO was 1.16-3.20 mg x L(-1). The results showed that: (1) When DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1), despite the increase of DO can improve AOB's activity and matrix mass transfer in the system, NH4(+) -N and TN removal efficiency were still fell with the shortening of HRT for the CANON reactor, especially when DO was higher than 2.50 mg x L(-1), TN removal efficiency dropped sharply; (2) Under the condition that DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1), with the shortening of HRT, partial nitritation tended to be stable in the CANON process, and when DO was higher than 1.75 mg x L(-1), even if HRT was shorter, partial nitritation was still severely damaged; (3) Under the condition that DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1) and HRT was 7 h, for the CANON reactor, partial nitritation and total nitrogen removal efficiency kept well. Hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen both are important operational parameters for biological wastewater treatment process, which could directly affect the effect of biological treatment and effluent quality, so to choose appropriate hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen coordinately is very important to improve the effect of treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by CANON process.

  17. Ratiometric Dissolved Oxygen Sensors Based on Ruthenium Complex Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zike; Yu, Xinsheng; Zhai, Shikui; Hao, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    A ratiometric optical sensor has been developed with electrospinning processing method for dissolved oxygen measurement. The sensing film is fabricated by using silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) doped with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex (Ru(DPP)3Cl2) encapsulated in plasticized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). An insensitive 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethy lamino)-(6CI,7CI) (Coumarin6) is adopted as reference. The ratio of oxygenation is calculated at each image pixel of a 3CCD camera to quantify the oxygen concentration in aqueous environment. Compared to Ag-free film, the response time of Ag-containing films were improved from 1.5 s to 1.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and from 65 s to 45 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. The response times of the Ag-free film obtained by knifing was 2.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and 104 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. Results of the evaluation of accuracy, limit of detection, stability, and photostability are presented. An experiment measuring the spatiotemporal variation of oxygen distribution within the photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris is demonstrated. It is shown that the nanofiber-based optical sensor film could serve as a promising method for rapid oxygen monitoring in aqueous applications. PMID:28282946

  18. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-02-02

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  19. Ratiometric Dissolved Oxygen Sensors Based on Ruthenium Complex Doped with Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zike; Yu, Xinsheng; Zhai, Shikui; Hao, Yingyan

    2017-03-09

    A ratiometric optical sensor has been developed with electrospinning processing method for dissolved oxygen measurement. The sensing film is fabricated by using silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) doped with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex (Ru(DPP)₃Cl₂) encapsulated in plasticized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). An insensitive 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethy lamino)-(6CI,7CI) (Coumarin6) is adopted as reference. The ratio of oxygenation is calculated at each image pixel of a 3CCD camera to quantify the oxygen concentration in aqueous environment. Compared to Ag-free film, the response time of Ag-containing films were improved from 1.5 s to 1.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and from 65 s to 45 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. The response times of the Ag-free film obtained by knifing was 2.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and 104 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. Results of the evaluation of accuracy, limit of detection, stability, and photostability are presented. An experiment measuring the spatiotemporal variation of oxygen distribution within the photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris is demonstrated. It is shown that the nanofiber-based optical sensor film could serve as a promising method for rapid oxygen monitoring in aqueous applications.

  20. A simple fluorescent probe for the determination of dissolved oxygen based on the catalytic activation of oxygen by iron(II) chelates.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Abbas, M E; Zhu, Lihua; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Kejing; Tang, Heqing; Liu, Shushen; Li, Weiying

    2009-04-27

    This work aims at establishing a simple fluorescent probe for the determination of dissolved oxygen. It is found that iron(II) ions activate oxygen to produce reactive species being capable of oxidizing non-fluorescent coumarin to fluorescent 7-hydroxycoumarin. However, this process is not effective because the yield of the reactive species is very low in the presence of simple iron(II) salts alone. The addition of organic ligands such as oxalate results in the formation of complexes between iron(II) ions, which leads to considerable increase in the yield of reactive species (such as hydroxyl radicals) and then increase in the fluorescence intensity of 7-hydroxycoumarin to a significant level. It has been observed that in the mixture solution of iron(II) ions, ligand, coumarin, and dissolved oxygen, there is an excellent linear response between the fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. Therefore, a new spectrofluorimetric method has been proposed for the determination of dissolved oxygen by using catalytic activation of O(2) by iron(II) chelates. Under optimized conditions, a linear correlation (r=0.995) has been observed between the fluorescence intensity of 7-hydroxycoumarin at 456 nm and the concentration of dissolved oxygen over the range of 0.96-9.22 mg L(-1). The limit of detection for dissolved oxygen at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 has been estimated to be 0.35 mg L(-1). The proposed method has been applied to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen in practical water samples with results as satisfactory as that obtained by the standard iodometric method.

  1. The Effective Diffusion Coefficient of Dissolved Oxygen and Oxidation Rate of Pyrite by Dissolved Oxygen in Compacted Purified and Crude Sodium Bentonites in Carbonate Buffered Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Manaka, Mitsuo

    2003-09-15

    Immediately after the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the oxygen initially existing in the repository is expected to strongly affect the redox condition of the near field. The oxygen dissolves in the groundwater, is transported by diffusion through it, and is consumed by the oxidation of pyrite as an impurity in bentonite. To assess the influence of the oxygen, this study was conducted to estimate the diffusion of dissolved oxygen (DO) and the rate of pyrite oxidation by DO in compacted purified and crude sodium bentonites (SBs) in more detail than the Manaka et al. study. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) of DO in the compacted purified SB was measured in low ionic strength solution (carbonate buffered solution with pH {approx} 9) using the electrochemical method. The empirical equation between De value of DO and dry density (0.5 x 10{sup 3}-1.8 x 10{sup 3} kg m{sup -3}) of purified SB was obtained as follows:De{sub DO}{sup Kunipia-F} = 8.2 {+-} 1.5 x 10{sup -10}x exp(-2.6 {+-} 0.2 x10{sup -3}{rho},where De{sub DO}{sup Kunipia-F} is the De of DO in compacted purified SB (Kunipia F) (m{sup 2} s{sup -1}) and {rho} is the dry density of the SB (kg m{sup -3}).On the other hand, the De value of DO in the compacted crude SB was estimated using the relationship between De values of tritiated water in compacted purified and crude SBs. The empirical equation between the De value of DO and dry density (0.5 x 10{sup 3}-1.8 x 10{sup 3} kg m{sup -3}) of crude SB was derived as follows:De{sub DO}{sup Kunigel-V1} = 2.04 x 10{sup -9} exp(-2.6 x 10{sup -3}{rho}),where De{sub DO}{sup Kunigel-V1} is the De of DO in compacted crude SB (Kunigel V1) (m{sup 2} s{sup -1}) and {rho} is the dry density of the SB (kg m{sup -3}).The rates of pyrite oxidation by DO were estimated from the experimental data in pyrite-purified SB systems using the obtained De values of DO. The relation between rate constant (k') of pyrite oxidation by DO and dry density ({rho}) of

  2. Simulating unsteady transport of nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen in the Chattahoochee River downstream from Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.

    1985-01-01

    As part of an intensive water-quality assessment of the Chattahoochee River, repetitive water-quality measurements were made at 12 sites along a 69-kilometer reach of the river downstream of Atlanta, Georgia. Concentrations of seven constituents (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate) were obtained during two periods of 36 hours, one starting on August 30, 1976, and the other starting on May 31, 1977. The study reach contains one large and several small sewage outfalls and receives the cooling water from two large powerplants. An unsteady water-quality model of the Lagrangian type was calibrated using the 1977 data and verified using the 1976 data. The model provided a good means of interpreting these data even though both the flow and the pollution loading rates were highly unsteady. A kinetic model of the cascade type accurately described the physical and biochemical processes occurring in the river. All rate coefficients, except reaeration coefficients and those describing the resuspension of BOD, were fitted to the 1977 data and verified using the 1976 data. The study showed that, at steady low flow, about 38 percent of the BOD settled without exerting an oxygen demand. At high flow, this settled BOD was resuspended and exerted an immediate oxygen demand. About 70 percent of the ammonia extracted from the water column was converted to nitrite, but the fate of the remaining 30 percent is unknown. Photosynthetic production was not an important factor in the oxygen balance during either run.

  3. Fe/Ni-N-CNFs electrochemical catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuang; Li, Mian; Fan, Liquan; Han, Jianan; Xiong, Yueping

    2017-04-01

    The novel of iron, nickel and nitrogen doped carbon nanofibers (Fe/Ni-N-CNFs) as bifunctional electrocatalysts are prepared by electrospinning technique. In alkaline media, the Fe/Ni-N-CNFs catalysts (especially for Fe1Ni1-N-CNFs) exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic performances of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)/oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For ORR catalytic activity, Fe1Ni1-N-CNFs catalyst offers a higher onset potential of 0.903 V, a similar four-electron reaction pathway, and excellent stability. For OER catalytic activity, Fe1Ni1-N-CNFs catalyst possesses a lower onset potential of 1.528 V and a smaller charge transfer resistance of 48.14 Ω. The unparalleled catalytic activity of ORR and OER for the Fe1Ni1-N-CNFs is attributed to the 3D porous cross-linked microstructures of carbon nanofibers with Fe/Ni alloy, N dopant, and abundant M-Nx and NiOOH as catalytic active sites. Thus, Fe1Ni1-N-CNFs catalyst can be acted as one of the efficient and inexpensive catalysts of metal-air batteries.

  4. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen fixation by A. vinelandii. II. Ionically adsorbed cells.

    PubMed

    Diluccio, R C; Kirwan, D J

    1984-01-01

    Continuous culture studies of Azotobacter vinelandii cells immobilized by ionic adsorption to Cellex E anion exchange resin were conducted under oxygen-limited conditions for comparison to free-cell cultures. Immobilization had little effect upon the specific respiration and sucrose consumption rates as compared to free cells. However, maxima in specific nitrogen fixation rate and nitrogenase activity as a function of dissolved oxygen occurred at a C(O(2) ) value of approximately 0.005 mM as opposed to 0.02 mM for free cells. Further, in contrast to free-cell culture, most of the fixed nitrogen appeared in the medium rather than within intact cells. There were strong indications that reproduction of bound cells often resulted in cell lysis accounting for the fixed nitrogen content in solution.

  5. [Dynamic variance of intracellular metabolic energies under rhythmical control for dissolved oxygen in PHB mixed cultivation].

    PubMed

    Qian, Z W; Tohyama, M; Hua, Q; Shimizu, K

    2001-07-01

    The mixed cultivation using cheaper carbon source-wasted food material contained glucose and lactate at the same time was conducted in 5L fermentor, within which glucose was converted to lactate by L. delbrueckii in anaerobic condition and the lactate was converted to PHB by R. eutropha in aerobic condition. Considering dissolved oxygen concentration may affect the level of intracellular ATP and NADPH of the metabolic pathways for R. eutropha in lactate under autotrophy or heterotrophy, rhythmical oscillated control for DO based on chaos control method was consequently presented. This method was employed to satisfy two strains for opposite oxygen preferences, moreover, excite the intracellular metabolic energy simultaneously. The values examined through spectrophotofluorimetry represented that both ATP and NADPH exhibited fluctuations in accordance with the DO rhythm. By means of this control design, the concentration of PHB can be doubled than the usual under stable DO control.

  6. Increasing dissolved-oxygen disrupts iron homeostasis in production cultures of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Baez, Antonino; Shiloach, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The damaging effect of high oxygen concentration on growth of Escherichia coli is well established. Over-oxygenation increases the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing the destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dehydratases and limiting the biosynthesis of both branched-chain amino acids and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A key enzyme that reduces the damaging effect of superoxide is superoxide dismutase (SOD). Its transcriptional regulation is controlled by global transcription regulators that respond to changes in oxygen and iron concentrations and pH. Production of biological compounds from E. coli is currently achieved using cultures grown to high cell densities which require oxygen-enriched air supply. It is, therefore, important to study the effect of over-oxygenation on E. coli metabolism and the bacterial protecting mechanism. The effect of over-oxygenation on the superoxide dismutase regulation system was evaluated in cultures grown in a bioreactor by increasing the oxygen concentration from 30 to 300 % air saturation. Following the change in the dissolved oxygen (DO), the expression of sodC, the periplasmic CuZn-containing SOD, and sodA, the cytosolic Mn-containing SOD, was higher in all the tested strains, while the expression of the sodB, the cytosolic Fe-containing SOD, was lower. The down-regulation of the sodB was found to be related to the activation of the small RNA RyhB. It was revealed that iron homeostasis, in particular ferric iron, was involved in the RyhB activation and in sodB regulation but not in sodA. Supplementation of amino acids to the culture medium reduced the intracellular ROS accumulation and reduced the activation of both SodA and SodC following the increase in the oxygen concentration. The study provides evidence that at conditions of over-oxygenation, sodA and sodC are strongly regulated by the amount of ROS, in particular superoxide; and sodB is regulated by iron availability through the

  7. Development of Cobalt Hydroxide as a Bifunctional Catalyst for Oxygen Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yi; Du, Guojun; Yang, Shiliu; Xu, Chaohe; Lu, Meihua; Liu, Zhaolin; Lee, Jim Yang

    2015-06-17

    Co(OH)2 in the form of hexagonal nanoplates synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction has shown even greater activity than cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) in oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) under alkaline conditions. The bifunctionality for oxygen electrocatalysis as shown by the OER-ORR potential difference (ΔE) could be reduced to as low as 0.87 V, comparable to the state-of-the-art non-noble bifunctional catalysts, when the Co(OH)2 nanoplates were compounded with nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO). The good performance was attributed to the nanosizing of Co(OH)2 and the synergistic interaction between Co(OH)2 and N-rGO. A zinc-air cell assembled with a Co(OH)2-air electrode also showed a performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art zinc-air cells. The combination of bifunctional activity and operational stability establishes Co(OH)2 as an effective low-cost alternative to the platinum group metal catalysts.

  8. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is quite common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. The naturally reduced zones are heterogeneously dispersed in such aquifers and are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and reduced phases, including iron sulfides and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases that are found in association with these natural reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Three field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO wherein groundwater associated with naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in these field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Small concentrations of nitrate were also observed in the previously nitrate-free groundwater, and Fe(II) decreased to the detection limit. These results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS) rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table, and seasonal variations

  9. Novel VN/C nanocomposites as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Bi, K.; Liang, C.; Lin, S.; Zhang, R.; Wang, W. J.; Tang, H. L.; Lei, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel VN/C nanostructure consisting of VN nanoparticles and graphite-dominant carbon layers is synthesized by nitridation of V2O5 using melamine as reductant under inert atmosphere. High crystalline VN nanoparticles are observed to be uniformly distributed in carbon layers with an average size of ca13.45 nm. Moreover, the electrocatalytic performance of VN/C towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline electrolyte is fascinating. The results show that VN/C has a considerable ORR activity, including a 75 percent value of the diffusion-limited current density and a 0.11 V smaller value about the onset potential with respect to Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, the excellent methanol-tolerance performance of VN/C has also been verified with 3 M methanol. Combined with the competitive prices, this VN/C nanocomposite can serve as an appropriate non-precious methanol-tolerant ORR catalyst for alkaline fuel cells. PMID:26100367

  10. Temperature dependent surface electrochemistry on Pt singlecrystals in alkaline electrolyte: Part 3: The oxygen reductionreaction

    SciTech Connect

    tom.schmidt@psi.ch

    2002-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in alkaline electrolyte at 293-333K on Pt(hkl) surfaces by means of the rotating ring-disk electrode technique with solution phase peroxide detected at the ring electrode. The ORR on Pt(hkl) was found to be highly structure sensitive with activities increasing in the sequence (111) > (100) > (110)(1x2). Very similar apparent activation energies (37-45 {+-} 5 kJmol-1, {eta} = 0.35 V) were found on all three surfaces. Furthermore, at elevated temperature, significantly smaller amounts of peroxide are formed in agreement with enhanced peroxide reduction rates by increasing temperature. We found that the Tafel slopes on all three single crystal surfaces decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the logi-E relationship is not represented by a classical Butler-Volmer expression. Based on the kinetic analysis of the polarization curves and from simulations of logi-E curves, we propose that the rate of the ORR on Pt(hkl) in alkaline solution is mainly determined by the potential/temperature dependent surface coverage by OH{sub ad}. We propose two modes of action of the OH{sub ad}: (i) OH{sub ad} blocks the adsorption of O{sub 2} on active platinum sites; and (ii) OH{sub ad} alters the adsorption energy of intermediates which are formed during the ORR on Pt sites.

  11. A study of the catalysis of cobalt hydroxide towards the oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Liu, Huaiqun

    A cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon (Co(OH) 2/GC) electrode has been fabricated by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method. The catalytic activity for the oxygen (O 2) reduction reaction (ORR) of this electrode in alkaline media is studied by cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry. The O 2 reduction at the Co(OH) 2/GC disk electrode has been found to undergo an electrochemical process followed by sequential disproportionation of the electrochemical reduction intermediates, i.e., superoxide anion (O 2 rad -) and hydrogen peroxide anion (HO 2 -) in 0.1 M KOH solution. The Co(OH) 2 is first found to possess an excellent catalytic activity not only for the disproportionation of the O 2 rad - produced into O 2 and HO 2 - but also for that of the HO 2 - produced, combined with electrochemical reduction of O 2 mediated by surface functional groups at the carbon electrode surface. The Co(OH) 2 is a potential electrode material for the ORR in alkaline fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  12. Novel VN/C nanocomposites as methanol-tolerant oxygen reduction electrocatalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Bi, K.; Liang, C.; Lin, S.; Zhang, R.; Wang, W. J.; Tang, H. L.; Lei, M.

    2015-06-01

    A novel VN/C nanostructure consisting of VN nanoparticles and graphite-dominant carbon layers is synthesized by nitridation of V2O5 using melamine as reductant under inert atmosphere. High crystalline VN nanoparticles are observed to be uniformly distributed in carbon layers with an average size of ca13.45 nm. Moreover, the electrocatalytic performance of VN/C towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline electrolyte is fascinating. The results show that VN/C has a considerable ORR activity, including a 75 percent value of the diffusion-limited current density and a 0.11 V smaller value about the onset potential with respect to Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, the excellent methanol-tolerance performance of VN/C has also been verified with 3 M methanol. Combined with the competitive prices, this VN/C nanocomposite can serve as an appropriate non-precious methanol-tolerant ORR catalyst for alkaline fuel cells.

  13. A uniaxially oriented nanofibrous cellulose scaffold from pellicles produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in dissolved oxygen culture.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Aya; Tsuji, Tsubasa; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, Gluconacetobacter xylinus, was successfully employed to produce a stretchable cellulose nanofiber pellicle using dissolved oxygen in a conventional cultured medium. The obtained nanofibers were highly crystalline with the metastable cellulose Iα phase being apparently the dominant phase by more than 90%. The obtained pellicle could be stretched by up to 1.5 times to provide oriented crystalline nanofibrous films. Low heating of the nanofibrous film induced the transformation of the dominant cellulose Iα crystalline phase into the Iβ crystalline phase without a loss of crystallinity or the high Young's modulus. The film also exhibited unique and anisotropic viscoelastic and mechanical properties as well as superior thermal stability compared with conventional high-performance synthetic polymeric materials. In addition, when G. xylinus cells were transferred to the oriented surface after stretched, they started to synthesize cellulose ribbons that parallel the nanofiber orientation of the substrate. This function as a template was evidenced by direct video imaging of the motion of the bacteria. The application of a bacterial culture using dissolved oxygen in the medium offers the fabrication of novel anisotropic and nanofibrous scaffold of cellulose Iα.

  14. Time Series Stream Temperature And Dissolved Oxygen Modeling In The Lower Flint River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Jackson, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The tributaries of the Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB) are incised into the upper Floridan semi-confined limestone aquifer, and thus seepage of relatively old groundwater sustains baseflows and provides some control over temperature and dissolved oxygen fluctuations. This hydrologic and geologic setting creates aquatic habitat that is unique in the state of Georgia. Groundwater withdrawals and possible water supply reservoirs threaten to exacerbate low flow conditions during summer droughts, which may force negative impacts to stream temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO). To evaluate the possible effects of human modifications to stream habitat, summer time series (in 15 min interval) of stream temperature and DO were monitored over the last three years along these streams, and a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) model was developed and calibrated with these data. The driving forces of the diel trends and the overall levels of stream temperature and DO were identified by this model. Simulations were conducted with assumed managed flow conditions to illustrate potential effects of various stream flow regimes on stream temperature and DO time series. The goal of this research is to provide an accurate simulation tool to guide management decisions.

  15. Visualizing dissolved oxygen transport for liquid ventilation in an in vitro model of the human airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, T.; Bauer, K.

    2017-04-01

    Up until to now, the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations during liquid ventilation is limited to the determination of averaged concentrations of the liquid entering or leaving the body. The work presented in this paper aims to extend the possible measurement techniques in the research of liquid ventilation. Therefore optical measurements of the dissolved oxygen concentration, using a luminescent sensor dye, are performed. The preparation of a suitable sensor liquid, based on the metal complex Dichlorotris(1,10)–(phenanthroline)ruthenium(II), is presented. A transparent simplified human lung geometry is used for conducting the experiments. Inspiratory as well as expiratory flow at three different constant flow rates is investigated, covering the flow regimes \\text{Re}=83 –333 and \\text{Pe}=33 300 –133 000. The applied measurement technique is capable to reveal distinctive concentration patterns during inspiration and expiration caused by the laminar flow characteristics. Allowing a sufficiently long flow duration, local concentration inhomogeneities disappear and an exponential rise and decay of the mean values can be observed for inspiration and expiration.

  16. Influence of low dissolved oxygen concentration in body fluid on corrosion fatigue behaviors of implant metals.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Sasada, T; Nomura, I; Wei, Y Q; Tsukamoto, Y

    1992-01-01

    In their previous study, the authors carried out a fatigue test for AISI 316, 316L stainless steels and COP1 alloy in a living animal body and observed a remarkable deterioration in the fatigue durability of these metals. In that study, it was concluded that the reason the corrosion resistance of the metals was reduced in the living body was that the low concentration of dissolved oxygen gas in the body fluid (the partial pressure pO2; 28-78 mmHg) was insufficient to form the chromium oxide passivation film on the metal surface, and the base metal (iron) was released into the environmental fluid in ionic form. In this paper, with the concentration of dissolved oxygen gas in a physiological normal saline solution being set equivalent to that of living body fluid, fatigue tests on AISI 316 were made to simulate the stress corrosion behavior of the metal in the living body. As a result, remarkable deterioration of fatigue strength was observed in the low O2 concentrated normal saline solution, which was the same as that in the living animal body.

  17. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Labiosa, Rochelle G.; Kim, Taeyun

    2010-11-30

    The Washington State Department of Ecology contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic and water quality model to study dissolved oxygen and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound and to help define potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies and decisions. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or dominate human impacts to dissolved oxygen levels in the sensitive areas. In this study, an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic model of Puget Sound was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits for the year 2006. The model was constructed using the unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The overall model grid resolution within Puget Sound in its present configuration is about 880 m. The model was driven by tides, river inflows, and meteorological forcing (wind and net heat flux) and simulated tidal circulations, temperature, and salinity distributions in Puget Sound. The model was validated against observed data of water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity at various stations within the study domain. Model validation indicated that the model simulates tidal elevations and currents in Puget Sound well and reproduces the general patterns of the temperature and salinity distributions.

  18. Dynamics of solutes and dissolved oxygen in shallow urban groundwater below a stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Datry, T; Malard, F; Gibert, J

    2004-08-15

    Artificial recharge of urban aquifers with stormwater has been used extensively in urban areas to dispose of stormwater and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge. However, stormwater-derived sediments accumulating in infiltration beds may act as a source of dissolved contaminants for groundwater. Concentrations of hydrocarbons, heavy metals, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored at multiple depths in shallow groundwater below a stormwater infiltration basin retaining large amounts of contaminated organic sediments. Multilevel wells and multiparameter loggers were used to examine changes in groundwater chemistry occurring over small spatial and temporal scales. Rainfall events produced a plume of low-salinity stormwater in the first 2 m below the groundwater table, thereby generating steep vertical physico-chemical gradients that resorbed during dry weather. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons were below reference concentrations in groundwater and aquifer sediments, indicating that they remained adsorbed onto the bed sediments. However, mineralization of organic sediments was the most probable cause of elevated concentrations of phosphate and DOC in groundwater. DO supply in groundwater was severely limited by bed respiration which increased with temperature. Cold winter stormwater slightly re-oxygenated groundwater, whereas warm summer stormwater lowered DO concentrations in groundwater. Among several results provided by this study, it is recommended for management purposes that infiltration practices should minimize the contact between inflow stormwater and organic sediments retained in infiltration basins.

  19. Interactions Between Dissolved Oxygen, pH, and Temperature at Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, A.; Liang, J.; Mack, T.; Majors, A.; Ngilbus, K.; Pratt, D.; Unigarro, A.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Merritt is a saltwater tidal lagoon that forms a portion of a wildlife refuge in downtown Oakland, California. In the evening, a series of lamps strewn along its perimeter dubbed poetically a "Necklace of Lights" illuminates the night sky. By contrast, local residents describe the lake's water as having a foul odor, peculiar appearance, and being full of debris. Thus, our team has investigated many areas in and around Lake Merritt in the interest of assessing Lake Merritt's water quality. We made measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature at twelve sites along the edge of the lake and six additional locations throughout the open waters. We then used these measurements to formulate a water quality index (WQI) using guidelines provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.). Because we focus on three measures, our water quality index is weighted differently from the U.S.G.S. index. Our index is weighted as follows: 0.5 for dissolved oxygen, 0.3 for pH, and 0.2 for temperature. The index is based on a 100-point scale that allows us to compare sites and determine the relative quality of the water. In addition, we used a special device to create digital images of columns of sampled water, which were then analyzed to determine the degree of water coloration due to dissolved material and algae content. We then used results of this analysis technique to determine the relationship between the color profile and the physical and chemical characteristic of the water. We devised this new strategy to measure water turbidity because we could not use Secchi discs, given the shallowness of the lake. Overall, preliminary analysis of our data indicates that the WQIs tend to be higher near tidal gates, where the lake receives water from the San Francisco Bay via an inlet. These results raise the immediate concern that water is not effectively being circulated throughout the entire lake.

  20. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  1. In situ measurements of dissolved oxygen, pH and redox potential of biocathode microenvironments using microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zejie; Deng, Huan; Chen, Lihui; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are the core component of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). To understand the polarization effects on biocathode performance of BES, dissolved oxygen concentrations, pHs and oxidation-reduction potentials of biofilm microenvironments were determined in situ. The results showed that lower polarization potentials resulted in the generation of larger currents and higher pH values, as well as the consumption of more oxygen. Oxidation-reduction potentials of biofilms were mainly affected by polarization potentials of the electrode rather than the concentration of dissolved oxygen or pH value, and its changes in the potentials corresponded to the electric field distribution of the electrode surface. The results demonstrated that a sufficient supply of dissolved oxygen and pH control of the biocathode are necessary to obtain optimal performance of BESs; a lower polarization potential endowed microorganisms with a higher electrochemical activity.

  2. Simulation of oil bioremediation in a tidally influenced beach: Spatiotemporal evolution of nutrient and dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Pan, Zhong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Lee, Kenneth; Zhao, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical experiments of oil bioremediation of tidally influenced beach were simulated using the model BIOMARUN. Nutrient and dissolved oxygen were assumed present in a solution applied on the exposed beach face, and the concentration of these amendments was tracked throughout the beach for up to 6 months. It was found that, in comparison to natural attenuation, bioremediation increased the removal efficiency by 76% and 65% for alkanes and aromatics, respectively. Increasing the nutrient concentration in the applied solution did not always enhance biodegradation as oxygen became limiting even when the beach was originally oxygen-rich. Therefore, replenishment of oxygen to oil-contaminated zone was also essential. Stimulation of oil biodegradation was more evident in the upper and midintertidal zone of the beach, and less in the lower intertidal zone. This was due to reduced nutrient and oxygen replenishment, as very little of the amendment solution reached that zone. It was found that under continual application, most of the oil biodegraded within 2 months, while it persisted for 6 months under natural conditions. While the difference in duration suggests minimal long-term effects, there are situations where the beach would need to be cleaned for major ecological functions, such as temporary nesting or feeding for migratory birds. Biochemical retention time map (BRTM) showed that the duration of solution application was dependent upon the stimulated oil biodegradation rate. By contrast, the application rate of the amendment solution was dependent upon the subsurface extent of the oil-contaminated zone. Delivery of nutrient and oxygen into coastal beach involved complex interaction among amendment solution, groundwater, and seawater. Therefore, approaches that ignore the hydrodynamics due to tide are unlikely to provide the optimal solutions for shoreline bioremediation.

  3. Are mangroves drivers or buffers of coastal acidification? Insights from alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon export estimates across a latitudinal transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippo, James Z.; Maher, Damien T.; Tait, Douglas R.; Holloway, Ceylena; Santos, Isaac R.

    2016-05-01

    Mangrove forests are hot spots in the global carbon cycle, yet the fate for a majority of mangrove net primary production remains unaccounted for. The relative proportions of alkalinity and dissolved CO2 [CO2*] within the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) exported from mangroves is unknown, and therefore, the effect of mangrove DIC exports on coastal acidification remains unconstrained. Here we measured dissolved inorganic carbon parameters over complete tidal and diel cycles in six pristine mangrove tidal creeks covering a 26° latitudinal gradient in Australia and calculated the exchange of DIC, alkalinity, and [CO2*] between mangroves and the coastal ocean. We found a mean DIC export of 59 mmol m-2 d-1 across the six systems, ranging from import of 97 mmol m-2 d-1 to an export of 85 mmol m-2 d-1. If the Australian transect is representative of global mangroves, upscaling our estimates would result in global DIC exports of 3.6 ± 1.1 Tmol C yr-1, which accounts for approximately one third of the previously unaccounted for mangrove carbon sink. Alkalinity exchange ranged between an import of 1.2 mmol m-2 d-1 and an export of 117 mmol m-2 d-1 with an estimated global export of 4.2 ± 1.3 Tmol yr-1. A net import of free CO2 was estimated (-11.4 ± 14.8 mmol m-2 d-1) and was equivalent to approximately one third of the air-water CO2 flux (33.1 ± 6.3 mmol m-2 d-1). Overall, the effect of DIC and alkalinity exports created a measurable localized increase in coastal ocean pH. Therefore, mangroves may partially counteract coastal acidification in adjacent tropical waters.

  4. The effect of dissolved oxygen on PHB accumulation in activated sludge cultures.

    PubMed

    Third, Katie A; Newland, Mark; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2003-04-20

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater is often limited by the availability of reducing power to perform denitrification, especially when treating wastewaters with a low carbon:nitrogen ratio. In the increasingly popular sequencing batch reactor (SBR), bacteria have the opportunity to preserve reducing power from incoming chemical oxygen demand (COD) as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The current study uses laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling in an attempt to generate a better understanding of the effect of oxygen on microbial conversion of COD into PHB. Results from a laboratory SBR with acetate as the organic carbon source showed that the aerobic acetate uptake process was oxygen-dependent, producing higher uptake rates at higher dissolved oxygen (DO) supply rates. However, at the lower DO supply rates (k(L)a 6 to 16 h(-1), 0 mg L(-1) DO), a higher proportion of the substrate was preserved as PHB than at higher DO supply rates (k(L)a 30, 51 h(-1), DO >0.9 mg L(-1)). Up to 77% of the reducing equivalents available from acetate were converted to PHB under oxygen limitation (Y(PHB/Ac) 0.68 Cmol/Cmol), as opposed to only 54% under oxygen-excess conditions (Y(PHB/Ac) 0.48 Cmol/Cmol), where a higher fraction of acetate was used for biomass growth. It was calculated that, by oxygen management during the feast phase, the amount of PHB preserved (1.4 Cmmol L(-1) PHB) accounted for an additional denitrification potential of up to 18 mg L(-1) nitrate-nitrogen. The trends of the effect of oxygen (and hence ATP availability) on PHB accumulation could be reproduced by the simulation model, which was based on biochemical stoichiometry and maximum rates obtained from experiments. Simulated data showed that, at low DO concentrations, the limited availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) prevented significant biomass growth and most ATP was used for acetate transport into the cell. In contrast, high DO supply rates provided surplus ATP and hence higher growth rates

  5. Influence of dissolved oxygen conditions on toxicity of ammonium nitrate to larval natterjack toads.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Marco, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    Temporary ponds, where many amphibians from temperate regions breed, show an annual cycle with a maximum water volume in spring followed by a progressive desiccation throughout late spring and summer. This desiccation leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in nitrogen levels, which can additionally increase because of anthropogenic sources such as chemical fertilizers. We analyzed the toxicity posed by environmentally relevant levels of a common nitrogenous fertilizer, ammonium nitrate, at different conditions of oxygen availability to Bufo calamita tadpoles, which typically develop in ephemeral ponds. Ammonium nitrate (90.3 mg N-NO3NH4/l) and hypoxic conditions (initial dissolved oxygen 4.53 ± 0.40 mg/l) caused significant lethal effects after 7 and 12 days of exposure, respectively. At the end of experiment (16 days), mortality rates were 32.5 % in individuals exposed to the fertilizer and 15 % in those growing under hypoxic conditions. When both stressors were combined, they showed an additive effect on tadpole survival. Malformations, such as oedemas and spinal curvatures, and locomotory abnormalities, were detected after 12 days of experiment in >90 % of individuals exposed to 45.2 mg N-NO3NH4/l under hypoxic conditions, whereas none of these stressors by separate related to abnormality rates >35 %. Delayed development was also observed in tadpoles exposed to ammonium nitrate with hypoxia affecting developmental rate only after 12 days of exposure. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms linking negative effects of both factors as well as in terms of potential alterations of the ecological plasticity that often allows amphibians to survive in unpredictable environments.

