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Sample records for alkalinity producing systems

  1. Design considerations and construction techniques for successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skovran, G.A.; Clouser, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) have been utilized for several years for the passive treatment of acid mine drainage. The SAPS technology is an effective method for inducing alkalinity to neutralize acid mine water and promote the precipitation of contaminating metals. Several design considerations and construction techniques are important for proper system function and longevity. This paper discusses SAPS design, water collection and introduction to the SAPS, hydraulics of SAPS, construction, operation and maintenance, and safety, and found that these factors were critical to obtaining maximum alkalinity at several SAPS treatment sites in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Taking care to incorporate these factors into future SAPS will aid effective treatment, reduce maintenance costs, and maximize long term effectiveness of successive alkalinity producing systems.

  2. Design factors and performance efficiencies of successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jage, C.R.; Zipper, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) are passive treatment wetlands that have been used successfully in renovating acidic mine drainage (AMD) for several years. Unfortunately, design parameters and treatment efficiency of these systems vary widely due to a lack of clear, consistent design and construction guidelines. This study is investigating ten operating SAPS systems in Virginia and West Virginia for the purpose of identifying the relationship of design and construction factors to system performance. Influent and effluent water samples were collected for a period of two years or longer by the operators of each system. Each sample was analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, total iron, total manganese, and aluminum. The individual systems were also characterized according to system age, size, and construction materials. Residence times for the ten systems ranged from 4.5 hours to 13.31 days. On average, they were able to raise the pH 0.65 units and generate a net alkalinity of 84.84 mg/l as CaCO{sub 3}. Iron and manganese removal did occur in the SAPS cells, but the majority of the removal took place in post-SAPS settling ponds. Net alkalinity generation was positively correlated with residence time and iron removal rates suggesting a synergistic effect. Seasonal variation in alkalinity production was also noted, possibly indicating changes in alkalinity generation rates by dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These data provide the foundation for the development of a user-oriented SAPS design model based solely on influent AMD chemistry and final treatment goals as input parameters.

  3. Factors affecting alkalinity generation by successive alkalinity-producing systems: regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jage, C R; Zipper, C E; Noble, R

    2001-01-01

    Use of successive alkalinity-producing systems (SAPS) for treatment of acidic mine drainage (AMD) has grown in recent years. However, inconsistent performance has hampered widespread acceptance of this technology. This research was conducted to determine the influence of system design and influent AMD chemistry on net alkalinity generation by SAPS. Monthly observations were obtained from eight SAPS cells in southern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia. Analysis of these data revealed strong, positive correlations between net alkalinity generation and three variables: the natural log of limestone residence time, influent dissolved Fe concentration, and influent non-Mn acidity. A statistical model was constructed to describe SAPS performance. Subsequent analysis of data obtained from five systems in western Pennsylvania (calibration data set) was used to reevaluate the model form, and the statistical model was adjusted using the combined data sets. Limestone residence time exhibited a strong, positive logarithmic correlation with net alkalinity generation, indicating net alkalinity generation occurs most rapidly within the first few hours of AMD-limestone contact and additional residence time yields diminishing gains in treatment. Influent Fe and non-Mn acidity concentrations both show strong positive linear relationships with net alkalinity generation, reflecting the increased solubility of limestone under acidic conditions. These relationships were present in the original and the calibration data sets, separately, and in the statistical model derived from the combined data set. In the combined data set, these three factors accounted for 68% of the variability in SAPS systems performance. PMID:11401248

  4. Seasonal and long-term performance of alkalinity-producing passive systems for the treatment of mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.

    1998-12-31

    Eight passive treatment systems, located in Pennsylvania and Maryland, have been intensively monitored for up to seven years. Influent and effluent water quality data from ten anoxic limestone drains (ALDs) and five reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS) have been analyzed to determine seasonal and long-term performance for each of these specific unit operations. The water quality data were also analyzed to determine the performance of each of the eight complete passive treatment systems. The generation of alkalinity in ALDs has not exhibited significant seasonal variations. ALDs that received mine water containing less than 1 mg/L of both ferric iron and aluminum have continued to produce consistent concentrations of alkalinity since their construction. However, an ALD that received 20 mg/L of aluminum experienced a rapid reduction in permeability and failed within five months. The generation of alkalinity in the RAPS has displayed seasonal variations, with significantly more sulfate reduction occurring in the warmer months. Most of these RAPS have been recently constructed, however, one system has been monitored for over six years. A gradual decline in the generation of alkalinity has been observed in this system which can be attributed to a decrease in sulfate reduction rates.

  5. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  6. Alkaline etch system qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the data from this qualification activity, the Atotech etch system, even with minimum characterization, was capable of etching production printed circuit products as good as those from the Chemcut system. Further characterization of the Atotech system will improve its etching capability. In addition to the improved etch quality expected from further characterization, the Atotech etch system has additional features that help reduce waste and provide for better consistency in the etching process. The programmable logic controller and computer will allow operators to operate the system manually or from pre-established recipes. The evidence and capabilities of the Atotech system made it as good as or better than the Chemcut system for etching WR products. The Printed Wiring Board Engineering Department recommended that the Atotech system be released for production. In December 1995, the Atotech system was formerly qualified for production.

  7. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  8. Decrease of time for pathogen inactivation in alkaline disinfection systems using pressure.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris, Kari B; Reimers, Robert S; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A; Little, M Dale

    2007-04-01

    From field studies conducted by Tulane University (New Orleans, Louisiana), efficiency of advanced alkaline disinfection in closed systems was found to depend on ammonia concentration, pH, exposure time, temperature, total solids content, pretreatment storage time, and mixing effectiveness. In this study of a closed alkaline system, an additional pathogen stressor pressure was tested. The effect of the alkaline dosing has been assessed for dewatered raw and aerobically and anaerobically digested municipal sludge cake that produce un-ionized ammonia at concentrations of 0.05 to 2% on a dry-weight basis. Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs increased from 50 to 99% as the temperature was increased from 40 to 55 degrees C, thus achieving Class A levels. The systems studied were compared with an alkaline process operated under open conditions, which limited the concentrations of ammonia available because of Henry's Law. Under a closed pressurized system, the effect of un-ionized ammonia was greatly increased, and the resulting time required for inactivation was reduced from hours or days to minutes. In the next few years, it is expected that alkaline disinfection of biosolids will be optimized in relation to the factors stated above, at much lower doses of the alkaline agents. The closed-system alkaline processes that will be developed will be more energy-efficient, cost-effective, and have full control of potential odorous emissions.

  9. Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  10. Taxonomy and Polyphasic Characterization of Alkaline Amylase Producing Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces rochei BTSS 1001

    PubMed Central

    Acharyabhatta, Aparna; Kandula, Siva Kumar; Terli, Ramana

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments along the southeast coast of Bay of Bengal were investigated for amylolytic activity. Marine actinomycete BTSS 1001 producing an alkaline amylase was identified from marine sediment of Diviseema coast, Bay of Bengal. The isolate produced alkaline amylase with maximum amylolytic activity at pH 9.5 at 50°C. The organism produced white to pale grey substrate mycelium and grayish aerial mycelium with pinkish brown pigmentation. A comprehensive study of morphological, physiological parameters, cultural characteristics, and biochemical studies was performed. The presence of iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, LL-diaminopimelic acid as the characteristic cell wall component, and menaquinones MK-9H(6) and MK-9H(8) as the major isoprenoid quinones is attributed to the strain BTSS 1001 belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BTSS 1001 exhibited the highest similarities to the type strains of Streptomyces rochei (99%), Streptomyces plicatus (99%), and Streptomyces enissocaesilis (99%). Using the polyphasic taxonomical approach and phenotypic characteristic studies, the isolate BTSS 1001 was characterized as marine actinomycete Streptomyces rochei. PMID:24489548

  11. Adsorption of tungsten onto zeolite fly ash produced by hydrothermally treating fly ash in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) was hydrothermally treated in an alkaline solution to produce zeolite fly ash (Z-FA). The properties of the FA and Z-FA were investigated. The amounts of tungsten (W) adsorbed onto the FA and Z-FA surfaces were evaluated. Z-FA was produced by hydrothermally treating FA in an alkaline solution. The specific surface area and pore volume of the Z-FA were greater than those of the FA. More W was adsorbed onto the Z-FA surface than onto the FA surface. The adsorption isotherms for W were fitted using both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The equilibrium concentrations of W adsorbed onto the FA and Z-FA surfaces were subsequently reached within 20 h. The pseudo-second-order model more accurately described the data than did the pseudo-first-order model. Sodium hydroxide solutions (1-50 mmol/L) were used to easily recover W from Z-FA, indicating that Z-FA was useful for recovering W from aqueous solutions.

  12. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems. PMID:27786262

  13. Alkaline static feed electrolyzer based oxygen generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, L. D.; Kovach, A. J.; Fortunato, F. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Grigger, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    In preparation for the future deployment of the Space Station, an R and D program was established to demonstrate integrated operation of an alkaline Water Electrolysis System and a fuel cell as an energy storage device. The program's scope was revised when the Space Station Control Board changed the energy storage baseline for the Space Station. The new scope was aimed at the development of an alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer for use in an Environmental Control/Life Support System as an oxygen generation system. As a result, the program was divided into two phases. The phase 1 effort was directed at the development of the Static Feed Electrolyzer for application in a Regenerative Fuel Cell System. During this phase, the program emphasized incorporation of the Regenerative Fuel Cell System design requirements into the Static Feed Electrolyzer electrochemical module design and the mechanical components design. The mechanical components included a Pressure Control Assembly, a Water Supply Assembly and a Thermal Control Assembly. These designs were completed through manufacturing drawing during Phase 1. The Phase 2 effort was directed at advancing the Alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer database for an oxygen generation system. This development was aimed at extending the Static Feed Electrolyzer database in areas which may be encountered from initial fabrication through transportation, storage, launch and eventual Space Station startup. During this Phase, the Program emphasized three major areas: materials evaluation, electrochemical module scaling and performance repeatability and Static Feed Electrolyzer operational definition and characterization.

  14. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311–318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm

  15. An extremely alkaline mannanase from Streptomyces sp. CS428 hydrolyzes galactomannan producing series of mannooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pradeep G C; Cho, Seung Sik; Choi, Yun Hee; Choi, Yun Seok; Jee, Jun-Pil; Seong, Chi Nam; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2016-05-01

    An alkaline-thermostable mannanase from Streptomyces sp. CS428 was produced, purified, and biochemically characterized. The extracellular mannanase (Mn428) was purified to homogeneity with 12.4 fold, specific activity of 2406.7 U/mg, and final recovery of 37.6 %. The purified β-mannanase was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kDa as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and zymography. The first N-terminal amino acid sequences of mannanase enzyme were HIRNGNHQLPTG. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme were 60 °C and 12.5, respectively. The mannanase activities were significantly affected by the presence of metal ions, modulators, and detergents. Km and Vmax values of Mn428 were 1.01 ± 3.4 mg/mL and 5029 ± 85 µmol/min mg, respectively when different concentrations (0.6-10 mg/mL) of locust bean gum galactomannan were used as substrate. The substrate specificity of enzyme showed its highest specificity towards galactomannan which was further hydrolyzed to produce mannose, mannobiose, mannotriose, and a series of mannooligosaccharides. Mannooligosaccharides can be further converted to ethanol production, thus the purified β-mannanase isolated from Streptomyces sp. CS428 was found to be attractive for biotechnological applications. PMID:27038954

  16. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus BA06, a Producer of Alkaline Serine Protease with Leather-Dehairing Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus BA06 was isolated from the proteinaceous soil and produced an extracellular alkaline protease with leather-dehairing function. The genome of BA06 was sequenced. The comparative genome analysis indicated that strain BA06 is different in genome from the other B. pumilus strains, with limited insertions, deletions, and rearrangements. PMID:23144411

  18. A baculovirus alkaline nuclease knockout construct produces fragmented DNA and aberrant capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Rohrmann, George F. . E-mail: rohrmanng@orst.edu

    2007-03-01

    DNA replication of bacmid-derived constructs of the Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was analyzed by field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) in combination with digestion at a unique Eco81I restriction enzyme site. Three constructs were characterized: a parental bacmid, a bacmid deleted for the alkaline nuclease gene, and a bacmid from which the gp64 gene had been deleted. The latter was employed as a control for comparison with the alkaline nuclease knockout because neither yields infectious virus and their replication is limited to the initially transfected cells. The major difference between DNA replicated by the different constructs was the presence in the alkaline nuclease knockout of high concentrations of relatively small, subgenome length DNA in preparations not treated with Eco81I. Furthermore, upon Eco81I digestion, the alkaline nuclease knockout bacmid also yielded substantially more subgenome size DNA than the other constructs. Electron microscopic examination of cells transfected with the alkaline nuclease knockout indicated that, in addition to a limited number of normal-appearing electron-dense nucleocapsids, numerous aberrant capsid-like structures were observed indicating a defect in nucleocapsid maturation or in a DNA processing step that is necessary for encapsidation. Because of the documented role of the baculovirus alkaline nuclease and its homologs from other viruses in homologous recombination, these data suggest that DNA recombination may play a major role in the production of baculovirus genomes.