  6. Effects of bottom water dissolved oxygen variability on copper and lead fractionation in the sediments across the oxygen minimum zone, western continental margin of India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Jayachandran, Saranya; Madan, Ritu; Sarkar, Arindam; Linsy, P; Nath, B Nagender

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the effect of varying bottom-water oxygen concentration on geochemical fractionation (operational speciation) of Cu and Pb in the underneath sediments across the oxygen minimum zone (Arabian Sea) in the west coast of India. Both, Cu and Pb were redistributed among the different binding phases of the sediments with changing dissolved oxygen level (from oxic to hypoxic and close to suboxic) in the bottom water. The average lability of Cu-sediment complexes gradually decreased (i.e., stability increased) with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations of the bottom water. Decreasing bottom-water oxygen concentration increased Cu association with sedimentary organic matter. However, Pb association with Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxide phases in the sediments gradually decreased with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration of the overlying bottom water (due to dissolution of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase). The lability of Pb-sediment complexes increased with the decreasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. This study suggests that bottom-water oxygen concentration is one of the key factors governing stability and lability of Cu and Pb complexes in the underneath sediment. Sedimentary organic matter and Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide binding phases were the major hosting phases for Cu and Pb respectively in the study area. Increasing lability of Pb-complexes in bottom sediments may lead to positive benthic fluxes of Pb at low oxygen environment.

  7. Evaluating the effect of dissolved oxygen on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in polyurethane foam contact oxidation reactors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong; Ma, Fang; Li, Ang; Qiu, Shan; Li, Jianzheng

    2013-03-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were evaluated in polyurethane foam contact oxidation reactors in a municipal wastewater treatment process. It was observed that nitrate could be removed at low dissolved oxygen levels, but the removal rate was gradually reduced as the dissolved oxygen concentration increased to a higher level of 6.0 mg/L. Nitrogen removal remained optimal within the dissolved oxygen range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the diversity of the microbial community changed accompanying dissolved oxygen values of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L, 2.5 to 3.5 mg/L, 6.0 to 6.5 mg/L, and 10.0 to 12.0 mg/L, in turn, which was supported by the Shannon-Wiener index of 1.56, 1.71, 1.43, and 1.56, accordingly. Both DGGE profiling and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the nitrifiers in reactors that are responsible for nitrification during the experiment include Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosomonas sp., and Nitrospira sp.

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kedong; Lin, Zhifeng; Ke, Zhiyuan

    2004-10-01

    The Pearl River is one of the large rivers in the world and it discharges to the northern part of the South China Sea. There has been a concern about the deterioration of dissolved oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters. In this study, historical data on dissolved oxygen (DO) from 1980s, recent data from a summer cruise in 1999, and a 10-year time series in DO for 1990-2000 were used to examine spatial and temporal distribution of DO in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters near Hong Kong. In the adjacent coastal waters, low oxygen waters <4 mg l-1 occurred in large areas during the summer of 1981, but DO rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. In the Pearl River estuary, DO was 3.5-4 mg l-1 in the eastern part, but was >4 mg l-1 in the western part in August 1984. In July 1999, DO was<4 mg l-1 in a near bottom 2 m layer in a large area of the estuary and was <2.5 mg l-1 in the eastern section, just inside the entrance of the estuary. In the coastal waters adjacent to Hong Kong, DO was>4 mg l-1. The 9-year time series showed that DO decreased periodically in summer, but rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. There was no apparent trend of decreasing DO between 1990 and 2000. Compared to August 1984, DO decreased significantly during the summer of 1999 in the Pearl River estuary, but large scale hypoxia (<2 mg l-1) was not observed. The spatial distribution of low oxygen waters may be controlled by estuarine circulation because DO was significantly correlated with salinity in the summers of 1981 and 1984. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of DO in the bottom layer was parallel to the topography of the bottom, indicating the importance of benthic consumption of DO in the sediment and the subsequent flux of low DO waters from the sediment-water interface resuspended by physical mixing. Relative to the high loading of nitrogen from the Pearl River, the present PO4 concentration is still low. It is possible that the lack of large areas of

  9. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, François; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have

  10. Hypolimnetic dissolved-oxygen dynamics within selected White River reservoirs, northern Arkansas-southern Missouri, 1974-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a critical constituent in reservoirs and lakes because it is essential for metabolism by all aerobic aquatic organisms. In general, hypolimnetic temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations vary from summer to summer in reservoirs, more so than in natural lakes, largely in response to the magnitude of flow into and release out of the water body. Because eutrophication is often defined as the acceleration of biological productivity resulting from increased nutrient and organic loading, hypolimnetic oxygen consumption rates or deficits often provide a useful tool in analyzing temporal changes in water quality. This report updates a previous report that evaluated hypolimnetic dissolved-oxygen dynamics for a 21-year record (1974-94) in Beaver, Table Rock, Bull Shoals, and Norfork Lakes, as well as analyzed the record for Greers Ferry Lake. Beginning in 1974, vertical profiles of temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were collected monthly from March through December at sites near the dam of each reservoir. The rate of change in the amount of dissolved oxygen present below a given depth at the beginning and end of the thermal stratification period is referred to as the areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit. Areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit was normalized for each reservoir based on seasonal flushing rate between April 15 and October 31 to adjust for wet year and dry year variability. Annual cycles in thermal stratification within Beaver, Table Rock, Bull Shoals, Norfork, and Greers Ferry Lakes exhibited typical monomictic (one extended turnover period per year) characteristics. Flow dynamics drive reservoir processes and need to be considered when analyzing areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit rates. A nonparametric, locally weighted scatter plot smooth line describes the relation between areal hypolimnetic oxygen deficit and seasonal flushing rates, without assuming linearity or normality of the residuals. The results in this report

  11. Identification and control of dissolved oxygen in hybridoma cell culture in a shear sensitive environment.

    PubMed

    Simon, L; Karim, M N

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of mammalian cells can be enhanced by facilitating adequate oxygen transfer into the cultivation medium. However, current methods of controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) fail to account for alterations in medium composition during the course of the fermentation. These changes, which directly affect gas solubility and overall mass transfer coefficient, may be significant and deteriorate controller's performance in the long run. In this paper, the applications of Generalized Predictive Controllers (GPC) to DO control were investigated in a shear sensitive environment and compared to PID and Model Predictive Controllers (MPC). Input and output data for system identification were initially generated by varying the composition of oxygen fed into the bioreactor from 0 to 0.21 mol % while keeping the total inlet gas flow rate at 8.75 vvm. The process was identified using an AutoRegressive model with eXogeneous inputs (ARX) model and tested on different data sets. The model parameters were then correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficients. In simulation tests, the output of the PID controller switched from minimum to maximum values while more continuous control signals were obtained with the MPC and GPC controllers. When tested in a cell-free medium, all three controllers were able to track setpoint changes with some chattering observed in the control signals. The GPC outperformed the MPC and PID controllers when applied to the cultivation of hybridoma cells.

  12. Methods and Best Practice to Intercompare Dissolved Oxygen Sensors and Fluorometers/Turbidimeters for Oceanographic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Schiano, M. Elisabetta; Ntoumas, Manolis; Potiris, Emmanouil; Frangoulis, Constantin; Podaras, Dimitrios; Petihakis, George

    2016-01-01

    In European seas, ocean monitoring strategies in terms of key parameters, space and time scale vary widely for a range of technical and economic reasons. Nonetheless, the growing interest in the ocean interior promotes the investigation of processes such as oxygen consumption, primary productivity and ocean acidity requiring that close attention is paid to the instruments in terms of measurement setup, configuration, calibration, maintenance procedures and quality assessment. To this aim, two separate hardware and software tools were developed in order to test and simultaneously intercompare several oxygen probes and fluorometers/turbidimeters, respectively in the same environmental conditions, with a configuration as close as possible to real in-situ deployment. The chamber designed to perform chlorophyll-a and turbidity tests allowed for the simultaneous acquisition of analogue and digital signals of several sensors at the same time, so it was sufficiently compact to be used in both laboratory and onboard vessels. Methodologies and best practice committed to the intercomparison of dissolved oxygen sensors and fluorometers/turbidimeters have been used, which aid in the promotion of interoperability to access key infrastructures, such as ocean observatories and calibration facilities. Results from laboratory tests as well as field tests in the Mediterranean Sea are presented. PMID:27196908

  13. Performance of ANFIS versus MLP-NN dissolved oxygen prediction models in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Najah, A; El-Shafie, A; Karim, O A; El-Shafie, Amr H

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the accuracy and performance of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in training and prediction of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The model was used to analyze historical data generated through continuous monitoring of water quality parameters at several stations on the Johor River to predict DO concentrations. Four water quality parameters were selected for ANFIS modeling, including temperature, pH, nitrate (NO3) concentration, and ammoniacal nitrogen concentration (NH3-NL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the input parameters. The inputs with the greatest effect were those related to oxygen content (NO3) or oxygen demand (NH3-NL). Temperature was the parameter with the least effect, whereas pH provided the lowest contribution to the proposed model. To evaluate the performance of the model, three statistical indices were used: the coefficient of determination (R (2)), the mean absolute prediction error, and the correlation coefficient. The performance of the ANFIS model was compared with an artificial neural network model. The ANFIS model was capable of providing greater accuracy, particularly in the case of extreme events.

  14. Controls on aquatic carbon cycling in a carbonate dominated groundwater catchment using dissolved oxygen dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A. P.; Parker, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon cycling in aquatic systems is increasingly seen as playing an important role in global carbon budgets and hence on potential impacts and controls on global warming. However, determining the partitioning within and transfer between different carbon stores is a major challenge, particularly where there are multiple sources and controls on carbon utilisation. Dissolved oxygen, DO, provides a proxy for investigating the dynamics of carbon utilisation in aquatic systems. High temporal resolution monitoring of DO at multiple site on the Hampshire Avon, a chalk dominated permeable catchment in southern England, UK, has been investigated using a dynamic DO model in order to investigate the biochemical cycling of carbon. Gross primary production, governed by photosynthetically active radiation, is determined through inverse modelling. Model simplification though parameter reduction is achieved through investigating controls on aeration (the transfer of oxygen across the atmosphere-river interface) and respiration. Seasonal changes in biomass affect long term oxygen dynamics, which are compounded by episodic hydrological events that control the partitioning of surface water and groundwater in the stream channel and consequently the sources of carbon and DO in the river channel. Using variations in surface geology across the catchment the impacts of varying baseflow characteristics on carbon cycling within the catchment is demonstrated.

  15. Use of dissolved oxygen modeling results in the management of river quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickert, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1973, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of the Willamette River, Oregon, to determine the major causes of dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion, and whether advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters was needed to achieve the DO standards. The study showed that rates of carbonaceous decay were low (kr = 0.03-0.06/day) and that point-source loadings of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) accounted for less than one-third of the satisfied oxygen demand. Nitrification of industrially discharged ammonia was the dominant cause of DO depletion. The study led to the calibration and verification of a steady-state DO model which was used to examine selected scenarios of BOD loading, ammonia loading, and flow augmentation. In 1976, the modeling projections for the Willamette River were presented to resource managers. A review in 1981 indicated that the State of Oregon had instituted an effluent standard on the major discharger of ammonia, rescinded an order for all municipal wastewaters to receive advanced secondary treatment by 1980, and more fully acknowledged the need for flow augmentation during summer to attain the DO standards.

  16. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  17. Closed-loop identification and control application for dissolved oxygen concentration in a full-scale coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Cho, J H; Kwak, H J; Choi, S K; Chun, H D; Lee, I

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply a closed-loop identification to actual dissolved oxygen control system in the coke wastewater treatment plant. It approximates the dissolved oxygen dynamics to a high order model using the integral transform method and reduces it to the first-order plus time delay (FOPTD) or second-order plus time delay (SOPTD) for the PID controller tuning. To experiment the process identification on the real plant, a simple set-point change of the speed of surface aerator under the closed-loop control without any mode change was used as an activation signal of the identification. The full-scale experimental results show a good identification performance and a good tracking ability for set-point change. As a result of improved control performance, the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration variation has been decreased and the electric power saving has been accomplished.

  18. Forecasting of dissolved oxygen in the Guanting reservoir using an optimized NGBM (1,1) model.

    PubMed

    An, Yan; Zou, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanfei

    2015-03-01

    An optimized nonlinear grey Bernoulli model was proposed by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the parameter optimization problem. In addition, each item in the first-order accumulated generating sequence was set in turn as an initial condition to determine which alternative would yield the highest forecasting accuracy. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized models with different initial conditions were then used to simulate dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Guanting reservoir inlet and outlet (China). The empirical results show that the optimized model can remarkably improve forecasting accuracy, and the particle swarm optimization technique is a good tool to solve parameter optimization problems. What's more, the optimized model with an initial condition that performs well in in-sample simulation may not do as well as in out-of-sample forecasting.

  19. Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Trilok Chandra; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the degradative efficiency of activated biomass collected from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) under three different dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, 1, 2 and 4mgl(-1). The change in bacterial diversity with reference to DO levels was also analyzed. Results demonstrate that degradative efficiency was the highest, when the reactor was maintained at 4mgl(-1) DO, but amplicon library analysis showed a greater diversity of bacteria in the reactor maintained at 2mgl(-1) DO. Bacteria belonging to the order Desulfuromonadales, Entomoplasmatales, Pasteurellales, Thermales and Chloroflexales have only been detected in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate levels in all three reactors indicated efficient nitrification process. Results of this study offer new insights into understanding the performance of activated biomass vis-à-vis microbial diversity and degradative efficiency with reference to DO. This information would be useful in improving the efficiency of any wastewater treatment plant.

  20. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  1. Performance of temperature and dissolved oxygen criteria to predict habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Blanchfield, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared theoretical habitat volumes, determined from traditional combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) boundaries, with in situ habitat use by acoustically tagged lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The widely used criteria of 8-12 ??C underestimated lake trout habitat use by 68%-80%. Instead, combined temperature (<12 or 15 ??C) and DO (>4 or 6 mg??L-1) criteria most closely matched lake trout habitat use, had a similar seasonal trend as the tagged fish, suggested modest reductions (5% of total lake volume) in habitat during a warmer year, and performed best when the constraints of temperature and DO were most limiting. All data were collected in a small boreal shield lake (27 ha, zmax = 21 m) at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, during two contrasting periods of thermal stratification (2003: warmer and longer; 2004: cooler and shorter), providing an assessment of observed and theoretical habitat volumes over current environmental extremes.

  2. Influence of solid corrosion by-products on the consumption of dissolved oxygen in copper pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Ignacio T.; Alsina, Marco A.; Pastén, Pablo A.; Pizarro, Gonzalo E.

    2009-06-12

    Research on corrosion of copper pipes has given little consideration to the influence of solid corrosion by-products on the processes occurring at the metal-liquid interface. Consequently, the effect of such solid phases on the rate of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption remains poorly understood. In-situ experiments were performed in copper pipes under different carbonate concentrations and ageing times. Our results show that the amount of solid corrosion by-products and concentration of hydrogen ions affect the rate of DO consumption during stagnation. Furthermore, our findings support the existing hypothesis that the available concentration of hydrogen ions, rather than DO, is the limiting factor for copper release into drinking water.

  3. Dissolved oxygen prediction using a possibility theory based fuzzy neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman T.; Valeo, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    A new fuzzy neural network method to predict minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a highly urbanised riverine environment (in Calgary, Canada) is proposed. The method uses abiotic factors (non-living, physical and chemical attributes) as inputs to the model, since the physical mechanisms governing DO in the river are largely unknown. A new two-step method to construct fuzzy numbers using observations is proposed. Then an existing fuzzy neural network is modified to account for fuzzy number inputs and also uses possibility theory based intervals to train the network. Results demonstrate that the method is particularly well suited to predicting low DO events in the Bow River. Model performance is compared with a fuzzy neural network with crisp inputs, as well as with a traditional neural network. Model output and a defuzzification technique are used to estimate the risk of low DO so that water resource managers can implement strategies to prevent the occurrence of low DO.

  4. Modification of Graphene on Ultramicroelectrode Array and Its Application in Detection of Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfen; Bian, Chao; Tong, Jianhua; Sun, Jizhou; Li, Yang; Hong, Wen; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated two different modification methods of graphene (GN) on ultramicroelectrode array (UMEA) and applied the GN modified UMEA for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO). The UMEAs were fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique and the radius of each ultramicroelectrode is 10 μm. GN-NH2 and GN-COOH were modified on UMEA by using self-assembling method. Compared with GN-NH2 modified UMEA, the GN-COOH modified UMEA showed better electrochemical reduction to DO, owing to better dispersing and more active sites. The GN-COOH on UMEA was electroreduced to reduced GN-COOH (rGN-COOH) to increase the conductivity and the catalysis performance. Finally, the palladium nanoparticles/rGN-COOH composite was incorporated into DO microsensor for the detection of DO. PMID:25549176

  5. Frequency-duration analysis of dissolved-oxygen concentrations in two southwestern Wisconsin streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, dissolved-oxygen (DO) data have been collected in the same manner as other water-quality constituents, typically at infrequent intervals as a grab sample or an instantaneous meter reading. Recent years have seen an increase in continuous water-quality monitoring with electronic dataloggers. This new technique requires new approaches in the statistical analysis of the continuous record. This paper presents an application of frequency-duration analysis to the continuous DO records of a cold and a warm water stream in rural southwestern Wisconsin. This method offers a quick, concise way to summarize large time-series data bases in an easily interpretable manner. Even though the two streams had similar mean DO concentrations, frequency-duration analyses showed distinct differences in their DO-concentration regime. This type of analysis also may be useful in relating DO concentrations to biological effects and in predicting low DO occurrences.

  6. Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen and phosphorus removal and electricity production in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qinqin; Luo, Jingjing; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Shaoqi; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-07-01

    Performance of a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated with the influence of cathodic dissolved oxygen (DO). The maximum voltage, coulombic efficiency and maximum power density outputs of MFC decreased from 521 to 303 mV, 52.48% to 23.09% and 530 to 178 mW/m(2) with cathodic DO declining. Furthermore, a great deal of total phosphorus (TP) was removed owing to chemical precipitation (about 80%) and microbial absorption (around 4-17%). COD was first removed in anode chamber (>70%) then in cathode chamber (<5%). Most of nitrogen was removed when the cathodic DO was at low levels. Chemical precipitates formed in cathode chamber were verified as phosphate, carbonate and hydroxyl compound with the aid of scanning electron microscope capable of energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  7. Forest clearfelling effects on dissolved oxygen and metabolism in peatland streams.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Connie; O'Connor, Mark; Asam, Zaki-Ul-Zaman; de Eyto, Elvira; Brown, Lee E; Xiao, Liwen

    2016-01-15

    Peatlands cover ∼3% of the world's landmass and large expanses have been altered significantly as a consequence of land use change. Forestry activities are a key pressure on these catchments increasing suspended sediment and nutrient export to receiving waters. The aim of this study was to investigate stream dissolved oxygen (DO) and metabolic activity response following clearfelling of a 39-year-old lodgepole pine and Sitka spruce forestry in an upland peat catchment. Significant effects of clearfelling on water temperature, flows, DO and stream metabolic (photosynthesis, respiration) rates were revealed. Stream temperature and discharge significantly increased in the study stream following clearfelling. Instream ecosystem respiration increased significantly following clearfelling, indicating an increase in the net consumption of organic carbon.

  8. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: [3]Li+, [3]Na+, [4]K+, [4]Rb+, [6]Cs+, [3]Be2+, [4]Mg2+, [6]Ca2+, [6]Sr2+ and [6]Ba2+, but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of [6]Na+, the ratio U eq(Na)/U eq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈[6]Na+—O2−〉 (R 2 = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li+ in [4]- and [6]-coordination, Na+ in [4]- and [6

  9. Benthic Primary Production in a Saltmarsh Pond: Insights from Fluxes of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolewski, J. S.; Stanley, R. H.; Howard, E. M.; Spivak, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important carbon sinks that exist at continental margins and act as mediators in the exchange of nutrients and carbon between terrestrial and marine environments. Within salt marshes, 10-20% of total surface area is covered by marshtop ponds. The fractional area of marshtop ponds is predicted to increase as sea level rises. Despite their potential importance, the balance between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes within such ponds remain poorly understood. To quantify the balance of metabolic fluxes within salt marsh ponds, chemical fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured in July, 2014 in benthic flux chambers inserted into a salt marsh pond in the Plum Island Estuary Long-Term Ecosystem Research (PIE-LTER) site. Light and dark chambers were used to enable separation of rates of photosynthesis and respiration. Separate chambers were used to enclose sediment covered by primarily benthic microalgae and primarily benthic macroalgae. Net ecosystem metabolism in the microalgae was ~10 and in the macroalgae ~15 mmol C/m2/hour. Respiration rates were ~10 mmol C/m2/ hour for both microalgae and macroalgae. The resulting fluxes of net ecosystem production in the ponds will be compared with overall marsh net ecosystem flux as measured by an eddy flux tower that was located 100 meters from the pond. Additionally, concurrent measurements of DIC and DO allow quantification of the C:O ratio during respiration (i.e. respiratory quotient) in this system.

  10. Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks.

    PubMed

    Spiessl, S M; MacQuarrie, K T B; Mayer, K U

    2008-01-28

    In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500-1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions, that may control O2 ingress. In this study, the reactive transport code MIN3P is used in combination with 2k factorial analyses to identify the most important parameters controlling oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks. Scenarios considered are based on simplified conceptual models that include a single vertical fracture, or a fracture zone, contained within a rock matrix that extends from the ground surface to a depth of 500 m. Consistent with field observations, Fe(II)-bearing minerals are present in the fractures (i.e. chlorite) and the rock matrix (biotite and small quantities of pyrite). For the parameter ranges investigated, results indicate that for the single fracture case, the most influential factors controlling dissolved O2 ingress are flow velocity in the fracture, fracture aperture, and the biotite reaction rate in the rock matrix. The most important parameters for the fracture zone simulations are flow velocity in the individual fractures, pO2 in the recharge water, biotite reaction rate, and to a lesser degree the abundance and reactivity of chlorite in the fracture zone, and the fracture zone width. These parameters should therefore receive increased consideration during site characterization, and in the formulation of site-specific models intended to predict O2 behavior in crystalline rocks.

  11. Thermal and dissolved oxygen characteristics of a South Carolina cooling reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, James L.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured monthly from January 1971 to December 1982 at 1-m depth intervals at 13 stations in Keowee Reservoir in order to characterize spatial and temporal changes associated with operation of the Oconee Nuclear Station. The reservoir water column was i to 4°C warmer in operational than in non-operational years. The thermo-dine was at depths of 5 to 15 m before the operation of Oconee Nuclear Station, but was always below the upper level of the intake (20 m) after the station was in full operation; this suggests that pumping by the Oconee Nuclear Station had depleted all available cool hypolimnetic water to this depth. As a result summer water temperatures at depths greater than 10 m were usually 10°C higher after plant operation began than before. By fall the reservoir was nearly homothemious to a depth of 27 m, where a thermocine developed. Seasonal temperature profiles varied with distance from the plant; a cool water plume was evident in spring and a warm water plume was present in the summer, fall, and winter. A cold water plume also developed in the northern section of the reservoir due to the operation of Jocassee Pumped Storage Station. Increases in the mean water temperature of the reservoir during operational periods were correlated with the generating output of the power plant. The annual heat load to the reservoir increased by one-third after plant operations began. The alteration of the thermal stratification of the receiving water during the summer also caused the dissolved oxygen to mix to greater depths.

  12. Non-Linear Time Series Analysis of Dissolved Oxygen in Five Diverse Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K. E.; Barton, C. C.; Smigelski, J. R.; Tebbens, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal variations in the concentration of Dissolved oxygen (DO) can create catastrophic conditions for organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an aquatic parameter whose concentration is controlled by physical, biological, and chemical processes. The concentration of DO in an aquatic system is important to organisms that rely on aerobic metabolic processes for survival. A power-spectral-density analysis of time series of DO concentration is used to quantify persistence (the degree of internal correlation) over durations of 3 months to 19 years. The interval between data points was either 15 minutes or one hour. The data are from ten different water bodies throughout the United States. Four of these sites are large, slow moving bodies of water including three estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (Virginia), Winyah Bay (North Carolina) and Elkhorn Slough (California); and one reservoir: the Cheney Reservoir in Kansas. The other six sites are small, fast moving water bodies. They included four rivers: Christina River (Delaware), St. Croix River (Maine), Ramapo River (New Jersey), and Passaic River, New Jersey; one stream: Green Pond Brook (New Jersey); and one man-made channel: Reynolds Channel (New York). The analysis quantifies persistence as the power scaling exponent (β), which for all ten water bodies β ranges between 1.2 and 1.6 meaning that the signal is persistent and non-stationary. Rivers and streams, exhibit higher β-values of 1.5 < β<1.6 (greater persistence) than estuaries and lakes, which have β-values of 1.2< β <1.4t.

  13. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Mechanism of the cathodic process coupled to the oxidation of iron monosulfide by dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Duinea, Mădălina I; Costas, Andreea; Baibarac, Mihaela; Chiriță, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the mechanism of iron monosulfide (FeS) oxidation by dissolved oxygen (O2(aq)). Synthetic FeS was reacted with O2(aq) for 6days and at 25°C. We have characterized the initial and reacted FeS surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that during the aqueous oxidation of FeS new solid phases (disulfide, polysulfide, elemental sulfur, ferric oxyhydroxides and Fe3O4) develop on the mineral surface. The results of potentiodynamic polarization experiments show that after 2days of FeS electrode immersion in oxygen bearing solution (OBS) at initial pH 5.1 and 25°C the modulus of cathodic Tafel slopes dramatically decreases, from 393mV/dec to 86mV/dec. This decrease is ascribed to the change of the mechanism of electron transfer from cathodic sites to O2 (mechanism of cathodic process). The oxidation current densities (jox) indicate that mineral oxidative dissolution is not inhibited by pH increase up to 6.7. Another conclusion, which emerges from the analysis of jox, is that the dissolved Fe(3+) does not intermediate the aqueous oxidation of FeS. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that after 2days of contact between electrode and OBS the properties of FeS/water interface change. From the analysis of the EIS, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and SEM/EDX data we can conclude that the change of FeS/water interface properties accompanies the formation of new solid phases on the mineral surface. The new characteristics of the surface layer and FeS/water interface do not cause the inhibition of mineral oxidation.

  15. Effects of fluoride and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the corrosion behavior of pure titanium and titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaharu; Matsuya, Shigeki; Udoh, Koichi

    2002-06-01

    The effects of dissolved-oxygen concentration and fluoride concentration on the corrosion behaviors of commercial pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys and experimentally produced Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-0.5Pt alloys were examined using the corrosion potential measurements. The amount of dissolved Ti was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. A decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration tended to reduce the corrosion resistance of Ti and Ti alloys. If there was no fluoride, however, corrosion did not occur. Under low dissolved-oxygen conditions, the corrosion of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys might easily take place in the presence of small amounts of fluoride. They were corroded by half or less of the fluoride concentrations in commercial dentifrices. The Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-0.5Pt alloys did not corrode more, even under the low dissolved-oxygen conditions and a fluoride-containing environment, than pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys. These alloys are expected to be useful as new Ti alloys with high corrosion resistance in dental use.

  16. Electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from dissolved oxygen in acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhimin; Chang, Jih-Hsing; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was electro-generated in a parallel-plate electrolyzer by reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) in acidic solutions containing dilute supporting electrolyte. Operational parameters such as cathodic potential, oxygen purity and mass flow rate, cathode surface area. pH, temperature, and inert supporting electrolyte concentration were systematically investigated as to improve the Faradic current efficiency of H2O2 generation. Results indicate that significant self-decomposition of H2O2 only occurs at high pH (> 9) and elevated temperatures (> 23 degrees C). Results also indicate that the optimal conditions for H2O2 generation are cathodic potential of -0.5 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), oxygen mass flow rate of 8.2 x 10(-2) mol/min, and pH 2. Under the optimal conditions, the average current density and average current efficiency are 6.4A/m2 and 81%, respectively. However, when air is applied at the optimal flow rate of oxygen, the average current density markedly decreases to 2.1 A/m2, while the average current efficiency slightly increases to 90%. The limiting current density is 6.4 A/m2, which is independent of cathode geometry and surface area. H2O2 generation is favored at low temperatures. In the concentration range studied (0.01-0.25 M), the inert supporting electrolyte (NaClO4) affects the total potential drop of the electrolyzer, but does not affect the net generation rate of H2O2.

  17. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on the Filterability of Jet Fuels for Temperatures Between 300 Degrees and 400 Degrees F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeown, Anderson B; Hibbard, Robert R

    1955-01-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen in the filter-clogging characteristics of three JP-4 and two JP-5 fuels was studied at 300 degrees to 400 degrees F in a bench- scale rig, employing filter paper as the filter medium. The residence time of the fuel at the high temperature was approximately 6 seconds. For these conditions, the clogging characteristics of the fuels increased with both increasing temperature and increasing concentration of dissolved oxygen. The amount of insoluble material formed at high temperatures necessary to produce clogging of filters was very small, of the order of 1 milligram per gallon of fuel.

  18. Factors initiating phytoplankton blooms and resulting effects on dissolved oxygen in Duwamish River estuary, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Eugene Brummer

    1969-01-01

    Phytoplankton productivity, standing stock, and related environmental factors were studied during 1964-66 in the Duwamish River estuary, at Seattle, Wash., to ascertain the factors that affect phytoplankton growth in the estuary; a knowledge of these factors in turn permits the detection and evaluation of the influence that effluent nutrients have on phytoplankton production. The factors that control the concentration of dissolved oxygen were also evaluated because of the importance of dissolved oxygen to the salmonid populations that migrate through the estuary. Phytoplankton blooms, primarily of diatoms, occurred in the lower estuary during August 1965 and 1966. No bloom occurred during 1964, but the presence of oxygen-supersaturated surface water in August 1963 indicates that a bloom did occur then. Nutrients probably were not the primary factor controlling the timing of phytoplankton blooms. Ammonia ,and phosphate concentrations increased significantly downstream from the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle's Renton Treatment Plant outfall after the plant began operation in June 1965, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were relatively high before operation of the Renton Treatment Plant and during nonbloom periods. The consistent coincidence of blooms with minimum fresh-water discharge and tidal exchange during August throughout the study period indicates that bloom timing probably was controlled mostly by hydrographic factors that determine retention time and stability of the surface-water layer. This control was demonstrated in part by a highly significant correlation of gross productivity with retention time (as indicated by fresh-water discharge) and vertical stability (as indicated by the difference between mean surface and mean bottom temperatures). The failure of a bloom to develop in 1964 is related to a minimum fresh-water discharge that was much greater than normal during that summer. Hydrographic factors are apparently important because

  19. Long-term variations in the dissolved oxygen budget of an urbanized tidal river: The upper Delaware Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaso, Daniel J.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2015-06-01

    The dissolved oxygen budget in the upper Delaware Estuary between 1970 and 2014 was inferred from oxygen concentration measurements using a box model approach. The region was found to be a net biogeochemical sink of oxygen, with net oxygen consumption greater in the tidal fresh portion than in the oligohaline portion. Net oxygen consumption decreased from the 1970s to the 1990s by roughly a factor of 2 before increasing slightly in the 2000s. The dramatic decline in oxygen consumption was presumably due to improvements in wastewater treatment, though a comparison with biological oxygen demand measurements in wastewater was equivocal. Nonalgal oxygen consumption (i.e., oxygen consumption due to heterotrophic respiration and nitrification) was computed as the sum of the estimated net oxygen consumption and historical measurements of primary production. Nonalgal oxygen consumption was found to be highly seasonal and positively correlated with temperature, with Q10 values ranging between 1.4 and 2.3. Annual nonalgal oxygen consumption was found to be several times annual primary production. Exchange with the atmosphere is the main process that balances the net oxygen consumption throughout the study region, with advection also an important process in the tidal fresh portion. Decadal scale variability in oxygen concentration, including the recent decline in the 2000s, appears to be mainly driven by biological, not physical, processes.

  20. Hyporheic flow and dissolved oxygen distribution in fish nests: The effects of open channel velocity, permeability patterns, and groundwater upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Ford, Aimee E.; Kaufman, Matthew H.; Kessler, Adam J.; Cook, Perran L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Many fish lay their eggs in nests, or redds, which they construct in sediment. The viability of eggs depends on many factors, particularly their oxygenation. Because dissolved oxygen is typically saturated within the stream channel, the dissolved oxygen distribution within the redd depends on whether or not hyporheic flow and transport occur within the sediment. We conducted a series of flume and numerical flow and age transport modeling experiments with the aim of understanding the effects of salmonid redds on the hyporheic transport of young oxygenated water. Hyporheic flow was visualized directly through dye injections. Dissolved oxygen throughout the fish nest was measured using a planar optode. Experiments were conducted at various open channel flow velocities in order to understand their effect on dissolved oxygen, and computational simulations considered various sediment textures and ambient groundwater upwelling rates to add process-level insight. We found that, as also shown by previous studies, the redd topography induces multiscale hyporheic flow that effectively flushes the egg pocket location with younger presumably oxygenated water; older water upwells and forms anoxic zones. This pattern persists even at the lowest channel flow rates and at small upwelling velocities of older ambient groundwater which splits the multiscale hyporheic flow cells into isolated pockets. Large groundwater upwelling rates can shut down all the hyporheic flushing. The relatively coarse texture of the redd further promotes hyporheic flushing of the redd sediment with oxygenated water. Thus, redd morphology and sediment texture optimally combine to induce hyporheic exchange flow that delivers young oxygenated water to the egg pocket.