  19. Intracellular alkaline proteases produced by thermoacidophiles: detection of protease heterogeneity by gelatin zymography and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Kocabiyik, Semra; Erdem, Bilge

    2002-08-01

    In this study 24 thermoacidophilic archeal and bacterial strains isolated from hot-springs and hot-soils were screened for their ability to produce intracellular alkaline proteases. The protease activities of the strains, based on azocasein hydrolysis, showed a variation from 0.6 to 5.1 U. The cell extracts of three most potent producers were further examined and it was found that their proteases exhibited maximum activity at 60-70 degrees C and showed a pH optimum over a range of pH 7.0-8.5. Gelatin zymography revealed that two of the selected archeal strains produced multiple active SDS-resistant proteases. On the other hand, PCR amplification of alkaline serine protease gene sequences of total DNA from all isolates yielded four distinct amplification fragments of 650, 450, 400 and 300 bp, which might have been derived from different serine protease genes.

  20. The alkaline zinc electrode as a mixed potential system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodic and anodic processes for the alkaline zinc electrode in 0.01 molar zincate electrolyte (9 molar hydroxide) were investigated. Cyclic voltammograms and current-voltage curves were obtained by supplying pulses through a potentiostat to a zinc rotating disk electrode. The data are interpreted by treating the system as one with a mixed potential; the processes are termed The zincate and corrosion reactions. The relative proportions of the two processes vary with the supplied potential. For the cathodic region, the cathodic corrosion process predominates at higher potentials while both processes occur simultaneously at a lower potential (i.e., 50 mV). For the anodic region, the anodic zincate process predominates at higher potentials while the anodic corrosion process is dominant at lower potential (i.e., 50 mV) if H2 is present.

  1. Studies on alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus clausii GMBE 22.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dilek; Bal, Hulya; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Ozturk, Nurcin Celik; Ozturk, Hasan Umit; Dilgimen, Aydan Salman; Ozturk, Dilek Coskuner; Erarslan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    An alkali tolerant Bacillus strain having extracellular serine alkaline protease activity was newly isolated from compost and identified as Bacillus clausii GMBE 22. An alkaline protease (AP22) was 4.66-fold purified in 51.5% yield from Bacillus clausii GMBE 22 by ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was identified as serine protease by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF) also justified that it is a serine alkaline protease. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 25.4 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH values are 60 degrees C and 12.0, respectively. The enzyme showed highest specificity to N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA. The K(m) and k(cat) values for hydrolysis of this substrate are 0.347 mM and 1141 min(-1) respectively. The enzyme was affected by surface active agents to varying extents. The enzyme is stable for 2 h at 30 degrees C and pH 10.5. AP22 is also stable for 5 days over the pH range 9.0-11.0 at room temperature. AP22 has good pH stability compared with the alkaline proteases belonging to other strains of Bacillus clausii reported in the literature. PMID:19431045

  2. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  3. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  4. A 3-photon process for producing degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating quantum degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms. A degenerate gas in any of the 3 P metastable states has not previously been obtained due to large inelastic collision rates, which are unfavorable for evaporative cooling. Samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent 3-photon process. Numerical integration of the density matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ~= 90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the 3-photon process does not impart momentum to the degenerate gas during excitation, which allows studies of these metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to the successful realization of our scheme, including the minimization of differential AC Stark shifts between the four states connected by the 3-photon transition.

  5. Three-photon process for producing a degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, D. S.; Pisenti, N. C.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating a quantum degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. This has yet to be achieved due to inelastic collisions that limit evaporative cooling in the metastable states. Quantum degenerate samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent three-photon process. Numerical integration of the density-matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth-metal atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ≃90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the three-photon process can be set up such that it imparts no net momentum to the degenerate gas during the excitation, which will allow for studies of metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to successfully realizing our scheme, including the minimization of differential ac Stark shifts between the four states connected by the three-photon transition.

  6. System for producing chroma signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorhaben, K. H.; Lipoma, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining electronic chroma signals with a single scanning-type image device is described. A color multiplexed light signal is produced using an arrangement of dichroic filter stripes. In the particular system described, a two layer filter is used to color modulate external light which is then detected by an image pickup tube. The resulting time division multiplexed electronic signal from the pickup tube is converted by a decoder into a green color signal, and a single red-blue multiplexed signal, which is demultiplexed to produce red and blue color signals. The three primary color signals can be encoded as standard NTSC color signals.

  7. Physicochemical properties of the alumina produced by alkaline and acidic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetchinkina, T. N.

    2009-04-01

    Crystal-optical, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric methods are used to study the polymorphic transformations in the products of calcination of the aluminum hydroxide produced by the decomposition and carbonization of aluminate solutions; the aluminum oxide produced by the decomposition of pure grade crystal hydrates of aluminum salts; and the alumina extracted upon the beneficiation of the mineral part of coaly rock with sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids. The morphology of the products of the thermal decomposition of the initial compounds is examined. The effect of impurities and a reducing agent on the formation of the structural modifications of alumina during heat treatment is revealed.

  8. Seasonal patterns of alkalinity in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system, California, during 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Salinity and alkalinity were measured in the near-surface waters of San Francisco Bay estuarine system at two-week intervals during 1980. Results are presented in figures and as numerical values, and the analytical methods are detailed. The transport of alkalinity to the Bay from the delta during 1980 was 3.8 x 10 to Ohe 10th power equivalents; this estimate is based on the freshwater alkalinity concentrations predicted by the north San Francisco Bay salinity-alkalinity distributions. North San Francisco Bay distributions are primarily the result of conservative mixing of freshwater from the Delta with Pacific Ocean water. Nonlinear distributions are the consequence of alkalinity variations in the freshwater rather than the effects of in-estuary processes or sources. Seasonal inflow of agricultural waste water is a major cause of freshwater alkalinity variations. South San Francisco Bay salinity-alkalinity distributions show the effects of variations in Delta outflow rate, local streams, and municipal waste-water inflows. (USGS)

  9. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    PubMed

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  10. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation. PMID:26292104

  11. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  12. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yehong; Dai, Yujie; Guo, Changlu; Zheng, Heng

    2012-09-28

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R(2)(adj)) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R(2)(cv)) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters.

  13. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yehong; Dai, Yujie; Guo, Changlu; Zheng, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R(2)(adj)) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R(2)(cv)) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters. PMID:23016923

  14. RNA Oligomerization in Laboratory Analogues of Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems.

    PubMed

    Burcar, Bradley T; Barge, Laura M; Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Russell, Michael J; McGown, Linda B

    2015-07-01

    Discovering pathways leading to long-chain RNA formation under feasible prebiotic conditions is an essential step toward demonstrating the viability of the RNA World hypothesis. Intensive research efforts have provided evidence of RNA oligomerization by using circular ribonucleotides, imidazole-activated ribonucleotides with montmorillonite catalyst, and ribonucleotides in the presence of lipids. Additionally, mineral surfaces such as borates, apatite, and calcite have been shown to catalyze the formation of small organic compounds from inorganic precursors (Cleaves, 2008 ), pointing to possible geological sites for the origins of life. Indeed, the catalytic properties of these particular minerals provide compelling evidence for alkaline hydrothermal vents as a potential site for the origins of life since, at these vents, large metal-rich chimney structures can form that have been shown to be energetically favorable to diverse forms of life. Here, we test the ability of iron- and sulfur-rich chimneys to support RNA oligomerization reactions using imidazole-activated and non-activated ribonucleotides. The chimneys were synthesized in the laboratory in aqueous "ocean" solutions under conditions consistent with current understanding of early Earth. Effects of elemental composition, pH, inclusion of catalytic montmorillonite clay, doping of chimneys with small organic compounds, and in situ ribonucleotide activation on RNA polymerization were investigated. These experiments, under certain conditions, showed successful dimerization by using unmodified ribonucleotides, with the generation of RNA oligomers up to 4 units in length when imidazole-activated ribonucleotides were used instead. Elemental analysis of the chimney precipitates and the reaction solutions showed that most of the metal cations that were determined were preferentially partitioned into the chimneys. PMID:26154881

  15. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8–10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30–50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg2+, Fe2+ and Ag+ showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Ag+ caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51–97%) of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed. PMID:24294252

  16. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. 862.1050 Section 862.1050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  1. Effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and system pH in semi-commercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When operating water recirculating systems (RAS) with high make-up water flushing rates in locations that have low alkalinity in the raw water, such as Norway, knowledge about the required RAS alkalinity concentration is important. Flushing RAS with make-up water containing low alkalinity washes out...

  2. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal driven by short-chain fatty acids produced from waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2007-10-15

    This paper examines the feasibility of using alkaline fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the carbon sources of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microorganisms. First, the released phosphorus was recovered from the SCFA-containing alkaline fermentation liquid by the formation of struvite precipitation, and 92.8% of the soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) could be recovered under conditions of Mg/P = 1.8 (mol/mol), pH 10.0, and a reaction time of 2 min. One reason for a Mg addition required in this study that was higher than the theoretical value was thatthe organic compounds consumed Mg. Then, two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, with acetic acid and alkaline fermentative SCFAs as the carbon source of EBPR. The transformations of SOP, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and glycogen and the removal of phosphorus were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was around 98% with the fermentative SCFAs, and about 71% with acetic acid, although the former showed much lower transformations of both PHAs and glycogen. The reasons that fermentative SCFAs caused much higher SOP removal than acetic acid were due to less PHAs used for glycogen synthesis and a higher PHA utilization efficiency for SOP uptake. Finally, the toxicity of fermentation liquid to EBPR microorganisms was examined, and no inhibitory effect was observed. It can be concluded from this studythatthe SCFAs from alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge were a superior carbon source for EBPR microorganisms than pure acetic acid.

  3. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  4. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal[trademark

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA's ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal[trademark] Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal[trademark] batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  5. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA`s ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal{trademark} Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal{trademark} batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  6. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Matheus S; Damasio, André R de L; Crnkovic, Paula M; Pinto, Marcelo R; da Silva, Ana M; da Silva, Jean C R; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C; Jorge, João A; Polizeli, Maria de L T de M

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production.

  7. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Matheus S; Damasio, André R de L; Crnkovic, Paula M; Pinto, Marcelo R; da Silva, Ana M; da Silva, Jean C R; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C; Jorge, João A; Polizeli, Maria de L T de M

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  8. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Matheus S.; Damasio, André R. de L.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; da Silva, Ana M.; da Silva, Jean C. R.; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria de L. T. de M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60–80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  9. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  10. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, H.; Braeckman, U.; Le Guitton, M.; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2016-02-01

    It has been previously proposed that alkalinity release from sediments can play an important role in the carbonate dynamics on continental shelves, lowering the pCO2 of seawater and hence increasing the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. To test this hypothesis, sedimentary alkalinity generation was quantified within cohesive and permeable sediments across the North Sea during two cruises in September 2011 (basin-wide) and June 2012 (Dutch coastal zone). Benthic fluxes of oxygen (O2), alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined using shipboard closed sediment incubations. Our results show that sediments can form an important source of alkalinity for the overlying water, particularly in the shallow southern North Sea, where high AT and DIC fluxes were recorded in near-shore sediments of the Belgian, Dutch and German coastal zone. In contrast, fluxes of AT and DIC are substantially lower in the deeper, seasonally stratified, northern part of the North Sea. Based on the data collected, we performed a model analysis to constrain the main pathways of alkalinity generation in the sediment, and to quantify how sedimentary alkalinity drives atmospheric CO2 uptake in the southern North Sea. Overall, our results show that sedimentary alkalinity generation should be regarded as a key component in the CO2 dynamics of shallow coastal systems.

  11. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  12. Ocean-Based Alkalinity Enhancement: Mitigation Potential, Side Effects and the Fate of Added Alkalinity Assessed in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, M. F.; Ilyina, T.

    2014-12-01

    Artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) has been proposed as a mean to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of this geo-engineering technology may sound promising, it poses environmental risks. Within the Priority Program "Climate Engineering" of the German Science Foundation (DFG), we investigate the mitigation potential of AOA to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification. We are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the ocean surface because it must stay in the upper ocean in order to increase the oceanic CO2 uptake. The mitigation potential, risks and the unintended consequences of this geo-engineering method are also exhaustively studied. These questions are tackled through the analysis of different alkalinity enhancement scenarios in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM) in a configuration based on the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Model scenarios are designed so that AOA is performed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentrations similar to values of the stabilization scenario RCP4.5, while fossil fuel CO2 emissions follow the pathway of the high-CO2 scenario RCP8.5. Alkalinity is added globally into the upper 12 meters of the ocean in different seasons and years. We found that on the time scale of relevance (i.e. from years to decades), season and location are key aspects to take into account in the implementation of AOA. This is because of inhomogeneous vertical mixing of added alkalinity due to the mixed layer depth which is established by the season. We also show that the rate of addition greatly determines impact and outcome of this geo-engineering method. Changes driven by the implementation of this method in the ocean biogeochemistry are also discussed. For instance, the associated changes in the carbon cycle, marine oxygen levels, saturation state of

  13. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  14. Intragenomic diversity of the V1 regions of 16S rRNA genes in high-alkaline protease-producing Bacillus clausii spp.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yasushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nishi, Shinro; Nogi, Yuichi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hitomi, Jun; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-07-01

    Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16, which produces high-alkaline M-protease, was characterized phenotypically, biochemically and genetically. This strain was identified as Bacillus clausii based on the results of taxonomic studies, including sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization. Seven rRNA operons in the genome were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes revealed two distinct types of variable region V1. Moreover, some cloned 16S rRNA genes in some of the reference strains of B. clausii had a V1 region of yet another type. The B. clausii strains could clearly be divided into at least two subgroups based on the frequencies of the types of cloned V1 sequence. Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16 was found to be in a different phylogenetic position from other high-alkaline protease-producing strains of B. clausii. PMID:17429572

  15. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2008-10-01

    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  16. The Effects of Culture Conditions on the Glycosylation of Secreted Human Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jong Hyun; Zhang, Fuming; Ermonval, Myriam; Linhardt, Robert J.; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different culture conditions, suspension and microcarrier culture and temperature reduction on the structures of N-linked glycans attached to secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) were investigated for CHO cells grown in a controlled bioreactor. Both mass spectrometry and anion-exchange chromatography were used to probe the N-linked glycan structures and distribution. Complex-type glycans were the dominant structures with small amounts of high mannose glycans observed in suspension and reduced temperature cultures. Biantennary glycans were the most common structures detected by mass spectrometry, but triantennary and tetraantennary forms were also detected. The amount of sialic acid present was relatively low, approximately 0.4 mol sialic acid/mol SEAP for suspension cultures. Microcarrier cultures exhibited a decrease in productivity compared with suspension culture due to a decrease in both maximum viable cell density (15-20%) and specific productivity (30-50%). In contrast, a biphasic suspension culture in which the temperature was reduced at the beginning of the stationary phase from 37 to 33°C, showed a 7% increase in maximum viable cell density, a 62% increase in integrated viable cell density, and a 133% increase in specific productivity, leading to greater than threefold increase in total productivity. Both microcarrier and reduced temperature cultures showed increased sialylation and decreased fucosylation when compared to suspension culture. Our results highlight the importance of glycoform analysis after process modification as even subtle changes (e.g., changing from one microcarrier to another) may affect glycan distributions. PMID:18553404

  17. Long-range interacting many-body systems with alkaline-earth-metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Olmos, B; Yu, D; Singh, Y; Schreck, F; Bongs, K; Lesanovsky, I

    2013-04-01

    Alkaline-earth-metal atoms can exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, which are generated via the coherent exchange of photons on the (3)P(0) - (3)D(1) transition of the triplet manifold. In the case of bosonic strontium, which we discuss here, this transition has a wavelength of 2.6 μm and a dipole moment of 4.03 D, and there exists a magic wavelength permitting the creation of optical lattices that are identical for the states (3)P(0) and (3)D(1). This interaction enables the realization and study of mixtures of hard-core lattice bosons featuring long-range hopping, with tunable disorder and anisotropy. We derive the many-body master equation, investigate the dynamics of excitation transport, and analyze spectroscopic signatures stemming from coherent long-range interactions and collective dissipation. Our results show that lattice gases of alkaline-earth-metal atoms permit the creation of long-lived collective atomic states and constitute a simple and versatile platform for the exploration of many-body systems with long-range interactions. As such, they represent an alternative to current related efforts employing Rydberg gases, atoms with large magnetic moment, or polar molecules.

  18. REDISTRIBUTION OF ALKALINE ELEMENTS IN ASSOCIATION WITH AQUEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Takuya; Yoneda, Shigekazu E-mail: s-yoneda@kahaku.go.jp

    2015-12-10

    It is known that the Sayama meteorite (CM2) shows an extensive signature for aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body, and that most of the primary minerals in the chondrules are replaced with phyllosilicates as the result of the aqueous alteration. In this paper, it is confirmed from the observation of two-dimensional Raman spectra that a part of olivine in a chondrule collected from the Sayama chondrite is serperntinized. Ion microprobe analysis of the chondrule showed that alkaline elements such as Rb and Cs are heterogeneously redistributed in the chondrule. The result of higher Rb and Cs contents in serpentinized phases in the chondrule rather than in other parts suggested the selective adsorption of alkaline elements into the serpentine in association with early aqueous activity on the meteorite parent body. Furthermore Ba isotopic analysis provided variations of {sup 135}Ba/{sup 138}Ba and {sup 137}Ba/{sup 138}Ba in the chondrule. This result was consistent with our previous isotopic data suggesting isotopic evidence for the existence of the presently extinct nuclide {sup 135}Cs in the Sayama meteorite, but the abundance of {sup 135}Cs in the solar system remains unclear because of large analytical uncertainties.

  19. Impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization on the carbon cycle and climate in Earth system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Miriam Ferrer; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2016-06-01

    Using the state-of-the-art emissions-driven Max Planck Institute Earth system model, we explore the impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization (AOA) with a scenario based on the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) framework. Addition of 114 Pmol of alkalinity to the surface ocean stabilizes atmospheric CO2 concentration to RCP4.5 levels under RCP8.5 emissions. This scenario removes 940 GtC from the atmosphere and mitigates 1.5 K of global warming within this century. The climate adjusts to the lower CO2 concentration preventing the loss of sea ice and high sea level rise. Seawater pH and the carbonate saturation state (Ω) rise substantially above levels of the current decade. Pronounced differences in regional sensitivities to AOA are projected, with the Arctic Ocean and tropical oceans emerging as hot spots for biogeochemical changes induced by AOA. Thus, the CO2 mitigation potential of AOA comes at a price of an unprecedented ocean biogeochemistry perturbation with unknown ecological consequences.

  20. Cosmic ray produced isotopes in terrestrial systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1998-12-01

    Continuing improvements in the sensitivity of measurement of cosmic ray produced isotopes in environmental samples have progressively broadened the scope of their applications to characterise and quantify a wide variety of processes in Earth and planetary sciences. In this article, the author concentrates on the new developments in the field of nuclear geophysics, based on isotopic changes produced by cosmic rays in the terrestrial systems. This field, which is best described as cosmic ray geophysics, has roots with the discovery of cosmogenic 14C on the Earth by Willard Libby in 1948, and grew rapidly at first, but slowed down during the '60s and '70s. In the '80s, there was a renaissance in cosmic ray produced isotope studies, thanks mainly to the developments of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique capable of measuring minute amounts of radioactivity in terrestrial samples. This technological advance has considerably enhanced the applications of cosmic ray produced isotopes and today one finds them being used to address diverse problems in Earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses the present scope of the field of cosmic ray geophysics with an emphasis on geomorphology. It is stressed that this is the decade in which this field, which has been studied passionately by geographers, geomorphologists and geochemists for more than five decades, has at its service nuclear methods to introduce numeric time controls in the range of centuries to millions of years.

  1. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A.; Benemann, J.R.; Tredici, M.R.

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  2. Ca isotope fractionation in a high-alkalinity lake system: Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals from aqueous solutions causes surface-controlled kinetic stable Ca isotope fractionation. The magnitude of fractionation depends on the relative rates of ion attachment to and detachment from the mineral surface, which in turn is predicted to depend on both the saturation state and the solution stoichiometry or the Ca:CO32- activity ratio. Experimental studies have not directly investigated the effects of varying solution stoichiometry on calcium isotope partitioning during calcite or aragonite growth, but natural alkaline lake systems such as Mono Lake, California provide a test bed for the hypothesized stoichiometry dependence. Mono Lake has a Ca:CO32- activity ratio of about 0.0001, seven orders of magnitude lower than ocean water and typical terrestrial freshwater. We present chemical and isotopic measurements of streams, springs, lake water, and precipitated carbonates from the Mono Basin that yield evidence of stoichiometry-dependent Ca isotope fractionation during calcite, aragonite and Mg-calcite precipitation from the alkaline lake water. To estimate the Ca isotope fractionation factors, it is necessary to characterize the lake Ca balance and constrain the variability of lake water chemistry both spatially and temporally. Streams and springs supply Ca to the lake, and a substantial fraction of this supply is precipitated along the lake shore to form tufa towers. Lake water is significantly supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals, so CaCO3 also precipitates directly from the water column to form carbonate-rich bottom sediments. Growth rate inhibition by orthophosphate likely preserves the high degree of supersaturation in the lake. Strontium isotope ratios are used to estimate the proportions of fresh and alkaline lake water from which each solid carbonate sample precipitated. Carbonate minerals that precipitate directly from lake water (low Ca:CO32-) experience relatively large Ca isotope fractionation

  3. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  4. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  5. HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-04-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular.

  6. HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-04-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular. PMID:25581169

  7. Interference to satellite systems produced by rainscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, R. G.; Thompson, P. T.

    1991-10-01

    Data, obtained from eight small dish receivers, placed around the United Kingdom, and designed to detect the scattering by rain of signals from the British Telecom (BT) 11 GHz microwave network, is presented. Fifteen site years of measurements were analyzed to produce cumulative distributions of effective receive antenna noise temperature and, where rainscattered signals were detected, cumulative distributions of transmission loss. The results obtained are compared with those predicted by a BT/University of Essex rainscatter interference prediction model (SCIMP).

  8. A sequential injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2004-08-01

    A sequential injection methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples is proposed. A single manifold is used for the determination of the three analytes, and the same protocol sequence allows the sequential determination of calcium and magnesium (the sum corresponds to the water hardness). The determination of both metals is based on their reaction with cresolphtalein complexone; mutual interference is minimized by using 8-hydroxyquinoline for the determination of calcium and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for the determination of magnesium. Alkalinity determination is based on a reaction with acetic acid, and corresponding color change of Bromcresol Green. Working ranges of 0.5 - 5 mg dm(-3) for Ca, 0.5 - 10 mg dm(-3) for Mg, and 10 - 100 mg HCO3- dm(-3), for alkalinity have been achieved. The results for water samples were comparable to those of the reference methods and to a certified reference water sample. RSDs lower than 5% were obtained, a low reagent consumption and a reduced volume of effluent have been accomplished. The determination rate for calcium and magnesium is 80 h(-1), corresponding to 40 h(-1) per element, while 65 determinations of alkalinity per hour could be carried out.

  9. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  10. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R.; Brandon, Mark M.; True, Bradford G.

    2012-01-17

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  12. Georeferenced Data Systems Help Produce Better Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the benefits and how to set up a georeferenced information system that contains standard student demographic data, the geographical location of each student, selected geographic location descriptors, growth factors attached to various land sections, and land usage and zoning. (MLF)

  13. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 95. Alkaline Earth Carbonates in Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Ca

    SciTech Connect

    De Visscher, Alex; Vanderdeelen, Jan

    2012-06-15

    The alkaline earth carbonates are an important class of minerals. This article is part of a volume in the IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series that compiles and critically evaluates solubility data of the alkaline earth carbonates in water and in simple aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 1 outlined the procedure adopted in this volume, and presented the beryllium and magnesium carbonates. Part 2, the current paper, compiles and critically evaluates the solubility data of calcium carbonate. The chemical forms included are the anhydrous CaCO{sub 3} types calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, the monohydrate monohydrocalcite (CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot} H{sub 2}O), the hexahydrate ikaite (CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O), and an amorphous form. The data were analyzed with two model variants, and thermodynamic data of each form consistent with each of the models and with the CODATA key values for thermodynamics are presented.

  14. Resin systems for producing polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the many commercial successes that have been achieved, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is called polymer concrete. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the types of resins that can be used to form polymer concretes. Resin selection is normally based upon the desired properties for the composite and cost. However, the physical and chemical properties of the resins before and during curing are also important, particularly for field-applied materials. Currently, for normal temperature (0/degree/ to 30/degree/C) applications, epoxy resins, vinyl monomers such as polyester-styrene, methylmethacrylate, furfuryl alcohol, furan derivatives, urethane, and styrene, are being used. Styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) mixtures and styrene-acrylamide-TMPTMA mixtures yield composites with excellent hydrothermal stability at temperatures up to 150/degree/ and 250/degree/C, respectively, and organosiloxane resins have been successfully tested at 300/degree/C. Of equal importance is the selection of the composition of the inorganic phase of the composite, since chemical interactions between the two phases can significantly enhance the final properties. Further work to elucidate the mechanisms of these interactions is needed. 6 refs.

  15. Semiosis in self-producing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, Alexei

    2000-05-01

    Cybernetic methodology has reached its limits in the study of life because it ignores the meaning of biological information. Thus it should be augmented by semiotics that studies the meaning and value of signs. According to the pragmatic definition, a sign is a biological adaptation, i.e. a persistent useful function. Usefulness of an action can be measured by its contribution to the reproductive value of an organism in a particular quasi-species. Reproductive values are equal to the components of the left eigenvector of the linearized model of system dynamics. Every organism is a sign, and its life cycle is a continuous process of self-interpretation. Organisms use receptors to predict changing environments. Natural selection is functionally equivalent to perception at the level of lineages. Selective survival and reproduction is analogous to selective excitation of photoreceptors in the eye. Lineages learn how to avoid harmful variation by using developmental constraints, proofreading, dominance, and other mechanisms. If intelligence is defined as the ability to learn, then lineages are intelligent systems, which we did not recognize simply because they are too slow.