  1. The influence of dissolved oxygen on winter habitat selection by largemouth bass: an integration of field biotelemetry studies and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Hanson, K C; Cooke, S J; Tufts, B L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, field biotelemetry and laboratory physiology approaches were coupled to allow understanding of the behavioral and physiological responses of fish to winter hypoxia. The biotelemetry study compared dissolved oxygen levels measured throughout the winter period with continually tracked locations of nine adult largemouth bass obtained from a whole-lake submerged telemetry array. Fish habitat usage was compared with habitat availability to assess whether fish were selecting for specific dissolved oxygen concentrations. The laboratory study examined behavioral and physiological responses to progressive hypoxia in juvenile largemouth bass acclimated to winter temperatures. Results from the dissolved oxygen measurements made during the biotelemetry study showed high variance in under-ice dissolved oxygen levels. Avoidance of water with dissolved oxygen <2.0 mg/L by telemetered fish was demonstrated, but significant use of water with intermediate dissolved oxygen levels was also found. Results from the lab experiments showed marked changes in behavior (i.e., yawning and vertical movement) at <2.0 mg/L of dissolved oxygen but no change in tissue lactate, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism. Combined results of the biotelemetry and laboratory studies demonstrate that a dissolved oxygen content of 2.0 mg/L may be a critical threshold that induces behavioral responses by largemouth bass during the winter. In addition, the use by fish of areas with intermediate levels of dissolved oxygen suggests that there are multiple environmental factors influencing winter behavior.

  2. A mathematical model of the maximum power density attainable in an alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of a hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell is presented that can be used to predict the polarization behavior under various power loads. The major limitations to achieving high power densities are indicated and methods to increase the maximum attainable power density are suggested. The alkaline fuel cell model describes the phenomena occurring in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of the anode, separator, and cathode regions based on porous electrode theory applied to three phases. Fundamental equations of chemical engineering that describe conservation of mass and charge, species transport, and kinetic phenomena are used to develop the model by treating all phases as a homogeneous continuum.

  3. Mixing of dissolved oxygen in Chesapeake Bay driven by the interaction between wind-driven circulation and estuarine bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Malcolm E.

    2016-08-01

    Field observations collected in Chesapeake Bay demonstrate how wind-driven circulation interacts with estuarine bathymetry to control when and where the vertical mixing of dissolved oxygen occurs. In the across-Bay direction, the lateral Ekman response to along-Bay wind forcing contributes to the vertical mixing of dissolved oxygen in two ways. First, the lateral tilting of the pycnocline/oxycline, consistent with the thermal wind relationship, advects the region of high vertical gradient into the surface and bottom boundary layers where mixing can occur. Second, upwelling of low-oxygen water to the surface enhances the atmospheric influx. In the along-Bay direction, the abrupt change in bottom depth associated with Rappahannock Shoal results in surface convergence and downwelling, leading to localized vertical mixing. Water that is mixed on the shoal is entrained into the up-Bay residual bottom flow resulting in increases in bottom dissolved oxygen that propagate up the system. The increases in dissolved oxygen are often associated with increases in temperature and decreases in salinity, consistent with vertical mixing. However, the lagged arrival moving northward suggests that the propagation of this signal up the Bay is due to advection.

  4. Survival, development, and growth of fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevin, and fry exposed to variable thermal and dissolved oxygen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Hand, Kristine D.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Chandler, James A.; Groves, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Some fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) initiate spawning in the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam at temperatures that exceed 13?C and at intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations that are less than 8 mg O2/L. Although water temperature declines and dissolved oxygen increases soon after spawning, these temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet the water quality standards established by the states of Oregon and Idaho for salmonid spawning. Our objective was to determine if temperatures from 13 to 17 C and dissolved oxygen levels from 4 to greater than 8 mg O2/L during the first 40 days of incubation followed by declining temperature and rising dissolved oxygen affected survival, development, and growth of Snake River fall Chinook salmon embryos, alevins, and fry. During the first 40 days of incubation, temperatures were adjusted downward approximately 0.2 C/day and oxygen was increased in increments of 2 mg O2/L to mimic the thermal and oxygen regime of the Snake River where these fish spawn. At 40 days post-fertilization, embryos were moved to a common exposure regime that followed the thermal and dissolved oxygen profile of the Snake River through emergence. Mortality of fall Chinook salmon embryos increased markedly at initial incubation temperatures equal to or greater than 17?C, and a rapid decline in survival occurred between 16.5 C and 17 C, with no significant difference in survival at temperatures less than or equal to 16.5 C. Initial dissolved oxygen levels as low as 4 mg O2/L over a range of initial temperatures from 15 to 16.5 C did not affect embryo survival to emergence. There were no significant differences across the range of initial temperature exposures for alevin and fry size at hatch and emergence. The number of days from fertilization to eyed egg, hatch, and emergence was highly related to temperature and dissolved oxygen; it took from 6 to 10 days longer to reach hatch at 4 mg O2/L than at saturation and up to

  5. Relaxation from upwelling: The effect on dissolved oxygen on the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Send, Uwe; Nam, Sunghyun

    2012-04-01

    Continental shelves in upwelling regimes are subject to sequences of upwelling and relaxation events, each on timescales of order 1 week typically. These episodes have pronounced impacts on the temperature and density structure on the shelves and also on the along-shore and cross-shore flow regimes. It had previously been demonstrated that relaxation phases advect warm water along shore (poleward) from regions of less intense upwelling, thus adding to the heat balance in upwelling locations and providing a rectification of oscillating heat fluxes. In the current paper it is shown that relaxations also modify the dissolved oxygen (DO) budget of the lower layers. On a narrow shelf, this provides enhanced DO values due to near-surface exposure, while on a wide shelf decreased DO concentrations are created due to oxygen consumption on the inner shelf. The resulting variations along the coast can lead to along-shore advection of high or low DO during a relaxation event. Observations are presented from moorings off San Diego and Del Mar, which show large departures from density-correlated DO values during relaxations and which support the proposed mechanisms.

  6. Assessment of the uncertainty budget for the amperometric measurement of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fisicaro, Paola; Adriaens, Annemie; Ferrara, Enzo; Prenesti, Enrico

    2007-07-30

    This work aimed at identifying the main sources of uncertainty for the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solutions. The experimental apparatus consists of an amperometric cell based on the Clark-type sensor. The corresponding uncertainty budget was assessed, this being a fundamental step for the validation of a measurement method. The principle of the measurement, as well as the procedure for the set-up and the characterisation of the cell, are described. The measurement equation was defined as a combination of Faraday's and Fick's laws, and a method was worked out for the empirical determination of the diffusivity parameter. In this connection, the solutions of oxygen were standardised by way of the Winkler's titration, as suggested by the ISO Guide 5813 and 5814. With this approach we aimed at contributing to the development of a potential primary method of measurement. A discussion of all the contributions to the overall uncertainty is reported, allowing operators to locate the largest ones and plan specific improvements.

  7. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: Removal of three chloroacetic acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Mao, Yu-qin; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Hong-wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-04-15

    The monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acid (MCAA, DCAA and TCAA) removed by metallic iron under controlled dissolved oxygen conditions (0, 0.75, 1.52, 2.59, 3.47 or 7.09 mg/L DO) was investigated in well-mixed batch systems. The removal of CAAs increased first and then decreased with increasing DO concentration. Compared with anoxic condition, the reduction of MCAA and DCAA was substantially enhanced in the presence of O2, while TCAA reduction was significantly inhibited above 2.59 mg/L. The 1.52 mg/L DO was optimum for the formation of final product, acetic acid. Chlorine mass balances were 69-102%, and carbon mass balances were 92-105%. With sufficient mass transfer from bulk to the particle surface, the degradation of CAAs was limited by their reduction or migration rate within iron particles, which were dependent on the change of reducing agents and corrosion coatings. Under anoxic conditions, the reduction of CAAs was mainly inhibited by the available reducing agents in the conductive layer. Under low oxic conditions, the increasing reducing agents and thin lepidocrocite layer were favorable for CAA dechlorination. Under high oxic conditions, the redundant oxygen competing for reducing agents and significant lepidocrocite growth became the major restricting factors. Various CAA removal mechanisms could be potentially applied to explaining the effect of DO concentration on iron efficiency for contaminant reduction in water and wastewater treatment.

  8. Variation in oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved orthophosphate induced by uptake process in natural coral holobionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrera, Charissa M.; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Umezawa, Yu; Morimoto, Naoko; San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A model incubation experiment using natural zooxanthellate corals was conducted to evaluate the influence of phosphate uptake by coral holobionts on oxygen isotope ratio of dissolved PO4 3- (δ18Op). Live coral samples of Acropora digitifera, Porites cylindrica, and Heliopora coerulea were collected from coral reefs around Ishigaki Island (Okinawa, Japan) and Bolinao (northern Luzon, Philippines) and incubated for 3-5 d after acclimatization under natural light conditions with elevated concentrations of PO4 3-. Phosphate uptake by corals behaved linearly with incubation time, with uptake rate depending on temperature. δ18Op usually increased with time toward the equilibrium value with respect to oxygen isotope exchange with ambient seawater, but sometimes became higher than equilibrium value at the end of incubation. The magnitude of the isotope effect associated with uptake depended on coral species; the greatest effect was in A. digitifera and the smallest in H. coerulea. However, it varied even within samples of a single coral species, which suggests multiple uptake processes with different isotope effects operating simultaneously with varying relative contributions in the coral holobionts used. In natural environments where concentrations of PO4 3- are much lower than those used during incubation, PO4 3- is presumably turned over much faster and the δ18Op easily altered by corals and other major primary producers. This should be taken into consideration when using δ18Op as an indicator of external PO4 3- sources in coastal ecosystems.

  9. Multi-pollutant treatment of crystalline cellulosic effluent: Function of dissolved oxygen on process control.

    PubMed

    Shanthi Sravan, J; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of crystalline cellulose based wastewater was carried out in periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR). Specific influence of dissolved oxygen on treatment of crystalline cellulosic (CC) wastewater was evaluated in three different microenvironments such as aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic. PDBR-aerobic biosystem documented relatively higher substrate degradation [2.63kgCOD/m(3)-day (92%)] in comparison to PDBR-anoxic [2.12kgCOD/m(3)-day (71%)] and PDBR-anaerobic [1.81kgCOD/m(3)-day (63%)], which is in accordance with the observed DO levels. Similarly, multipollutants viz., phosphates and nitrates removal was observed to be higher in aerobic followed by anoxic and anaerobic operations. Higher nitrate removal in aerobic operation might be attributed to the efficient denitrification carried out by the biocatalyst, which utilizes both nitrates and oxygen as oxidizing agents. Multiscan spectral profiles depicted reduction in color intensity in all three microenvironments that correlated with the substrate degradation observed. Despite the high organic load, PDBR functioned well without exhibiting process inhibition.

  10. Evaluation of dissolved oxygen monitoring locations and flow patterns below Conowingo Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, L.C.

    1989-04-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) presently monitors dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at a single fixed station (Shure's Landing) downstream of the Conowingo dam to determine compliance with Maryland water quality standards. As part of a 1988 Settlement Agreement, Philadelphia Electric Power Company and the Susquehanna Power Company (the Licensees) were required to determine whether the monitor at Shure's Landing accurately measures the effect of actions taken by the Licensees to comply with the DO standard. These actions include the installation of venting systems at seven units by August 1991, as well as the possibility of spills over the dam. Concurrent testing of oxygen injection and air injection would be undertaken. Unit 5 was aerated in 1988 and two more units are scheduled to be aerated each year thereafter. The study determines whether the present intake site for PECO's DO monitor samples water that is representative of discharge water from all turbines under a variety of operating scenarios and identifies alternate monitor location(s) which would more accurately depict the DO of water discharged from any combination of the turbines.

  11. Electrocatalytic activities of alkyne-functionalized copper nanoparticles in oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Song, Yang; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-12-01

    Stable alkyne-capped copper nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of copper acetate with sodium borohydride in the presence of alkyne ligands. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that nanoparticles were well dispersed with a diameter in the range of 4-6 nm. FTIR and photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements confirmed the successful attachment of the alkyne ligands onto the nanoparticle surface most likely forming Cu-Ctbnd interfacial bonds. XPS measurements indicated the formation of a small amount of CuO in the nanoparticles with a satellite peak where the binding energy red-shifted with increasing Cu(II) concentration. Cu2O was also detected in the nanoparticles. Similar results were observed with commercial CuO nanoparticles. Electrochemical studies showed that the as-prepared alkyne-capped copper nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction in alkaline media, a performance that was markedly better than those reported earlier with poly- or single-crystalline copper electrodes; and the fraction of peroxides in the final products decreased with decreasing concentration of oxide components in the nanoparticles.

  12. Characterization of a dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber coated with ruthenium-incorporated solgel

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Fenghong; Yang Junjie; Cai Haiwen; Qu Ronghui; Fang Zujie

    2009-01-10

    A dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber as the substrate and dichlorotris (1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium as a fluorescence indicator is studied. Oxygen quenching characteristics of both intensity and phase were measured; the obtained characteristics showed deviation from the linear relation described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A two-layer model is proposed to explain the deviation, and main parameters can be deduced with the model.

  13. Baicalin inhibits the fenton reaction by enhancing electron transfer from Fe (2+) to dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Sho-saiko-to is an herbal medicine that is known to have diverse pharmacological activities and has been used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. Here, we examined the effects of baicalin, a compound isolated from Sho-saiko-to, and the effects of the iron chelator quinolinic acid on the Fenton reaction. The control reaction mixture contained 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 0.2 mM H 2 O 2, 0.2 mM FeSO 4( NH 4)2 SO 4, and 40 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Upon the addition of 0.6 mM baicalin or quinolinic acid to the control reaction mixture, the ESR peak heights of DMPO/OH radical adducts were measured as 32% ± 1% (baicalin) and 166% ± 27% (quinolinic acid) of that of the control mixture. In order to clarify why baicalin and quinolinic acid exerted opposite effects on the formation of hydroxyl radicals, we measured oxygen consumption in the presence of either compound. Upon the addition of 0.6 mM baicalin (or quinolinic acid) to the control reaction mixture without DMPO and H 2 O 2, the relative oxygen consumption rates were found to be 449% ± 40% (baicalin) and 18% ± 9% (quinolinic acid) of that of the control mixture without DMPO and H 2 O 2, indicating that baicalin facilitated the transfer of electrons from Fe (2+) to dissolved oxygen. Thus, the great majority of Fe (2+) turned into Fe (3+), and the formation of hydroxyl radicals was subsequently inhibited in this reaction.

  14. Transcriptome and Multivariable Data Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum under Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions in Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Fen; Peng, Feng; Yang, Yankun; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiuxia; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor in the fermentation process of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a widely used aerobic microbe in bio-industry. Herein, we described RNA-seq for C. glutamicum under different DO levels (50%, 30% and 0%) in 5 L bioreactors. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) models were used to analyze the RNA-seq and metabolism data to investigate the global effect of DO on the transcriptional distinction of the substance and energy metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results showed that there were 39 and 236 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under the 50% and 0% DO conditions, respectively, compared to the 30% DO condition. Key genes and pathways affected by DO were analyzed, and the result of the MVDA and RNA-seq revealed that different DO levels in the fermenter had large effects on the substance and energy metabolism and cellular redox balance of C. glutamicum. At low DO, the glycolysis pathway was up-regulated, and TCA was shunted by the up-regulation of the glyoxylate pathway and over-production of amino acids, including valine, cysteine and arginine. Due to the lack of electron-acceptor oxygen, 7 genes related to the electron transfer chain were changed, causing changes in the intracellular ATP content at 0% and 30% DO. The metabolic flux was changed to rebalance the cellular redox. This study applied deep sequencing to identify a wealth of genes and pathways that changed under different DO conditions and provided an overall comprehensive view of the metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results provide potential ways to improve the oxygen tolerance of C. glutamicum and to modify the metabolic flux for amino acid production and heterologous protein expression. PMID:27907077

  15. Impact of minimum daily dissolved oxygen concentration on production performance of hybrid female channel catfish x male blue catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid Catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus X male Blue Catfish I. furcatus) were reared during two years as single-batch crops under two different dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes each year; a high-DO (control) treatment in which the minimum daily DO was maintained above 3.8 ppm during ...

  16. Production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the channel x blue hybrid catfish is stocked by an increasing number of catfish farmers, it is important to quantify the production response of this fish to dissolved oxygen management strategies. The purpose of this study was to compare the production and water quality responses of the channel x...

  17. Comparative production of channel catfish and channel x blue hybrid catfish subjected to two minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of daily minimum dissolved oxygen concentration on growth and yield (kg/ha) of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the channel x blue hybrid catfish (I. punctatus female x I. furcatus male), which shared the Jubilee strain of channel catfish as the maternal parent, was evaluated...

  18. Dissolved oxygen in two Oregon estuaries: The importance of the ocean-estuary connection - May 16, 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the role of the ocean –estuary connection in influencing periodic reductions in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in Yaquina and Yachats estuaries, Oregon, USA. In the Yaquina Estuary, there is close coupling between the coastal ocean and the estuary. As a result, low DO ...

  19. Modeling dissolved oxygen dynamics in blackwater rivers: The importance of site-specific data and carbon flux parameter complexity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of models predicting parameters of ecosystem health may be limited by the resolution of data available for target river reaches. Here we test the ability of the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model to accurately predict dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in two reaches of s...

  20. Improving estimates of ecosystem metabolism by reducing effects of tidal advection on dissolved oxygen time series-Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous time series of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been used to compute estimates of metabolism in aquatic ecosystems. Central to this open water or "Odum" method is the assumption that the DO time is not strongly affected by advection and that effects due to advection or mixin...

  1. The Effect of Increased Temperatures and Ultraviolet Radiation on Dissolved Oxygen in Ecosystems Primarily Comprised of "Euglena"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased levels of UV radiation and temperatures from global warming have a significant impact on dissolved oxygen (DO) output from the alga, "Euglena," which affects other organisms in the ecosystem. The original hypothesis stated that if temperature was increased along with exposure time to…

  2. Historic and recent patterns in dissolved oxygen within the Yaquina Estuary (Oregon, USA): Importance of anthropogenic activities and oceanic conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen (DO) in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA) are examined using historic and recent data. There was a significant increasing trend in DO in the upstream portion of the estuary during the years 1960–1985. Historically, minimum dry season ...

  3. Speciation of dissolved silicates in natural waters containing alkaline and alkaline-earth ions. A case study--waters from arid lands (North West China).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Takahashi, Kazuya; Sahoo, Yu Vin

    2004-02-01

    The concentration of silica in water samples from the desert area of Xinjiang, N. W. China, has been measured by colorimetry with ammonium molybdate. The observed pattern of dependence of the concentration of silica on the concentration of sodium ion (Na(+)) in the water samples is consistent with the pattern obtained by experiments on in-vitro dissolution of silica gel in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. This indicates that the dissolution of silica in the hydrologic system in this area depends on the concentration of Na(+). Calcium ion (Ca(2+)), which is known to play an important role on the dissolution of silica on the basis of in-vitro experiments, was observed to take little part in the dissolution of silica in actual natural water samples. This implies that the Ca(2+) is bound to the hydrogen carbonate anion or that the Ca(2+) content of natural water containing salts is very low, owing to precipitation. In these samples silicate-Na(+) was identified as the dissolution species of silica; it was also ascertained that Ca(2+) did not form complexes with silicate species. These observations resulted from direct identification of dissolved chemical species by use of FAB-MS (fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry). The research indicates that in water samples in this critically arid region the concentration of "dissolved" silica is basically determined by the concentration of Na(+), indicative of pure inorganic conditions in the desert area of Xinjiang, N.W. China.

  4. Manipulation of Microenvironment with a Built-in Electrochemical Actuator in Proximity of a Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Lee, Cae-Hyang; Fiering, Jason O.; Ufer, Stefan; Scarantino, Charles W.; Nagle, H. Troy; Fiering, Jason O.; Ufer, Stefan; Nagle, H. Troy; Scarantino, Charles W.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Biochemical sensors for continuous monitoring require dependable periodic self- diagnosis with acceptable simplicity to check its functionality during operation. An in situ self- diagnostic technique for a dissolved oxygen microsensor is proposed in an effort to devise an intelligent microsensor system with an integrated electrochemical actuation electrode. With a built- in platinum microelectrode that surrounds the microsensor, two kinds of microenvironments, called the oxygen-saturated or oxygen-depleted phases, can be created by water electrolysis depending on the polarity. The functionality of the microsensor can be checked during these microenvironment phases. The polarographic oxygen microsensor is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate (Kapton) and the feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated in a physiological solution. The sensor responds properly during the oxygen-generating and oxygen- depleting phases. The use of these microenvironments for in situ self-calibration is discussed to achieve functional integration as well as structural integration of the microsensor system.

  5. Effect of dissolved oxygen, temperature, initial cell count, and sugar concentration on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in rapid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Nagodawithana, T W; Castellano, C; Steinkraus, K H

    1974-09-01

    By using 7 x 10(8) cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae per ml with which 25 degrees Brix honey solutions were fermented to 9.5% (wt/vol; 12% vol/vol) ethanol in 2.5 to 3 h at 30 C, i.e., rapid fermentation, the death rate was found to be high, with only 2.1% of the yeast cells surviving at the end of 3 h under anaerobic conditions. As the dissolved oxygen in the medium was increased from 0 to 13 to 20 to 100% in rapid fermentations at 30 C, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of cells surviving. The ethanol production rate and total were not seriously affected by a dissolved oxygen concentration of 13%, but fermentation was retarded by 20% dissolved oxygen and still further decreased as the dissolved oxygen content reached 100%. When the fermentation temperature was decreased to 15 C (at 13% dissolved oxygen), the rate of fermentation decreased, and the fermentation time to 9.5% ethanol (wt/vol) increased to 6 h. It was found that the higher the temperature between 15 and 30 C, the greater the rate of death as initial cell counts were increased from 1.1 x 10(7) to 7.8 x 10(8) cells per ml. At the lowest level of inoculum, 1.1 x 10(7) cells per ml, there was actual multiplication, even at 30 C; however, the fermentation was no longer rapid. The addition of 15% sugar, initially followed after an hour by the remaining 10%, or addition of the sugar in increments of 2.5 or 5% yielded a better survival rate of yeast cells than when the fermentation was initiated with 25% sugar.

  6. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  7. Using dissolved oxygen concentrations to determine mixed layer depths in the Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, K.; Kaiser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases in the oceanic mixed layer are often used to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes. The mixed layer depth (zmix) may be defined using criteria based on temperature or density differences to a reference depth near the ocean surface. However, temperature criteria fail in regions with strong haloclines such as the Southern Ocean where heat, freshwater and momentum fluxes interact to establish mixed layers. Moreover, the time scales of air-sea exchange differ for gases and heat, so that zmix defined using oxygen may be different than zmix defined using temperature or density. Here, we propose to define an O2-based mixed layer depth, zmix(O2), as the depth where the relative difference between the O2 concentration and a reference value at a depth equivalent to 10 dbar equals 0.5 %. This definition was established by analysis of O2 profiles from the Bellingshausen Sea (west of the Antarctic Peninsula) and corroborated by visual inspection. Comparisons of zmix(O2) with zmix based on potential temperature differences, i.e., zmix(0.2 °C) and zmix(0.5 °C), and potential density differences, i.e., zmix(0.03 kg m-3) and zmix(0.125 kg m-3), showed that zmix(O2) closely follows zmix(0.03 kg m-3). Further comparisons with published zmix climatologies and zmix derived from World Ocean Atlas 2005 data were also performed. To establish zmix for use with biological production estimates in the absence of O2 profiles, we suggest using zmix(0.03 kg m-3), which is also the basis for the climatology by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2004).

  8. Decoupling the influence of biological and physical processes on the dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiabi; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    is instructive and essential to decouple the effects of biological and physical processes on the dissolved oxygen condition, in order to understand their contribution to the interannual variability of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay since the 1980s. A conceptual bottom DO budget model is applied, using the vertical exchange time scale (VET) to quantify the physical condition and net oxygen consumption rate to quantify biological activities. By combining observed DO data and modeled VET values along the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay, the monthly net bottom DO consumption rate was estimated for 1985-2012. The DO budget model results show that the interannual variations of physical conditions accounts for 88.8% of the interannual variations of observed DO. The high similarity between the VET spatial pattern and the observed DO suggests that physical processes play a key role in regulating the DO condition. Model results also show that long-term VET has a slight increase in summer, but no statistically significant trend is found. Correlations among southerly wind strength, North Atlantic Oscillation index, and VET demonstrate that the physical condition in the Chesapeake Bay is highly controlled by the large-scale climate variation. The relationship is most significant during the summer, when the southerly wind dominates throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The seasonal pattern of the averaged net bottom DO consumption rate (B'20) along the main stem coincides with that of the chlorophyll-a concentration. A significant correlation between nutrient loading and B'20 suggests that the biological processes in April-May are most sensitive to the nutrient loading.

  9. Preferential flow characterization in fractured aquifer by injecting dissolved oxygen in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurro, Michele; Donnaloia, Mietta; Masciopinto, Costantino; Pennetta, Luigi; Robbins, Gary; Vitale, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to identify contributing fractures and wellbore flow in fractured and karst aquifers is presented. It is time efficient, low cost and based on a benign tracer: the dissolved oxygen (DO). The method was already applied by other scientists to test fractured crystalline rock wells. The DO method consists in elevating water DO concentration in a borehole by bubbling air at assigned water depths using a porous polypropylene tube (bubbler) connected to a compressed air tank with tubing. After the aeration, the resulting profile should be a linear increase in DO with depth due to the effects of water pressure on oxygen solubility. Any changes in the DO profile will be then observed when water flows into and through the well. DO dilution can be used to locate inflowing fractures and to define active flow zones in wells. If there is no change in the DO profile, a "dead zones" in the well is present, that is to say no flow is taking place or can be identified. The DO tests in this work have been carried out in the industrial area of Bari, at the experimental station, constituted by five wells drilled at the CNR-IRSA. The wells penetrate karstic limestone. Results show enhanced flow through at depths between 32 and 37 meters below the water level: DO concentrations decrease until they reach values close to 0 mg/l. DO curves show also the presence of inflowing fractures, as testified by the decrease in the DO concentrations due to the effects of water dilution, at depths of 4 and 9 meters (below the water table) in the north well, at 4 and 10 meters in the central well, and at 30 meters in the south well. The benefits of utilizing DO as a tracer include ease of accessibility, low cost and time-efficiency as well as non-toxic nature of the tracer and no impact on flow conditions.

  10. Variations in triple isotope composition of dissolved oxygen and primary production in a subtropical reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurikova, Hana; Guha, Tania; Abe, Osamu; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Lakes and reservoirs play an important role in the carbon cycle, and therefore monitoring their metabolic rates is essential. The triple oxygen-isotope anomaly of dissolved O2 [17Δ = ln(1+δ17O) - 0.518 × ln(1 + δ18O)] offers a new, in situ, perspective on primary production, yet little is known about 17Δ from freshwater systems. We investigated the 17Δ together with the oxygen : argon ratio [Δ(O2 / Ar)] in the subtropical Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan from June 2014 to July 2015. Here, we present the seasonal variations in 17Δ, GP (gross production), NP (net production) and the NP / GP (net to gross ratio) in association with environmental parameters. The 17Δ varied with depth and season, with values ranging between 26 and 205 per meg. The GP rates were observed to be higher (702 ± 107 mg C m-2 d-1) in winter than those (303 ± 66 mg C m-2 d-1) recorded during the summer. The overall averaged GP was 220 g C m-2 yr-1 and NP was -3 g C m-2 yr-1, implying the reservoir was net heterotrophic on an annual basis. This is due to negative NP rates from October to February (-198 ± 78 mg C m-2 d-1). Comparisons between GP rates obtained from the isotope mass balance approach and 14C bottle incubation method (14C-GP) showed consistent values on the same order of magnitude with a GP / 14C-GP ratio of 1.2 ± 1.1. Finally we noted that, although typhoon occurrences were scarce, higher than average 17Δ values and GP rates were recorded after typhoon events.

  11. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  12. Development, calibration, and sensitivity analyses of a high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model for the northern Gulf of Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-resolution dissolved oxygen mass balance model was developed for the Louisiana coastal shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. GoMDOM (Gulf of Mexico Dissolved Oxygen Model) was developed to assist in evaluating the impacts of nutrient loading on hypoxia development and exte...

  13. The effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant on dissolved oxygen in Chickamauga Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.; Shiao, M.C.; Yeager, B.L.

    1990-09-01

    During the summer of 1985, the Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency measured dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations downstream from the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) discharge mixing zone that were below the state criterion for DO. The Tennessee General Water Quality Criteria'' specifies that DO should be a minimum of 5.0 mg/l measured at a depth of 5 feet for the protection of fish and aquatic life. The Tennessee Valley Authority developed the present study to answer general concerns about reservoir conditions and potential for adverse effects on aquatic biota. Four objectives were defined for this study: (1) to better define the extent and duration of the redistribution of DO in the reservoir, (2) to better understand DO dynamics within the mixing zone, (3) to determine whether DO is being lost (or added) as the condenser cooling water passes through the plant, and (4) to evaluate the potential for impact on aquatic life in the reservoir.

  14. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Colin M; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions.

  15. The nitritation performance of biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater under high dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Zebing; Ma, Jing; Du, Jia; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nitritation performance in a biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater. The reactor was operated in continuous feed mode from phases 1 to 3. The dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled at 3.5-7 mg/L throughout the experiment. The biofilm reactor showed excellent nitritation performance after the inoculation of nitrifying sludge, with the hydraulic retention time being reduced from 24 to 7 hr. Above 90% nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) was maintained in phase 1. Afterwards, nitratation occurred with the low NH4(+)-N concentration in the reactor. The improvement of NH4(+)-N concentration to 20-35 mg/L had a limited effect on the recovery of nitritation. However, nitritation recovered rapidly when sequencing batch feed mode was adopted in phase 4, with the effluent NH4(+)-N concentration above 7 mg/L. The improvement of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity and the combined inhibition effect of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) on the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were two key factors for the rapid recovery of nitritation. Sludge activity was obtained in batch tests. The results of batch tests had a good relationship with the long term operation performance of the biofilm reactor.

  16. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the bioflocculation process in high loaded MBRs.

    PubMed

    Faust, L; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Kemperman, A J B; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2014-12-01

    High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e. MBRs which are operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can be applied to flocculate and concentrate sewage organic matter. The concentrated organics can be used for energy recovery, or for the production of more valuable organic chemicals. Little is known about the effect of the dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on this bioflocculation process. To examine this effect, two HL-MBRs were operated, respectively at a low (1 mg L(-1)) and a higher (4 mg L(-1)) DO. The higher DO resulted in a better flocculation efficiency, i.e. 92% of the colloidal COD in the sewage flocculated compared to 69% at the lower DO. The difference was attributed to a higher microbial production of extracellular polymeric substances at a DO of 4 mg L(-1) and to more multivalent cations (calcium, iron and aluminium) being distributed to the floc matrix. In addition, the HL-MBR that was operated at a DO of 4 mg L(-1) gave a bigger mean floc size, a lower supernatant turbidity, better settleability and better membrane filterability than the HL-MBR that was operated at a DO of 1 mg L(-1).

  17. Predicting dissolved oxygen concentration using kernel regression modeling approaches with nonlinear hydro-chemical data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2014-05-01

    Kernel function-based regression models were constructed and applied to a nonlinear hydro-chemical dataset pertaining to surface water for predicting the dissolved oxygen levels. Initial features were selected using nonlinear approach. Nonlinearity in the data was tested using BDS statistics, which revealed the data with nonlinear structure. Kernel ridge regression, kernel principal component regression, kernel partial least squares regression, and support vector regression models were developed using the Gaussian kernel function and their generalization and predictive abilities were compared in terms of several statistical parameters. Model parameters were optimized using the cross-validation procedure. The proposed kernel regression methods successfully captured the nonlinear features of the original data by transforming it to a high dimensional feature space using the kernel function. Performance of all the kernel-based modeling methods used here were comparable both in terms of predictive and generalization abilities. Values of the performance criteria parameters suggested for the adequacy of the constructed models to fit the nonlinear data and their good predictive capabilities.

  18. Versatile common instrumentation for optical detection of pH and dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Sardesai, Neha; Rao, Govind; Kostov, Yordan

    2015-07-15

    The recent trend toward use of disposable and miniature bioreactors requires the use of appropriate sensors. pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) are often measured using optical chemical sensors due to their small form factor and convenience in use. These sensors are often interrogated using a specialized opto-electronic transducer that is designed around the optical sensor. In this contribution, we are presenting a new class of opto-electronic transducers that are usable with several different chemical sensors without the need to switch the optics or hardware when changing the type of the chemical sensor. This allows flexibility closer to the lab-grade devices while the size is closer to a dedicated sensor. This versatile instrumentation is capable of seamlessly switching between the pH and DO measurement modes and is capable of auto recognition of the sensor type. The principle of ratiometric fluorescence is used for pH measurements, and that of fluorescence lifetime for DO measurements. An approach to obtain identical calibrations between several devices is also presented. The described hardware constitutes common instrumentation for measuring either pH or DO and has been tested in actual bioprocesses. It has been found adequate for continuous bioprocess monitoring.

  19. Versatile common instrumentation for optical detection of pH and dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardesai, Neha; Rao, Govind; Kostov, Yordan

    2015-07-01

    The recent trend toward use of disposable and miniature bioreactors requires the use of appropriate sensors. pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) are often measured using optical chemical sensors due to their small form factor and convenience in use. These sensors are often interrogated using a specialized opto-electronic transducer that is designed around the optical sensor. In this contribution, we are presenting a new class of opto-electronic transducers that are usable with several different chemical sensors without the need to switch the optics or hardware when changing the type of the chemical sensor. This allows flexibility closer to the lab-grade devices while the size is closer to a dedicated sensor. This versatile instrumentation is capable of seamlessly switching between the pH and DO measurement modes and is capable of auto recognition of the sensor type. The principle of ratiometric fluorescence is used for pH measurements, and that of fluorescence lifetime for DO measurements. An approach to obtain identical calibrations between several devices is also presented. The described hardware constitutes common instrumentation for measuring either pH or DO and has been tested in actual bioprocesses. It has been found adequate for continuous bioprocess monitoring.

  20. An economic analysis of selected strategies for dissolved-oxygen management; Chattahoochee River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schefter, John E.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for dissolved-oxygen (DO) management is demonstrated, using the Chattahoochee River, GA., as an example. The conceptual framework for the analysis is suggested by the economic theory of production. The minimum flow of the river and the percentage of the total waste inflow receiving nitrification are considered to be two variable inputs to be used in the production of given minimum concentration of DO in the river. Each of the inputs has a cost: the loss of dependable peak hydroelectric generating capacity at Buford Dam associated with flow augmentation and the cost associated with nitrification of wastes. The least-cost combination of minimum flow and waste treatment necessary to achieve a prescribed minimum DO concentration is identified. Results of the study indicate that, in some instances, the waste-assimilation capacity of the Chattahoochee River can be substituted for increased waste treatment; the associated savings in waste-treatment costs more than offset the benefits foregone because of the loss of peak generating capacity at Buford Dam. The sensitivity of the results to the estimates of the cost of replacing peak generating capacity is examined. It is also demonstrated that a flexible approach to the management of DO in the Chattahoochee River may be much more cost effective than a more rigid, institutional approach wherein constraints are placed on the flow of the river and(or) on waste-treatment practices. (USGS)

  1. Lake Number, a quantitative indicator of mixing used to estimate changes in dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Imberger, Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Lake Number, LN, values are shown to be quantitative indicators of deep mixing in lakes and reservoirs that can be used to estimate changes in deep water dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. LN is a dimensionless parameter defined as the ratio of the moments about the center of volume of the water body, of the stabilizing force of gravity associated with density stratification to the destabilizing forces supplied by wind, cooling, inflow, outflow, and other artificial mixing devices. To demonstrate the universality of this parameter, LN values are used to describe the extent of deep mixing and are compared with changes in DO concentrations in three reservoirs in Australia and four lakes in the U.S.A., which vary in productivity and mixing regimes. A simple model is developed which relates changes in LN values, i.e., the extent of mixing, to changes in near bottom DO concentrations. After calibrating the model for a specific system, it is possible to use real-time LN values, calculated using water temperature profiles and surface wind velocities, to estimate changes in DO concentrations (assuming unchanged trophic conditions).

  2. The structural features of hemicelluloses dissolved out at different cooking stages of active oxygen cooking process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin; Lin, Lu

    2014-04-15

    This work described the morphologic changes of corn stalk and the structural characterization of its hemicelluloses dissolved in yellow liquor at different cooking stages. The results showed that active oxygen cooking process was an efficient method to depolymerize the corn stalk into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin as a pretreatment of biomass conversion. This cooking process can also be divided into three phases: bulk delignification, extended delignification, and residual delignification. During the heating-up period 57.67% of hemicelluloses and 62.31% of lignin were removed from the raw material. However, only 15% of hemicelluloses and 23.21% of lignin were removed during at temperature' period. The hemicelluloses from the corn stalk and yellow liquor were composed of (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranose backbones substituted with α-l-arabinofuranosyl, 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid, and some methoxyl residues. The backbones of hemicelluloses were gradually cleaved during the cooking process. The acetyl groups substituted with xylopyranosyl residues were completely cleaved during the cooking process.

  3. Dissolved oxygen transfer to sediments by sweep and eject motions in aquatic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were quantified near the sediment-water interface to evaluate DO transfer to sediments in a laboratory recirculating flume and open channel under varying fluid-flow conditions. DO concentration fluctuations were observed within the diffusive sublayer, as defined by the time-averaged DO concentration gradient near the sediment-water interface. Evaluation of the DO concentration fluctuations along with detailed fluid-flow characterizations were used to quantify quasi-periodic sweep and eject motions (bursting events) near the sediments. Bursting events dominated the Reynolds shear stresses responsible for momentum and mass fluctuations near the sediment bed. Two independent methods for detecting bursting events using DO concentration and velocity data produced consistent results. The average time between bursting events was scaled with wall variables and was incorporated into a similarity model to describe the dimensionless mass transfer coefficient (Sherwood number, Sh) in terms of the Reynolds number, Re, and Schmidt number, Sc, which described transport in the flow. The scaling of bursting events was employed with the similarity model to quantify DO transfer to sediments and results showed a high degree of agreement with experimental data. ?? 2008, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  4. Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmin; Lu, Lun; Zheng, Xiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Liang, Shuang; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Xiuwen

    2014-10-01

    Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs), named HSFCW1 (three-stage, without step-feeding), HSFCW2 (three-stage, with step-feeding), HSFCW3 (five-stage, without step-feeding) and HSFCW4 (five-stage, with step-feeding) were designed to investigate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and step-feeding on nitrogen removal. High removal of 90.9% COD, 99.1% ammonium nitrogen and 88.1% total nitrogen (TN) were obtained simultaneously in HSFCW4 compared with HSFCW1-3. The excellent TN removal of HSFCW4 was due to artificial aeration provided sufficient DO for nitrification and the favorable anoxic environment created for denitrification. Step-feeding was a crucial factor because it provided sufficient carbon source (high COD: nitrate ratio of 14.3) for the denitrification process. Microbial activities and microbial abundance in HSFCW4 was found to be influenced by DO distribution and step-feeding, and thus improve TN removal. These results suggest that artificial aeration combined with step-feeding could achieve high nitrogen removal in HSFCWs.

  5. The influence of dissolved oxygen level and medium on biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.

  6. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-12-09

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications.

  7. An Intelligent Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement Method Based on a Fluorescent Quenching Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengmei; Wei, Yaoguang; Chen, Yingyi; Li, Daoliang; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key factor that influences the healthy growth of fishes in aquaculture. The DO content changes with the aquatic environment and should therefore be monitored online. However, traditional measurement methods, such as iodometry and other chemical analysis methods, are not suitable for online monitoring. The Clark method is not stable enough for extended periods of monitoring. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an intelligent DO measurement method based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The measurement system is composed of fluorescent quenching detection, signal conditioning, intelligent processing, and power supply modules. The optical probe adopts the fluorescent quenching mechanism to detect the DO content and solves the problem, whereas traditional chemical methods are easily influenced by the environment. The optical probe contains a thermistor and dual excitation sources to isolate visible parasitic light and execute a compensation strategy. The intelligent processing module adopts the IEEE 1451.2 standard and realizes intelligent compensation. Experimental results show that the optical measurement method is stable, accurate, and suitable for online DO monitoring in aquaculture applications. PMID:26690176

  8. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Colin M.; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J. Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions. PMID:25506762

  9. Incorporating both physical and kinetic limitations in quantifying dissolved oxygen flux to aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Harvey, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dissolved oxygen (DO) fluxes have been calculated using the thin-film theory with DO microstructure data in systems characterized by fine sediments and low velocities. However, recent experimental evidence of fluctuating DO concentrations near the sediment-water interface suggests that turbulence and coherent motions control the mass transfer, and the surface renewal theory gives a more mechanistic model for quantifying fluxes. Both models involve quantifying the mass transfer coefficient (k) and the relevant concentration difference (??C). This study compared several empirical models for quantifying k based on both thin-film and surface renewal theories, as well as presents a new method for quantifying ??C (dynamic approach) that is consistent with the observed DO concentration fluctuations near the interface. Data were used from a series of flume experiments that includes both physical and kinetic uptake limitations of the flux. Results indicated that methods for quantifying k and ??C using the surface renewal theory better estimated the DO flux across a range of fluid-flow conditions. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  10. Correlations between dissolved organic matter optical properties and quantum yields of singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Renée M; Carfagno, Amy K; Sharpless, Charles M

    2010-08-01

    Various aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples produce singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with quantum yields of 0.59 to 4.5% (1O2 at 365 nm) and 0.017 to 0.053% (H2O2, 300-400 nm integrated). The two species' yields have opposite pH dependencies and strong, but opposite, correlations with the E2/E3 ratio (A254 divided by A365). Linear regressions allow prediction of both quantum yields from E2/E3 in natural water samples with errors ranging from -3% to 60%. Experimental evidence and kinetic calculations indicate that less than six percent of the H2O2 is produced by reaction between 1O2 and DOM. The inverse relationship between the 1O2 and H2O2 yields is thus best explained by a model in which precursors to these species are populated competitively. A model is presented, which proposes that important precursors to H2O2 may be either charge-transfer or triplet states of DOM.

  11. The optimal dissolved oxygen profile in a nitrifying activated sludge process - comparisons with ammonium feedback control.

    PubMed

    Amand, L; Carlsson, B

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium feedback control is increasingly used to determine the dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point in aerated activated sludge processes for nitrogen removal. This study compares proportional-integral (PI) ammonium feedback control with a DO profile created from a mathematical minimisation of the daily air flow rate. All simulated scenarios are set to reach the same treatment level of ammonium, based on a daily average concentration. The influent includes daily variations only and the model has three aerated zones. Comparisons are made at different plant loads and DO concentrations, and the placement of the ammonium sensor is investigated. The results show that ammonium PI control can achieve the best performance if the DO set-point is limited at a maximum value and with little integral action in the controller. Compared with constant DO control the best-performing ammonium controller can achieve 1-3.5% savings in the air flow rate, while the optimal solution can achieve a 3-7% saving. Energy savings are larger when operating at higher DO concentrations.

  12. IASCC susceptibility of irradiated austenitic stainless steel under very low dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Mitsuhiro; Katsura, Ryoei; Morisawa, Junichiro; Nishimura, Seiji; Suzuki, Shunichi; Takamori, Kenro; Shima, Seishi; Kato, Takahiko

    1995-12-31

    Slow strain rate tests of Type 304 stainless steel (SS) irradiated to 1.3 {times} 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} (E>1MeV) were conducted in high-temperature water and argon gas environment to discuss irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) mechanism with respect to the dissolved oxygen (DO) effect. IASCC susceptibility of Type 304 SS decreased with decreasing DO. However, IASCC was not mitigated completely in the hydrogen injected water. And IG fracture was not observed in the case of argon gas environment. These results indicated that the high-temperature aqueous environment was an indispensable condition for the occurrence of IASCC. Moreover, lowering DO(<1ppb) did not necessarily eliminate IASCC susceptibility when austenitic stainless steel was irradiated to high neutron fluence. By considering H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed by {gamma}-ray irradiation, IASCC at very low DO could not be explained by an active path corrosion model. At high DO, IASCG would be affected by the active path corrosion of radiation-induced chromium depletion. However, at very low DO, the possibility that IASCC would be affected by other mechanisms such as hydrogen embrittlement was suggested.

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on lettuce growth in floating hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Goto, E; Both, A J; Albright, L D; Langhans, R W; Leed, A R

    1996-12-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. Ostinata) growth experiments were carried out to study the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on plant growth in a floating hydroponic system. Pure O2 and N2 gas were supplied to the hydroponic system for precise DO control. This system made it easy to increase the DO concentration beyond the maximum (or saturation) concentration possible when bubbling air into water. Eleven day old lettuce seedlings were grown for 24 days under various DO concentrations: sub-saturated, saturated, and super-saturated. There was no significant difference in fresh weight, shoot and root dry weights among the DO concentrations: 2.1 (25% of saturated at 24 degrees C), 4.2 (50%), 8.4 (saturated), and 16.8 (200%) mg/L. The critical DO concentration for vigorous lettuce growth was considered to be lower than 2.1 mg/L. Neither root damage nor delay of shoot growth was observed at any of the studied DO concentrations.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis during milk acidification as affected by dissolved oxygen and the redox potential.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Jensen, Maiken Lund; Garrigues, Christel; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-06-02

    Performance of Lactococcus lactis as a starter culture in dairy fermentations depends on the levels of dissolved oxygen and the redox state of milk. In this study the microarray analysis was used to investigate the global gene expression of L. lactis subsp. lactis DSM20481(T) during milk acidification as affected by oxygen depletion and the decrease of redox potential. Fermentations were carried out at different initial levels of dissolved oxygen (dO2) obtained by milk sparging with oxygen (high dO2, 63%) or nitrogen (low dO2, 6%). Bacterial exposure to high initial oxygen resulted in overexpression of genes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidation-reduction processes, biosynthesis of trehalose and down-regulation of genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis, indicating that several factors, among them trehalose and GTP, were implicated in bacterial adaptation to oxidative stress. Generally, transcriptional changes were more pronounced during fermentation of oxygen sparged milk. Genes up-regulated in response to oxygen depletion were implicated in biosynthesis and transport of pyrimidine nucleotides, branched chain amino acids and in arginine catabolic pathways; whereas genes involved in salvage of nucleotides and cysteine pathways were repressed. Expression pattern of genes involved in pyruvate metabolism indicated shifts towards mixed acid fermentation after oxygen depletion with production of specific end-products, depending on milk treatment. Differential expression of genes, involved in amino acid and pyruvate pathways, suggested that initial oxygen might influence the release of flavor compounds and, thereby, flavor development in dairy fermentations. The knowledge of molecular responses involved in adaptation of L. lactis to the shifts of redox state and pH during milk fermentations is important for the dairy industry to ensure better control of cheese production.

  15. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide.

  16. Oxidation of nanoscale zero-valent iron under sufficient and limited dissolved oxygen: Influences on aggregation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danlie; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yin, Daqiang

    2015-03-01

    Oxidations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) under aerobic (dissolved oxygen≈8mgL(-1)) and anaerobic (dissolved oxygen <3mgL(-1)) conditions were simulated, and their influences on aggregation behaviors of nZVI were investigated. The two oxidation products were noted as HO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in highly oxygenated water) and LO-nZVI (nZVI oxidized in lowly oxygenated water) respectively. The metallic iron of the oxidized nZVI was almost exhausted (Fe(0)≈8±5%), thus magnetization mainly depended on magnetite content. Since sufficient dissolved oxygen led to the much less magnetite (∼15%) in HO-nZVI than that in LO-nZVI (>90%), HO-nZVI was far less magnetic (Ms=88kAm(-1)) than LO-nZVI (Ms=365kAm(-1)). Consequently, HO-nZVI formed small agglomerates (228±10nm), while LO-nZVI tended to form chain-like aggregations (>1μm) which precipitated rapidly. Based on the EDLVO theory, we suggested that dissolved oxygen level determined aggregation morphologies by controlling the degree of oxidation and the magnitude of magnetization. Then the chain-like alignment of LO-nZVI would promote further aggregation, but the agglomerate morphology of HO-nZVI would eliminate magnetic forces and inhibit the aggregation while HO-nZVI remained magnetic. Our results indicated the fine colloidal stability of HO-nZVI, which might lead to the great mobility in the environment.

  17. Hyperosmotic Agents and Antibiotics Affect Dissolved Oxygen and pH Concentration Gradients in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kiamco, Mia Mae; Atci, Erhan; Mohamed, Abdelrhman; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2017-03-15

    Biofilms on wound surfaces are treated topically with hyperosmotic agents, such as medical-grade honey and cadexomer iodine; in some cases, these treatments are combined with antibiotics. Tissue repair requires oxygen, and a low pH is conducive to oxygen release from red blood cells and epithelialization. We investigated the variation of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH with biofilm depth and the variation in oxygen consumption rates when biofilms are challenged with medical-grade honey or cadexomer iodine combined with vancomycin or ciprofloxacin. Dissolved oxygen and pH depth profiles in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were measured using microelectrodes. The presence of cadexomer iodine with vancomycin or ciprofloxacin on the surface of the biofilm permitted a measurable concentration of oxygen at greater biofilm depths (101.6 ± 27.3 μm, P = 0.02; and 155.5 ± 27.9 μm, P = 0.016, respectively) than in untreated controls (30.1 μm). Decreases in pH of ∼0.6 and ∼0.4 units were observed in biofilms challenged with medical-grade honey alone and combined with ciprofloxacin, respectively (P < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively); the number of bacteria recovered from biofilms was significantly reduced (1.26 log) by treatment with cadexomer iodine and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.002) compared to the untreated control. Combining cadexomer iodine and ciprofloxacin improved dissolved oxygen concentration and penetration depth into the biofilm, while medical-grade honey was associated with a lower pH; not all treatments established a bactericidal effect in the time frame used in the experiments.IMPORTANCE Reports about using hyperosmotic agents and antibiotics against wound biofilms focus mostly on killing bacteria, but the results of these treatments should additionally be considered in the context of how they affect physiologically important parameters, such as oxygen concentration and pH. We confirmed that the combination of a hyperosmotic agent and an antibiotic results

  18. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

  19. Allocation of supplementary aeration stations in the Chicago waterway system for dissolved oxygen improvement.

    PubMed

    Alp, Emre; Melching, Charles S

    2011-06-01

    The Chicago Waterway System (CWS), used mainly for commercial and recreational navigation and for urban drainage, is a 122.8 km branching network of navigable waterways controlled by hydraulic structures. The CWS receives pollutant loads from 3 of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the world, nearly 240 gravity Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO), 3 CSO pumping stations, direct diversions from Lake Michigan, and eleven tributary streams or drainage areas. Even though treatment plant effluent concentrations meet the applicable standards and most reaches of the CWS meet the applicable water quality standards, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) standards are not met in the CWS during some periods. A Use Attainability Analysis was initiated to evaluate what water quality standards can be achieved in the CWS. The UAA team identified several DO improvement alternatives including new supplementary aeration stations. Because of the dynamic nature of the CWS, the DUFLOW model that is capable of simulating hydraulics and water quality processes under unsteady-flow conditions was used to evaluate the effectiveness of new supplementary aeration stations. This paper details the use of the DUFLOW model to size and locate supplementary aeration stations. In order to determine the size and location of supplemental aeration stations, 90% compliance with a 5 mg/l DO standard was used as a planning target. The simulations showed that a total of four new supplementary aeration stations with oxygen supply capacities ranging from 30 to 80 g/s would be sufficient to meet the proposed target DO concentration for the North Branch and South Branch of the Chicago River. There are several aeration technologies, two of which are already being used in the CWS, available and the UAA team determined that the total capital costs of the alternatives range from $35.5 to $89.9 million with annual operations and maintenance costs ranging from $554,000 to $2.14 million. Supplemental aeration stations have been

  20. Predicting Late Winter Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Arctic Lakes Using Morphology and Landscape Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppi, Jason C.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2016-02-01

    Overwintering habitat for Arctic freshwater fish is essential, such that understanding the distribution of winter habitat quality at the landscape-scale is warranted. Adequate dissolved oxygen (DO) is a major factor limiting habitat quality in the Arctic region where ice cover can persist for 8 months each year. Here we use a mixed-effect model developed from 20 lakes across northern Alaska to assess which morphology and landscape attributes can be used to predict regional overwintering habitat quality. Across all lakes, we found that the majority of the variations in late winter DO can be explained by lake depth and littoral area. In shallow lakes (<4 m), we found evidence that additional variables such as elevation, lake area, ice cover duration, and snow depth were associated with DO regimes. Low DO regimes were most typical of shallow lakes with large littoral areas and lakes that had high DO regimes often were lakes with limited littoral areas and deeper water. Our analysis identifies metrics that relate to late winter DO regimes in Arctic lakes that can aid managers in understanding which lakes will likely provide optimum DO for overwintering habitat. Conversely, lakes which predicted to have marginal winter DO levels may be vulnerable to disturbances that could lower DO below critical thresholds to support sensitive fish. In regions where lakes are also used by humans for industrial winter water supply, such as ice-road construction for oil and gas development, these findings will be vital for the management of resources and protection of Arctic fish.

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen manipulation on diffusive emissions from NAPL-impacted low permeability soil layers.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Lisa M; Dahlen, Paul R; Johnson, Paul C

    2014-05-06

    Aquifer physical model experiments were performed to investigate if diffusive emissions from nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-impacted low-permeability layers into groundwater moving through adjacent NAPL-free high-permeability layers can be reduced by creating an aerobic biotreatment zone at the interface between the two, and if over time that leads to reduced emissions after treatment ceases. Experiments were performed in two 1.2-m long × 1.2-m high × 5.4 cm wide stainless steel tanks; each with a high-permeability sand layer overlying a low-permeability crushed granite layer containing a NAPL mixture of indane and benzene. Each tank was water-saturated with horizontal flow primarily through the sand layer. The influent water was initially deoxygenated and the emissions and concentration distributions were allowed to reach near-steady conditions. The influent dissolved oxygen (DO) level was increased stepwise to 6.5-8.5 mg/L and 17-20 mg/L, and then decreased back to deoxygenated conditions. Each condition was maintained for at least 45 days. Relative to the near-steady benzene emission at the initial deoxygenated condition, the emission was reduced by about 70% when the DO was 6.5-8.5 mg/L, 90% when the DO was 17-20 mg/L, and ultimately 60% when returning to low DO conditions. While the reductions were substantial during treatment, longer-term reductions after 120 d of elevated DO treatment, relative to an untreated condition predicted by theory, were low: 29% and 6% in Tank 1 and Tank 2, respectively. Results show a 1-2 month lag between the end of DO delivery and rebound to the final near-steady emissions level. This observation has implications for post-treatment performance monitoring sampling at field sites.

  2. Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Sarin, P; Snoeyink, V L; Bebee, J; Jim, K K; Beckett, M A; Kriven, W M; Clement, J A

    2004-03-01

    Iron release from corroded iron pipes is the principal cause of "colored water" problems in drinking water distribution systems. The corrosion scales present in corroded iron pipes restrict the flow of water, and can also deteriorate the water quality. This research was focused on understanding the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO), a key water quality parameter, on iron release from the old corroded iron pipes. Corrosion scales from 70-year-old galvanized iron pipe were characterized as porous deposits of Fe(III) phases (goethite (alpha-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), and maghemite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3))) with a shell-like, dense layer near the top of the scales. High concentrations of readily soluble Fe(II) content was present inside the scales. Iron release from these corroded pipes was investigated for both flow and stagnant water conditions. Our studies confirmed that iron was released to bulk water primarily in the ferrous form. When DO was present in water, higher amounts of iron release was observed during stagnation in comparison to flowing water conditions. Additionally, it was found that increasing the DO concentration in water during stagnation reduced the amount of iron release. Our studies substantiate that increasing the concentration of oxidants in water and maintaining flowing conditions can reduce the amount of iron release from corroded iron pipes. Based on our studies, it is proposed that iron is released from corroded iron pipes by dissolution of corrosion scales, and that the microstructure and composition of corrosion scales are important parameters that can influence the amount of iron released from such systems.

  3. Invertebrate and fish assemblage relations to dissolved Oxygen minima in lowland streams of southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Mize, Scott V.; Kroes, Daniel; Wallace, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in lowland streams are naturally lower than those in upland streams; however, in some regions where monitoring data are lacking, DO criteria originally established for upland streams have been applied to lowland streams. This study investigated the DO concentrations at which fish and invertebrate assemblages at 35 sites located on lowland streams in southwestern Louisiana began to demonstrate biological thresholds.Average threshold values for taxa richness, diversity and abundance metrics were 2.6 and 2.3 mg/L for the invertebrate and fish assemblages, respectively. These thresholds are approximately twice the DO concentration that some native fish species are capable of tolerating and are comparable with DO criteria that have been recently applied to some coastal streams in Louisiana and Texas. DO minima >2.5 mg/L were favoured for all but extremely tolerant taxa. Extremely tolerant taxa had respiratory adaptations that gave them a competitive advantage, and their success when DO minima were <2 mg/L could be related more to reductions in competition or predation than to DO concentration directly.DO generally had an inverse relation to the amount of agriculture in the buffer area; however, DO concentrations at sites with both low and high amounts of agriculture (including three least-disturbed sites) declined to <2.5 mg/L. Thus, although DO fell below a concentration that was identified as an approximate biological threshold, sources of this condition were sometimes natural (allochthonous material) and had little relation to anthropogenic activity.

  4. Chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in and above the oxygen minimum zone off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, A. N.; Thomsen, S.; Engel, A.

    2016-11-01

    As a result of nutrient upwelling, the Peruvian coastal system is one of the most productive regions in the ocean. Sluggish ventilation of intermediate waters, characteristic for the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and microbial degradation of a high organic matter load promotes deoxygenation at depth. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a key role in microbial respiration and carbon cycling, but little is known on DOM distribution and cycling in the ETSP. DOM optical properties give important insights on DOM sources, structure and biogeochemical reactivity. Here, we present data and a conceptual view on distribution and cycling of chromophoric (CDOM) and fluorescent (FDOM) DOM in and above the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru. Five fluorescent components were identified during PARAFAC analysis. Highest intensities of CDOM and of the amino acid-like fluorescent component (C3) occurred above the OMZ and coincided with maximum chl a concentrations, suggesting phytoplankton productivity as major source. High intensities of a marine humic-like fluorescent component (C1), observed in subsurface waters, indicated in situ microbial reworking of DOM. FDOM release from inner shelf sediment was determined by seawater analysis and continuous glider sensor measurement and included a humic-like component (C2) with a signature typical for terrestrially derived humic acids. Upwelling supplied humic-like substances to the euphotic zone. Photo-reactions were likely involved in the production of a humic-like fluorescent component (C5). Our data show that variable biological and physical processes need to be considered for understanding DOM cycling in a highly dynamic coastal upwelling system like the ETSP off Peru.

  5. Heat and dissolved oxygen exchanges between the sediment and water column in a shallow salty lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuente, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) and heat exchanges across the water-sediment interface (WSI) of a shallow lagoon are controlled by processes occurring on both sides of the WSI, particularly volumetric source and sink on the sediment side and turbulent transport on the waterside. This article presents and analyzes measurements of DO (Js) and heat (Hg) fluxes across the WSI in the extremely shallow lagoon of Salar del Huasco (20.274°S, 68.883°W, 3800 m above sea level), where volumetric source of DO and heat exists in the sediment layer, related to benthic primary production and absorption of solar radiation, respectively. Microprofiles of temperature and DO were measured, and they were used for measuring Js and Hg, and volumetric source/sink terms in the sediments. This information was used to propose and validate the simple theoretical framework to predict both the magnitude and direction of Js and Hg. On the one hand, Js can be predicted with a simple algebraic expression, where the diffusional mass transfer coefficient defines the magnitude of Js while the direction is controlled by the balance between DO production and consumption in the sediments. On the other hand, solar radiation is absorbed in the upper sediments, and this heat diffuses toward the water column and the sediments. The heat flux toward the water column also induces unstable convection that promotes vertical transport across the WSI. The theoretical framework proposed here will help to understand DO and heat budgets of shallow aquatic systems in which solar radiation reaches the WSI.

  6. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions and dissolved oxygen profiling in a full-scale nitrifying activated sludge treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Aboobakar, Amina; Cartmell, Elise; Stephenson, Tom; Jones, Mark; Vale, Peter; Dotro, Gabriela

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports findings from online, continuous monitoring of dissolved and gaseous nitrous oxide (N₂O), combined with dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia loading, in a full-scale nitrifying activated sludge plant. The study was conducted over eight weeks, at a 210,000 population equivalent sewage treatment works in the UK. Results showed diurnal variability in the gaseous and dissolved N₂O emissions, with hourly averages ranging from 0 to 0.00009 kgN₂O-N/h for dissolved and 0.00077-0.0027 kgN₂O-N/h for gaseous nitrous oxide emissions respectively, per ammonia loading, depending on the time of day. Similarly, the spatial variability was high, with the highest emissions recorded immediately after the anoxic zone and in the final pass of the aeration lane, where ammonia concentrations were typically below 0.5 mg/L. Emissions were shown to be negatively correlated to dissolved oxygen, which fluctuated between 0.5 and 2.5 mgO₂/L, at the control set point of 1.5 mgO₂/L. The resulting dynamic DO conditions are known to favour N₂O production, both by autotrophic and heterotrophic processes in mixed cultures. Average mass emissions from the lane were greater in the gaseous (0.036% of the influent total nitrogen) than in the dissolved (0.01% of the influent total nitrogen) phase, and followed the same diurnal and spatial patterns. Nitrous oxide emissions corresponded to over 34,000 carbon dioxide equivalents/year, adding 13% to the carbon footprint associated with the energy requirements of the monitored lane. A clearer understanding of emissions obtained from real-time data can help towards finding the right balance between improving operational efficiency and saving energy, without increasing N₂O emissions.

  8. The use of dissolved oxygen-controlled, fed-batch aerobic cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Patrick; Sun, Jacob; Champagne, Paul-Philippe; Lau, Heron; Gao, Meg; Sun, Hong; Zeiser, Arno; D'Amore, Tony

    2015-11-27

    A simple "off-the-shelf" fed-batch approach to aerobic bacterial cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing is presented. In this approach, changes in the dissolved oxygen levels are used to adjust the nutrient feed rate (DO-stat), so that the desired dissolved oxygen level is maintained throughout cultivation. This enables high Escherichia coli cell densities and recombinant protein titers. When coupled to a kLa-matched scale-down model, process performance is shown to be consistent at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales for two recombinant E. coli strains expressing different protein subunit vaccine candidates. Additionally, by mining historical DO-stat nutrient feeding data, a method to transition from DO-stat to a pre-determined feeding profile suitable for larger manufacturing scales without using feedback control is demonstrated at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales.

  9. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material.

  10. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James

    2015-11-01

    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization.

  11. Reactive transport modeling of dissolved oxygen migration and consumption in a sedimentary basins affected by a deglaciation event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, S. A.; Mayer, K. U.; MacQuarrie, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    In intracratonic sedimentary basins, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depth. Deep groundwater flow systems are driven primarily by salinity differences, topographic gradients and recharge derived from precipitation; these systems are also influenced by the hydrostratigraphy of the basin. However, during periods of glacial melt water production (i.e., deglaciation events), the melting of ice sheets may alter the patterns of freshwater infiltration, potentially resulting in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Reactive transport modeling can be used to understand the evolution of geochemical conditions and redox-buffering capacity of these formations. Dissolved oxygen will interact with reduced mineral phases that are present in the sedimentary units (e.g., chlorite) or with solid organic matter causing oxygen consumption. Processes included in the model are density-driven flow and transport, vertical mechanical deformation, as well as chemical reactions (aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution and precipitation including evaporites, sulfates and carbonates, cation-exchange, redox processes involving the decomposition of organic matter, dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals, biotite and chlorite, and the oxidation of ferrous iron and sulfide). Transient boundary conditions are imposed in the upper part of the model to mimic ice sheet advance and retreat. Simulation results indicate that the presence of dense brines at depth results in low groundwater velocities during glacial meltwater infiltration, restricting the ingress of oxygenated waters in the basin. In addition, due to the abundance of reduced mineral phases and solid organic matter in these formations, geochemical processes causing oxygen consumption are restricted to shallow aquifers, further limiting the ingress of oxygenated waters to the first 100 m in the main aquifers (i.e., sandstones) and 50 m in the carbonates aquifers

  12. Modelling the migration opportunities of diadromous fish species along a gradient of dissolved oxygen concentration in a European tidal watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Stevens, M.; Breine, J.

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between poor water quality and migration opportunities for fish remains poorly documented, although it is an essential research step in implementing EU water legislation. In this paper, we model the environmental constraints that control the movements of anadromous and catadromous fish populations that migrate through the tidal watershed of River Scheldt, a heavily impacted river basin in Western Europe. Local populations of sturgeon, sea lamprey, sea trout, Atlantic salmon, houting and allis shad were essentially extirpated around 1900. For remaining populations (flounder, three-spined stickleback, twaite shad, thinlip mullet, European eel and European smelt), a data driven logistic model was parameterized. The presence or absence of fish species in samples taken between 1995 and 2004 was modelled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, river flow and season. Probabilities to catch individuals from all diadromous species but three-spined stickleback increased as a function of the interaction between temperature and dissolved oxygen. The hypoxic zone situated in the freshwater tidal part of the estuary was an effective barrier for upstream migrating anadromous spawners since it blocked the entrance to historical spawning sites upstream. Similarly, habitat availability for catadromous fish was greatly reduced and restricted to lower brackish water parts of the estuary. The model was applied to infer preliminary dissolved oxygen criteria for diadromous fish, to make qualitative predictions about future changes in fish distribution given anticipated changes in water quality and to suggest necessary measures with respect to watershed management.

  13. Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol: A Quantitative Assessment of the Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Determining the Induction Time.

    PubMed

    Menumerov, Eredzhep; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2016-12-14

    The reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by borohydride is one of the foremost model catalytic reactions because it allows for a straightforward assessment of catalysts using the kinetic parameters extracted from the real-time spectroscopic monitoring of an aqueous solution. Crucial to its standing as a model reaction is a comprehensive mechanistic framework able to explain the entire time evolution of the reaction. While much of this framework is in place, there is still much debate over the cause of the induction period, an initial time interval where no reaction seemingly occurs. Here, we report on the simultaneous monitoring of the spectroscopic signal and the dissolved oxygen content within the aqueous solution. It reveals that the induction period is the time interval required for the level of dissolved oxygen to fall below a critical value that is dependent upon whether Au, Ag, or Pd nanoparticles are used as the catalyst. With this understanding, we are able to exert complete control over the induction period, being able to eliminate it, extend it indefinitely, or even induce multiple induction periods over the course of a single reaction. Moreover, we have determined that the reaction product, 4-aminophenol, in the presence of the same catalyst reacts with dissolved oxygen to form 4-nitrophenolate. The implication of these results is that the induction period relates, not to some activation of the catalyst, but to a time interval where the reaction product is being rapidly transformed back into a reactant by a side reaction.

  14. Quantification of the dissolved inorganic carbon species and of the pH of alkaline solutions exposed to CO2 under pressure: a novel approach by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Calvignac, Brice; Bardeau, Jean-François; Bulou, Alain; Boury, Frank; Gibaud, Alain

    2014-10-07

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content of aqueous systems is a key function of the pH, of the total alkanility (TA), and of the partial pressure of CO2. However, common analytical techniques used to determine the DIC content in water are unable to operate under high CO2 pressure. Here, we propose to use Raman spectroscopy as a novel alternative to discriminate and quantitatively monitor the three dissolved inorganic carbon species CO2(aq), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) of alkaline solutions under high CO2 pressure (from P = 0 to 250 bar at T = 40 °C). In addition, we demonstrate that the pH values can be extracted from the molalities of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-). The results are in very good agreement with those obtained from direct spectrophotometric measurements using colored indicators. This novel method presents the great advantage over high pressure conventional techniques of not using breakable electrodes or reference additives and appears of great interest especially in marine biogeochemistry, in carbon capture and storage and in material engineering under high CO2 pressure.