  16. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Halobacillus sp. Strain KGW1, a Moderately Halophilic and Alkaline Protease-Producing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ananta Narayan; Mishra, Samir R; Ray, Lopamudra; Sahu, Neha; Acharya, Ankita; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar; Raina, Vishakha

    2016-01-01

    Halobacillus sp. strain KGW1 is a moderately halophilic, rod shaped, Gram-positive, yellow pigmented, alkaline protease-producing bacterium isolated from a water sample from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Sequencing of bacterial DNA assembled a 3.68-Mb draft genome. The genome annotation analysis showed various gene clusters for tolerance to stress, such as elevated pH, salt concentration, and toxic metals. PMID:27365341

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Halobacillus sp. Strain KGW1, a Moderately Halophilic and Alkaline Protease-Producing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizospheric Region of Phragmites karka from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananta Narayan; Mishra, Samir R.; Ray, Lopamudra; Sahu, Neha; Acharya, Ankita; Jadhao, Sudhir; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Halobacillus sp. strain KGW1 is a moderately halophilic, rod shaped, Gram-positive, yellow pigmented, alkaline protease-producing bacterium isolated from a water sample from Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Sequencing of bacterial DNA assembled a 3.68-Mb draft genome. The genome annotation analysis showed various gene clusters for tolerance to stress, such as elevated pH, salt concentration, and toxic metals. PMID:27365341

  19. An automated alkaline elution system: DNA damage induced by 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, G; Holme, J A; Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Dybing, E

    1988-11-01

    An automated alkaline elution system for the detection of DNA damage has been developed. After manual application of samples, which is completed within 5 min, the subsequent supply of liquids, changes in flow rates, and temperature are controlled automatically. The system operates 16 filters and may easily be expanded. The sensitivity of the fluorometric DNA determinations with the Hoechst 33258 dye is increased by using an elution buffer (20 mM Na2EDTA, pH 12.50) with low background fluorescence. DNA is determined using an automated setup similar to the one recently presented by Sterzel et al. (1985, Anal. Biochem. 147, 462-467). The most significant modification is the use of a neutralization buffer which allows variations in the pH of eluted fractions. This change increases the sensitivity of the DNA measurements. The automated alkaline elution system was evaluated using the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in a study of its genotoxic effects in the testes and the kidneys. Significant DNA damage was induced in testicular cells by 2.5 microM DBCP (1 h) in vitro and 85 mumol/kg DBCP ip (3 h) in vivo. The damage appeared after short treatment times (10 min in vivo). Variations in the observed DBCP response in vivo were largely due to interanimal variations. The automated alkaline elution system proved to be a sensitive assay also for the detection of DNA damage in kidney nuclei prepared from rats exposed to DBCP. Provided that kidney nuclei from untreated rats, mice, or hamster were kept ice-cold until lysing, 85-100% of their DNA was retained after 16 h of elution, indicating highly intact DNA. Under the same conditions, guinea pig DNA was rapidly degraded unless the nuclei were prepared in a buffer with a higher concentration of Na2EDTA (20 mM). PMID:3239754

  20. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  1. Which one of the two common reporter systems is more suitable for chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay: alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase?

    PubMed

    Yu, Songcheng; Yu, Fei; Liu, Lie; Zhang, Hongquan; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Qu, Lingbo; Wu, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase are the most commonly used reporter systems in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Which one, therefore, would be better when establishing a CLEIA method for a new target substance? There was no standard answer. In this study, both reporters were compared systematically including luminescence kinetics, conjugation methods, optimal condition and detection performance, using two common drugs, SD-methoxy-pyrimidine and enrofloxacin, as determination objects. The results revealed that there was much difference between the luminescence kinetics of the two systems. However, there was little difference between these systems when detecting the same substance, including in optimal conditions and determination of performance. Both reporters were suitable for establishing chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. Therefore, the choice of alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase as the reporter system in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays depends on availability. Conversely, these two report systems could be applied in simultaneous analysis of multicomponents due to their different optical behaviors and similar performances. But attention should be paid to conjugation method and coating buffer, which affected the luminescent intensity of different determination targets. PMID:26552992

  2. Experimental investigation of As, Sb and Cs behavior during olivine serpentinization in hydrothermal alkaline systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafay, Romain; Montes-Hernandez, German; Janots, Emilie; Munoz, Manuel; Auzende, Anne Line; Gehin, Antoine; Chiriac, Rodica; Proux, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    While Fluid-Mobile Elements (FMEs) such as B, Sb, Li, As or Cs are particularly concentrated in serpentinites, data on FME fluid-serpentine partitioning, distribution, and sequestration mechanisms are missing. In the present experimental study, the behavior of Sb, As and Cs during San Carlos olivine serpentinization was investigated using accurate mineralogical, geochemical, and spectroscopic characterization. Static-batch experiments were conducted at 200 °C, under saturated vapor pressure (≈1.6 MPa), for initial olivine grain sizes of <30 μm (As), 30-56 μm (As, Cs, Sb) and 56-150 μm (Cs) and for periods comprised between 3 and 90 days. High-hydroxyl-alkaline fluid enriched with 200 mg L-1 of a single FME was used and a fluid/solid weight ratio of 15. For these particular conditions, olivine is favorably replaced by a mixture of chrysotile, polygonal serpentine and brucite. Arsenic, Cs or Sb reaction product content was determined as a function of reaction advancement for the different initial olivine grain sizes investigated. The results confirm that serpentinization products have a high FME uptake capacity with the partitioning coefficient increasing such as CsDp/fl = 1.5-1.6 < AsDp/fl = 3.5-4.5 < SbDp/fl = 28 after complete reaction of the 30-56 μm grain-sized olivine. The sequestration pathways of the three elements are however substantially different. While the As partition coefficient remains constant throughout the serpentinization reaction, the Cs partition coefficient decreases abruptly in the first stages of the reaction to reach a constant value after the reaction is 40-60% complete. Both As and Cs partitioning appear to decrease with increasing initial olivine grain size, but there is no significant difference in the partitioning coefficient between the 30-56 and 56-150 μm grain size after complete serpentinization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements combined with X-ray chemical measurements reveal that the As(V) is mainly

  3. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  4. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  5. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  6. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  7. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  8. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  9. Solar-Power System Produces High-Pressure Steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Combination of three multistaged solar collectors produces highpressure steam for large-scale continuously operating turbines for generating mechanical or electrical energy. Superheated water vapor drives turbines, attaining an overall system efficiency about 22 percent.

  10. AMP/GMP Analogs as Affinity ESIPT Probes for Highly Selective Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Living Systems.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Li, Peng; Han, Keli

    2015-11-01

    Current probes for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection had been developed mainly by adding a phosphate group to a dye, which would lead to indistinct performance when implemented in a living system as several phosphatases exist together. In this study, the nucleotides adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) were introduced into 2'-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole-based probes, and highly fluorescent turn-on probes with good selectivity towards ALP over several phosphatases, as well as high affinity and low toxicity were obtained. In the presence of L-phenylalanine, an ALP inhibitor, a strong decrease in fluorescence recovery was observed. These probes allowed for real-time imaging of endogenous ALP activity in living cells as well as in a zebrafish model.

  11. New fertilizer-producing system installed at Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A recently installed fertilizer-producing system sits near Launch Pad 39A. Using a 'scrubber,' the system captures nitrogen tetroxide vapor that develops as a by-product when it is transferred from ground storage tanks into the Shuttle storage tanks. Nitrogen tetroxide is used as the oxidizer for the hypergolic propellant in the Shuttle's on-orbit reaction control system. The scrubber then uses hydrogen peroxide to produce nitric acid, which, after adding potassium hydroxide, converts to potassium nitrate, a commercial fertilizer. Plans call for the resulting fertilizer to be used on the orange groves that KSC leases to outside companies.

  12. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  13. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  14. Two mantle sources, two plumbing systems: Tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Maymecha River basin, Siberian flood volcanic province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arndt, N.; Chauvel, C.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Rocks of two distinctly different magma series are found in a ???4000-m-thick sequence of lavas and tuffs in the Maymecha River basin which is part of the Siberian flood-volcanic province. The tholeiites are typical low-Ti continental flood basalts with remarkably restricted, petrologically evolved compositions. They have basaltic MgO contents, moderate concentrations of incompatible trace elements, moderate fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements, distinct negative Ta(Nb) anomalies, and ??Nd values of 0 to + 2. The primary magmas were derived from a relatively shallow mantle source, and evolved in large crustal magma chambers where they acquired their relatively uniform compositions and became contaminated with continental crust. An alkaline series, in contrast, contains a wide range of rock types, from meymechite and picrite to trachytes, with a wide range of compositions (MgO from 0.7 to 38 wt%, SiO2 from 40 to 69 wt%, Ce from 14 to 320 ppm), high concentrations of incompatible elements and extreme fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements (Al2O3/TiO2 ??? 1; Sm/Yb up to 11). These rocks lack Ta(Nb) anomalies and have a broad range of ??Nd values, from -2 to +5. The parental magmas are believed to have formed by low-degree melting at extreme mantle depths (>200 km). They bypassed the large crustal magma chambers and ascended rapidly to the surface, a consequence, perhaps, of high volatile contents in the primary magmas. The tholeiitic series dominates the lower part of the sequence and the alkaline series the upper part; at the interface, the two types are interlayered. The succession thus provides evidence of a radical change in the site of mantle melting, and the simultaneous operation of two very different crustal plumbing systems, during the evolution of this flood-volcanic province. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  15. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  16. Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. K.; Staiger, P. J.; Donovan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MWe has turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MWt of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

  17. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  18. The combined influence of hydrodynamic forcing and calcification on the spatial distribution of alkalinity in a coral reef system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenlin; Falter, James; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Greg

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the influence of hydrodynamic forcing (waves, tides, alongshore currents and winds) and net calcification by coral reef organisms on the spatial distribution of total alkalinity (TA) in a fringing reef system through a combination of field measurements and numerical modeling. A field experiment was conducted over 10 days in Coral Bay (Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia) during which we measured wave heights, currents, and tides as well as the spatial distribution of TA across the fore reef, reef crest, and lagoon. We used observed changes in TA on the adjacent reef flat, along with synoptic measurements of cross-reef transport, to estimate in situ rates of net calcification (gcv) using a control volume approach. Based on the gcv estimated, we simulated light-driven, diurnal variations in benthic net calcification within a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System). By coupling ROMS with a spectral wave model (Simulating Waves Nearshore), we were able to simulate currents within Coral Bay reef-lagoon system that were in good agreement with the field observations and demonstrate that circulation with the system was wave-dominated. Both the field measurements and numerical model output confirmed that both residence time (τR) and TA varied primarily with offshore wave heights and location within the bay. However, variations in TA were also affected by the nonlinear interaction between rates of net calcification that varied as a function of diurnally changing light and water residence time that varied as a function of offshore wave heights.

  19. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and

  20. Methods of producing armor systems, and armor systems produced using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-02-19

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  1. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  2. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  3. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  4. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  5. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  6. Interactions of Aqueous U(VI) with Soil Minerals in Slightly Alkaline Natural Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium (U) is a common contaminant at numerous surface and subsurface sites around the world. This paper covers some important aspects of the aqueous hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] interactions with soil minerals that are present in contaminated soils and sediments. The retention of U via interactions with soil minerals has significant consequences for the prediction of its short – and long – term behavior in soils and geological systems. Studies of the nature and type of these interactions have provided the necessary evidence for assessing the geochemical behavior of U in natural systems under different physical, biogeochemical, hydrological, and reducing or oxidizing conditions. Over the last 20 years, aqueous U(VI):solid phase interactions have been studied by geochemists, soil chemists, soil mineralogists and soil microbiologists, and the progress in some areas is remarkable. Although a mechanistic description and understanding of the complex interactions involving U and soil minerals of natural systems is currently impossible, results from carefully designed and executed experiments with these materials have improved our understanding of the heterogeneous system’s behavior and U contaminant mobility and transport. There are, however, areas that need further exploration and study. Numerous research publications were reviewed in this paper to present important findings coming out of the research, to reveal the current level of the understanding of the U(VI) interactions with soil minerals, and to provide ideas for future needs and research directions.

  7. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.

    2016-06-01

    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  8. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  9. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  10. Magma Differentiation in the Plumbing System of an Alkaline Ocean Island Volcano (Fuerteventura, Canary Island).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornare, E.; Bussy, F.; Pilet, S.

    2014-12-01

    Magma differentiation and mixing are generally regarded as taking place in magma chambers, sills or reservoirs, while magma stagnates before continuing to ascent or erupt. Here we consider differentiation to occur during magma rise in vertical dykes, as documented in the PX1 pluton, Fuerteventura, which is part of the root-zone of an eroded ocean island volcano. PX1 is a vertically layered cumulative body composed of meter to decameter-wide bands of clinopyroxenites and gabbros, surrounded by a very high-grade contact aureole (ca. 1000°C, Hobson et al., 1998). Many clinopyroxenites are characterized by a coarse-grained texture and complexly zoned clinopyroxene crystals. Resorption features and reverse zoning observed in rims are evidence for successive pulses. Percolation of high temperature basaltic melts through the accumulating crystal-rich mush would generate the complexly zoned clinopyroxenes and lead to crystal coarsening. We interpret these coarse-grained clinopyroxenites as crystal-rich magma channels, through which sustained magma fluxes travelled to the surface over a long period of time, thus generating the contact aureole. On the other hand, gabbro bands are interpreted as sluggish magma pulses emplaced in a cooler environment during the waning stages of magmatic activity. We thus propose a model of magma differentiation by dynamic fractionation in dykes throughout magma ascent in the plumbing system of basaltic volcanoes. This model assumes fractional crystallization of continuously rising magmas in vertical channels all along their way to the surface through phenocryst accumulation and crystal-melt interaction processes.