  15. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pogue, Ted R.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO

  16. The role of the interaction between oxygen and catechol in the pitting corrosion of steel in alkaline sulfide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.; Kelly, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    Black liquor corrosivity is shown to depend on the interaction of the chemical species present. Specifically, an interaction between oxygen and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds (catechols) in alkaline sulfide solutions leads to a distinct increase in the severity of the attack. This increased corrosivity is explained in terms of the oxidation of catechol leading to increased open circuit potentials for steel. The importance of the ratio of sulfide concentration to hydroxyl concentration in the initiation of pitting is stressed. The possible role of catechol in stabilizing metastable pits is also discussed.

  17. Escherichia coli avoids high dissolved oxygen stress by activation of SoxRS and manganese-superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were reported to cause oxidative stress to E. coli cells associated with reduced or inhibited growth. The high ROS concentrations described in these reports were generated by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 and superoxide-generating chemicals which are non-physiological growth conditions. However, the effect of molecular oxygen on oxidative stress response has not been evaluated. Since the use of oxygen-enriched air is a common strategy to support high density growth of E. coli, it was important to investigate the effect of high dissolved oxygen concentrations on the physiology and growth of E. coli and the way it responds to oxidative stress. Results To determine the effect of elevated oxygen concentrations on the growth characteristics, specific gene expression and enzyme activity in E. coli, the parental and SOD-deficient strain were evaluated when the dissolved oxygen (dO2) level was increased from 30% to 300%. No significant differences in the growth parameters were observed in the parental strain except for a temporary decrease of the respiration and acetate accumulation profile. By performing transcriptional analysis, it was determined that the parental strain responded to the oxidative stress by activating the SoxRS regulon. However, following the dO2 switch, the SOD-deficient strain activated both the SoxRS and OxyR regulons but it was unable to resume its initial growth rate. Conclusion The transcriptional analysis and enzyme activity results indicated that when E. coli is exposed to dO2 shift, the superoxide stress regulator SoxRS is activated and causes the stimulation of the superoxide dismutase system. This enables the E. coli to protect itself from the poisoning effects of oxygen. The OxyR protecting system was not activated, indicating that H2O2 did not increase to stressing levels. PMID:23497217

  18. Short-term dissolved oxygen patterns in sub-tropical mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat E. R.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    Mangrove forests in subtropical areas are highly heterogeneous environments, influenced by diverse physical structures and tidal flushing regimes. An important component of tidal water is the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), as it affects aquatic organisms such as fish (directly: respiration and behaviour) and immature mosquitoes (directly: trigger for egg-hatch; indirectly: fish predation of larvae). Changes in DO may be important over relatively small time scales such as minutes and days, but, at such scales it has received little investigation. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap, monitoring DO at small time intervals (1 min) over tidal flooding events (hours - days) in two contrasting subtropical mangrove systems. These represented a range of mangrove tidal hydrology: a well-connected fringing mangrove forest in south-east Queensland and a more complex mangrove basin forest in northern New South Wales with impeded tidal connections. The results indicated that patterns of DO varied diurnally and by mangrove system. In the fringing forest, where the substrate was exposed before and after flooding, the highest mean DO concentration was during the day, followed by evening, with pre-dawn the lowest (6.8, 6.5 and 6.1 mg/l, respectively). DO patterns differed by tide stage and time of day with falling DO especially during late evening and pre-dawn as tides ebbed. In the mangrove basin forest the pattern was reversed, but also depended on the distance the tide had travelled across the basin. Before tidal incursion, standing water in the basin was anoxic (DO 0 mg/l). As tidal water flooded into the systems there was a greater increase in DO closer to the tide source than further away, with a DO concentration of 7.6 mg/l compared to 5.4 mg/l. The observations were interpreted in the light of processes and potential impacts on aquatic organisms (fish and immature mosquitoes). The most significant observation was that in the mangrove basin DO

  19. Using dissolved oxygen concentrations to determine mixed layer depths in the Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, K.; Kaiser, J.

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases in the oceanic mixed layer are often used to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes; for example, in the context of net and gross biological production estimates. The mixed layer depth (zmix) may be defined using criteria based on temperature or density differences to a reference depth near the ocean surface. However, temperature criteria fail in regions with strong haloclines such as the Southern Ocean where heat, freshwater and momentum fluxes interact to establish mixed layers. Moreover, the time scales of air-sea exchange differ for gases and heat, so that zmix defined using O2 may be different to zmix defined using temperature or density. Here, we propose to define an O2-based mixed layer depth, zmix(O2), as the depth where the relative difference between the O2 concentration and a reference value at a depth equivalent to 10 dbar equals 0.5 %. This definition was established by numerical analysis of O2 profiles in coastal areas of the Southern Ocean and corroborated by visual inspection. Comparisons of zmix(O2) with zmix based on potential temperature differences, i.e. zmix(Δθ = 0.2 °C) and zmix(Δθ = 0.5 °C), and potential density differences, i.e. zmix(Δσθ = 0.03 kg m-3) and zmix(Δσθ = 0.125 kg m-3), showed that zmix(O2) closely follows zmix(Δσθ = 0.03 kg m-3). Further comparisons with published zmix climatologies and zmix derived from World Ocean Atlas 2005 data were also performed. To establish zmix for use with biological production estimates in the absence of O2 profiles, we suggest using zmix(Δσθ = 0.03 kg m-3), which is also the basis for the climatology by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2004).

  20. Major nutrients and dissolved oxygen as indicators of the frontal zones in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafner, E.; Mordasova, N.; Arzhanova, N.; Maslennikov, V.; Mikhailovsky, Y.; Naletova, I.; Sapozhnikov, V.; Selin, P.; Zubarevich, V.

    2003-07-01

    The chemical tracers of the main frontal zones of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are considered. Before the beginning of the spring bloom, frontal zones are distinguished by lateral gradients of dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, and silicate. During the spring bloom, the smoothing of nutrient concentrations on both sides of the fronts weakens lateral gradients of chemical properties. The position of surface gradients of nutrients within the Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ) does not coincide with the location of temperature and salinity gradients. As a result, fronts in this region have a stepped character. The best chemical indicator of the Northern STFZ front is the dissolved oxygen gradient, which coincides with the temperature and salinity gradients. The southern boundary of the STFZ is distinguished by the gradient of nitrate. The chemical criterion for identifying the Subantarctic Front is the gradient of oxygen, which ranges from 0.5 to 4.0 μmol kg-1 per km; the Polar Front is identified by the gradient of silicate (0.56 to 2.78 μM per km). At the surface, the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) is distinguished not by the temperature and salinity, but by chemical parameters: The best year-round criterion is the lateral gradient of silicate-to-phosphate atomic ratio, which ranges from 25 to 35. Other markers of the WSC are the gradients of silicate at the surface, oxygen at the upper boundary of the Circumpolar Deep Water, and the depths of its location.

  1. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on Pt(111) in alkaline solution: Importance of chemisorbed water on surface

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Shizhong; White, Michael G.; Liu, Ping

    2016-06-30

    Here, we report a detailed mechanistic study of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt(111) in alkaline solution, combining density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. A complex reaction network including four possible pathways via either 2e– or 4e– transfer is established and is able to reproduce the experimental measured polarization curve at both low- and high-potential regions. Our results show that it is essential to account for solvation by water and the dynamic coverage of *OH to describe the reaction kinetics well. In addition, a chemisorbed water (*H2O)-mediated mechanism including 4e– transfers is identified, where the reduction stepsmore » via *H2O on the surface are potential-independent and only the final removal of *OH from the surface in the form of OH–(aq) contributes to the current. For the ORR in alkaline solutions, such a mechanism is more competitive than the associative and dissociative mechanisms typically used to describe the ORR in acid solution. Finally, *OH and **O2 intermediates are found to be critically important for tuning the ORR activity of Pt in alkaline solution. To enhance the activity, the binding of Pt should be tuned in such a way that *OH binding is weak enough to release more surface sites under working conditions, while **O2 binding is strong enough to enable the ORR via the 4e– transfer mechanism.« less

  2. Dissolved-oxygen depletion and other effects of storing water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The circulation of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is caused chiefly by insolation, inflow-outflow relationships, and wind, which is significant due to the geographical location of the reservoir. During 1970-75, there was little annual variation in the thickness, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance of the hypolimnion near Flaming Gorge Dam. Depletion of dissolved oxygen occurred simultaneously in the bottom waters of both tributary arms in the upstream part of the reservoir and was due to reservoir stratification. Anaerobic conditions in the bottom water during summer stratification eventually results in a metalimnetie oxygen minimum in the reservoir. The depletion of flow in the river below Flaming Gorge Dam due to evaporation and bank storage in the reservoir for the 1983-75 period was 1,320 cubic hectometers, and the increase of dissolved-solids load in the river was 1,947,000 metric tens. The largest annual variations in dissolved-solids concentration in the river was about 800 milligrams per liter before closure of the dam and about 200 milligrams per liter after closure. The discharge weighted-average dissolved-solids concentration for the 5 years prior to closure was 888 milligrams per liter and 512 milligrams per liter after closure. The most significant changes in the individual dissolved-ion loads in the river during 1973-75 were the increase in sulfate (0.48 million metric tons), which was probably derived from the solution of gypsum, and the decrease in bicarbonate (0.39 million metric tons), which can be attributed to chemical precipitation. The maximum range in temperature in the Green River below the reservoir prior to closure of the dam in 1982 was from 0?C in winter to 21?C in summer. After closure until 1970 the temperature ranged from 2 ? to 12?C, but since 1970 the range has been from 4 ? to 9?C. During September 1975, a massive algal bloom was observed in the upstream part of the reservoir. The bloom covered approximately 16 kilometers

  3. Partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate using a pilot-scale continuous activated sludge process at low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, YongYuan; Mirino, Markus W; Yuan, Yanlei

    2016-10-01

    Controlling of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.1-0.5mg/L), a cost-effective strategy, was applied to a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic-oxic-anoxic process for partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate. High ammonium removal efficiency, stable nitrite accumulation rate and total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher than 95.0%, 90.0% and 66.4%, respectively, implying potential application of this process for nitrogen removal of mature landfill leachate. Efficient nitrite accumulation in the first oxic reactor depended on low DO conditions and sufficient alkalinity. However, operational limit was mainly decided by actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) of the first oxic reactor and appeared with AHRT less than 13.9h under DO of 0.3-0.5mg/L. High-throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated significant change of bacterial diversity in the first oxic reactor after a long-term operation and dominant bacteria genus Nitrosomonas was shown to be responsible for NH4(+)-N removal and nitrite accumulation under low DO levels.

  4. Comparative study of CoFeNx/C catalyst obtained by pyrolysis of hemin and cobalt porphyrin for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline and acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the oxygen reduction kinetics and mechanisms of CoFeNx/C catalysts have been conducted with rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) in aqueous acid and alkaline solutions, as well as acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The CoFeNx/C catalysts in this study were obtained by the pyrolysis of hemin and a cobalt porphyrin. In an alkaline electrolyte, a larger electron transfer coefficient (0.63) was obtained in comparison to that in an acidic electrolyte (0.44), signifying a lower free energy barrier for oxygen reduction. The kinetic rate constant (2.69 × 10-2 cm s-1) for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline solution at 0.6 V (versus RHE) is almost 4 times larger than that in acidic solution (7.3 × 10-3 cm s-1). A synergetic catalytic mechanism is proposed. The overall reduction is a 4-electron reduction of oxygen. The obtained CoFeNx/C catalyst was further evaluated as a cathode catalyst in single fuel cells with acidic, neutral and alkaline electrolyte membranes. The order of the single cell performances either for power density or for stability is acidic > neutral > alkaline. The different behaviors of the CoFeNx/C catalyst in half cell and single cell are discussed.

  5. Primary Productivity Rates at Station ALOHA Determined by 18O Labeling and the Triple Isotope Composition of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juranek, L. W.; Quay, P. D.; Karl, D. M.

    2002-12-01

    Although knowledge of accurate Primary Productivity (PPr) rates is essential to the understanding of ocean carbon cycling, the standard method of determining ocean productivity, 14C labeling, often yields uncertain results. Typically, 14C-derived PPr rates fall ambiguously between gross and net productivity because the method is sensitive to recycling of a relatively small POC pool. Bottle incubations using labeled oxygen produced from 18O-enriched water have shown promise in giving a more consistent measure of gross productivity, since the pool of dissolved oxygen is less sensitive to recycling than POC. Typically this method gives gross PPr rates that are 2-3 times 14C-derived rates. Recently Luz and Barkan (2001) have pioneered a new technique to determine PPr rates using the triple isotope composition of dissolved oxygen as an in situ tracer. This relies on the observation that a signature of mass-independent fractionation originating in the stratosphere and imparted to the surface ocean by air-sea exchange is diminished by biological oxygen production. In February 2002 we measured gross productivity using both the 18O-labeling and triple isotope in situ methods at Hawaii Ocean Time-Series station ALOHA in the N. Pacific subtropical gyre. We found the in situ oxygen isotope method yielded double the 14C-derived PPr rates while 18O bottle incubations yielded similar rates as 14C. In addition, comparison of in situ isotope measurements with the biological oxygen saturation state indicate that community respiration is approximately equal to gross photosynthesis in the upper 60 m while from 80-200 m respiration exceeds photosynthesis by at most 10 %. We will present these results along with new results from upcoming measurements at station ALOHA.

  6. Thermodynamic stability of perovskites and related compounds in some alkaline earth-transition metal-oxygen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, Harumi; Sakai, Natsuko; Kawada, Tatsuya; Dokiya, Masayuki

    1991-09-01

    The thermodynamic properties of some alkaline earth ( A)-transition metal ( M) perovskites and K 2NiF 4 compounds have been collected, analyzed, and utilized to examine their stabilities by constructing the chemical potential diagrams of a log [ {a(A)}/{a(M)}] vs log P(O 2) plot. A thermodynamic analysis was performed on the dissociation reaction of K 2NiF 4 compounds ( A2MO 4) into perovskites ( AMO 3) and alkaline earth oxides ( AO) using empirical correlations between stabilization energy and tolerance factor. It has been found that the softness of calcium ions, which shrink markedly with decreasing coordination number from 12 to 9, makes the calcium K 2NiF 4 compounds (Ca 2MO 4) relatively less stable with increasing radius of the transition metal ions, r( M4+). This destabilization related to the coordination-number-dependent radii implies that when compared with the strontium perovskites, the calcium analogous perovskites may have a smaller number of oxygen vacancies, because the formation of oxygen vacancies should be accompanied with a decrease in coordination number of A-site ions.

  7. Dissolved oxygen content as an index of water quality in San Vicente Bay, Chile (36 degrees 45'S).

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anny; Ahumada, Ramón; Pérez, Claudio

    2002-08-01

    The present report describes some effects of industrial and municipal effluents on the waters of San Vicente Bay. Analyses of the main substances contained in the fishing industry effluent suggest rating criteria based on the oxygen saturation of the water as an assessment of organic pollution. Six cruises were carried out throughout the Bay, from June to December 1996. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, oil and grease content, and sediment samples for organic matter content. Water parameters (salinity, temperature) were used to characterize the Bay's hydrography, and to calculate values for oxygen saturation. The measurements demonstrated a local broad range of oxygen deficit, with a maximum of 45% in the winter to 95% in the spring. In November more than 65% of the Bay's area showed oxygen deficits greater than 40%. Organic matter was unusually high in sediments along the northern sector of the Bay. The results suggest that the oxygen depletion was a representative parameter for establishing a relative scale of water quality in this Bay.

  8. Influence of alkalinity, hardness and dissolved solids on drinking water taste: A case study of consumer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jie-Chung; Lee, Wei-Li; Han, Jia-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Two surveys of consumer satisfaction with drinking water conducted by Taiwan Water Supply Corp. are presented in this study. The study results show that although a lot of money was invested to modify traditional treatment processes, over 60% of local residents still avoided drinking tap water. Over half of the respondents felt that sample TT (from the traditional treatment process) was not a good drinking water, whether in the first or second survey, whereas almost 60% of respondents felt that samples PA, PB, CCL and CT (from advanced treatment processes) were good to drink. For all drinking water samples, respondent satisfaction with a sample primarily depended on it having no unpleasant flavors. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration plans to revise the drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS in the near future. The new standards require a lower TH concentration (from currently 400mg/L (as CaCO(3)) to 150mg/L (as CaCO(3))), and a lower TDS maximum admissible concentration from the current guideline of 600 to 250mg/L. Therefore, this study also evaluated the impacts on drinking water tastes caused by variations in TH and TDS concentrations, and assessed the need to issue more strict drinking water quality standards for TH and TDS. The research results showed that most respondents could not tell the difference in water taste among water samples with different TDS, TH and alkalinity. Furthermore, hardness was found to be inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and complying with more strict standards would lead most water facilities to invest billions of dollars to upgrade their treatment processes. Consequently, in terms of drinking water tastes alone, this study suggested that Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration should conduct more thorough reviews of the scientific literature that provides the rationale for setting standards and reconsider if it is necessary to revise drinking water quality standards for TH and

  9. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  10. Quenching of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Fluorescence by Dissolved Oxygen Reveals Selective Single-Stranded DNA Affinities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Bachilo, Sergei M; Weisman, R Bruce

    2017-04-13

    The selective interactions between short oligomers of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and specific structures of single-walled carbon nanotubes have been exploited in powerful methods for nanotube sorting. We report here that nanotubes coated with ssDNA also display selective interactions through the selective quenching of nanotube fluorescence by dissolved oxygen. In aqueous solutions equilibrated under 1 atm of O2, emission intensity from semiconducting nanotubes is reduced by between 9 and 40%, varying with the combination of ssDNA sequence and nanotube structure. This quenching reverses promptly and completely on removal of dissolved O2 and may be due to physisorption on nanotube surfaces. Fluorescence quenching offers a simple, nondestructive approach for studying the structure-selective interactions of ssDNA with single-walled carbon nanotubes and identifying recognition sequences.

  11. A review of factors influencing the availability of dissolved oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, S. M.; Sear, D. A.; Carling, P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations into factors influencing incubation success of salmonid progeny have largely been limited to the development of empirical relationships between characteristics of the incubation environment and survival to emergence. It is suggested that adopting a process-based approach to assessing incubation success aids identification of the precise causes of embryonic mortalities, and provides a robust framework for developing and implementing managerial responses.Identifying oxygen availability within the incubation environment as a limiting factor, a comprehensive review of trends in embryonic respiration, and processes influencing the flux of oxygenated water through gravel riverbeds is provided. The availability of oxygen to incubating salmonid embryos is dependent on the exchange of oxygenated water with the riverbed, and the ability of the riverbed gravel medium to transport this water at a rate and concentration appropriate to support embryonic respiratory requirements. Embryonic respiratory trends indicate that oxygen consumption varies with stage of development, ambient water temperature and oxygen availability. The flux of oxygenated water through the incubation environment is controlled by a complex interaction of intragravel and extragravel processes and factors. The processes driving the exchange of channel water with gravel riverbeds include bed topography, bed permeability, and surface roughness effects. The flux of oxygenated water through riverbed gravels is controlled by gravel permeability, coupling of surface-subsurface flow and oxygen demands imposed by materials infiltrating riverbed gravels. Temporally and spatially variable inputs of groundwater can also influence the oxygen concentration of interstitial water. Copyright

  12. Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on the photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol in dissolved humic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dong; Huang, Bin; Bi, Tingting; Xiong, Dan; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    To probe the mechanisms responsible for pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) affecting the photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in dissolved humic acid (HA) solution, EE2 aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 3.0 to 11.0 and different DO conditions were irradiated by using a 300 W mercury lamp equipped with 290 nm light cutoff filters. In 5.0 mg L(-1) HA solutions (pH 8.0), EE2 was degraded at a rate of 0.0739 h(-1) which was about 4-fold faster than that in Milli-Q water. The degradation of EE2 was mainly caused by the oxidation of photogenerated reactive species (RS), and the contribution of direct photodegradation to EE2 degradation was always lower than 27%. Both the direct and indirect photodegradation of EE2 were closely dependent on the EE2 initial concentration, pH value and DO concentration. The photodegradation rate of EE2 decreased with increased initial concentration of EE2 due to the limitation of photon flux. With pH and DO increasing, the degradation rate of EE2 increased significantly due to the increase in the yields of excited EE2 and RS. Among the photogenerated RS, HO˙ and (3)HA* were determined to be the key contributors, and their global contribution to EE2 photodegradation was about 50%. Although HA could generate more (1)O2 than HO˙, the contribution of (1)O2 to EE2 degradation was lower than 13% due to its low reactivity towards EE2. This study could enlarge our knowledge on the photochemical behaviors of steroid estrogens in natural sunlit waters.

  13. Assessment of robustness against dissolved oxygen/substrate oscillations for C. glutamicum DM1933 in two-compartment bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Käß, Friedrich; Hariskos, Ioanna; Michel, Andrea; Brandt, Hans-Jürgen; Spann, Robert; Junne, Stefan; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Neubauer, Peter; Oldiges, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important organism for industrial biotechnology; particularly, in amino acid production (e.g. L-lysine). Production scales often reach reactor working volumes of several hundred cubic meters, which triggers inhomogeneous distribution of substrates and dissolved gasses due to increasing mixing times. Individual cells which follow the flow profile through the reactor are experiencing oscillating microenvironments. Oscillations can have an influence on the process performance, which is a subject of scale-down experiments. In this work, L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum DM1933 was assessed for its robustness against continuous dissolved oxygen and substrate supply oscillation in two-compartment scale-down bioreactors. Aerobic, substrate-limited stirred tank and non-aerated, substrate-excess plug flow compartments were applied for oscillation. Inhomogeneity of substrate and oxygen supply was observed to cause rapid side product turnover, redistribution of oxygen uptake from oxygen limited into fully aerobic zones, and intermediate medium acidification. However, process inhomogeneity did not impair productivity or growth at plug flow residence times of several minutes. In a focused analysis of proteome, metabolome, transcriptome, and other physiological parameters, no changes were identified in response to process inhomogeneity. In conclusion, fed-batch processes with C. glutamicum DM1933 possess remarkable robustness against oxygen and substrate supply oscillation, which is a unique property in the field of published scale-down studies. Microbial physiology of C. glutamicum appears to be ideally adapted to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous conditions. This ensures exceptional suitability for cultivation at increased mixing times, which is suggested to constitute an important basis for the long-lasting success in large scale bioprocess application.

  14. Catalytic behavior of metallic particles in anisotropic etching of Ge(100) surfaces in water mediated by dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Tatsuya; Mura, Atsushi; Nishitani, Keisuke; Kawai, Yoshie; Kawai, Kentaro; Uchikoshi, Junichi; Morita, Mizuho; Arima, Kenta

    2012-06-01

    The authors demonstrate that Ge(100) surfaces containing metallic particles are etched anisotropically in water. This originates from the catalytic reduction of dissolved oxygen (O2) in water to water molecules (H2O) on the metallic particles, which is followed by the enhanced oxidation of Ge around the particles. The soluble nature of Ge oxide (GeO2) in water promotes the formation of inverted pyramidal etch pits composed of (111) microfacets. On the basis of the results, the authors propose strategies for avoiding unwanted surface roughening during the wet cleaning of Ge.

  15. Effect of Pattern Layout and Dissolved Oxygen in CO2 Rinse Water on Cu Corrosion during Post-Etch Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuri, Kentaro; Yamashita, Yukinari; Shiohara, Morio; Oda, Noriaki; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi

    2010-05-01

    When post-etch cleaning was carried out in Cu dual-damascene process, Cu at the bottom of isolated via was etched out especially in the wafer edge, and this would become a critical issue as device scale is shrunk. The corrosion was caused in the rinse step rather than chemical cleaning step because dissolved oxygen in rinse water from the air increased oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and CO2 included in the rinse water for preventing wafer electrification decreased pH. The corrosion was found to be suppressed by increasing dummy pattern density and by controlling atmosphere and pH of the rinse water.

  16. Selective Growth of Monoatomic Cu Rows at Step Edges on Si(111) Substrates in Ultralow-Dissolved-Oxygen Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Norio; Nishizawa, Masayasu; Miki, Kazushi; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hasunuma, Ryu; Yamabe, Kikuo

    2005-04-01

    We have fabricated high-aspect-ratio monoatomic Cu rows along atomic step edges on vicinal Si(111) substrates. The method consists of two wet processes: (1) the formation of a step/terrace structure by immersing a Si(111) substrate in ultralow-dissolved-oxygen water (LOW) and (2) the formation of the nanowires by immersion in LOW containing Cu ions. A systematic investigation of Si(111) surfaces with the nanowire has been performed by means of atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

  17. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in East Fork White River, Bartholomew County, IN, was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that benthic-oxygen demand and the headwater concentrations of carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand, nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration of East Fork White River downstream from the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility. The effect of effluent from the facility on the water quality of East Fork White River was minimal. The model also indicates that, with a benthic-oxygen demand of approximately 0.65 gram per square meter per day, the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity during summer low flows. Regardless of the quality of the Columbus wastewater effluent, the minimum 24-hour average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams, would not be met. Ammonia toxicity is not a limiting water-quality criterion during summer and winter low flows. During winter low flows, the current carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Columbus wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard. (USGS)

  18. Simple model of dissolved oxygen consumption in a bay within high organic loading: an applied remediation tool.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Ramón; Vargas, José; Pagliero, Liliana

    2006-07-01

    San Vicente Bay is a coastal shallow embayment in Central Chile with multiple uses, one of which is receiving wastewater from industrial fisheries, steel mill effluents, and domestic sewage. A simulation model was developed and applied to dissolved oxygen consumption by organic residues released into this embayment. Three compartments were established as function of: depth, circulation and outfall location. The model compartments had different volumes, and their oxygen saturation value was used as baseline. The parameters: (a) BOD5 of the industrial and urban effluents, (b) oxygen demand by organic sediments, (c) respiration, (d) photosynthesis and (e) re-aeration were included in the model. Iteration results of the model showed severe alterations in Compartment 1, with a decrease of 65% in the oxygen below saturation. Compartment 2 showed a small decline (10%) and compartment 3 did not show apparent changes in oxygen values. Measures recommended for remediation were to decrease the BOD5 loading by 30% in the affected sector. Iteration of the model for 200 h following recommendations derived from the preceding results produced an increase in saturation of 60% (5 ml O2 L(-1)), which suggested an improvement of the environmental conditions.

  19. Expression of denitrification enzymes in response to the dissolved oxygen level and respiratory substrate in continuous culture of Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed Central

    Körner, H; Zumft, W G

    1989-01-01

    The onset and cessation of the synthesis of denitrification enzymes of Pseudomonas stutzeri were investigated by using continuous culture and defined dissolved oxygen levels covering the full range of transition from air saturation to complete anaerobiosis. Expression of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase (cytochrome cd1), and N2O reductase was controlled by discrete oxygen levels and by the nature of the nitrogenous oxide available for respiration. N2O reductase was synthesized constitutively at a low level; for enhanced expression, oxygen concentrations were required to decrease below 5 mg of O2 per liter. The threshold values for synthesis of nitrate reductase and cytochrome cd1 in the presence of nitrate were ca. 5 and ca. 2.5 mg of O2 per liter, respectively. With nitrous oxide as the respiratory substrate, nitrite reductase was again the most sensitive to oxygen concentration; however, thresholds for all denitrification enzymes shifted to lower oxygen levels. Whereas the presence of nitrate resulted in maximum expression and nearly uniform induction of all reductases, nitrite and nitrous oxide stimulated preferably the respective enzyme catalyzing reduction. In the absence of a nitrogenous oxide, anaerobiosis did not induce enzyme synthesis to any significant degree. The accumulation of nitrite seen during both the aerobic-anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic transition phases was caused by the differences in onset or cessation of synthesis of nitrate and nitrite reductases and an inhibitory effect of nitrate on nitrite reduction. Images PMID:2764573

  20. Computer simulation of thermal modelling of alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, A.; Hauff, S.; Bolwin, K.

    1991-11-01

    An essential problem connected with the operation of regenerative fuel cell systems in space is the rejection of waste heat, produced mainly during discharging the regenerative fuel cell. The intention of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the heat generation and heat rejection mechanism in alkaline fuel cells by performing detailed thermal modeling of a single cell stack. In particular, spatial temperature profiles within the fuel cell stack and the start-up behavior of the cells were predicted. Furthermore a model simulation of an emergency situation due to a partial failure of the coolant circuit was performed and theoretically temperature versus time curves were given for restarting the cooling.

  1. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  2. Dependence of the solubility of atmospheric oxygen in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions on surfactant concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakova, G. V.; Koksharov, S. A.; Vladimirova, T. V.

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of atmospheric oxygen in solutions of surfactants of different natures at 293 K and pH 8 is determined by gas chromatography. It is found that additives of nonionic surfactants decrease the oxygen content in the solution in the premicellar region and increase its solubility in the micellar region. It is shown that, for anionic surfactants, a decrease in the solubility of O2 is observed over the entire concentration range.

  3. Photoluminiscence response of Ru(II) complex immobilized in SiO2-based matrix to dissolved oxygen in beer.

    PubMed

    Anastasova, S; Milanova, M; Todorovsky, D

    2008-04-24

    The possibility to use the photoluminescence of Ru(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenathroline) dichloride, immobilized in sol-gel produced SiO2-based matrix for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in beer is studied. Organically-modified silane (octyltriethoxysilane) and mixtures from tetraethoxysilane and octyltriethoxysilane are used as precursors for matrix production. Spin- and dip-coating techniques are applied for films deposition. The predeposition ultrasound treatment of the sol ensures a good sensitivity and a linear sensor quenching response to oxygen in 1/6 ppm O2-concentration interval. The CO2 present practically has no effect on the films performance. Their photoluminescence show rather good stability on prolonged storage in beer.

  4. The oxygen isotope composition of dissolved chromate: a new tool for determining sources of chromium contamination in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, T.; Widory, D.

    2009-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a widespread carcinogen in groundwater, derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources. A large range of chromium isotope composition has been demonstrated for dissolved Cr(VI) in groundwater, resulting from the large isotope fractionation accompanying reduction of Cr(VI) to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)). As a result, the isotopic composition of chromium in dissolved chromate is beginning to prove useful for determining the sources of chromium in contaminated groundwater, but considered alone can likewise be non-diagnostic due to overlapping compositional ranges of potential anthropogenic and natural sources. Based on the strong Cr-O bond in the chromate molecule implied by the large chromium isotope fractionation accompanying Cr(VI) reduction, we have proposed that oxygen will remain closely linked to chromium in the chromate molecule and thus can be used to better constrain chromate sources through a Cr-O "multi-tracer" approach. In a series of laboratory experiments using isotopically "enriched" water and "normal" chromate, we have demonstrated that there is insignificant isotopic exchange between oxygen in chromate and water for residence times as long as one year, and thus chromate will retain the oxygen isotope composition of its source during extended transport in groundwater. We have likewise demonstrated that sufficient chromate for oxygen isotope analysis can be successfully isolated from a chemically complex groundwater sample through a series of precipitation, ion exchange and heating procedures. Although our current approach of measuring 100 micromolar samples of chromate using TCEA- gas mass spectrometry is straightforward and robust, we are also developing a negative-ion thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique in order to greatly reduce the sample size requirement. We are currently applying this novel technique at an electric power facility in California and a metal plating facility in France in order to

  5. Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on Pt(111) in alkaline solution: Importance of chemisorbed water on surface

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shizhong; White, Michael G.; Liu, Ping

    2016-06-30

    Here, we report a detailed mechanistic study of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt(111) in alkaline solution, combining density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. A complex reaction network including four possible pathways via either 2e or 4e transfer is established and is able to reproduce the experimental measured polarization curve at both low- and high-potential regions. Our results show that it is essential to account for solvation by water and the dynamic coverage of *OH to describe the reaction kinetics well. In addition, a chemisorbed water (*H2O)-mediated mechanism including 4e transfers is identified, where the reduction steps via *H2O on the surface are potential-independent and only the final removal of *OH from the surface in the form of OH(aq) contributes to the current. For the ORR in alkaline solutions, such a mechanism is more competitive than the associative and dissociative mechanisms typically used to describe the ORR in acid solution. Finally, *OH and **O2 intermediates are found to be critically important for tuning the ORR activity of Pt in alkaline solution. To enhance the activity, the binding of Pt should be tuned in such a way that *OH binding is weak enough to release more surface sites under working conditions, while **O2 binding is strong enough to enable the ORR via the 4e transfer mechanism.

  6. Modelling in-stream temperature and dissolved oxygen at sub-daily time steps: an application to the River Kennet, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard J; Boorman, David B

    2012-04-15

    The River Kennet in southern England shows a clear diurnal signal in both water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations through the summer months. The water quality model QUESTOR was applied in a stepwise manner (adding modelled processes or additional data) to simulate the flow, water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations along a 14 km reach. The aim of the stepwise model building was to find the simplest process-based model which simulated the observed behaviour accurately. The upstream boundary used was a diurnal signal of hourly measurements of water temperature and dissolved oxygen. In the initial simulations, the amplitude of the signal quickly reduced to zero as it was routed through the model; a behaviour not seen in the observed data. In order to keep the correct timing and amplitude of water temperature a heating term had to be introduced into the model. For dissolved oxygen, primary production from macrophytes was introduced to better simulate the oxygen pattern. Following the modifications an excellent simulation of both water temperature and dissolved oxygen was possible at an hourly resolution. It is interesting to note that it was not necessary to include nutrient limitation to the primary production model. The resulting model is not sufficiently proven to support river management but suggests that the approach has some validity and merits further development.

  7. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in co-culture with Acanthamoeba castellanii: role of amoeba-mediated depletion of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bui, Xuan Thanh; Winding, Anne; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Creuzenet, Carole

    2012-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide but relatively little is known about its ecology. In this study, we examined its interactions with Acanthamoeba castellanii, a protozoan suspected to serve as a reservoir for bacterial pathogens. We observed rapid degradation of intracellular C.jejuni in A.castellanii 5 h post gentamicin treatment at 25°C. Conversely, we found that A.castellanii promoted the extracellular growth of C.jejuni in co-cultures at 37°C in aerobic conditions. This growth-promoting effect did not require amoebae - bacteria contact. The growth rates observed with or without contact with amoeba were similar to those observed when C.jejuni was grown in microaerophilic conditions. Preconditioned media prepared with live or dead amoebae cultivated with or without C.jejuni did not promote the growth of C.jejuni in aerobic conditions. Interestingly, the dissolved oxygen levels of co-cultures with or without amoebae - bacteria contact were much lower than those observed with culture media or with C.jejuni alone incubated in aerobic conditions, and were comparable with levels obtained after 24 h of growth of C.jejuni under microaerophilic conditions. Our studies identified the depletion of dissolved oxygen by A.castellanii as the major contributor for the observed amoeba-mediated growth enhancement.

  8. Modelling algae growth and dissolved oxygen in the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area: contribution of high frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Escoffier, Nicolas; Groleau, Alexis; Poulin, Michel; Flipo, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a key variable in the hydro-ecological functioning of river systems. The accurate representation of the different biogeochemical processes affecting algal blooms and dissolved oxygen in the water column in hydro-ecological models is crucial for the use of these models as reliable management tools. This study focuses on the water quality of the Seine River along a 225 km stretch, from Paris to the Seine estuary. The study area is highly urbanized and located downstream France's largest agricultural area, and therefore receives large amounts of nutrients. During the last decades, nutrient inputs have been significantly reduced, especially with the implementation of new sewage water treatment technologies. Even though the frequency and the intensity of observed algal blooms have decreased, blooms were observed in 2011 and 2012. These blooms are generally followed by a period of high organic matter accumulation, leading to high mineralization fluxes and potential oxygen depletion. The hydrodynamics and the water quality of the Seine River are simulated for the 2011-2012 period with the distributed process-based hydro-ecological model ProSe (Even et al., 1998). The simulated chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations are compared to high frequency measurements at the Bougival monitoring station (50 km downstream from Paris), which is part of the CarboSeine monitoring network. The high frequency continuous dataset allows calibrating of primary producers' physiological parameters. New growth parameters are defined for the diatom community. The blooms occur at the end of the winter period (march 2011 and march 2012) and the optimal temperature for diatom growth is calibrated at 10°C, based on an analysis of the physiological response of the diatom community. One of the main outcomes of the modelling exercise is that the precise identification of the constituting communities of algal blooms must be achieved prior to the modelling itself. With the

  9. Milk acidification by Lactococcus lactis is improved by decreasing the level of dissolved oxygen rather than decreasing redox potential in the milk prior to inoculation.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Sophie; Hilgert, Nadine; Coquillard, Marie-Odile; Seukpanya, Céline; Faiveley, Marc; Neveu, Pascal; Abraham, Christophe; Georgescu, Véra; Fourcassié, Pascal; Beuvier, Eric

    2009-04-30

    Although redox potential is very rarely taken into account in food fermentation it could be as influential as pH on bacterial activities. Lactococcus lactis is already known to exhibit a powerful reducing activity in milk but its reduction activity was shown to occur prior to its acidification activity with a potential interaction between these two lactococcal activities. Therefore, acidification lag-type phase could be shortened by decreasing the redox potential of milk before inoculation. As the redox potential is highly dependent on the dissolved oxygen level, our objective was to study their separate and combined influences on acidification and growth kinetics of pure L. lactis strains in milk. Results showed that high level of dissolved oxygen is significantly more influential on growth, and even more on acidification kinetics, than initial decreased redox potential of milk. Reduction of milk was drastic and mostly due to bacterial activity. The redox potential of milk only dropped when dissolved oxygen was entirely consumed. When there was no dissolved oxygen from the beginning, L. lactis immediately decreased the redox potential of milk and acidified afterwards. When the level of dissolved oxygen was initially high, acidification and reduction of milk occurred at the same time. Acidification kinetics was then biphasic with a slower rate during the aerobic stage and a faster rate during the anaerobic stage. The seven strains tested demonstrated diversity in both their acidification kinetics and their adaptation to high level of dissolved oxygen, independent of their growth kinetics. To conclude, we have shown that the level of dissolved oxygen in milk has a dramatic influence on acidification kinetics and could be used to control acidification kinetics in dairy industries.

  10. Distribution and mass transfer of dissolved oxygen in a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Qiu, Bing; Huang, Shaosong; Yang, Kanghua; Bin, Liying; Fu, Fenglian; Yang, Huiwen

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the DO distribution and the factors influencing the mass transfer of DO in a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor. Through the continuous measurements of an on-line automatic system, the timely DO values at different zones in the bioreactor were obtained, which gave a detailed description to the distribution of oxygen within the bioreactor. The results indicated that the growth of biomass had an important influence on the distribution of oxygen. As the extension of operational time, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was generally decreased. With the difference in DO values, a complex environment combining anoxic and oxic state was produced within a single bioreactor, which provided a fundamental guarantee for the total removal of TN. Aeration rate, the concentration and apparent viscosity of MLSS have different influences on kLa, but adjusting the viscosity is a feasible method to improve the mass transfer of oxygen in the bioreactor.

  11. Simulation of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, Plantation Canal, Broward County, Florida with an evaluation of the QUAL-I model for use in south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russo, Thomas N.; McQuivey, Raul S.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model; QUAL-I, developed by the Texas Water Development Board, was evaluated as a management tool in predicting the spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in Plantation Canal. Predictions based on the QUAL-I model, which was verified only against midday summer-flow conditions, showed that improvement of quality of inflows from sewage treatment plants and use of at least 130 cubic feet per second of dilution water would improve water quality in the canal significantly. The model was not fully amenable to use on Plantation Canal because: (1) it did not consider photosynthetic production, nitrification, and benthic oxygen demand as sources and sinks of oxygen; (2) the model assumptions of complete mixing, transport, and steady state were not met; and (3) the data base was inadequate because it consisted of only one set of data for each case. However, it was felt that meaningful results could be obtained for some sets of conditions. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Effect of dissolved oxygen on heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as the carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guozhi; Li, Li; Liu, Qian; Xu, Guimei; Tan, Hongxin

    2014-11-01

    The effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as the carbon source and biofilm carrier was evaluated in a lab-scale experiment. Aerated, low-oxygen, and anoxic treatment groups were set up, which had average DO concentrations of 5.2±1.0, 1.4±1.2, and 0.5±0.3 mg L(-1), respectively. The NO3(-)-N and total nitrogen (TN) removal rates in the aerated group (37.44±0.24 and 36.24±0.48 g m(-3) d(-1), respectively) were higher than those in the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the low-oxygen and anoxic groups for the NO3(-)-N or TN removal rate. Accumulation of NO2(-)-N reached 5.0 mg L(-1) in the aerated group; no nitrite accumulation was found in the other two treatment groups. Bacterial communities of the low-oxygen and anoxic groups showed high similarity and were significantly different from those of the aerated group.

  13. Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the start-up of the anammox-based process: ELAN®.

    PubMed

    Morales, N; Val del Río, A; Vázquez-Padín, J R; Gutiérrez, R; Fernández-González, R; Icaran, P; Rogalla, F; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-01-01

    The anammox-based process ELAN® was started-up in two different sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pilot plant reactors treating municipal anaerobic digester supernatant. The main difference in the operation of both reactors was the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid. SBR-1 was started at a DO value of 0.4 mg O2/L whereas SBR-2 was started at DO values of 3.0 mg O2/L. Despite both reactors working at a nitrogen removal rate of around 0.6 g N/(L d), in SBR-1, granules represented only a small fraction of the total biomass and reached a diameter of 1.1 mm after 7 months of operation, while in SBR-2 the biomass was mainly composed of granules with an average diameter of 3.2 mm after the same operational period. Oxygen microelectrode profiling revealed that granules from SBR-2 where only fully penetrated by oxygen with DO concentrations of 8 mg O2/L while granules from SBR-1 were already oxygen penetrated at DO concentrations of 1 mg O2/L. In this way granules from SBR-2 performed better due to the thick layer of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which accounted for up to 20% of all the microbial populations, which protected the anammox bacteria from non-suitable liquid media conditions.

  14. Estimating time-variable aerobic respiration in the streambed by combining electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, Michael; Kurz, Marie J.; Trauth, Nico; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Aerobic respiration is an important component of in-stream metabolism. The larger part occurs in the streambed, where it is difficult to directly determine actual respiration rates. Existing methods for determining respiration are based on indirect estimates from whole-stream metabolism or provide time invariant results estimated from oxygen consumption measurements in enclosed chambers that do not account for the influence of hydrological changes. In this study we demonstrate a simple method for determining time-variable hyporheic respiration. We use a windowed cross-correlation approach for deriving time-variable travel times from the naturally changing electrical conductivity signal that is transferred into the sediment. By combining the results with continuous in situ dissolved oxygen measurements, variable oxygen consumption rate coefficients in the streambed are obtained. An empirical temperature relationship is derived and used for standardizing the respiration rate coefficients to isothermal conditions. For demonstrating the method, we compare two independent measurement spots in the streambed, which were located upstream and downstream of an in-stream gravel bar and thus exposed strongly diverse travel times. The derived respiration rate results are in accordance with findings of other stream studies. By comparing the travel time and respiration rate coefficient (i.e., Damköhler number) we estimate the contribution of each to the oxygen consumption in the streambed.

  15. Improved dissolved oxygen status following removal of exotic weed mats in important fish habitat lagoons of the tropical Burdekin River floodplain, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perna, Colton; Burrows, Damien

    2005-01-01

    The Burdekin delta floodplain, north Queensland, is highly modified for agricultural purposes. Riparian condition is very poor and exotic aquatic weeds dominate waterways. Historically, most streams and lagoons were highly seasonal, but those now used for the delivery of irrigation water maintain elevated flows and increased turbidity and nutrient loading. These factors have aided exotic weed growth and many major lagoons are covered by dense water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) mats which greatly reduce dissolved oxygen levels, one of the most important water quality variables for aquatic fauna. Mechanical harvesting of water hyacinth from several of these lagoons resulted in rapid and substantial increases in dissolved oxygen saturation, and improved suitability of the habitat to support fish species. Decrease in dissolved oxygen as water passes sequentially through weed-infested lagoons, justified the approach of harvesting upstream lagoons first, however, the channels that connect these lagoons remain weed-infested and are still impacting upon downstream oxygen levels.

  16. LUMOS--A Sensitive and Reliable Optode System for Measuring Dissolved Oxygen in the Nanomolar Range.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Philipp; Larndorfer, Christoph; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Larsen, Morten; Borisov, Sergey M; Revsbech, Niels-Peter; Glud, Ronnie N; Canfield, Donald E; Klimant, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Most commercially available optical oxygen sensors target the measuring range of 300 to 2 μmol L-1. However these are not suitable for investigating the nanomolar range which is relevant for many important environmental situations. We therefore developed a miniaturized phase fluorimeter based measurement system called the LUMOS (Luminescence Measuring Oxygen Sensor). It consists of a readout device and specialized "sensing chemistry" that relies on commercially available components. The sensor material is based on palladium(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin embedded in a Hyflon AD 60 polymer matrix and has a KSV of 6.25 x 10-3 ppmv-1. The applicable measurement range is from 1000 nM down to a detection limit of 0.5 nM. A second sensor material based on the platinum(II) analogue of the porphyrin is spectrally compatible with the readout device and has a measurement range of 20 μM down to 10 nM. The LUMOS device is a dedicated system optimized for a high signal to noise ratio, but in principle any phase flourimeter can be adapted to act as a readout device for the highly sensitive and robust sensing chemistry. Vise versa, the LUMOS fluorimeter can be used for read out of less sensitive optical oxygen sensors based on the same or similar indicator dyes, for example for monitoring oxygen at physiological conditions. The presented sensor system exhibits lower noise, higher resolution and higher sensitivity than the electrochemical STOX sensor previously used to measure nanomolar oxygen concentrations. Oxygen contamination in common sample containers has been investigated and microbial or enzymatic oxygen consumption at nanomolar concentrations is presented.

  17. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Coastal Pacific Northwest Rivers: Biological Controls and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Foster, E.; Michie, R.; Waltz, D.

    2014-12-01

    In Oregon's Central Coast Range (OCR), dissolved O2 concentrations in at least 10% of stream length frequently dip below state standards set to ensure survival and reproduction of native salmonids. We examined O2 dynamics on 12 OCR rivers during times of the year when standards had been violated. Continuous dissolved O2 data were collected 15 minutes apart over a 24-hour period during spring (May - June) or fall (September - November) 2008 on each river. We modeled O2 dynamics for each river with parameters describing O2 exchange with the atmosphere, production of O2 from gross primary production (GPP), and consumption of O2 by ecosystem respiration (ER) fit to observed data. Average nighttime atmospheric O2 exchange and ER were estimated by regressing interval changes in dissolved O2 concentrations between measurements with corresponding O2 saturation deficits. GPP for each daytime sampling interval was calculated as the difference between O2 saturation deficit and the sum of temperature-corrected reaeration and ecosystem respiration. All regression models developed for estimating night-time reaeration and ER were highly significant (p<0.03; adjusted r2=0.17 - 0.77). GPP ranged from 0.62 to 14.95 mg O2 L-1 d-1, ER ranged from -1.21 mg O2 L-1 d-1, and net daily metabolism (NDM; net O2 flux controlled by biological processes) ranged from -11.64 to 3.75 mg O2 L-1 d-1 across all rivers and seasons. Increased aquatic productivity resulting from adjacent and upstream human activities likely altered dissolved O2 dynamics in these rivers. Through scenario analysis, we found that at one river (Alsea), GPP and ER would need to be reduced by 85 and 73%, respectively, to meet the state standard (95% saturation). Our modeling approach can be connected with management actions across a variety of spatial and temporal scales, ranging from local, riparian-scale manipulations of shading and organic matter input to watershed and regional nutrient and temperature management.

  18. High-performance platinized carbon electrodes for oxygen reduction in power sources with alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, R.; Sarma, D. D.; Shukla, A. K.

    A high-performance, oxygen-reducing electrode, made from physically and chemically tailored coconut-shell charcoal substrate catalysed with 7 wt.% platinum, is reported. The electrode can be loaded with current densities of 2000 - 5200 A/m 2, with negligible deterioration, for periods of up to 1200 h. Extensive electron spectroscopic studies have been conducted to characterise the electroactive species present on the surface of the electrodes during service.

  19. The Role of Oxygen in the Copper-Catalyzed Decomposition of Phenylborates in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1997-03-17

    The effect of oxygen on the copper-catalyzed hydrolysis of phenyl borates containing from one to four phenyl groups was studied in 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 59 degrees C. The results are tentatively explained if the effective catalyst for each of the reactions is either cupric or cuprous ion, with the latter being present in significant concentration only in the absence of air.

  20. Effect of Morphology of Co3O4 for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi-Zhi; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Su, Yu-Zhi; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hui; Hui, Yun-Ping; Li, Nan; Liu, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, three different morphological Co3O4 electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been synthesized. By comparing the three morphologies of Co3O4, the electrocatalytic properties show that the urchin-like spheres of Co3O4 electrode has relative low overpotential and good electrocatalysis stability, indicating that the structure of urchin-like Co3O4 spheres exhibit an easy OER for water splitting. PMID:25525423

  1. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  2. Substrate and Transition State Binding in Alkaline Phosphatase Analyzed by Computation of Oxygen Isotope Effects.

    PubMed

    Roston, Daniel; Cui, Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Enzymes are powerful catalysts, and a thorough understanding of the sources of their catalytic power will facilitate many medical and industrial applications. Here we have studied the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phosphatase (AP), which is one of the most catalytically proficient enzymes known. We have used quantum mechanics calculations and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to model a variety of isotope effects relevant to the reaction of AP. We have calculated equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs), binding isotope effects (BIEs), and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for a range of phosphate mono- and diester substrates. The results agree well with experimental values, but the model for the reaction's transition state (TS) differs from the original interpretation of those experiments. Our model indicates that isotope effects on binding make important contributions to measured KIEs on V/K, which complicated interpretation of the measured values. Our results provide a detailed interpretation of the measured isotope effects and make predictions that can test the proposed model. The model indicates that the substrate is deformed in the ground state (GS) of the reaction and partially resembles the TS. The highly preorganized active site preferentially binds conformations that resemble the TS and not the GS, which induces the substrate to adapt to the enzyme, rather than the other way around-as with classic "induced fit" models. The preferential stabilization of the TS over the GS is what lowers the barrier to the chemical step.

  3. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Cedar Creek, Dekalb and Allen counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Peters, J.G.; Ayers, M.A.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Cedar Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The model indicates that the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent and nitrification are the most significant factors affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Cedar Creek during summer low flows. The observed dissolved-oxygen concentration of the Auburn wastewater effluent was low and averaged 30 percent of saturation. Projected nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand loads, from the Indiana State Board of Health, for the Auburn and Waterloo wastewater-treatment facilities will result in violations of the current instream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l), even with an effluent dissolved-oxygen concentration of 80 percent saturation. Natural streamflow for Cedar Creek upstream from the confluence of Willow and Little Cedar Creeks is small compared with the waste discharge, so benefits of dilution for Waterloo and Auburn are minimal. The model also indicates that, during winter low flows, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved oxygen, is the limiting water-quality criterion in the reach of Cedar Creek downstream from the wastewater-treatment facility at Auburn and the confluence of Garrett ditch. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations predicted for 1978 through 2000 downstream from the Waterloo wastewater-treatment facility do not exceed Indiana water-quality standards for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that future waste discharge in the Cedar Creek basin will be limited to the reaches between the Auburn wastewater-treatment facility and County Road 68. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in NJ Coastal Waters using AUVs (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coastal ocean is a highly variable system with processes that have significant implications on the hydrographic and oxygen characteristics of the water column. The spatial and temporal variability of these fields can cause dramatic changes to water quality and in turn the h...

  5. Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen in New Jersey Coastal Waters Using Autonomous Gliders

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coastal ocean is a highly variable system with processes that have significant implications on the hydrographic and oxygen characteristics of the water column. The spatial and temporal variability of these fields can cause dramatic changes to water quality and in turn the h...

  6. Spatial and Temporal Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in New Jersey Coastal Waters Using Autonomous Gliders

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coastal ocean is a highly variable system with processes that have significant implications on the hydrographic and oxygen characteristics of the water column. The spatial and temporal variability of these fields can cause dramatic changes to water quality and in turn the h...

  7. Global optimization and oxygen dissociation on polyicosahedral Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster for alkaline fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, N.; Chen, F. Y.; Wu, X.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of 38 atoms Ag-Cu cluster is studied by using a combination of a genetic algorithm global optimization technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that the truncated octahedral (TO) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is less stable than the polyicosahedral (pIh) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster from the atomistic models and the DFT calculation shows an agreeable result, so the newfound pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is further investigated for potential application for O2 dissociation in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The activation energy barrier for the O2 dissociation on pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is 0.715 eV, where the d-band center is −3.395 eV and the density of states at the Fermi energy level is maximal for the favorable absorption site, indicating that the catalytic activity is attributed to a maximal charge transfer between an oxygen molecule and the pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster. This work revises the earlier idea that Ag32Cu6 core-shell nanoparticles are not suitable as ORR catalysts and confirms that Ag-Cu nanoalloy is a potential candidate to substitute noble Pt-based catalyst in alkaline fuel cells. PMID:26148904

  8. Global optimization and oxygen dissociation on polyicosahedral Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Chen, F Y; Wu, X Q

    2015-07-07

    The structure of 38 atoms Ag-Cu cluster is studied by using a combination of a genetic algorithm global optimization technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that the truncated octahedral (TO) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is less stable than the polyicosahedral (pIh) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster from the atomistic models and the DFT calculation shows an agreeable result, so the newfound pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is further investigated for potential application for O2 dissociation in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The activation energy barrier for the O2 dissociation on pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is 0.715 eV, where the d-band center is -3.395 eV and the density of states at the Fermi energy level is maximal for the favorable absorption site, indicating that the catalytic activity is attributed to a maximal charge transfer between an oxygen molecule and the pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster. This work revises the earlier idea that Ag32Cu6 core-shell nanoparticles are not suitable as ORR catalysts and confirms that Ag-Cu nanoalloy is a potential candidate to substitute noble Pt-based catalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

  9. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  10. Culture scale-up studies as seen from the viewpoint of oxygen supply and dissolved carbon dioxide stripping.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Naoki; Kano, Kenjiro; Maki, Yasuyuki; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen supply and dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO(2)) stripping are two of the most important control parameters in cell culture. In this study, we investigated the effect of scale-up on the volumetric gas transfer coefficient with bioreactors of different sizes (working volume: 80 L, 500 L, 2000 L, and 10,000 L; aspect ratio: 1.0-1.6). Sparging air into water increased the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), an index of oxygen supply efficiency, by scale-up roughly in proportion to the depth of the water. A corresponding increase in k(L)a was found in a real cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. dCO(2) stripping efficiency was evaluated in water tests using changes in k(L)a(co2), an index defined in relation to k(L)a. k(L)a(co2) increased following surface aeration, but the rate of increase was reduced by scale-up, which was attributed to a decrease in the liquid surface-to-volume ratio. A similar decrease in efficiency was observed in a 2000 L bioreactor by increasing the liquid volume at constant liquid surface area. The observed scale-up effects are discussed based on a simple theoretical consideration.

  11. Quantitative Aspects of the Interfacial Catalytic Oxidation of Dithiothreitol by Dissolved Oxygen in the Presence of Carbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Rossi, Michel J

    2016-01-19

    The catalytic nature of particulate matter is often advocated to explain its ability to generate reactive oxygen species, but quantitative data are lacking. We have performed molecular characterization of three different carbonaceous nanoparticles (NP) by 1. identifying and quantifying their surface functional groups based on probe gas-particle titration; 2. studying the kinetics of dissolved oxygen consumption in the presence of suspended NP's and dithiothreitol (DTT). We show that these NP's can reversibly change their oxidation state between oxidized and reduced functional groups present on the NP surface. By comparing the amount of O2 consumed and the number of strongly reducing sites on the NP, its average turnover ranged from 35 to 600 depending on the type of NP. The observed quadratic rate law for O2 disappearance points to a Langmuir-Hinshelwood surface-based reaction mechanism possibly involving semiquinone radical. In the proposed model, the strongly reducing surface site is assumed to be a polycyclic aromatic hydroquinone whose oxidation to the corresponding conjugated quinone is rate-limiting in the catalytic chain reaction. The presence and strength of the reducing surface functional groups are important for explaining the catalytic activity of NP in the presence of oxygen and a reducing agent like DTT.

  12. Pairing high-frequency data with a link-node model to manage dissolved oxygen impairment in a dredged estuary.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Weissmann, Gregory A; Gulati, Shelly; Herr, Joel; Sheeder, Scott; Stringfellow, William T

    2016-08-01

    High-frequency data and a link-node model were used to investigate the relative importance of mass loads of oxygen-demanding substances and channel geometry on recurrent low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the San Joaquin River Estuary in California. The model was calibrated using 6 years of data. The calibrated model was then used to determine the significance of the following factors on low DO: excavation of the river to allow navigation of large vessels, non-point source pollution from the agricultural watershed, effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, and non-point source pollution from an urban area. An alternative metric for low DO, excess net oxygen demand (ENOD), was applied to better characterize DO impairment. Model results indicate that the dredged ship channel had the most significant effect on DO (62 % fewer predicted hourly DO violations), followed by mass load inputs from the watershed (52 % fewer predicted hourly DO violations). Model results suggest that elimination of any one factor will not completely resolve DO impairment and that continued use of supplemental aeration is warranted. Calculation of ENOD proved more informative than the sole use of DO. Application of the simple model allowed for interpretation of the extensive data collected. The current monitoring program could be enhanced by additional monitoring stations that would provide better volumetric estimates of low DO.

  13. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions.

  14. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition.

  15. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for West Fork Blue River, Washington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, James G.; Wilber, W.G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Girardi, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    A digital computer model calibrated to observe stream conditions was used to evaluate water quality in West Fork Blue River, Washington County, IN. Instream dissolved-oxygen concentration averaged 96.5% of saturation at selected sites on West Fork Blue River during two 24-hour summer surveys. This high dissolved-oxygen concentration reflects small carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste loads; adequate dilution of waste by the stream; and natural reaeration. Nonpoint source waste loads accounted for an average of 53.2% of the total carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand and 90.2% of the nitrogenous biochemical-oxygen demand. Waste-load assimilation was studiedfor critical summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow for these conditions was zero, so no benefit from dilution was provided. The projected stream reaeration capacity was not sufficient to maintain the minimum daily dissolved-oxygen concentration (5 milligrams per liter) in the stream with current waste-discharge restrictions. During winter low flow, ammonia toxicity, rather than dissolved-oxygen concentration, was the limiting water-quality criterion downstream from the Salem wastewater-treatment facility. (USGS)

  16. Environmental & Water Quality Operational Studies: Improvement of Hydropower Release Dissolved Oxygen with Turbine Venting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    provides air to 13 the turbine is long, with bends, elbows, and valves which cause a significant loss of energy as air flows through the venting...large air flow rate (Figures B28-B29). The turbine efficiency losses and gas transfer were generally greater with deflectors than without. 74. Based on...provide a data base to develop predictive and design capabilities for turbine venting systems.’ tesultsoft these tests>indicated that, at most, the oxygen

  17. Effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on nitrous oxide production rates in autotrophic partial nitrification granules.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH on nitrous oxide (N2O) production rates and pathways in autotrophic partial nitrification (PN) granules were investigated at the granular level. N2O was primarily produced by betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, mainly Nitrosomonas europaea, in the oxic surface layer (<200μm) of the autotrophic PN granules. N2O production increased with increasing bulk DO concentration owing to activation of the ammonia (i.e., hydroxylamine) oxidation in this layer. The highest N2O emissions were observed at pH 7.5, although the ammonia oxidation rate was unchanged between pH 6.5 and 8.5. Overall, the results of this study suggest that in situ analyses of PN granules are essential to gaining insight into N2O emission mechanisms in a granule.

  18. Regression model-based predictions of diel, diurnal and nocturnal dissolved oxygen dynamics after wavelet denoising of noisy time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrendilek, F.; Karakaya, N.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous time-series measurements of diel dissolved oxygen (DO) through online sensors are vital to better understanding and management of metabolism of lake ecosystems, but are prone to noise. Discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) with the orthogonal Symmlet and the semiorthogonal Chui-Wang B-spline were compared in denoising diel, daytime and nighttime dynamics of DO, water temperature, pH, and chlorophyll-a. Predictive efficacies of multiple non-linear regression (MNLR) models of DO dynamics were evaluated with or without DWT denoising of either the response variable alone or all the response and explanatory variables. The combined use of the B-spline-based denoising of all the variables and the temporally partitioned data improved both the predictive power and the errors of the MNLR models better than the use of Symmlet DWT denoising of DO only or all the variables with or without the temporal partitioning.

  19. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  20. Dissolved oxygen and dietary phosphorus modulate utilization and effluent partitioning of phosphorus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Nichole K; Sugiura, Shozo H; Kehler, Thomas; Fletcher, John W; Coloso, Relicardo M; Weis, Peddrick; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2005-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the limiting nutrient in freshwater primary production, and excessive levels cause premature eutrophication. P levels in aquaculture effluents are now tightly regulated. Increasing our understanding of waste P partitioning into soluble, particulate, and settleable fractions is important in the management of effluent P. When water supply is limited, dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) decreases below the optimum levels. Therefore, we studied effects of DO (6 and 10mg/L) and dietary P (0.7 and 1.0% P) on rainbow trout growth, P utilization, and effluent P partitioning. Biomass increased by 40% after 3 weeks. DO at 10mg/L significantly increased fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased the amount of P in the soluble fraction of the effluent. Soluble effluent P was greater in fish fed 1.0% P. DO increases fish growth and modulates P partitioning in aquaculture effluent.

  1. Regeneration of elemental sulfur in a simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal reactor under different dissolved oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Mingxiang

    2015-04-01

    A continuous reactor in microaerobic conditions was adopted for sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing and elemental sulfur (S(0)) regenerating, simultaneously. The results showed that appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced S(0) regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation efficiency, and nitrate reduction efficiency. When the DO concentration was 0.1-0.3 mg L(-1), the microaerobic bioreactor simultaneously converted 8.16 kg-Sm(-3)d(-1) of sulfide to S(0) and 2.48 kg-Nm(-3)d(-1) of nitrate to nitrogen with the sulfide and nitrate removal efficiency of 100% and 90% respectively. Compared with anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal process previously reported, the loading sulfide was higher and more S(0) was generated during the operation in microaerobic reactor. Analysis using the 16S rDNA gene clone library revealed that Azoarcus, Thauera, Paracoccus, Sulfurospirillum, Arcobacter and Clostridium were the dominant microorganisms in the sulfide and nitrate removal system.

  2. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; ...

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unitymore » were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.« less

  3. The distribution of nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a in the upper Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Palter, Jaime; Coto, Sandra León; Ballestero, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    In the Gulf of Nicoya on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica, nutrient rich equatorial subsurface water (ESW) is upwelled in much of the lower gulf. These offshore waters are often regarded as the major source of nutrients to the gulf. However, for most of the year, the ESW has little influence on the nutrient content of the upper gulf, which has a distinct character from the lower gulf. The upper gulf, extending 40 km north of the restriction between Puntarenas Peninsula and San Lucas Island, is bordered primarily by mangrove swamps, is less than 20 m deep, and is less saline than the lower gulf. We surveyed the upper gulf for dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, silicate, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll in November 2000, January and July 2001. All nutrients are more concentrated in the upper gulf during the rainy and transitional seasons than the dry season, significantly so for phosphate and silicate. Throughout the year, nutrients tend to be much more concentrated in the less saline water of the upper gulf. This trend indicates that discharge from the Tempisque River predominantly controls spatial and temporal nutrient variability in the upper gulf. However, nutrient rich ESW, upwelled offshore and mixed to form a mid-temperature intermediate water, may enter the inner gulf to provide an important secondary source of nutrients during the dry season.

  4. Effects of simulated natural and massive resuspension on benthic oxygen, nutrient and dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in Loch Creran, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Tengberg, Anders; Andersson, Sara; Apler, Anna; Hall, Per O. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of repeated natural resuspension on benthic oxygen consumption and the effect of natural and massive resuspension on oxygen consumption and fluxes of phosphate, silicate, ammonium and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were studied at two stations (S1 and S2) in a Scottish sea loch. Station S11 had organically enriched sediment and station S1 had lower organic content in the sediment. The fluxes were measured in situ using the Göteborg benthic lander. Natural resuspension, simulating resuspension events due to strong wind, waves or currents, and massive resuspension, simulating resuspension due to e.g. trawling or dredging, were created inside the incubation chambers by regulating the stirring of the incubated overlying water or by retracting and shaking the incubated sediment. Natural resuspension showed clear effects on the oxygen consumption at station S11, where it increased with an average of 12.8 (standard error (s.e.) 0.17) and 7.7 (s.e. 0.12) mmol m- 2 d- 1 during the first and second incubations, respectively. At station S1 there was no clear effect of natural resuspension on the oxygen consumption. Massive resuspension increased the oxygen consumption on S1 with an average of 608 (standard deviation (sd) 366) mmol m- 2 d- 1 and on S11 with an average of 2396 (sd 2265) mmol m- 2 d- 1. The fluxes of ammonium, phosphate and silicate were affected by the massive resuspension in 50, 14 and 33% of the chambers, respectively, on station S11. However, in the majority of the cases there were no effects on the nutrient and DIC fluxes of massive resuspension. The absolute concentrations of DIC, ammonium and silicate did however instantly increase with an average of 419 (sd 297), 48 (sd 27) and 6.9 (sd 3.7) μM, respectively, at S11 upon massive resuspension. The concentrations of phosphate decreased instantly with an average of 0.2 (sd 0.1) μM. On station S1 there were effects only on the ammonium and silicate concentrations, which increased with 0.8 (sd

  5. Oceanic primary productivity and dissolved oxygen levels at the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary: Their decrease, subsequent warming, and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiho, Kunio; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Tazaki, Kazue; Ueshima, Masato; Takeda, Nobuyori; Kawahata, Hodaka; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Hirai, Akio; Lamolda, Marcos A.

    1999-08-01

    Thirty-six different geochemical and foraminiferal analyses were conducted on samples collected at closely spaced intervals across the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary exposed at Caravaca, Spain. A rapid reduction in the gradient between δ13C values in fine fraction carbonate and benthic foraminiferal calcite and a decrease in the abundance of phosphorus (a proxy for organic carbon) and calcium were recorded in sediments 0-0.5 cm above the K/T boundary. These trends imply that an abrupt mass mortality occurred among pelagic organisms, leading to a significant reduction in the flux of organic carbon to the seafloor. In addition, variations in sulfur isotope ratios, the hydrocarbon-generating potential of kerogen (measured as the hydrogen index), and foraminiferal indices of dissolved oxygen level all imply that a rapid decrease in dissolved oxygen was coincident with the δ13C event. Evidence of the low oxygen event has also been recognized in Japan and New Zealand, suggesting that intermediate water oxygen minima were widely developed during earliest Danian time. A threefold increase in the kaolinite/illite ratio and a 1.2‰ decrease in δ18O (carbonate fine fraction) were recorded in the basal 0.1-2 cm of Danian age sediments. These trends suggest that atmospheric warming and an increase in surface water temperature occurred 0-3 kyr after the δ13C event. Recovery in the difference between δ13C values in the carbonate fine fraction and in benthic foraminiferal calcite as well as increases in phosphorus and calcium contents occur at the base of planktonic foraminiferal Zone Pla, implying that an increase in primary productivity commenced some 13 kyr after the K/T boundary. Tables A1-A3 are available on diskette or via Anonymous FTP from kosmos.agu.org directory APENO (Username = anonymous, Password = guest). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $15.00. Payment must

  6. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  7. Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

    2015-03-01

    Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation.