  11. When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. R.; Frölicher, T. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Rodgers, K. B.; Slater, R. D.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We use a large initial condition suite of simulations (30 runs) with an Earth system model to assess the detectability of biogeochemical impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the marine alkalinity distribution from decadally repeated hydrographic measurements such as those produced by the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Detection of these impacts is complicated by alkalinity changes from variability and long-term trends in freshwater and organic matter cycling and ocean circulation. In our ensemble simulation, variability in freshwater cycling generates large changes in alkalinity that obscure the changes of interest and prevent the attribution of observed alkalinity redistribution to OA. These complications from freshwater cycling can be mostly avoided through salinity normalization of alkalinity. With the salinity-normalized alkalinity, modeled OA impacts are broadly detectable in the surface of the subtropical gyres by 2030. Discrepancies between this finding and the finding of an earlier analysis suggest that these estimates are strongly sensitive to the patterns of calcium carbonate export simulated by the model. OA impacts are detectable later in the subpolar and equatorial regions due to slower responses of alkalinity to OA in these regions and greater seasonal equatorial alkalinity variability. OA impacts are detectable later at depth despite lower variability due to smaller rates of change and consistent measurement uncertainty.

  12. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  13. The effects of alkaline earth metal ions and halogen ions on the chromium oxide activities in alkaline earth metal oxide-halide-Cr2O3 system fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lian-Fu; Jiang, Mao-Fa; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Chen, Zhao-Ping

    2000-06-01

    The solid electrolyte cell — Mo|Cr + Cr2O3‖ZrO2(MgO)‖{Cu-Cr}alloy + (Cr2O3)fluxes|Mo+ is used at 1673 K to determine Cr2O3 activities in MO-MX 2-Cr2O3 (M = Ca2+, Ba2-, X = F- or Cl-) ternary fluxes, which are in equilibrium with the copper-chromium binary alloy. The ternary isothermal phase diagrams of CaO-CaF2-Cr2O3 and BaO-BaCl2-Cr2O3 system fluxes are inferred on the basis of the experimental results and binary phase diagrams. The results indicate that Cr2O3 activities in all fluxes always decrease with the increase of the X MO /X MX2 ratio. Partial replacement of BaO in BaO-BaF2-Cr2O3 fluxes by CaO is acceptable for economy and efficiency considerations. At the same time, partial substitution of BaO for CaO in CaO-CaF2-Cr2O3 fluxes is advantageous for phosphorus removal and chromium retention as a result of the increased Cr2O3 activities, increased basicities, and widening of the liquid zones. Compared to those in BaO-BaF2-Cr2O3 fluxes, Cr2O3 activities in CaO-CaF2-Cr2O3 fluxes approximately follow the same curve as the former, although the position and the width of the liquid zones are considerably different, and activities in BaO-BaCl2-Cr2O3 fluxes are higher at the lower Cr2O3 content, or vice versa. The activity coefficients of Cr2O3 in the fluxes decrease with the increase of the X MO /X MX 2 ratios.

  14. Method and System for Producing Images of an Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J. (Inventor); Garrison, James L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and system are provided to produce images of an object. A receiving station is positioned in view of a range-coded signal emitting satellite and the object. The receiving station is sensitive to direct transmission of the range-coded signal and reflections of the range-coded signal from the object. Both range from the receiving station to the object and a Doppler frequency shift history between the receiving station and the object is determined using the direct transmission and reflections of the range-coded signal. An image is formed using the two-dimensional record provided by the range and the Doppler frequency shift history.

  15. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  16. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  17. The design of alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, K.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline fuel cells recently developed have yielded satisfactory operation even in the cases of their use of mobile and matrix-type electrolytes; the advantages of realistic operation have been demonstrated by a major West German manufacturer's 100 kW alkaline fuel cell apparatus, which was operated in the role of an air-independent propulsion system. Development has begun for a spacecraft alkaline fuel cell of the matrix-electrolyte configuration.

  18. Sludge characteristics in anaerobic SBR system producing hydrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Muhammad Farhan; Han, Sun-Kee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2007-03-01

    In this study, sludge characteristics of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were investigated to improve and optimize the efficiency of the system converting starch into biohydrogen. The effect of stratification in settling phase on H2-producing ASBR, which results in settleable and non-settleable sludge, was observed using a batch experiment. It was concluded that specific H2 activity of decanting non-settleable sludge was higher than that of settleable sludge, which may be the reason of low yield in H2-producing ASBR. In addition, effect of settling time on settleable sludge, which is another key operational parameter, was also analysed using another set of batch experiment. Settling time of the sludge was found to be an important parameter in H2-producing ASBR. Specific H2 activity varied inversely with the duration for which settleable microorganisms were contained in settling phase. Microbial species, responsible for H2 activity in each condition, were identified using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis.

  19. Compounds produced by motor burnouts of refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C.; Hawley-Fedder, R.; Foiles, L.

    1995-05-24

    The phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons has necessitated the introduction of alternate refrigerants. R22 (CF{sub 2}ClH), R134a (CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F), and R507 (50/50 CHF{sub 2}CF{sub 3}/CF{sub 3}CH{sub 3}) are newer fluids which are used in cooling systems. Recently, concern over the possible formation of toxic compounds during electrical arcing through these fluids has prompted us to identify their electrical breakdown products by electron ionization GC/MS. For example, it is known that perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB), which have an threshold limit value of 10 ppb (set by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists), is produced from the thermal and electrical breakdown of some refrigerants. We have used specially designed test cells, equipped with electrodes, to simulate the electrical breakdown of R22, R134a, and R507 in refrigeration systems.

  20. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOEpatents

    Bleifuss, Rodney L.; Englund, David J.; Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2011-09-20

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  1. High expression and biosilica encapsulation of alkaline-active carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration system development.

    PubMed

    Min, Ki-Ha; Son, Ryeo Gang; Ki, Mi-Ran; Choi, Yoo Seong; Pack, Seung Pil

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration because of its distinctive ability to accelerate CO2 hydration. High production and efficient immobilization of alkaline-active CAs are required, because one potential application of CA is its use in the alkaline solvent-based CO2 absorption/desorption process. Here, we designed and applied an α-type CA from Hahella chejuensis (HCA), which was reported as highly active in alkaline conditions, but was mostly expressed as insoluble forms. We found that the signal peptide-removed form of HCA [HCA(SP-)] was successfully expressed in the soluble form [∼70mg of purified HCA(SP-) per L of culture]. HCA(SP-) also displayed high pH stability in alkaline conditions, with maximal activity at pH 10; at this pH, ∼90% activity was maintained for 2h. Then, we prepared HCA(SP-)-encapsulated silica particles [HCA(SP-)@silica] via a spermine-mediated bio-inspired silicification method. HCA(SP-)@silica exhibited high-loading and highly stable CA activity. In addition, HCA(SP-)@silica retained more than 90% of the CA activity even after 10 cycles of use in mild conditions, and ∼80% in pH 10 conditions. These results will be useful for the development of practical CO2 sequestration processes employing CA.

  2. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested

  3. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  4. Alkaline ceramidase 3 deficiency aggravates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice by hyperactivating the innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K; Xu, R; Snider, A J; Schrandt, J; Li, Y; Bialkowska, A B; Li, M; Zhou, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M; Yang, V W; Mao, C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing studies suggest that ceramides differing in acyl chain length and/or degree of unsaturation have distinct roles in mediating biological responses. However, still much remains unclear about regulation and role of distinct ceramide species in the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3) mediates the immune response by regulating the levels of C18:1-ceramide in cells of the innate immune system and that Acer3 deficiency aggravates colitis in a murine model by augmenting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid and colonic epithelial cells (CECs). According to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, ACER3 is downregulated in immune cells in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent inducer of the innate immune response. Consistent with these data, we demonstrated that LPS downregulated both Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity while elevating C18:1-ceramide, a substrate of Acer3, in murine immune cells or CECs. Knocking out Acer3 enhanced the elevation of C18:1-ceramide and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and CECs in response to LPS challenge. Similar to Acer3 knockout, treatment with C18:1-ceramide, but not C18:0-ceramide, potentiated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. In the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, Acer3 deficiency augmented colitis-associated elevation of colonic C18:1-ceramide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acer3 deficiency aggravated diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss and mortality. Pathological analyses revealed that Acer3 deficiency augmented colonic shortening, immune cell infiltration, colonic epithelial damage and systemic inflammation. Acer3 deficiency also aggravated colonic dysplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that Acer3 has an important anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cellular or tissue C18:1-ceramide, a

  5. Radiation force produced by time reversal acoustic focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvazyan, Armen; Sutin, Alexander

    2003-10-01

    An ultrasonic induced radiation force is an efficient tool for remote probing of internal anatomical structures and evaluating tissue viscoelastic properties, which are closely related to tissue functional state and abnormalities. Time Reversal Acoustic Focusing System (TRA FS) can provide efficient ultrasound focusing in highly inhomogeneous media. Furthermore, numerous reflections from boundaries, which distort focusing in conventional ultrasound focusing systems and are viewed as a significant technical hurdle, lead to an improvement of the focusing ability of the TRA system. In this work the TRA FS field structure and radiation force in a transcranial phantom were investigated. A simple TRA FS comprising a plane piezoceramic transducer attached to an external resonator such as an aluminum block was acoustically coupled to the tested transcranial phantom. A custom-designed compact electronic unit for TRA FS provided receiving, digitizing, storing, time reversing and transmitting of acoustic signals in a wide frequency range from 0.01 to 10 MHz. The radiation force produced by ultrasonic pulses was investigated as a function of the transmitted ultrasound temporal parameters. The simplest TRA FS provided focusing of 500 kHz ultrasound pulses and the generation of a radiation force with an efficacy hardly achievable using conventional sophisticated phased array transmitters. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  7. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  8. Systems and methods for producing low work function electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Kahn, Antoine; Meyer, Jens; Shim, Jae Won; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-07-07

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, systems and methods are provided for producing low work function electrodes. According to an exemplary embodiment, a method is provided for reducing a work function of an electrode. The method includes applying, to at least a portion of the electrode, a solution comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer; and based at least in part on applying the solution, forming an ultra-thin layer on a surface of the electrode, wherein the ultra-thin layer reduces the work function associated with the electrode by greater than 0.5 eV. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a device is provided. The device includes a semiconductor; at least one electrode disposed adjacent to the semiconductor and configured to transport electrons in or out of the semiconductor.

  9. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals

  10. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase activity: new assay for the Reflotron system. Results of the evaluation in eight clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Schumann, G; Dominick, H C; Hellmann, D; Klauke, R; Möckesch, M; Stekel, H; von Schenck, H; Kraft, M; Nagel, R; Hänseler, E

    2001-01-01

    A new reagent carrier, Reflotron ALP, has been developed for the Reflotron system, allowing easy and rapid measurement (in less than 3 minutes) of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in capillary blood, venous blood, heparinized plasma or serum. The evaluation of the analytical performance of the assay was carried out at eight clinical laboratories. The study of the imprecision using the measurements in human samples resulted in coefficients of variation ranging from 1.3% to 4.6% (within-run) and from 3.2% to 4.0% (day-to-day). The analytical specificity of the Reflotron ALP assay agrees well with ALP methods using a N-methyl-D-glucamine buffer solution. The calibration of the Reflotron ALP assay, however, is related to the reference intervals for ALP methods using a diethanolamine buffer solution. Method comparisons were performed with the ALP method on Hitachi instruments using diethanolamine buffer. Reflotron ALP measurements in blood and plasma in 157 randomly selected split samples showed excellent agreement (slope: 0.99; intercept: 0.7 U/l; median bias: 2.3%; median difference from the comparison method: -0.3%). Specimens from pregnant women and adolescents were excluded from this study. Differing values were obtained in a method comparison using 48 samples containing predominantly the ALP bone isoform (slope: 0.81; intercept: 31.5 U/l; median bias: 5.7%; median difference from the comparison method: -12.2%). Regression analysis of the results from 21 sera with prevailing placental ALP gave a slope of 1.51, and an intercept of -41.1 U/l (median bias: 8.6%; median difference from the comparison method: 35.6%). Reflotron ALP was compared with three different wet chemistry procedures using different buffer compounds: N-methyl-D-glucamine or diethanolamine or 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol. In samples containing predominantly ALP isoforms not of liver origin, the measurements with N-methyl-D-glucamine buffer gave the best fit with respect to Reflotron. In an

  12. The regulators of yeast PHO system participate in the transcriptional regulation of G1 cyclin under alkaline stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Masafumi

    2015-03-01

    The yeast Pho85 kinase oversees whether environmental conditions are favourable for cell growth and enables yeast cells to express only genes that are appropriate for the conditions. Alkaline stress perturbs transport of molecules across the plasma membrane that is vital for cell survival. Progression through the cell cycle is halted until the cells can adapt to the stress conditions. I found that Pho85 is required for CLN2 expression and that overproduction of the transcription factors Pho4, Rim101 and Crz1, all targets of Pho85, inhibited CLN2 expression. CLN2 expression in the absence of Pho85 could be recovered only when all the three transcription factors were deleted. Whi5, a functional homologue of the mammalian Rb protein, represses CLN2 expression and is inactivated when phosphorylated by either of the CDK-cyclin complexes, Cdc28-Cln3 or Pho85-Pcl9. Under alkaline conditions, the absence of Whi5 caused an increase in CLN2 expression but failed to do so when Pho85 was also absent, or when Pho4 was overproduced. The expression level of CLN2 in a Δpho85 Δpho4 Δrim101 Δcrz1 quadruple mutant was stimulated when the Whi5 activity was repressed by overproduction of Pho85-Pcl9. These results indicate that Whi5 is also under control of alkaline stress. The inhibitory function of Whi5 on CLN2 is dependent on Rpd3 HDAC, and the absence of Rpd3 could also suppress the inhibitory effect of Pho4 overproduction. Based on these findings, a model is presented in which Pho85 and Pho4 functions in CLN2 regulation under alkaline conditions.