  8. Activity Trends of Binary Silver Alloy Nanocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Fuyi; Zhang, Nan; Lei, Yimin; Jin, Yachao; Qaseem, Adnan; Johnston, Roy L

    2017-02-02

    The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-based alloys exhibits a strong dependence on their electronic structures, but a relationship between electronic structure and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in Ag-based alloys is still not clear. Here, a vapor deposition based approach is reported for the preparation of Ag75 M25 (M = Cu, Co, Fe, and In) and Agx Cu100-x (x = 0, 25, 45, 50, 55, 75, 90, and 100) nanocatalysts and their electronic structures are determined by valence band spectra. The relationship of the d-band center and ORR activity exhibits volcano-shape behaviors, where the maximum catalytic activity is obtained for Ag75 Cu25 alloys. The ORR enhancement of Ag75 Cu25 alloys originates from the 0.12 eV upshift in d-band center relative to pure Ag, which is different from the downshift in the d-band center in Pt-based alloys. The activity trend for these Ag75 M25 alloys is in the order of Ag75 Cu25 > Ag75 Fe25 > Ag75 Co25 . These results provide an insight to understand the activity and stability enhancement of Ag75 Cu25 and Ag50 Cu50 catalysts by alloying.

  9. Relation between flows and dissolved oxygen in the Roanoke River between Roanoke Rapids Dam and Jamesville, North Carolina, 2005-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Wagner, Chad R.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between dam releases and dissolved-oxygen concentration, saturation and deficit, downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam in North Carolina was evaluated from 2005 to 2009. Dissolved-oxygen data collected at four water-quality monitoring stations downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam were used to determine if any statistical relations or discernible quantitative or qualitative patterns linked Roanoke River in-stream dissolved-oxygen levels to hydropower peaking at Roanoke Rapids Dam. Unregulated tributaries that inundate and drain portions of the Roanoke River flood plain are crucial in relation to in-stream dissolved oxygen. Hydropower peaking from 2005 to 2009 both inundated and drained portions of the flood plain independently of large storms. The effects of these changes in flow on dissolved-oxygen dynamics are difficult to isolate, however, because of (1) the variable travel time for water to move down the 112-mile reach of the Roanoke River from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Jamesville, North Carolina, and (2) the range of in-situ conditions, particularly inundation history and water temperature, in the flood plain. Statistical testing was conducted on the travel-time-adjusted hourly data measured at each of the four water-quality stations between May and November 2005-2009 when the weekly mean flow was 5,000-12,000 cubic feet per second (a range when Roanoke Rapids Dam operations likely affect tributary and flood-plain water levels). Results of this statistical testing indicate that at the 99-percent confidence interval dissolved-oxygen levels downstream from Roanoke Rapids Dam were lower during peaking weeks than during non-peaking weeks in three of the five years and higher in one of the five years; no data were available for weeks with peaking in 2007. For the four years of statistically significant differences in dissolved oxygen between peaking and non-peaking weeks, three of the years had statistically signficant differences in water temperature. Years

  10. Effects of dissolved oxygen level on rapamycin production by pellet-form of Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Hsiao, Hsin-Pei

    2013-09-01

    Rapamycin was known to have the functions of being an antibiotic and immunosuppressant; recently it was also recognized as being able to retard the aging process. The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) level on rapamycin production by pellet-form of Streptomyces hygroscopicus were investigated in this study. The results suggest that a high DO level is required to enhance rapamycin production. However, the premise for getting a high rapamycin concentration by using DO control was keeping the intact of pellet-form of S. hygroscopicus. What if the high DO level achieved was coming from the increase of agitation; it might break down the morphology of pellets-form in the fermentation tank and result in the decrease of rapamycin production. The maximum rapamycin obtained in this study was about 780 mg/L in the 5 L fermentor batch with DO controlled over 30%, with the supplement of pure oxygen in the inlet gas, and the agitation speed limited to less than 200 rpm. Conclusively, a high DO level and the morphology of pellets form both were detrimental to achieving a high rapamycin production by S. hygroscopicus in the agitation fermentor.

  11. Influence of iron sulfides on abiotic oxidation of UO2 by nitrite and dissolved oxygen in natural sediments.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Julian; Bi, Yuqiang; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-01-20

    Iron sulfide precipitates formed under sulfate reducing conditions may buffer U(IV) insoluble solid phases from reoxidation after oxidants re-enter the reducing zone. In this study, sediment column experiments were performed to quantify the effect of biogenic mackinawite on U(IV) stability in the presence of nitrite or dissolved oxygen (DO). Two columns, packed with sediment from an abandoned U contaminated mill tailings site near Rifle, CO, were biostimulated for 62 days with an electron donor (3 mM acetate) in the presence (BRS+) and absence (BRS−) of 7 mM sulfate. The bioreduced sediment was supplemented with synthetic uraninite (UO2(s)), sterilized by gamma-irradiation, and then subjected to a sequential oxidation by nitrite and DO. Biogenic iron sulfides produced in the BRS+ column, mostly as mackinawite, inhibited U(IV) reoxidation and mobilization by both nitrite and oxygen. Most of the influent nitrite (0.53 mM) exited the columns without oxidizing UO2, while a small amount of nitrite was consumed by iron sulfides precipitates. An additional 10-day supply of 0.25 mM DO influent resulted in the release of about 10% and 49% of total U in BRS+ and BRS– columns, respectively. Influent DO was effectively consumed by biogenic iron sulfides in the BRS+ column, while DO and a large U spike were detected after only a brief period in the effluent in the BRS– column.

  12. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  13. The kinetics of the oxidation of pyrite by ferric ions and dissolved oxygen: An electrochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, P.R.; Crundwell, F.K.

    2000-01-01

    The dissolution of pyrite is important in the geochemical cycling of iron and sulphur, in the formation of acid mine drainage, and in the extraction of metals by bacterial leaching. Many researchers have studied the kinetics of dissolution, and the rate of dissolution has often been found to be half-order in ferric ions or oxygen. Previous work has not adequately explained the kinetics of dissolution of pyrite. The dissolution of pyrite is an oxidation-reduction reaction. The kinetics of the oxidation and reduction half-reactions was studied independently using electrochemical techniques of voltammetry. The kinetics of the overall reaction was studied by the electrochemical technique of potentiometry, which consisted of measuring the mixed potential of a sample of corroding pyrite in solutions of different compositions. The kinetics of the half reactions are related to the kinetics of the overall dissolution reaction by the condition that there is no accumulation of charge. This principle is used to derive expressions for the mixed potential and the rate of dissolution, which successfully describe the mixed potential measurements and the kinetics of dissolution reported in the literature. It is shown that the observations of half-order kinetics and that the oxygen in the sulphate product arises from water are both a direct consequence of the electrochemical mechanism. Thus it is concluded that the electrochemical reaction steps occurring at the mineral-solution interface control the rate of dissolution. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze reaction products formed on the pyrite surface. The results indicated that small amounts of polysulphides form on the surface of the pyrite. However, it was also found that the mixed (corrosion) potential does not change over a 14-day leaching period. This indicates that even though polysulphide material is present on the surface, it does not influence the rate of the reactions occurring at the surface. Measurement of the

  14. Oxygen evolution reaction characteristics of synthetic nickel-cobalt-oxide electrodes for alkaline anion-exchange membrane water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Tae Woo; Park, ChanSu; Kim, Yang Do; Lee, Dooyong; Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Choi, Chul Young

    2015-11-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis system can produce high-purity hydrogen gases in a highly efficient manner. However, the level of hydrogen gas production is still small. In addition, noble-metal catalysts for the reaction in acidic environments, as well as an additional drying step to remove water contained in the hydrogen, are required. Therefore, water electrolysis system with high efficiency and lower cost, an alkaline anion-exchange membrane system that can produce high-purity hydrogen without a noble-metal catalyst, is needed. Nano-size NiCo2O4 powders were prepared by using a sol-gel method to achieve an efficient and economical water electrolysis system. When the powder was calcined at 450 °C, the crystallinity and the cyclic voltammogram measurement showed the best values. In addition, the 15-wt.% polytetrafluoroethylene mixed NiCo2O4 powders exhibited the largest cyclic voltammetry active area and the highest oxygen evolution reaction activity with the appropriate stability.

  15. Manganese oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Vigil, Julian A.

    2016-08-22

    Manganese oxide/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (MnOx/ PEDOT) nanostructured hybrid thin films were prepared using a simple anodic electrodeposition process from aqueous solution, and then tested for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline electrolyte using rotating disk electrode and rotating ring disk electrode methods. MnOx/PEDOT provided improvements over MnOx-only and PEDOT-only control films, with > 0.2 V decrease in onset and half-wave overpotentials, and > 1.5 times increase in terminal current density. The MnOx/PEDOT film exhibited only a slightly lower n value (n = 3.86-3.92) than the 20% Pt/C benchmark electrocatalyst (n = 3.98) across all potentials. MnOx/PEDOT also displayed a more positive half-wave potential and superior electrocatalytic selectivity for the ORR upon methanol exposure than 20% Pt/C. Here, the high activity and synergism of MnOx/PEDOT towards the ORR is attributed to effective intermixing/dispersion of the two materials, intimate substrate contact with improved charge transfer processes attained by co-electrodepositing MnOx with PEDOT and due to the increase in Mn3+ content at the surface of the oxide.

  16. Manganese oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Vigil, Julian A.

    2016-08-22

    Manganese oxide/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) (MnOx/ PEDOT) nanostructured hybrid thin films were prepared using a simple anodic electrodeposition process from aqueous solution, and then tested for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline electrolyte using rotating disk electrode and rotating ring disk electrode methods. MnOx/PEDOT provided improvements over MnOx-only and PEDOT-only control films, with > 0.2 V decrease in onset and half-wave overpotentials, and > 1.5 times increase in terminal current density. The MnOx/PEDOT film exhibited only a slightly lower n value (n = 3.86-3.92) than the 20% Pt/C benchmark electrocatalyst (n = 3.98) across all potentials. MnOx/PEDOT also displayed a more positivemore » half-wave potential and superior electrocatalytic selectivity for the ORR upon methanol exposure than 20% Pt/C. Here, the high activity and synergism of MnOx/PEDOT towards the ORR is attributed to effective intermixing/dispersion of the two materials, intimate substrate contact with improved charge transfer processes attained by co-electrodepositing MnOx with PEDOT and due to the increase in Mn3+ content at the surface of the oxide.« less

  17. N-doped graphene coupled with Co nanoparticles as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Lu, Wangting; Cao, Feifei; Xiao, Zhidong; Zheng, Xinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Development of low-cost and highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a great challenge for the large-scale application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, a noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in the form of N-doped graphene coupled with part of Co nanoparticles encased in N-doped graphitic shells (named as SUCo-0.03-800) is prepared by facile one-step pyrolysis of the mixture of sucrose, urea and cobalt nitrate. The novel structure is confirmed by High Resolution-TEM, XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. SUCo-0.03-800 presents comparable ORR catalytic activity to commercial Pt/C catalyst with a dominating four-electron pathway under alkaline conditions, and both of its mass activity and volume activity also outperform Co-free N-doped graphene and other Co/N-C hybrids with higher Co content, which may probably be ascribed to the high specific surface area, novel structure and synergistic effect between encased Co nanoparticles and N-doped graphitic shell. Additionally, SUCo-0.03-800 also shows outstanding stability and improved selectivity towards ORR, making it a promising alternative to Pt with potential application in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  18. Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

    2004-01-01

    Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

  19. Hyperproduction of cordycepin by two-stage dissolved oxygen control in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xian-Bing; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Effect of oxygen supply on cordycepin production was investigated in submerged cultivation of Cordyceps militaris, a famous traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, in a 5-L turbine-agitated bioreactor (TAB). Initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) within the range of 11.5-113.8 h(-1) had significant influence on cordycepin production. The highest cordycepin concentration of 167.5 mg/L was obtained at an initial kLa value of 54.5 h(-1), where a moderate dissolved oxygen (DO) pattern was observed throughout cultivation. The possible correlation between cordycepin production and DO level was explored by DO control experiments, and the results showed that DO within the range of 10-80% of air saturation greatly affected the cultivation process. To obtain a high specific cordycepin formation rate (rho) throughout cultivation, a two-stage DO control strategy was developed based on the analysis of the relationship of rho and DO. That is, DO was controlled at 60% from the beginning of cultivation and then shifted to a lower control level of 30% when rho started to decrease. As a result, a high cordycepin production of 201.1 mg/L and a high productivity of 15.5 mg/(L.d) were achieved, which was enhanced by about 15% and 30% compared to the highest titers obtained in conventional DO control experiments, respectively. The proposed DO control strategy was also applied to a recently developed 5-L centrifugal impeller bioreactor (CIB) with cordycepin production and productivity titers of 188.3 mg/L and 14.5 mg/(L.d). Furthermore, the scale-up of the two-stage DO control process from 5-L CIB to 30-L CIB was successfully demonstrated. The work is useful for the efficient large-scale production of bioactive metabolites by mushroom cultures.

  20. Assessment of the Correlation of Long-Term Hydrodynamic Variations and Dissolved Oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extent, duration, and severity of summer bottom hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay depend on both biochemical and physical processes. Variations in physical forcings resulting in changes of estuarine stratification, gravitational circulation, and vertical exchange processes highly control the severity of the summer hypoxia. We recently developed a conceptual model to describe the low DO condition in the Bay based on transport timescales of estuarine gravitational circulation and vertical exchange, and the timescale of the total oxygen consumption rate of the biochemical processes, which enable us to decouple the influences of physical and biochemical processes on dissolved oxygen (DO) and diagnose the modulation of external forcings on bottom DO. The transport timescales introduced provide a linkage between the dynamic and biochemical processes and can be used directly to evaluate the influence of a change of these dynamics on hypoxia in the Bay. The long-term transport timescales of the Chesapeake Bay have been computed using a 3D model with respect to the freshwater and wind forcing variations over a 30-year period. Coupling with a timescale of the biochemical oxygen consumption, the correlation of change of dynamics and hypoxic conditions in the bottom waters in the Chesapeake Bay can be examined. The changes of wind forcing and freshwater over a 30-year period and the resultant change of transport timescale are examined, and the influence of external forcing on long-term variation of summer bottom hypoxia is discussed. By using filtering to remove the modulation of physical processes on DO, the change of biochemical processes can be isolated and examined.

  1. Impact of Dissolved Oxygen on Feed Conversion, Feed Consumption, and Growth of Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus, Channel Catfish I. punctatus, and Blue X Channel Catfish Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 15 1-acre and six ¼-acre ponds over several years to determine the effect of low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on food conversion ratio (FCR), food consumption, growth, and net production of blue catfish (BC), channel catfish (CC), and their hybrid (BC X CC). Control ...

  2. Assessment of suspended-sediment transport, bedload, and dissolved oxygen during a short-term drawdown of Fall Creek Lake, Oregon, winter 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Liam N.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    The drawdown of Fall Creek Lake resulted in the net transport of approximately 50,300 tons of sediment from the lake during a 6-day drawdown operation, based on computed daily values of suspended-sediment load downstream of Fall Creek Dam and the two main tributaries to Fall Creek Lake. A suspended-sediment budget calculated for 72 days of the study period indicates that as a result of drawdown operations, there was approximately 16,300 tons of sediment deposition within the reaches of Fall Creek and the Middle Fork Willamette River between Fall Creek Dam and the streamgage on the Middle Fork Willamette River at Jasper, Oregon. Bedload samples collected at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam during the drawdown were primarily composed of medium to fine sands and accounted for an average of 11 percent of the total instantaneous sediment load (also termed sediment discharge) during sample collection. Monitoring of dissolved oxygen at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam showed an initial decrease in dissolved oxygen concurrent with the sediment release over the span of 5 hours, though the extent of dissolved oxygen depletion is unknown because of extreme and rapid fouling of the probe by the large amount of sediment in transport. Dissolved oxygen returned to background levels downstream of Fall Creek Dam on December 18, 2012, approximately 1 day after the end of the drawdown operation.

  3. Effect of magnesium ions on the stable oxygen isotope equilibrium between dissolved inorganic carbon species and water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Zeebe, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) values of foraminiferal calcites, which represent one of the most fundamental paleoceanographic tools to reconstruct ancient seawater temperatures, are influenced by seawater pH variations. Understanding the driving mechanism for such phenomenon requires precise knowledge of the equilibrium 18O fractionation factors between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species and water. An experimental study by Beck et al. (2005) successfully refined the 18O fractionation factors between DIC components and water. Based on these results, the overall 18O fractionation between total DIC and water as a function of pH can be readily calculated (e.g., Zeebe, 2007). However, these calculations may not be applicable to seawater because the fractionation factors were measured in freshwater. Natural seawater contains numerous ionic species and other dissolved constituents, which may affect the fractionation factors. For example, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the presence of magnesium ions (Mg2+) in solutions affect equilibrium carbon isotope (13C) fractionation between aqueous CO2 and carbonate ions presumably due to the enrichment of 13C isotopes in Mg-CO30 complexes (Thode et al., 1965). This suggests that the presence of Mg2+ in solutions similarly affects the 18O fractionation factors between DIC species and water. On the other hand, Beck et al. (2005) concluded that the effect of ion pairs on the δ18O equilibrium appears to be negligible. However, this conclusion may not apply to ion paring in general, because experiments were not conducted for metal ions other than Na+. Given that Mg2+ has a marked effect on the equilibrium δ13C fractionation factors and Mg-CO30 is the most abundant form of metal-CO3-complexes in natural seawater, the potential effect of Mg2+ on the 18O fractionation factors between DIC components and water needs to be examined. Here, we will present preliminary results from quantitative carbonate precipitation

  4. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Li, Ling; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Narayanan, S. R.; Quesnel, David J.; Tryk, Donald A.; Manivannan, A.

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unity were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.

  5. High pressure pyrolyzed non-precious metal oxygen reduction catalysts for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2015-05-07

    Non-precious metal catalysts, such as metal-coordinated to nitrogen doped-carbon, have shown reasonable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performances in alkaline fuel cells. In this report, we present the development of a highly active, stable and low-cost non-precious metal ORR catalyst by direct synthesis under autogenic-pressure conditions. Transmission electron microscopy studies show highly porous Fe-N-C and Co-N-C structures, which were further confirmed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements. The surface areas of the Fe-N-C and Co-N-C catalysts were found to be 377.5 and 369.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively. XPS results show the possible existence of N-C and M-Nx structures, which are generally proposed to be the active sites in non-precious metal catalysts. The Fe-N-C electrocatalyst exhibits an ORR half-wave potential 20 mV higher than the reference Pt/C catalyst. The cycling durability test for Fe-N-C over 5000 cycles shows that the half-wave potential lost only 4 mV, whereas the half-wave potential of the Pt/C catalyst lost about 50 mV. The Fe-N-C catalyst exhibited an improved activity and stability compared to the reference Pt/C catalyst and it possesses a direct 4-electron transfer pathway for the ORR process. Further, the Fe-N-C catalyst produces extremely low HO2(-) content, as confirmed by the rotating ring-disk electrode measurements. In the alkaline fuel single cell tests, maximum power densities of 75 and 80 mW cm(-2) were observed for the Fe-N-C and Pt/C cathodes, respectively. Durability studies (100 h) showed that decay of the fuel cell current was more prominent for the Pt/C cathode catalyst compared to the Fe-N-C cathode catalyst. Therefore, the Fe-N-C catalyst appears to be a promising new class of non-precious metal catalysts prepared by an autogenic synthetic method.

  6. Effect of the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall inputs in water quality integrated catchment modelling for dissolved oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Ródenas, Antonio Manuel; Cecinati, Francesca; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Langeveld, Jeroen; Clemens, Francois

    2016-04-01

    Maintaining water quality standards in highly urbanised hydrological catchments is a worldwide challenge. Water management authorities struggle to cope with changing climate and an increase in pollution pressures. Water quality modelling has been used as a decision support tool for investment and regulatory developments. This approach led to the development of integrated catchment models (ICM), which account for the link between the urban/rural hydrology and the in-river pollutant dynamics. In the modelled system, rainfall triggers the drainage systems of urban areas scattered along a river. When flow exceeds the sewer infrastructure capacity, untreated wastewater enters the natural system by combined sewer overflows. This results in a degradation of the river water quality, depending on the magnitude of the emission and river conditions. Thus, being capable of representing these dynamics in the modelling process is key for a correct assessment of the water quality. In many urbanised hydrological systems the distances between draining sewer infrastructures go beyond the de-correlation length of rainfall processes, especially, for convective summer storms. Hence, spatial and temporal scales of selected rainfall inputs are expected to affect water quality dynamics. The objective of this work is to evaluate how the use of rainfall data from different sources and with different space-time characteristics affects modelled output concentrations of dissolved oxygen in a simplified ICM. The study area is located at the Dommel, a relatively small and sensitive river flowing through the city of Eindhoven (The Netherlands). This river stretch receives the discharge of the 750,000 p.e. WWTP of Eindhoven and from over 200 combined sewer overflows scattered along its length. A pseudo-distributed water quality model has been developed in WEST (mikedhi.com); this is a lumped-physically based model that accounts for urban drainage processes, WWTP and river dynamics for several

  7. Relation Between Flow and Dissolved Oxygen in the Roanoke River Between Roanoke Rapids and Jamesville, North Carolina, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relation between dam release characteristics and downstream water quality in the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, is important for natural-resource management and ecosystem protection. Data from four raingages, four water-quality monitoring sites, and one streamflow-measurement site were used to identify statistical relations and discernible quantitative or qualitative patterns linking Roanoke River instream dissolved-oxygen (DO) levels to releases at Roanoke Rapids Dam for the period 1998-2005. The time-series DO data, complicated by the occurrence of major hurricanes in the short period of hourly DO data collection at the dam, present a mixed picture of the effects of hydropower peaking (a technique used by hydropower dam operators to produce electricity when consumption is high by passing a large volume of water through the dam turbines, which dramatically increases the volume of flow below the dam) on downstream DO. Other than in 2003 when dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Roanoke River were likely affected by runoff from Hurricane Isabel rains, there were not consistent, statistically significant differences detected in the annual medians of hourly and(or) daily DO values during peaking versus nonpeaking periods. Along the Roanoke River, downstream of Roanoke Rapids Dam at Oak City, North Carolina, using a 95-percent confidence interval, the median value of the May-November daily mean DO concentrations for each year was lower during peaking periods for 2 years, higher for 2 years, and not significantly different for 4 years. Downstream at Jamesville, North Carolina, also using a 95-percent confidence interval, the median value of the annual May-November daily mean DO concentrations during hydropower peaking was lower for 4 years, higher for 2 years, and not significantly different for 2 years. In summary, the effect of hydropower peaking on downstream DO was inconsistent. Conversely, large precipitation events downstream from the dam

  8. Modelling coupled turbulence - dissolved oxygen dynamics near the sediment-water interface under wind waves and sea swell.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Guizien, Katell

    2010-03-01

    A one-dimensional vertical unsteady numerical model for diffusion-consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) above and below the sediment-water interface was developed to investigate DO profile dynamics under wind waves and sea swell (high-frequency oscillatory flows with periods ranging from 2 to 30s). We tested a new approach to modelling DO profiles that coupled an oscillatory turbulent bottom boundary layer model with a Michaelis-Menten based consumption model. The flow regime controls both the mean value and the fluctuations of the oxygen mass transfer efficiency during a wave cycle, as expressed by the non-dimensional Sherwood number defined with the maximum shear velocity (Sh). The Sherwood number was found to be non-dependent on the sediment biogeochemical activity (mu). In the laminar regime, both cycle-averaged and variance of the Sherwood number are very low (Sh <0.05, VAR(Sh)<0.1%). In the turbulent regime, the cycle-averaged Sherwood number is larger (Sh approximately 0.2). The Sherwood number also has intra-wave cycle fluctuations that increase with the wave Reynolds number (VAR(Sh) up to 30%). Our computations show that DO mass transfer efficiency under high-frequency oscillatory flows in the turbulent regime are water-side controlled by: (a) the diffusion time across the diffusive boundary layer and (b) diffusive boundary layer dynamics during a wave cycle. As a result of these two processes, when the wave period decreases, the Sh minimum increases and the Sh maximum decreases. Sh values vary little, ranging from 0.17 to 0.23. For periods up to 30s, oxygen penetration depth into the sediment did not show any intra-wave fluctuations. Values for the laminar regime are small (oxygen penetration depth reaches values up to five times larger than those in the laminar regime, becoming asymptotic as the maximum shear velocity increases.

  9. Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity of iron-containing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratso, Sander; Kruusenberg, Ivar; Sarapuu, Ave; Rauwel, Protima; Saar, Rando; Joost, Urmas; Aruväli, Jaan; Kanninen, Petri; Kallio, Tanja; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2016-11-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts for electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction are synthesised by pyrolysis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of nitrogen and iron precursors. For the physico-chemical characterisation of the catalysts transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used. The electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts for oxygen reduction is studied in 0.1 M KOH solution using the rotating disk electrode method. The Fe-containing nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes exhibit an enhanced electrocatalytic performance as compared to metal-free counterparts and their electrocatalytic activity is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. Alkaline direct methanol fuel cell tests also show performance close to Pt/C. Thus, these materials can be considered as promising cathode catalysts for application in alkaline fuel cells.

  10. Investigation of the Alkaline Electrochemical Interface and Development of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides for Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Michael

    Understanding the fundamentals of electrochemical interfaces will undoubtedly reveal a path forward towards a society based on clean and renewable energy. In particular, it has been proposed that hydrogen can play a major role as an energy carrier of the future. To fully utilize the clean energy potential of a hydrogen economy, it is vital to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis, thus avoiding co-production of CO2 inherent to reformate hydrogen. While significant research efforts elsewhere are focused on photo-chemical hydrogen production from water, the inherent low efficiency of this method would require a massive land-use footprint to achieve sufficient hydrogen production rates to integrate hydrogen into energy markets. Thus, this research has primarily focused on the water splitting reactions on base-metal catalysts in the alkaline environment. Development of high-performance base-metal catalysts will help move alkaline water electrolysis to the forefront of hydrogen production methods, and when paired with solar and wind energy production, represents a clean and renewable energy economy. In addition to the water electrolysis reactions, research was conducted to understand the de-activation of reversible hydrogen electrodes in the corrosive environment of the hydrogen-bromine redox flow battery. Redox flow batteries represent a promising energy storage option to overcome the intermittency challenge of wind and solar energy production methods. Optimization of modular and scalable energy storage technology will allow higher penetration of renewable wind and solar energy into the grid. In Chapter 1, an overview of renewable energy production methods and energy storage options is presented. In addition, the fundamentals of electrochemical analysis and physical characterization of the catalysts are discussed. Chapter 2 reports the development of a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline

  11. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Wilber, William G.; Peters, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Little Laughery Creek triutary and Little Laughery Creek, Ripley and Franklin Counties, Ind., was used to predict alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero. Headwater flow upstream from the wastewater-treatment facilities consists solely of process cooling water from an industrial discharger. This flow is usually less than 0.5 cubic foot per second. Consequently, benefits from dilution are minimal. As a result, current and projected ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the municipal discharges will result in in-stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations that exceed the Indiana ammonia-nitrogen toxicity standards (maximum stream ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 2.5 and 4.0 milligrams per liter during summer and winter low flows, respectively). Benthic-oxygen demand is probably the most significant factor affecting Little Laughery Creek and is probably responsible for the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration being less than the Indiana stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5.0 milligrams per liter) during two water-quality surveys. After municipal dischargers complete advanced waste-treatment facilities, benthic-oxygen demand should be less significant in the stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. (USGS)

  12. High pressure pyrolyzed non-precious metal oxygen reduction catalysts for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2015-04-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts, such as metal-coordinated to nitrogen doped-carbon, have shown reasonable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performances in alkaline fuel cells. In this report, we present the development of a highly active, stable and low-cost non-precious metal ORR catalyst by direct synthesis under autogenic-pressure conditions. Transmission electron microscopy studies show highly porous Fe-N-C and Co-N-C structures, which were further confirmed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements. The surface areas of the Fe-N-C and Co-N-C catalysts were found to be 377.5 and 369.3 m2 g-1, respectively. XPS results show the possible existence of N-C and M-Nx structures, which are generally proposed to be the active sites in non-precious metal catalysts. The Fe-N-C electrocatalyst exhibits an ORR half-wave potential 20 mV higher than the reference Pt/C catalyst. The cycling durability test for Fe-N-C over 5000 cycles shows that the half-wave potential lost only 4 mV, whereas the half-wave potential of the Pt/C catalyst lost about 50 mV. The Fe-N-C catalyst exhibited an improved activity and stability compared to the reference Pt/C catalyst and it possesses a direct 4-electron transfer pathway for the ORR process. Further, the Fe-N-C catalyst produces extremely low HO2- content, as confirmed by the rotating ring-disk electrode measurements. In the alkaline fuel single cell tests, maximum power densities of 75 and 80 mW cm-2 were observed for the Fe-N-C and Pt/C cathodes, respectively. Durability studies (100 h) showed that decay of the fuel cell current was more prominent for the Pt/C cathode catalyst compared to the Fe-N-C cathode catalyst. Therefore, the Fe-N-C catalyst appears to be a promising new class of non-precious metal catalysts prepared by an autogenic synthetic method.Non-precious metal catalysts, such as metal-coordinated to nitrogen doped-carbon, have shown reasonable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performances in alkaline fuel cells. In

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen on elemental sulfur generation in sulfide and nitrate removal process: characterization, pathway, and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-03-01

    Microaerobic bioreactor treatment for enriched sulfide and nitrate has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to improve the efficiencies of elemental sulfur (S(0)) generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction. However, there is little detailed information for the effect and mechanism of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the variations of microbial community in sulfur generation, sulfide oxidation, and nitrate reduction systems. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was employed to evaluate the variations of microbial community structures in a sulfide oxidation and nitrate reduction reactor under different DO conditions (DO 0-0.7 mg · L(-1)). Experimental results revealed that the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) could be greatly stimulated in 0.1-0.3 mg-DO · L(-1). However, when the DO concentration was further elevated to more than 0.5 mg · L(-1), the abundance of NRB was markedly decreased, while the heterotrophic microorganisms, especially carbon degradation species, were enriched. The reaction pathways for sulfide and nitrate removal under microaerobic conditions were also deduced by combining batch experiments with functional species analysis. It was likely that the oxidation of sulfide to sulfur could be performed by both aerobic heterotrophic SOB and sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification bacteria with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptor, respectively. The nitrate could be reduced to nitrite by both autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification, and then the generated nitrite could be completely converted to nitrogen gas via heterotrophic denitrification. This study provides new insights into the impacts of microaerobic conditions on the microbial community functional structures of sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing, and sulfur-producing bioreactors, which revealing the potential linkage between functional microbial communities and

  14. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  15. Response of nitrite accumulation and microbial community to free ammonia and dissolved oxygen treatment of high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Junya; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of free ammonia (FA) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on nitrite accumulation in the treatment of high ammonium wastewater and on the evolution of the microbial community were investigated. Under high DO conditions (3.75 ± 0.49 mg/L), FA as high as 10.61 ± 2.89 mg NH3/L maintained stable nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) of 84 % with NH4 (+)-N load of 2.05 kg N/(m(3) day) at sludge retention time (SRT) of 15-18 days. After 56 days of operation, Proteobacteria and Nitrosomonas were the dominant phylum and genus, respectively; Nitrosomonas increased from 21.14 to 54.57 %. By contrast, under relative low DO and low FA, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were nearly eliminated (NOB/AOB of 0; ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)), and NAR of 94 % was achieved with lower NH4 (+)-N load of 0.48 kg N/(m(3) day). DO correlated with AOB and NOB abundance, and FA decreased NOB activity and the NOB/AOB ratio. In conclusion, high FA and high DO conditions are optimal for efficient nitrite accumulation.

  16. Impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on membrane filtering resistance and soluble organic matter characteristics in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Nan; Ergas, Sarina J; Mermelstein, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on membrane filtering resistance, soluble organic matter (SOM) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) characteristics in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). A laboratory-scale MBR was operated under DO limited (0.2 mg L(-1) DO) and fully aerobic (3.7 and 5.4 mg L(-1) DO) conditions. Membrane filtering resistance was determined for the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and for resuspended microbial biomass after removing SOM. Regardless of the DO concentration, the cake resistance (Rc) was approximately 95 percent of the total resistance (Rt). The membrane cake resistance was found to decrease significantly after removing the SOM. The total resistance caused by the resuspended biomass was 29 percent of that caused by the MLSS under DO limited conditions, while the total resistance caused by resuspended biomass was 41 to 48 percent of that caused by the MLSS under fully aerobic conditions. Under DO limited conditions, SOM in the MLSS contained a larger amount of high molecular weight compounds, leading to higher cake resistance than under fully aerobic conditions. There was significant variation in the molecular weight fractions of the EPS, with no clear relationship with DO concentration. There was also no distinct relationship between membrane filtering resistance and molecular weight fraction of the EPS.

  17. A simple and rapid method for monitoring dissolved oxygen in water with a submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC) was developed as a biosensor for in situ and real time monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in environmental waters. Domestic wastewater was utilized as a sole fuel for powering the sensor. The sensor performance was firstly examined with tap water at varying DO levels. With an external resistance of 1000Ω, the current density produced by the sensor (5.6 ± 0.5-462.2 ± 0.5 mA/m(2)) increased linearly with DO level up to 8.8 ± 0.3mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.9912), while the maximum response time for each measurement was less than 4 min. The current density showed different response to DO levels when different external resistances were applied, but a linear relationship was always observed. Investigation of the sensor performance at different substrate concentrations indicates that the organic matter contained in the domestic wastewater was sufficient to power the sensing activities. The sensor ability was further explored under different environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity, and alternative electron acceptor), and the results indicated that a calibration would be required before field application. Lastly, the sensor was tested with different environmental waters and the results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with that measured by DO meter. The simple, compact SBMFC sensor showed promising potential for direct, inexpensive and rapid DO monitoring in various environmental waters.