  13. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable

  14. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  15. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  16. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  17. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  18. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  19. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation

  20. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  1. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  2. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  3. Numerical simulation of multiphase flow and collision humidification in the multifluid alkaline spray generator for a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.G.; Cao, W.C.; Wang, L.; Zhang, M.C.

    2008-07-15

    A hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model was developed to simulate gas-droplet-particle multiphase flow and the collision humidification between sorbent particles and spray droplets in the confined multifluid alkaline spray generator for a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization system. In this model, the motions of discrete phases were tracked simultaneously by using a stochastic trajectory approach, and a probability model of droplets catching particles was presented to judge whether sorbent particles were caught with direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Numerical humidification efficiency of sorbent particles is validated by the experimental one deduced from the measured desulfurization efficiency. The effects of flue gas flow rate, spray droplet diameter, sorbent particle diameter, and particle injection location on the humidification efficiency were optimized. Numerical results show that the collision humidification efficiency of sorbent particles increases significantly at the axial distance of 1.67 times the generator diameter from the nozzle tip and reaches 78.5% without recirculation flow in the alkaline spray generator when the ratio of flue gas mass flow rate to spray water mass flow rate is 6.7. Moreover, there is an optimal droplet diameter ranging from 125 to 150 {mu} m and an optimal particle injection location corresponding to the maximum humidification efficiency in this paper.

  4. Uptake of arsenic by alkaline soils near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Amid P; Theis, Thomas L; Murarka, Ishwar P; Naithani, Pratibha; Babaeivelni, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    The attenuation of arsenic in groundwater near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities was evaluated by determining the uptake of arsenic from ash leachates by surrounding alkaline soils. Ten different alkaline soils near a retired coal fly ash impoundment were used in this study with pH ranging from 7.6 to 9.0, while representative coal fly ash samples from two different locations in the coal fly ash impoundment were used to produce two alkaline ash leachates with pH 7.4 and 8.2. The arsenic found in the ash leachates was present as arsenate [As(V)]. Adsorption isotherm experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption parameters required for predicting the uptake of arsenic from the ash leachates. For all soils and leachates, the adsorption of arsenic followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicative of the favorable adsorption of arsenic from leachates onto all soils. The uptake of arsenic was evaluated as a function of ash leachate characteristics and the soil components. The uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates, which occurred mainly as calcium hydrogen arsenate, increased with increasing clay fraction of soil and with increasing soil organic matter of the alkaline soils. Appreciable uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates with different pH and arsenic concentration was observed for the alkaline soils, thus attenuating the contamination of groundwater downstream of the retired coal fly ash impoundment.

  5. Free energy distribution and hydrothermal mineral precipitation in Hadean submarine alkaline vent systems: Importance of iron redox reactions under anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Takazo; Russell, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of mixing between hypothetical seawater and hydrothermal fluid in the Hadean deep ocean were carried out to predict saturation states of mineral precipitates and redox reactions that could occur in Hadean submarine alkaline hydrothermal systems associated with the serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. In the calculations, the seawater was assumed to be weakly acidic (pH = 5.5) and to include carbon dioxide, ferrous iron and silica, with or without nitrate, while the Hadean hydrothermal fluid was assumed to be highly alkaline (pH = 11) and to contain abundant molecular hydrogen, methane and bisulfide, based on the Archean geologic record, the modern low-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vent fluid (Lost City field), and experimental and theoretical considerations. The modeling indicates that potential mineral precipitates in the mixing zone (hydrothermal chimney structures) could consist mainly of iron sulfides but also of ferrous serpentine and brucite, siderite, and ferric iron-bearing minerals such as goethite, hematite and/or magnetite as minor phases. The precipitation of ferric iron-bearing minerals suggests that chemical iron oxidation would be made possible by pH shift even under anoxic condition. In the mixing zone, comprising an inorganic barrier precipitated at the interface of the two contrasting solutions, various redox reactions release free energy with the potential to drive endergonic reactions, assuming the involvement of coupling inorganic protoenzymes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and acetogenesis - long considered the most ancient forms of biological energy metabolisms - are able to achieve higher maximum energy yield (>0.5 kJ/kg hydrothermal fluid) than those in the modern serpentinization-associated seafloor hydrothermal systems (e.g., Kairei field). Furthermore, the recently proposed methanotrophic acetogenesis pathway was also thermodynamically investigated. It is known that methanotrophic acetogenesis would

  6. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of bacteria in biofilms from metal surfaces of an alkaline district heating system.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kjellerup, Birthe Venø; Egli, Konrad; Frølund, Bo; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2007-08-01

    District heating systems (DHS) are extreme aqueous environments characterized by high temperatures, high pH (9.5-10.0), and low nutrient availability. Culture-independent and culture-dependent techniques showed that DHS may nevertheless harbour geno- and phenotypically diverse bacterial biofilm communities. Approximately 50% of the cells in biofilms growing on mild steel coupons in rotortorque reactors connected to the return line (40 degrees C) of a Danish DHS were detectable by FISH analysis and thus were probably metabolically active. A bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biofilms was dominated by proteobacterial phylotypes (closely related to known aerobic species) and by phylotypes affiliated to the anaerobic class Clostridia. Anoxic enrichment cultures derived from biofilms primarily contained 16S rRNA gene and dsrAB (encoding major subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase) phylotypes affiliated to the latter class. Alkalitolerant and neutrophilic anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the DHS, including novel Gram-positive and deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducers and sulfite-reducers constituting novel Gram-positive lineages. In total, 39 distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes representing ten classes were identified. The detection of several alkalitolerant, sulfide-producing, and, thus, potentially biocorrosive species underlines the need to maintain a high water quality in the DHS in order to prevent the proliferation of these species.

  7. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  8. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  9. They are smaller, but these systems produce mighty reports.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2004-01-01

    The first place winner, Commonwealth Health Corporation, Bowling Green, Ky., has a successful cost-saving story. Designed in-house, with donated printing, it cost a mere 54 cents per unit. Little Company of Mary Hospital, Evergreen Park, Ill., wins second place with a publication that enlisted the help of many personnel. University Health Care System, Augusta, Ga., third place winner, uses dramatic graphics to observe its 185th anniversary. Princeton HealthCare System, Princeton, N.J., receives special recognition for the clarity and effectiveness of its four-page report. PMID:15666990

  10. Toxicity of alkalinity to Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Reinert, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of sediment pore water have been suggested for use in sediment quality assessments and sediment toxicity identification evaluations. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting pore-water chemistry and toxicity due to inherent chemical characteristics and confounding relationships. High concentrations of alkalinity, which are typical of sediment pore waters from many regions, have been shown to be toxic to test animals. A series of tests were conducted to assess the significance of elevated alkalinity concentrations to Hyalella azteca, an amphipod commonly used for sediment and pore-water toxicity testing. Toxicity tests with 14-d old and 7-d old animals were conducted in serial dilutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions producing alkalinities ranging between 250 to 2000 mg/L as CaCO3. A sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity test was also conducted to verify that toxicity was due to bicarbonate and not sodium. Alkalinity was toxic at concentrations frequently encountered in sediment pore water. There was also a significant difference in the toxicity of alkalinity between 14-d old and 7-d old animals. The average 96-h LC50 for alkalinity was 1212 mg/L (as CaCO3) for 14-d old animals and 662 mg/L for the younger animals. Sodium was not toxic at levels present in the NaHCO3 toxicity tests. Alkalinity should be routinely measured in pore-water toxicity tests, and interpretation of toxicity should consider alkalinity concentration and test-organism tolerance.

  11. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  12. Review. Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary inertia?

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2008-05-12

    Hormonal control systems are complex in design and well integrated. Concern has been raised that these systems might act as evolutionary constraints when animals are subject to anthropogenic environmental change. Three systems are examined in vertebrates, especially birds, that are important for assessing this possibility: (i) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, (ii) the activational effects of sex steroids on mating effort behaviour, and (iii) sexual differentiation. Consideration of how these systems actually work that takes adequate account of the brain's role and mechanisms suggests that the first two are unlikely to be impediments to evolution. The neural and molecular networks that regulate the HPG provide both phenotypic and evolutionary flexibility, and rapid evolutionary responses to selection have been documented in several species. The neuroendocrine and molecular cascades for behaviour provide many avenues for evolutionary change without requiring a change in peripheral hormone levels. Sexual differentiation has some potential to be a source of evolutionary inertia in birds and could contribute to the lack of diversity in certain reproductive (including life history) traits. It is unclear, however, whether that lack of diversity would impede adaptation to rapid environmental change given the role of behavioural flexibility in avian reproduction.

  13. Complex Teacher Evaluation Systems Can Produce Negative Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teacher perceptions of the impact on instructional practice when using a complex, standards-based performance evaluation system. The study used expectancy theory to investigate teacher expectancy (did they believe they could enhance their practice to the identified program standards?), instrumentality…

  14. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Woo Jung; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved.

  15. The fit of crowns produced using digital impression systems.

    PubMed

    Vennerstrom, Micael; Fakhary, Mobin; Von Steyern, Per Vult

    2014-01-01

    Compare the marginal and internal fit of crowns manufactured using four different digital impression systems with crowns manufactured using conventional impression technique, that served as a control group. Fifty all-ceramic crowns were fabricated using 50 standardized dies divided into five groups, each group representing one impression system. Each crown was cemented onto its respective model and sectioned into four segments.The marginal and internal fit were measured at 8 predefined points. A total of 1567 measurements were made, statistically analyzed and compared with crowns fabricated using the five systems. The following was found: (1) No significant difference was found with regard to mar ginal gap when comparing the control group to any of the digital systems. (2) Lava™ had smaller marginal gaps than CEREC® and iTero®, (3) CEREC and Lava had smaller gaps in the chamfer compared to iTero and the control, (4) E4D® showed smaller gaps than CEREC at measuring points 4-8 and CEREC a smaller gap at point 2, (5) Lava showed smaller gaps than CEREC at measuring points 1,3 and 5-8. (6) Lava had smaller gaps than iTero at measuring points 1-4,7 and 8. All differences presented were significant. In conclusions, crowns manufactured using digital impressions present a marginal and internal fit equal to, or better than, crowns made using a conventional impression method.The marginal and internal fit of reconstructions made using digital impression techniques could improve with a lower initial setting of the spacer.

  16. Lightweight armor system and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S.; Bruck, H. Alan; Strempek, Gary C.; Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.

    2004-01-20

    A lightweight armor system may comprise a substrate having a graded metal matrix composite layer formed thereon by thermal spray deposition. The graded metal matrix composite layer comprises an increasing volume fraction of ceramic particles imbedded in a decreasing volume fraction of a metal matrix as a function of a thickness of the graded metal matrix composite layer. A ceramic impact layer is affixed to the graded metal matrix composite layer.

  17. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Woo Jung; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved. PMID:26310990

  18. Excess sludge reduction using pilot-scale lysis-cryptic growth system integrated ultrasonic/alkaline disintegration and hydrolysis/acidogenesis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huaji; Zhang, Shuting; Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Guo, Xingli; Wang, Han; Duan, Jingxiao

    2012-07-01

    A pilot-scale lysis-cryptic growth system was built and operated continuously for excess sludge reduction. Combined ultrasonic/alkaline disintegration and hydrolysis/acidogenesis were integrated into its sludge pretreatment system. Continuous operation showed that the observed biomass yield and the sludge reduction efficiency of the lysis-cryptic growth system were 0.27 kg VSS/kg COD consumed and 56.5%, respectively. The water quality of its effluent was satisfactory. The sludge pretreatment system performed well and its TCOD removal efficiency was 7.9% which contributed a sludge reduction efficiency of 2.1%. The SCOD, VFA, TN, NH(4)(+)-N, TP and pH in the supernatant of pretreated sludge were 1790 mg/L, 1530 mg COD/L, 261.1mg/L, 114.0mg/L, 93.1mg/L and 8.69, respectively. The total operation cost of the lysis-cryptic growth system was $ 0.186/m(3) wastewater, which was 11.4% less than that of conventional activated sludge (CAS) system without excess sludge pretreatment.

  19. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  20. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  1. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, R.F. . Lab. for Nuclear Science); Nelson, W.R. )

    1990-08-16

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs.

  2. Volatiles and subduction-recycled lithologies in the petrogenesis of Cenozoic alkaline magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviado, K.; Rilling-Hall, S.; Mukasa, S. B.; Bryce, J. G.; Fahnestock, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), the failure of both passive and active models of decompression melting to explain unusually voluminous Cenozoic volcanism has prompted debate about the roles of thermal plume-related melting and ancient subduction-related flux melting. The latter is supported by ~500 Ma of subduction along the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana[1], a process capable of generating easily fusible, volatile-rich lithologies and producing the broad seismic low-velocity anomaly imaged beneath the Southern Ocean[2]. We present new geochemical information from submarine lavas in the Ross Sea and subaerial lavas from Franklin Island, Beaufort Island, and Mt. Melbourne in Northern Victoria Land (NVL) supportive of an evolving fluxed mantle source. Lavas exhibit ocean island basalt (OIB)-like trace element signatures and isotopic affinities for the C/FOZO mantle endmember consistent with subduction processing of recycled ocean lithosphere. Lava major-oxide compositions suggest multiple recycled source components, including pyroxenite (associated with older lavas), amphibole-rich metasomes, and volatilized peridotite (associated with the youngest lavas). In-situ analyses of olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from a subset of host lavas confirm high H2O and CO2 ranging up to 2.94 wt % and 4657 ppm, respectively. MIs exhibit OIB-like trace element compositions and Ba/Rb and Rb/Sr consistent with melting in the presence of hydrated, amphibole-bearing lithosphere[3,4]. We interpret these observations as evidence that ongoing tectonomagmatic activity in the WARS is facilitated by melting of subduction-modified mantle generated by 550 - 100 Ma Gondwana subduction. Following radiogenic ingrowth in high-µ (U/Pb) domains, Cenozoic extension triggered decompression melting of easily fusible, hydrated metasomes and volatilized mantle. This multistage magma model attempts to reconcile geochemical observations with increasing geophysical evidence that the seismic

  3. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  4. Naked-eye sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) based on a horseradish peroxidase catalytic colorimetric system with Cu(ii).

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmin; Sun, Yue; Lin, Lin; Shi, Chunjun; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel colorimetric method for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) was designed based on a Cu(2+)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-3,3',5,5'-tetra-methylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. In the presence of ALP, l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) could be hydrolyzed to ascorbic acid which could reduce Cu(2+) to Cu(+) to inhibit the enzymatic activity of HRP in the colorimetric system. The change in absorbance was found to be proportional to the ALP concentration with a linear detection range and a limit of detection of 5.4 mU mL(-1). In the presence of PPi, because Cu(2+) was chelated by PPi, the conversion of Cu(ii) by AA was effectively inhibited. The color of the HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with Cu(2+) showed blue. The HRP-TMB-H2O2 system with the Cu(2+) colorimetric system could also detect PPi with a satisfying result. In summary, this method possesses sensitivity, reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness without labelling and separation and the use of a colorimetric method is more in line with the requirements of on-site detection and green chemistry. PMID:27412643

  5. The acid and alkalinity budgets of weathering in the Andes-Amazon system: Insights into the erosional control of global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Mark A.; West, A. Joshua; Clark, Kathryn E.; Paris, Guillaume; Bouchez, Julien; Ponton, Camilo; Feakins, Sarah J.; Galy, Valier; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-09-01

    The correlation between chemical weathering fluxes and denudation rates suggests that tectonic activity can force variations in atmospheric pCO2 by modulating weathering fluxes. However, the effect of weathering on pCO2 is not solely determined by the total mass flux. Instead, the effect of weathering on pCO2 also depends upon the balance between 1) alkalinity generation by carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and 2) sulfuric acid generation by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. In this study, we explore how the balance between acid and alkalinity generation varies with tectonic uplift to better understand the links between tectonics and the long-term carbon cycle. To trace weathering reactions across the transition from the Peruvian Andes to the Amazonian foreland basin, we measured a suite of elemental concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Si, Li, SO4, and Cl) and isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr and δ34S) on both dissolved and solid phase samples. Using an inverse model, we quantitatively link systematic changes in solute geochemistry with elevation to downstream declines in sulfuric acid weathering as well as the proportion of cations sourced from silicates. With a new carbonate-system framework, we show that weathering in the Andes Mountains is a CO2 source whereas foreland weathering is a CO2 sink. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectation that the ratio of sulfide oxidation to silicate weathering increases with increasing erosion. Altogether, our results suggest that the effect of tectonically-enhanced weathering on atmospheric pCO2 is strongly modulated by sulfide mineral oxidation.

  6. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Carabetta, Ralph A.; Staats, Gary E.; Cutting, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than 1200.degree. K. and at a pressure above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than 2900.degree. K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from 4 to 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is decelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat the methane for decomposition, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power.

  7. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Carabetta, Ralph A.; Staats, Gary E.; Cutting, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than about 1200.degree. K. and at a pressure at least slightly above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least about 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than about 2800.degree. K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than about 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from about 4 to about 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is de-accelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat same for decomposition and or reaction, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power.

  8. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.A.; Staats, G.E.; Cutting, J.C.

    1993-10-19

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than 1200 K and at a pressure above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than 2900 K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from 4 to 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is decelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat the methane for decomposition, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power. 3 figures.

  9. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.A.; Staats, G.E.; Cutting, J.C.

    1993-11-09

    A method and system are described for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than about 1200 K and at a pressure at least slightly above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least about 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than about 2800 K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than about 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from about 4 to about 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is de-accelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat same for decomposition and or reaction, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power. 4 figures.

  10. Method of and system for producing electrical power

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.A.; Staats, G.E.; Cutting, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    A method and system for converting the chemical energy of methane to electrical energy. Methane is thermally decomposed to hydrogen and carbon in a decomposing unit at a temperature not less than about 1200{degree}K and at a pressure at least slightly above atmospheric pressure. Carbon and substantially pure oxygen and a cesium or potassium seed material is transmitted to a combustor which is maintained at a pressure of at least about 50 atmospheres to combust the carbon and oxygen and provide an ionized plasma having a temperature not less than about 2900{degree}K. The ionized plasma is accelerated to a velocity not less than about 1000 m/sec and transported through an MHD generator having a magnetic field in the range of from about 4 to about 6 Tesla to generate dc power. The ionized plasma is deaccelerated and passed from the MHD generator in heat exchange relationship with the methane to heat same for decomposition, and thereafter any cesium or potassium seed material is recovered and transported to the combustor, and the dc power from the MHD generator is converted to ac power.

  11. Examination of Balance Measures Produced by the Biodex Stability System

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Schmitz, Randy J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to establish normal patterns and relationships of stability using the Biodex Stability System. Design and Setting: The design of this study used both nonexperimental and quasi-experimental methods. All testing was performed in a university sports medicine laboratory. Subjects: Nineteen healthy subjects (8 males, 11 females, age = 24.4 ± 4.2 years; wt = 70.5 ± 20 kg; ht = 171.2 ± 11.7 cm) with no history of lower extremity injury participated in this study. Measurements: For data analysis, the medial/lateral stability index (MLSI), anterior/posterior stability index (APSI), overall stability index (OSI), and time-in-balance scores were recorded. Results: Multiple regression revealed that APSI and MLSI significantly contributed to the OSI, with the APSI accounting for 95% of the OSI variance. Additionally, the percentage of time spent between 0° and 5° from level was significantly greater than the time spent between 6° and 10°, 11° and 15°, and 16° and 20°. Furthermore, the percentage of time spent between 6° and 10° was significantly greater than the time spent between 16° and 20°. Conclusions: These data suggest that uninjured individuals spent the majority of the time balanced within 0° to 5° from level and progressively less time at greater angles. Additionally, the data suggest that the OSI is very closely related to the APSI and receives a relatively small contribution from the MLSI. Because of this small contribution, if the clinician is interested in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral motions, it may be best to use the MLSI and APSI separately rather than the OSI. PMID:16558529

  12. Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.

  13. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing

  14. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery

  15. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  16. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  17. In Silico Rational Design and Systems Engineering of Disulfide Bridges in the Catalytic Domain of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica To Improve Thermostability

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Deng, Zhuangmei; Yang, Haiquan; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.

    2014-01-01

    High thermostability is required for alkaline α-amylases to maintain high catalytic activity under the harsh conditions used in textile production. In this study, we attempted to improve the thermostability of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica through in silico rational design and systems engineering of disulfide bridges in the catalytic domain. Specifically, 7 residue pairs (P35-G426, Q107-G167, G116-Q120, A147-W160, G233-V265, A332-G370, and R436-M480) were chosen as engineering targets for disulfide bridge formation, and the respective residues were replaced with cysteines. Three single disulfide bridge mutants—P35C-G426C, G116C-Q120C, and R436C-M480C—of the 7 showed significantly enhanced thermostability. Combinational mutations were subsequently assessed, and the triple mutant P35C-G426C/G116C-Q120C/R436C-M480C showed a 6-fold increase in half-life at 60°C and a 5.2°C increase in melting temperature compared with the wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, other biochemical properties of this mutant also improved: the optimum temperature increased from 50°C to 55°C, the optimum pH shifted from 9.5 to 10.0, the stable pH range extended from 7.0 to 11.0 to 6.0 to 12.0, and the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) increased from 1.8 × 104 to 2.4 × 104 liters/g · min. The possible mechanism responsible for these improvements was explored through comparative analysis of the model structures of wild-type and mutant enzymes. The disulfide bridge engineering strategy used in this work may be applied to improve the thermostability of other industrial enzymes. PMID:24212581

  18. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  19. Comparison of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Category: methodology improvements Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses of commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection systems and kits in a side by side fashion. Experimental Design: Three commercial Shiga toxin-producing E. coli detection tests (BAX, GDS, and GeneDisc) and two t...

  20. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  1. Alkaline galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Maeda, Y.; Momose, K.; Wakahata, T.

    1983-10-04

    An alkaline galvanic cell is disclosed including a container serving for a cathode terminal, a sealing plate in the form of a layered clad plate serving for an anode terminal to be fitted into the container, and an insulating packing provided between the sealing plate and container for sealing the cell upon assembly. The cell is provided with a layer of epoxy adduct polyamide amine having amine valence in the range of 50 to 400 and disposed between the innermost copper layer of the sealing plate arranged to be readily amalgamated and the insulating packing so as to serve as a sealing agent or liquid leakage suppression agent.

  2. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  3. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  4. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations. PMID:19847713

  5. Characterization of biosurfactant-producing strains of fluorescent pseudomonads in a soilless cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Khalil, Sammar; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2008-08-01

    The use of biosurfactants is a promising alternative in biological control of zoospore-producing plant pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactant production by the indigenous population of fluorescent pseudomonads in a soilless plant cultivation system was studied during the growing season. A total of 600 strains was screened and of these 18.5% were observed to produce biosurfactants. Production of both antibiotics and biosurfactant was uncommon among the isolated strains. A selective effect of the cultivation system filter was observed on the biosurfactant-producing strains and these strains were only occasionally observed after the filter, despite having a significantly higher motility than the nonbiosurfactant-producing strains. The majority of biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated from the filter skin, which suggests that this is a suitable surface for inoculation with biocontrol strains.

  6. Carbon electrochemistry in alkaline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.; Zuckerbrod, D.

    1983-08-01

    The electrochemical activity of a high surface area furnace black, Black Pearls 2000 and an acetylene black, Shawinigan Black, were studied in 25% KOH at temperatures from 45/sup 0/C to -15/sup 0/C. A relationship was found between the graphitic character of the carbons and their activities for oxygen formation and surface oxide formation, the furnace black being more active for surface oxide formation and the acetylene black being more active for oxygen generation. The carbons behaved similarly in the cathodic region, exhibiting two distinct peaks apparently related to the reduction of oxygen or of surface oxides.

  7. An effective system to produce smoke solutions from dried plant tissue for seed germination studies1

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Janice; Coutant, Nancy; Lawrence, Barbara; Finn, Daniel; Finn, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. • Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. • Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process. PMID:25202613

  8. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  9. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  10. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  11. A Review of Developments in Computer-Based Systems to Image Teeth and Produce Dental Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E. Dianne; Erdman, Arthur G.; Speidel, T. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) make it possible to automate the creation of dental restorations. Currently practiced techniques are described. Three automated systems currently under development are described and compared. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) provide a new option for dentistry, creating an alternative technique for producing dental restorations. It is possible to create dental restorations that are automatically produced and meet or exceed current requirements for fit and occlusion.