  18. Novel probes for pH and dissolved oxygen measurements in cultivations from millilitre to benchtop scale.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Caspar; Varonier, Joel; Jossen, Valentin; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    pH value and the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) are key parameters to monitor and control cell growth in cultivation studies. Reliable, robust and accurate methods to measure these parameters in cultivation systems in real time guarantee high product yield and quality. This mini-review summarises the current state of the art of pH and DO sensors that are applied to bioprocesses from millilitre to benchtop scale by means of a short introduction on measuring principles and selected applications. Special emphasis is placed on single-use bioreactors, which have been increasingly employed in bioprocess development and production in recent years. Working principles, applications and the particular requirements of sensors in these cultivation systems are given. In such processes, optical sensors for pH and DO are often preferred to electrochemical probes, as they allow semi-invasive measurements and can be miniaturised to micrometre scale or lower. In addition, selected measuring principles of novel sensing technologies for pH and DO are discussed. These include solid-state sensors and miniaturised devices that are not yet commercially available, but show promising characteristics for possible use in bioprocesses in the near future.

  19. [Effect of the change in sulphate and dissolved oxygen mass concentration on metal release in old cast iron distribution pipes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-li; Shi, Bao-you; Sun, Hui-fang; Zhang, Zhi-huan; Gu, Jun-nong; Wang, Dong-sheng

    2013-09-01

    To understand the processes of corrosion by-product release and the consequent "red water" problems caused by the variation of water chemical composition in drinking water distribution system, the effect of sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on total iron release in corroded old iron pipe sections historically transporting groundwater was investigated in laboratory using small-scale pipe section reactors. The release behaviors of some low-level metals, such as Mn, As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni, in the process of iron release were also monitored. The results showed that the total iron and Mn release increased significantly with the increase of sulphate concentration, and apparent red water occurred when sulphate concentration was above 400 mg x L(-1). With the increase of sulfate concentration, the effluent concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni also increased obviously, however, the effluent concentrations of these metals were lower than the influent concentrations under most circumstances, which indicated that adsorption of these metals by pipe corrosion scales occurred. Increasing DO within a certain range could significantly inhibit the iron release.

  20. Removal of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved nutrients by a sunken lawn infiltration system during intermittent storm events.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lizhu; Yang, Huan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Urban surface water runoff typically contains high but varying amounts of organic matter and nutrients that require removal before reuse. Infiltration systems such as sunken lawns can improve water quality. However, there is currently insufficient information describing the treatment efficiency of lawn-based infiltration systems. In this study, novel sunken lawn infiltration systems (SLISs) were designed and their pollutant removal effectiveness was assessed. The results revealed that SLISs with Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne effectively removed most chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and dissolved nutrients. Average CODCr, total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were reduced by 78.93, 66.64, 71.86 and 75.83%, respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations met the standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption in China. The NH4(+)-N in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed by adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days, as well as through uptake by plants. Phosphorus was mainly removed by adsorption and chemical precipitation. The NH4(+)-N and phosphorus Langmuir isotherm model fitted the clay loam soil adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. Overall, these results indicate that an SLIS provides an alternative means of removing runoff pollutants owing to its efficiency, easy operation and maintenance.

  1. Determination of dissolved oxygen in the cryosphere: a comprehensive laboratory and field evaluation of fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, E A; Wadham, J L; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Eveness, J; Fountain, A G; Telling, J

    2011-01-15

    Recent advances in the Cryospheric Sciences have shown that icy environments are host to consortia of microbial communities, whose function and dynamics are often controlled by the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in solution. To date, only limited spot determinations of DO have been possible in these environments. They reveal the potential for rates of change that exceed realistic manual sampling rates, highlighting the need to explore methods for the continuous measurement of DO concentrations. We report the first comprehensive field and laboratory performance tests of fiber-optic sensors (PreSens, Regensburg, Germany) for measuring DO in icy ecosystems. A series of laboratory tests performed at low and standard temperatures (-5 to 20 °C) demonstrates high precision (0.3% at 50 μmol/kg and 1.3% at 300 μmol/kg), rapid response times (<20 s), and minimal drift (<0.4%). Survival of freeze thaw was problematic, unless the sensor film was mechanically fixed to the fiber and protected by a stainless steel sheath. Results of two field deployments of sensors to the Swiss Alps and Antarctica largely demonstrate a performance consistent with laboratory tests and superior to traditional methods.

  2. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R

    2003-05-28

    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  3. Profiling iron corrosion coating on iron grains in a zerovalent iron system under the influence of dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian C; Huang, Yong H

    2006-07-01

    Rapid oxidation of Fe(0) by O(2) occurred when Fe(0) grains were bathed in 0.54 mM FeCl(2) solution saturated with dissolved oxygen (DO), forming a substantial corrosion coating on Fe(0) grains. A sonication method was developed to strip the corrosion coating off the iron grains layer by layer. The transformation of the constituents and the morphology of the corrosion coating along its depth and over reaction time were investigated with composition analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the sonication method could consistently recover >90% iron oxides produced by the Fe(0)-DO redox reaction. Magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) were identified as the corrosion products. Initially, lepidocrocite was the preferential product in the presence of DO. As the oxide coating thickened, the inner layer transformed to magnetite, which retained as the only stable corrosion product once DO was depleted. The study confirms the phase transformations between gamma-FeOOH and Fe(3)O(4) within a stratified corrosion coating. The sonication technique exemplifies a new approach for investigating more complicated processes in Fe(0)/oxides/contaminants systems.

  4. Dissolved Oxygen decrease near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf affected by the Athens Sewage Outfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, A.; Hatzianestis, I.; Psillidou-Giouranovits, R.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the depletion of dissolved oxygen near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf caused by the sewage discharges from the Psittalia Sewage Treatment Plant of Athens is studied. Evidence of the sewage plume diffusion is given by examining the distribution of the concentrations of coprostanol, a common fecal sterol, in the surface sediments of the area. The environmental quality of Saronikos Gulf has been studied since 1987 within the framework of monitoring programs of Hellenic Center for Marine Research, providing important evidence of environmental change, especially after the operation of the Sewage Treatment Plant on the Psittalia Island. Since 1994, the sewage generated by the city of Athens (population approx. four millions) has been primarily treated in Psittalia Treatment Plant, diverting the effluent from the untreated shoreline discharged to sea-surface, to primarily treated deepwater by using multi-port diffusers at the depth of 63 m. Since the end of 2004, the sewage of Athens city has been secondary treated. An approximate of 800.000 m3 d-1 of treated waste is discharged into the inner Saronikos Gulf, carrying ~100 x 106gC d-1. This area is practically flat with a mean depth of ~90 m, and a volume of ~14 km3. Apart from the treated sewage, no other potential sources of anthropogenic inputs exist in the area of the Inner Gulf. Low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) values (< 3.00 mL/L) were detected near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf, as the biochemical result of the oxidation of the organic matter which is carried by the wastewater effluents into the Inner Saronikos Gulf. It seems that there is a systematic variation pattern of the DO values throughout a year, with a significant increase during February -March, due to the homogenization of the water column and the oxygenation of the deep layers. The lowest DO concentrations were recorded at the stations located southwest and also in a distance from the Psitallia Sewage Plant (~6-14Km), indicating

  5. Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) production in the Oxygen Minimum Layer (OML) of the East South Pacific (ESP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulmier, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Poisson, A.; Ulloa, O.; Farias, L.

    2003-04-01

    The OML extension -- taking place between cold and hot periods -- could play a feedback effect on atmospheric CO_2 which remains unknown. Is the OML a CO_2 source, through the Organic Matter (OM) remineralization as DIC? Or is OML a CO_2 sink, through a passive role due to the increase of carbon sequestration to the deep ocean? To progress on these questions, DIC-Alkalinity(TA)-pH and O_2 profiles were obtained in the OML of the ESP along the Chilean coast during 4 cruises (21^oS: spring 2000, falls 2001 and 2002; 30^oS: fall 2002) and a monthly monitoring (36^oS: since July 2000 to May 2001). DIC (up to 2700 umol/kg) and TA (up to 3100 ueq/kg) are among the strongest and pH (down to 7,5 SWS) the weakest values, observed in the world ocean. Temporal (seasonal) and spatial (cross-shore at 21^oS, North-South) variabilities are exhibited. Carboxycline and oxycline are correlated (on depth, time and thickness), suggesting that the OML can be active (DIC and O_2 strong gradients) or inactive (DIC and O_2 weak gradients) to CO_2. Moreover active and inactive OML periods appear to correspond to higher and lower respectively DIC remineralization than the classic Redfield rate. Both kinds of remineralization indicate an OM degradation by either a potential oxic-anoxic coupling (more efficient for DIC) and/or an anoxic activity only (less efficient for DIC). The ESP Oxygen Minimum Zone could be either a strong CO_2 source, or CO_2 sink, depending whether the OML is active or inactive respectively. Although the OML was considered until now as a passive/established zone, the change of OML activity, for both short (seasonal) and large (sub-Milankovitch) time scales, could modify the evaluation of yearly oceanic CO_2 uptake.

  6. The role of iron and reactive oxygen in the degradation of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Page, S. E.; Kling, G. W.; Sander, M.; Harrold, K. H.; McNeill, K.

    2013-12-01

    As the permafrost boundary deepens from climate warming it will create conditions for redox reactions between soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and iron where those conditions did not previously exist. These new conditions will facilitate the transformation of DOM, and the overarching question is whether the pathway to CO2 released to the atmosphere or the export of DOM to coastal oceans will be favored. Our findings suggest that in either dark soils or sunlit surface waters, the presence of iron promotes the degradation of DOM to CO2. Evidence in support of iron-mediated oxidation of DOM to CO2 includes (1) strong positive correlations between iron and formation of hydroxyl radical (●OH), a highly reactive oxygen species implicated in DOM mineralization, (2) complete oxidation of DOM in the presence of high iron concentrations, and (3) loss of permafrost-derived DOM and iron from a thermokarst-impacted lake over time. For example, iron and DOM-rich soils or surface waters had the highest dark or photochemical ●OH formation respectively, both consistent with a dark or light Fenton source of ●OH and subsequent oxidation of DOM by ●OH. Photo-oxidation of DOM to CO2 was favored over partial photo-oxidation in surface waters characterized by high DOM and dissolved iron concentrations, consistent with photochemical reactions mediated by iron. Changes in DOM quality and quantity over time in a lake receiving permafrost carbon via a landslide (thermokarst slump) were also consistent with iron-mediated photodegradation of DOM. Given differences in DOM degradation across tundra ecosystems varying in iron, along with the abundance of water-logged soils supplying reduced iron to soil water or shallow streams, preliminary calculations at the landscape scale indicate that iron-mediated mineralization of DOM in soils and surface waters may be at least as important to carbon cycling as is bacterial respiration of DOM in the water column of streams and lakes

  7. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  8. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Silver Creek, Clark and Floyd counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    The Indiana State Board of Health is developing a State water-quality management plan that includes establishing limits for wastewater effluents discharged into Indiana streams. A digital model calibrated to conditions in Silver Creek was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. Effluents from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are the only point-source waste loads that significantly affect the water quality in the modeled segment of Silver Creek. Model simulations indicate that nitrification is the most significant factor affecting the dissolved-oxygen concentration in Silver Creek during summer and winter low flows. Natural streamflow in Silver Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero, so no benefit from dilution is provided. Present ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved-oxygen concentrations of effluent from the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities will violate current Indiana water-quality standards for ammonia toxicity and dissolved oxygen during summer and winter low flows. The current biochemical-oxygen demand limits for the Sellersburg and Clarksville-North wastewater-treatment facilities are not sufficient to maintain an average dissolved-oxygen concentration of at least 5 milligrams per liter, the State 's water-quality standard for streams. Calculations of the stream 's assimilative capacity indicate that Silver Creek cannot assimilate additional waste loadings and meet current Indiana water-quality standards. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems’ health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour. PMID:26200780

  10. Determining Dissolved Oxygen Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This project was used in a mathematical modeling and introduction to differential equations course for first-year college students. The students worked in two-person groups and were given three weeks to complete the project. Students were given this project three weeks into the course, after basic first order linear differential equation and…

  11. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress.

  12. Bifunctional enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction activity on Ag catalysts due to water activation on LaMnO3 supports in alkaline media

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Song, Hannah; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Ag is considered to be one of the best candidates for oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts in alkaline media for application in various electrochemical energy devices. In this study, we demonstrate that water activation is a key factor in enhancing the ORR activity in alkaline media, unlike in acid environments. Ag supported on LaMnO3 having a high oxophilicity showed a markedly higher ORR activity than that on carbon with inert surfaces. Through various electrochemical tests, it was revealed that the origin of the enhanced ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3 is the bifunctional effect mainly due to the water activation at the interface between Ag and LaMnO3. Furthermore, the ligand effect due to the charge transfer from Mn to Ag leads to the enhancement of both oxygen activation on Ag and water activation on Mn sites, and hence, an improvement in the ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3. On the other hand, the strain effect based on the fine structure variation in the lattice was negligible. We therefore suggest that the employment of a co-catalyst or support with highly oxophilic nature and the maximization of the interface between catalyst and support should be considered in the design of electrocatalysts for the ORR in alkaline media. PMID:26310526

  13. The effect of dissolved oxygen on N2O production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in an enriched nitrifying sludge.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Ni, Bing-Jie; Erler, Dirk; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is commonly recognized as an important factor influencing nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, it has been difficult to separate the true effect of DO from that of nitrite, as DO variation often affects nitrite accumulation. The effect of DO on N2O production by an enriched nitrifying sludge, consisting of both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), was investigated in this study. Nitrite accumulation was minimised by augmenting nitrite oxidation through the addition of an enriched NOB sludge. It was demonstrated that the specific N2O production rate increased from 0 to 1.9 ± 0.09 (n = 3) mg N2O-N/hr/g VSS with an increase of DO concentration from 0 to 3.0 mg O2/L, whereas N2O emission factor (the ratio between N2O nitrogen emitted and the ammonium nitrogen converted) decreased from 10.6 ± 1.7% (n = 3) at DO = 0.2 mg O2/L to 2.4 ± 0.1% (n = 3) at DO = 3.0 mg O2/L. The site preference measurements indicated that both the AOB denitrification and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidation pathways contributed to N2O production, and DO had an important effect on the relative contributions of the two pathways. This finding is supported by analysis of the process data using an N2O model describing both pathways. As DO increased from 0.2 to 3.0 mg O2/L, the contribution of AOB denitrification decreased from 92% - 95%-66% - 73%, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the contribution by the NH2OH oxidation pathway.

  14. New insights into the source of decadal increase in chemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved organic carbon in Dianchi Lake.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Yang, Feng; Li, Yanping; Wang, Shengrui

    2017-03-29

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be used an alternative index of water quality instead of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to reflect the organic pollution in water. The monitoring data of water quality in a long-term (1990-2013) from Dianchi Lake confirmed the increase trend of COD concentration in the lake since 2007. The similarities and differences in the DOC components between the lake and its sources and the contribution from allochthonous and autochthonous DOC to the total DOC in this lake were determined to elucidate the reason of COD increase based on C/N atomic ratios, stable isotope abundance of carbon and nitrogen, UV-visible spectroscopy, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The terrigenous organic matter showed humic-like fluorescence, and the autochthonous organic matter showed tryptophan-like components. Agricultural runoff (9.5%), leaf litter (7.5%) and urban runoff (13.2%) were the main sources of DOC in the lake. Sewage tail was a major source of organic materials, 3DEEM for the indicates that sewage tail DOC composition did not change markedly over the biodegradation period, indicating that sewage tail contains a high load of DOC that is resistant to further biodegradation and subsequently accumulates in the lake. The change of land use in the catchment and the increase of sewage tail load into the lake are the key factors for the increase in COD concentration in Dianchi Lake. Thus, the lake should be protected by controlling the pollution from the urban nonpoint sources and refractory composition in point sources.

  15. Hydrodynamic features of the South Aegean Sea as derived from Argo T/ S and dissolved oxygen profiles in the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassis, Dimitris; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Korres, Gerasimos; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic picture of the South Aegean Sea is examined through an analysis of recent measurements in its sub-basins, the Myrtoan and Cretan Sea. Both sub-basins play an important role in the water circulation, exchange, and formation processes that affect the dynamics of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. For the first time, Bio-Argo floats were deployed in the area under the Greek Argo Research Infrastructure coordination. The acquired profiles cover an almost 2-year period (November 2013-July 2015) and are compared with previous Argo profiles and the re-processed time-series data recorded from the E1-M3A POSEIDON observatory operating in the area since 2007. The spatio-temporal distribution of the physical and chemical properties in each sub-basin is examined. Dense water formation events are revealed in the northern part (Myrtoan), while the wider area can be characterized as pre-conditioned. In the Cretan basin, a strong inter-annual variability of the salinity field at intermediate and deep layers is observed that is associated with water exchange from its open boundaries. Furthermore, comparison of the dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution with physical water properties within both the mixed layer, and at greater depths, indicated that relatively high but still under-saturated DO values are more likely to be associated with convection events. Finally, an updated picture of the physical properties and the DO distribution is presented based on the last 5 years of measurements and the recent introduction of Bio-Argo floats with DO sensors in the area.

  16. Enhancement of 5-keto-d-gluconate production by a recombinant Gluconobacter oxydans using a dissolved oxygen control strategy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianfeng; Wu, Mianbin; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Lirong

    2016-07-01

    The rapid and incomplete oxidation of sugars, alcohols, and polyols by the gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans facilitates a wide variety of biological applications. For the conversion of glucose to 5-keto-d-gluconate (5-KGA), a promising precursor of the industrial substance L-(+)-tartaric acid, G. oxydans DSM2343 was genetically engineered to strain ZJU2, in which the GOX1231 and GOX1081 genes were knocked out in a markerless fashion. Then, a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (GCD) from Xanthomonas campestris DSM3586 was heterologously expressed in G. oxydans ZJU2. The 5-KGA production and cell yield were increased by 10% and 24.5%, respectively. The specific activity of GCD towards gluconate was 1.75±0.02 U/mg protein, which was 7-fold higher than that of the sldAB in G. oxydans. Based on the analysis of kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (μ), specific glucose consumption rate (qs) and specific 5-KGA production rate (qp), a dissolved oxygen (DO) control strategy was proposed. Finally, batch fermentation was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor using an initial agitation speed of 600 rpm to obtain a high μ for cell growth. Subsequently, DO was continuously maintained above 20% to achieve a high qp to ensure a high accumulation of 5-KGA. Under these conditions, the maximum concentration of 5-KGA reached 117.75 g/L with a productivity of 2.10 g/(L·h).

  17. Different hydrodynamic processes regulated on water quality (nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and phytoplankton biomass) in three contrasting waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Long, Aimin; Huang, Hui; Yue, Weizhong

    2014-03-01

    The subtropical Hong Kong (HK) waters are located at the eastern side of the Pearl River Estuary. Monthly changes of water quality, including nutrients, dissolved oxygen (DO), and phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) were routinely investigated in 2003 by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in three contrasting waters of HK with different prevailing hydrodynamic processes. The western, eastern, and southern waters were mainly dominated by nutrient-replete Pearl River discharge, the nutrient-poor coastal/shelf oceanic waters, and mixtures of estuarine and coastal seawater and sewage effluent of Hong Kong, respectively. Acting in response, the water quality in these three contrasting areas showed apparently spatial–temporal variation pattern. Nutrients usually decreased along western waters to eastern waters. In the dry season, the water column was strongly mixed by monsoon winds and tidal currents, which resulted in relatively low Chl-a (<5 μg l(−1)) and high bottom DO (>4 mg l(−1)), suggesting that mixing enhanced the buffering capacity of eutrophication in HK waters. However, in the wet season, surface Chl-a was generally >10 μg l(−1) in southern waters in summer due to halocline and thermohaline stratification, adequate nutrients, and light availability. Although summer hypoxia (DO <2 mg l(−1)) was episodically observed near sewage effluent site and in southern waters induced by vertical stratification, the eutrophication impacts in HK waters were not as severe as expected owing to P limitation and short water residence time in the wet season.

  18. Influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on performance of pre-denitrification submerged membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Teck Wee; Ng, How Yong

    2008-02-01

    The conflicting influence of mixed liquor recycle ratio and dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and membrane fouling of a pre-denitrification submerged MBR was investigated in this study. It was found that a high aeration rate of 10 L air/min was able to minimize membrane fouling as compared with lower aeration rates of 5 and 2.5L air/min in this study. Faster fouling at lower aeration rate was due to the decrease in cross-flow velocity across the membrane surface. However, high DO concentration (average of 5.1+/-0.5mg O2/L) present in the recycle mixed liquor at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min deteriorated the TN removal efficiency when operating at a recycle ratio of more than 3. A lower aeration rate of 5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 3.4+/-0.7 mg O2/L in the recycle mixed liquor, led to an improvement in TN removal efficiency: 63%, 80%, 84% and 89% for mixed liquor recycle ratio of 1, 3, 5 and 10, respectively. Further decrease in aeration rate to 2.5L air/min, resulting in an average DO concentration of 1.9+/-0.8 mg O2/L, did not improve the TN removal efficiency. Using a newly developed simplified nitrification-denitrification model, it was calculated that the COD/NO3(-)-N required for denitrification at 10 L air/min aeration rate was higher than those associated with 5 and 2.5L air/min aeration rates. The model also revealed that denitrification at an aeration rate of 10 L air/min was limited by COD concentration present in the wastewater when operating at a mixed liquor recycle ratio of 3 and higher.

  19. Impact of microbial physiology and microbial community structure on pharmaceutical fate driven by dissolved oxygen concentration in nitrifying bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Lauren B; Love, Nancy G

    2016-11-01

    Operation at low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (<1 mg/L) in wastewater treatment could save utilities significantly by reducing aeration energy costs. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of low DO on pharmaceutical biotransformations during treatment. DO concentration can impact pharmaceutical biotransformation rates during wastewater treatment both directly and indirectly: directly by acting as a limiting substrate that slows the activity of the microorganisms involved in biotransformation; and indirectly by shaping the microbial community and selecting for a community that performs pharmaceutical biotransformation faster (or slower). In this study, nitrifying bioreactors were operated at low (∼0.3 mg/L) and high (>4 mg/L) DO concentrations to understand how DO growth conditions impacted microbial community structure. Short-term batch experiments using the biomass from the parent reactors were performed under low and high DO conditions to understand how DO concentration impacts microbial physiology. Although the low DO parent biomass had a lower specific activity with respect to ammonia oxidation than the high DO parent reactor biomass, it had faster biotransformation rates of ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, 17α-ethinylestradiol, acetaminophen, and atenolol in high DO batch conditions. This was likely because the low DO reactor had a 2x higher biomass concentration, was enriched for ammonia oxidizers (4x higher concentration), and harbored a more diverse microbial community (3x more unique taxa) as compared to the high DO parent reactor. Overall, the results show that there can be indirect benefits from low DO operation over high DO operation that support pharmaceutical biotransformation during wastewater treatment.

  20. Dissolved Oxygen in Guadalupe Slough and Pond A3W, South San Francisco Bay, California, August and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Morgan, Tara L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Henderson, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Initial restoration of former salt evaporation ponds under the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay included the changing of water-flow patterns and the monitoring of water quality of discharge waters from the ponds. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations became evident in discharge waters when the ponds first were opened in 2004. This was a concern, because of the potential for low-DO pond discharge to decrease the DO concentrations in the sloughs that receive water from the ponds. However, as of summer 2007, only limited point-measurements of DO concentrations had been made in the receiving sloughs adjacent to the discharge ponds. In this report, we describe two short studies aimed at understanding the natural variability of slough DO and the effect of pond discharge on the DO concentrations in the sloughs. Pond A3W (a discharge pond) and the adjacent Guadalupe Slough were instrumented in August and September 2007 to measure DO, temperature, conductivity, and pH. In addition, Mowry and Newark Sloughs were instrumented during the August study to document DO variability in nearby sloughs that were unaffected by pond discharge. The results showed that natural tidal variability in the slough appeared to dominate and control the slough DO concentrations. Water-quality parameters between Guadalupe Slough and Mowry and Newark Sloughs could not be directly compared because deployment locations were different distances from the bay. Pond-discharge water was identified in Guadalupe Slough using the deployed instruments, but, counter to the previous assumption, the pond discharge, at times, increased DO concentrations in the slough. The effects of altering the volume of pond discharge were overwhelmed by natural spring-neap tidal variability in the slough. This work represents a preliminary investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey of the effects of pond discharge on adjacent sloughs, and the results will be used in designing a comprehensive DO

  1. Effects of Elevated CO2 and Decreased Dissolved Oxygen on Phototactic Behaviors of Juvenile Dungeness Crab (Cancer magister)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imm, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are increasing the concentration of CO2 in the oceans, and contributing to ocean acidification (OA), while increasing ocean temperatures and eutrophication are causing decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Due to coastal upwelling and limited water flow, the Puget Sound ecosystem is naturally high in CO2 and seasonally low in DO, making it particularly susceptible to increased acidification and hypoxia. Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) are both ecologically and economically important to the Puget Sound region. To investigate the threat of low pH and DO to C. magister behavior, megalopae and juveniles were exposed to current and predicted future levels of pH and DO. Juveniles were then placed in a dark container with a single bright light, and movement and phototaxis were studied during three-minute trials. We hypothesized that low pH and low DO conditions would alter phototactic behaviors of juvenile C. magister, through changes in neurotransmission and metabolism. C. magister reared in control (High pH-High DO) conditions spent a greater proportion of their time near the light, and were significantly more likely to touch the light during the three-minute trial, as compared to juveniles in the other treatment conditions. These results suggest that future predicted CO2 and DO conditions in Puget Sound could disrupt the behavioral and cognitive abilities of juvenile crabs, leading to decreased survival and recruitment in the C. magister population. Given the importance of C. magister to the Puget Sound, these population changes could have significant ecological and economic implications for the region.

  2. Effect of phytoremediation on concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 1998–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, James E.; Effinger, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and dissolved oxygen in groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site near Charleston, South Carolina, USA, have been monitored since the installation of a phytoremediation system of hybrid poplar trees in 1998. Between 2000 and 2014, the concentrations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene (BT&N) in groundwater in the planted area have decreased. For example, in the monitoring well containing the highest concentrations of BT&N, benzene concentrations decreased from 10,200 µg/L to less than 4000 µg/L, toluene concentrations decreased from 2420 µg/L to less than 20 µg/L, and naphthalene concentrations decreased from 6840 µg/L to less than 3000 µg/L. Concentrations of BT&N in groundwater in all wells were observed to be lower during the summer months relative to the winter months of a particular year during the first few years after installing the phytoremediation system, most likely due to increased transpiration and contaminant uptake by the hybrid poplar trees during the warm summer months; this pathway of uptake by trees was confirmed by the detection of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in trees during sampling events in 2002, and later in the study in 2012. These data suggest that the phytoremediation system affects the groundwater contaminants on a seasonal basis and, over multiple years, has resulted in a cumulative decrease in dissolved-phase contaminant concentrations in groundwater. The removal of dissolved organic contaminants from the aquifer has resulted in a lower demand on dissolved oxygen supplied by recharge and, as a result, the redox status of the groundwater has changed from anoxic to oxic conditions. This study provides much needed information for water managers and other scientists on the viability of the long-term effectiveness of phytoremediation in decreasing groundwater contaminants and increasing dissolved oxygen at sites contaminated by benzene, toluene, and naphthalene.

  3. Effect of heme modification on oxygen affinity of myoglobin and equilibrium of the acid-alkaline transition in metmyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomokazu; Nagao, Satoshi; Fukaya, Masashi; Tai, Hulin; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Morihashi, Kenji; Matsuo, Takashi; Hirota, Shun; Suzuki, Akihiro; Imai, Kiyohiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2010-05-05

    Functional regulation of myoglobin (Mb) is thought to be achieved through the heme environment furnished by nearby amino acid residues, and subtle tuning of the intrinsic heme Fe reactivity. We have performed substitution of strongly electron-withdrawing perfluoromethyl (CF(3)) group(s) as heme side chain(s) of Mb to obtain large alterations of the heme electronic structure in order to elucidate the relationship between the O(2) affinity of Mb and the electronic properties of heme peripheral side chains. We have utilized the equilibrium constant (pK(a)) of the "acid-alkaline transition" in metmyoglobin in order to quantitatively assess the effects of the CF(3) substitutions for the electron density of heme Fe atom (rho(Fe)) of the protein. The pK(a) value of the protein was found to decrease by approximately 1 pH unit upon the introduction of one CF(3) group, and the decrease in the pK(a) value with decreasing the rho(Fe) value was confirmed by density functional theory calculations on some model compounds. The O(2) affinity of Mb was found to correlate well with the pK(a) value in such a manner that the P(50) value, which is the partial pressure of O(2) required to achieve 50% oxygenation, increases by a factor of 2.7 with a decrease of 1 pK(a) unit. Kinetic studies on the proteins revealed that the decrease in O(2) affinity upon the introduction of an electron-withdrawing CF(3) group is due to an increase in the O(2) dissociation rate. Since the introduction of a CF(3) group substitution is thought to prevent further Fe(2+)-O(2) bond polarization and hence formation of a putative Fe(3+)-O(2)(-)-like species of the oxy form of the protein [Maxwell, J. C.; Volpe, J. A.; Barlow, C. H.; Caughey, W. S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1974, 58, 166-171], the O(2) dissociation is expected to be enhanced by the substitution of electron-withdrawing groups as heme side chains. We also found that, in sharp contrast to the case of the O(2) binding to the protein, the CO

  4. Effects of pH, dissolved oxygen, and ionic strength on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Kreske, Audrey C; Bjornsdottir, Kristin; Breidt, Fred; Hassan, Hosni

    2008-12-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to survive in acidified vegetable products is of concern because of previously documented outbreaks associated with fruit juices. A study was conducted to determine the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in organic acids at pH values typical of acidified vegetable products (pH 3.2 and 3.7) under different dissolved oxygen conditions (< or = 0.05 and 5 mg/liter) and a range of ionic strengths (0.086 to 1.14). All solutions contained 20 mM gluconic acid, which was used as a noninhibitory low pH buffer to compare the individual acid effect to that of pH alone on the survival of E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 cells challenged in buffered solution with ca. 5-mg/liter dissolved oxygen (present in tap water) over a range of ionic strengths at pH 3.2 exhibited a decrease in survival over 6 h at 30 degrees C as the ionic strength was increased. Cells challenged in 40 mM protonated L-lactic and acetic acid solutions with ionic strength of 0.684 achieved a > 4.7-log CFU/ml reduction at pH 3.2. However, under oxygen-limiting conditions in an anaerobic chamber, with < or = 0.05-mg/ liter oxygen, E. coli O157:H7 cells showed < or = 1.55-log CFU/ml reduction regardless of pH, acid type, concentration, or ionic strength. Many acid and acidified foods are sold in hermetically sealed containers with oxygen-limiting conditions. Our results demonstrate that E. coli O157:H7 may survive better than previously expected from studies with acid solutions containing dissolved oxygen.

  5. A one-dimensional, steady-state, dissolved-oxygen model and waste-load assimilation study for Sand Creek, Decatur County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilber, William G.; Crawford, Charles G.; Peters, James G.

    1979-01-01

    A digital model calibrated to conditions in Sand Creek near Greensburg, Ind., was used to develop alternatives for future waste loadings that would be compatible with Indiana stream water-quality standards defined for two critical hydrologic conditions, summer and winter low flows. The only point-source waste load affecting Sand Creek in the vicinity of Greensburg is the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility. Non-point, unrecorded waste loads seemed to be significant during three water-quality surveys done by the Indiana State Board of Health. Natural streamflow in Sand Creek during the summer and annual 7-day, 10-year low flow is zero so no benefit from dilution is provided. Effluent ammonia-nitrogen concentrations from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not meet Indiana water-quality standards during summer and winter low flows. To meet the water-quality standard the wastewater-effluent would be limited to a maximum total ammonia-nitrogen concentration of 2.5 mg/l for summer months (June through August) and 4.0 mg/l for winter months (November through March). Model simulations indicate that benthic-oxygen demand, nitrification, and the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the wastewater effluent are the most significant factors affecting the in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentration during summer low flows. The model predicts that with a benthic-oxygen demand of 1.5 grams per square meter per day at 20C the stream has no additional waste-load assimilative capacity. Present carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand loads from the Greensburg wastewater-treatment facility will not result in violations of the in-stream dissolved-oxygen standard (5 mg/l) during winter low flows. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

  7. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  8. Recent progress on earth abundant hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Electrochemical water-splitting is one of the promising ways for producing clean chemical fuel (Hydrogen) while cheap-earth-abundant-bifunctional-electrocatalyst is one of the possible way for improving the overall cost efficiency of water-splitting. This paper reviews the chemical state, hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction activity in alkaline media, overall water-splitting performance in alkaline media, stability, and possible-factors for improving its efficiency of various kinds of recently reported electrocatalyst such as Ni-P, Co-P, Ni-Co-P, graphene-Co-P, O/N/C-Co/Ni, Ni-S, B-Ni/Co, Ni-Co, Mo, Se, Fe, Mn/Zn/Ti, and metal-free based earth-abundant-bifunctional-electrocatalyst. This paper also reviews and highlights the remarkable water splitting performance of the earth-abundant-bifunctional-electrocatalyst those exhibit better or well comparable with Pt/C//RuO2.

  9. A completely noninvasive method of dissolved oxygen monitoring in disposable small-scale cell culture vessels based on diffusion through permeable vessel walls.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Priyanka A; Ge, Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Disposable cell culture vessels are extensively used at small scales for process optimization and validation, but they lack monitoring capabilities. Optical sensors that can be easily adapted for use in small-scale vessels are commercially available for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved carbon dioxide (DCO2 ). However, their use has been limited due to the contamination and compatibility issues. We have developed a novel solution to these problems for DO monitoring. Oxygen diffusion through permeable vessel wall can be exploited for noninvasive monitoring. An optica