  12. Impact of internal and external Alkalinity fluxes on the carbonate system in the German Bight / SE North Sea - A model study for the years 2001 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Pätsch, Johannes; Amann, Thorben; Schartau, Markus; Thomas, Helmuth; Winde, Vera; Dellwig, Olaf; van Beusekom, Justus; Böttcher, Michael; Grashorn, Sebastian; Salt, Lesley

    2013-04-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may cause enhanced oceanic CO2 concentrations and thus ongoing acidification of the marine environment. Effects of acidification on the coastal ocean exhibit large variabilities due to shallow water column, tight benthic-pelagic coupling, nutrient cycling, and discharge from land. As a result of enhanced biogeochemical processes, seasonal pH variations in coastal and shelf regions can be up to an order of magnitude higher than in the open ocean and may potentially mask the decadal trend of decreasing pH. Total Alkalinity (TA) is an essential part of the carbonate system as it regulates the oceanic CO2 buffer capacity. Variations in TA are vital to understand observed pH variations. In the coastal zone variations in TA are particularly pronounced because of diverse external sources like river discharge, anaerobic degradation of organic material or methane fluxes in tidal flats in association with pore water exchange across the sediment-water interface. Beside these external fluxes TA also changes due to physical, chemical and biological processes. To better understand and quantify the effect of acidification in the southern North Sea as part of the northwest European Shelf we applied the ecosystem model ECOHAM with a prognostic treatment of TA. For the first step we included monthly varying TA and DIC concentrations of the main continental rivers draining to the North Sea. For the Dutch rivers we calculated these data from other parameters of the carbonate system (bicarbonate and pH) that have been measured in the respective estuaries. For the river Elbe we used data of TA and DIC concentrations that have been measured in the estuary. Simulation results reveal that the river contribution to TA flux is insufficient to explain the seasonal variations observed in the German Bight. As high summer concentrations remain unresolved in this model setup, elevated TA concentrations during summer in that area must originate from sources

  13. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  14. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-03-11

    This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter recovered

  15. A digital system to produce imagery from SAR data. [Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a digital processing algorithm and its associated system design for producing images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The proposed system uses the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach to perform the two-dimensional correlation process. The range migration problem, which is often a major obstacle to efficient processing, can be alleviated by approximating the locus of echoes from a point target by several linear segments. SAR data corresponding to each segment is correlated separately, and the results are coherently summed to produce full-resolution images. This processing approach exhibits greatly improved computation efficiency relative to conventional digital processing methods.

  16. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems.

  17. Effect of organics and alkalinity on the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals in stream water requires the use of a low cost standardized toxicity bioassay. Here, a biosensor for detection of toxic chemicals in stream water was studied using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous mode. The biosensor depends on the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles under aerobic conditions to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that the SOB biosensor can detect Cr(6+)at a low concentration (50 ppb) which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors. The effect of organic material in real stream water on SOB activity was studied. Due to the presence of mixotrophic SOB, we found that the presence of organic matter increases SOB activity which decreases the biosensor start up period. Low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) increased effluent EC and decreased effluent pH which is optimal for biosensor operation. While at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3), the activity of SOB little decreased. We found that system can detect 50 ppb of Cr(6+) at low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) in few hours while, complete inhibition was observed after 35 h of operation at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)). PMID:22840537

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of a pretreatment system for removing organics from produced water.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soondong; Sullivan, Enid J; Katz, Lynn E; Bowman, Robert S; Kinney, Kerry A

    2011-09-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. This "produced water" is characterized by saline water containing a variety of pollutants, including water soluble and immiscible organics and many inorganic species. To reuse produced water, removal of both the inorganic dissolved solids and organic compounds is necessary. In this research, the effectiveness of a pretreatment system consisting of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption followed by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was evaluated for simultaneous removal of carboxylates and hazardous substances, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from saline-produced water. A laboratory-scale MBR, operated at a 9.6-hour hydraulic residence time, degraded 92% of the carboxylates present in synthetic produced water. When BTEX was introduced simultaneously to the MBR system with the carboxylates, the system achieved 80 to 95% removal of BTEX via biodegradation. These results suggest that simultaneous biodegradation of both BTEX and carboxylate constituents found in produced water is possible. A field test conducted at a produced water disposal facility in Farmington, New Mexico confirmed the laboratory-scale results for the MBR and demonstrated enhanced removal of BTEX using a treatment train consisting of SMZ columns followed by the MBR. While most of the BTEX constituents of the produced water adsorbed onto the SMZ adsorption system, approximately 95% of the BTEX that penetrated the SMZ and entered the MBR was biodegraded in the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (influent concentrations of 120 to 170 mg/L) ranged from 91 to 100%, and total organic carbon (influent concentrations as high as 580 mg/L) ranged from 74 to 92%, respectively. Organic removal in the MBR was accomplished at a low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. While the transmembrane pressure during the laboratory-scale tests was well-controlled, it rose

  19. Model emulates human smooth pursuit system producing zero-latency target tracking.

    PubMed

    Bahill, A T; McDonald, J D

    1983-01-01

    Humans can overcome the 150 ms time delay of the smooth pursuit eye movement system and track smoothly moving visual targets with zero-latency. Our target-selective adaptive control model can also overcome an inherent time delay and produce zero-latency tracking. No other model or man-made system can do this. Our model is physically realizable and physiologically realistic. The technique used in our model should be useful for analyzing other time-delay systems, such as man-machine systems and robots.

  20. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  1. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  2. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  3. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  4. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  5. The hydroentanglement system of producing nonwoven fabrics of certain specific attributes and functionalities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the traditional technologies and processes of producing fabric structures, via yarn spinning, weaving, knitting, lacing, tufting, or the like, continue to be the ‘major league’ players in textile manufacturing today, the modern hydroentanglement system, commonly known as “spunlacing,” has a...

  6. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  7. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  8. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Noriya; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system. PMID:26729121

  9. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Noriya; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  10. Isolation and characterisation of non-anaerobic butanol-producing symbiotic system TSH06.

    PubMed

    Wang, Genyu; Wu, Pengfei; Liu, Ya; Mi, Shuo; Mai, Shuai; Gu, Chunkai; Wang, Gehua; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan; Børresen, Børre Tore; Mellemsæther, Evy; Kotlar, Hans Kristian

    2015-10-01

    Butanol-producing microorganisms are all obligate anaerobes. In this study, a unique symbiotic system TSH06 was isolated to be capable of producing butanol under non-anaerobic condition. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed that two strains coexist in TSH06. The two strains were identical to Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus, respectively. They were isolated individually and named as C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2. C. acetobutylicum TSH1 is a butanol-producing, obligate anaerobic strain. Facultative anaerobic B. cereus TSH2 did not possess the ability of butanol production; however, it offered C. acetobutylicum TSH1 the viability under non-anaerobic condition. Moreover, B. cereus TSH2 enhanced butanol yield and speed of fermentation. TSH06 produced 12.97 g/L butanol and 15.39 g/L total solvent under non-anaerobic condition, which is 25 and 24 %, respectively, higher than those of C. acetobutylicum TSH1. In addition, TSH06 produced butanol faster under non-anaerobic condition than under anaerobic condition. Butanol accounted for more than 80 % of total solvent, which is higher than the known report. TSH06 was stable during passage. In all, TSH06 is a promising candidate for industrialisation of biobutanol with high yield, high butanol proportion, easy-handling and time-saving system. These results demonstrated the potential advantage of symbiosis. This study also provides a promising strategy for butanol fermentation. PMID:26272091

  11. Isolation and characterisation of non-anaerobic butanol-producing symbiotic system TSH06.

    PubMed

    Wang, Genyu; Wu, Pengfei; Liu, Ya; Mi, Shuo; Mai, Shuai; Gu, Chunkai; Wang, Gehua; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan; Børresen, Børre Tore; Mellemsæther, Evy; Kotlar, Hans Kristian

    2015-10-01

    Butanol-producing microorganisms are all obligate anaerobes. In this study, a unique symbiotic system TSH06 was isolated to be capable of producing butanol under non-anaerobic condition. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed that two strains coexist in TSH06. The two strains were identical to Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus, respectively. They were isolated individually and named as C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2. C. acetobutylicum TSH1 is a butanol-producing, obligate anaerobic strain. Facultative anaerobic B. cereus TSH2 did not possess the ability of butanol production; however, it offered C. acetobutylicum TSH1 the viability under non-anaerobic condition. Moreover, B. cereus TSH2 enhanced butanol yield and speed of fermentation. TSH06 produced 12.97 g/L butanol and 15.39 g/L total solvent under non-anaerobic condition, which is 25 and 24 %, respectively, higher than those of C. acetobutylicum TSH1. In addition, TSH06 produced butanol faster under non-anaerobic condition than under anaerobic condition. Butanol accounted for more than 80 % of total solvent, which is higher than the known report. TSH06 was stable during passage. In all, TSH06 is a promising candidate for industrialisation of biobutanol with high yield, high butanol proportion, easy-handling and time-saving system. These results demonstrated the potential advantage of symbiosis. This study also provides a promising strategy for butanol fermentation.

  12. Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium β-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n = 3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of β-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

  13. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  14. Efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis method in environment protection.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Tajana; Toth, Ivan; Kalambura, Sanja; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-06-01

    Development of new technologies for the efficient use of proteins of animal origin, apart from heat treatment in rendering facilities that was used to date, has become the primary goal of the integral waste management system. The emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe and in the World in the 1990s opened up new questions regarding medical safety and use of meat bone meal in the animal feed, which is produced by processing animal waste. Animal waste is divided into three categories, out of which the first category is high-risk waste. Alkaline hydrolysis is alternative method for management of animal by-products not intended for human diet and imposes itself as one of the solutions for disposal of high-risk proteins. The paper will present the analyses of animal by-products not intended for human diet treated in laboratory reactor for alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the two recognized methods in EU for the disposal of this type of material and use in fertilization. PMID:25144977

  15. Assessment of apically extruded debris and irrigant produced by different nickel-titanium instrument systems.

    PubMed

    Küçükyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk; Saygili, Gokhan; Uysal, Banu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preparation time and the amounts of apically extruded debris and irrigant using different nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Forty-five extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and divided into three groups. The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions, using a reciprocating single-file system, a single-file rotary system and a multiple-file rotary system. Bidistilled water was used as the irrigant solution. The apically extruded debris and irrigant were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The amounts of extruded debris and irrigant were assessed with a precision micro-balance. The Eppendorf tubes were incubated at 37°C for 15 days. After the incubation period, they were weighed again to assess the debris extrusion. The time required to prepare the canals was also recorded. The results were statistically analyzed using MANOVA and Bonferroni's adjustment. Considering the apically extruded debris and irrigant, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The Reciproc group produced the highest debris (0.000632 ± 0.000162 gr) and irrigant (0.844587 ± 0.437814 ml) extrusion values. While the least extruded debris was observed with OneShape (0,000431 ± 0,000171 gr), the least extruded irrigant was observed with ProTaper system (0.564147 ± 0.370596 ml). Instrumentation was faster using the Reciproc than the other two instruments (70.27 ± 13.38 s) (p < 0.05). All of the instrumentation systems used in this study produced apical debris and irrigant extrusion. The reciprocating single-file system tended to produce more debris and irrigant extrusion, compared with the rotary systems. Considering the preparation time, the single-file systems appeared to be advantageous due to their working time.

  16. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. System for producing high-resolution polarized and unpolarized beams with a tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfeldt, C.R.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Bleck, M.E.; Outlaw, D.A.; Wells, W.K.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Clegg, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    A tandem accelerator beam energy stabilizer, which utilizes an optically coupled fast feedback loop to the accelerator terminal stripper, is described. Emphasis is placed on the components of the feedback system and on the application of this system to production of high energy-resolution beams. This system produces beam energy spreads ranging from 450 to 600 eV FWHM for 2 to 16 MeV unpolarized protons. Polarized beam energy spreads range from 550 to 700 eV FWHM, for the same beam energy range.

  18. The effects of alkaline and alkaline earth metal salts on the performance of a polymer actuator based on single-wal led carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, Naohiro; Takeuchi, Ichiroh; Mukai, Ken; Asaka, Kinji

    We investigated an effect for alkaline metal salts or an alkaline earth metal salt on electrochemical and electromechanical properties of an actuator using a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-ionic liquid (IL) gel electrode, and much better performance of the actuator containing the metal salt/IL. The actuator containing the alkaline metal salt /IL or alkaline earth metal salt/IL performed much better than that containing only the IL. It is considered that the higher ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte layer containing the alkaline metal salt /IL or alkaline earth metal salt/IL produces the quick response actuator, and that the large capacitance gives the large generated strain.

  19. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  20. Mechanism and models for zinc metal morphology in alkaline media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Based on experimental observations, a mechanism is presented to explain existence of the different morphologies of electrodeposited zinc in alkaline solution. The high current density dendrites appear to be due to more rapid growth on the nonbasal crystallographic planes than on the basal plane. The low current density moss apparently results from dissolution from the nonbasal planes at low cathodic voltages. Electrochemical models were sought which would produce such a phenomenon. The fundamental plating mechanism alone accounts only for different rates on different planes, not for zinc dissolution from a plane in the cathodic region. Fourteen models were explored; two models were in accord with the proposed mechanism. One involves rapid disproportionation of the zinc +1 species on the nonbasal planes. The other involves a redox reaction (corrosion) between the zinc-zincate and hydrogen-water systems.

  1. Mechanism and models for zinc metal morphology in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    May, C.E.; Kautz, H.E.

    1981-12-01

    Based on experimental observations, a mechanism is presented to explain existence of the different morphologies of electrodeposited zinc in alkaline solution. The high current density dendrites appear to be due to more rapid growth on the nonbasal crystallographic planes than on the basal plane. The low current density moss apparently results from dissolution from the nonbasal planes at low cathodic voltages. Electrochemical models were sought which would produce such a phenomenon. The fundamental plating mechanism alone accounts only for different rates on different planes, not for zinc dissolution from a plane in the cathodic region. Fourteen models were explored two models were in accord with the proposed mechanism. One involves rapid disproportionation of the zinc +1 species on the nonbasal planes. The other involves a redox reaction (corrosion) between the zinc-zincate and hydrogen-water systems.

  2. Effects of system parameters on the physical characteristics of bubbles produced through air sparging.

    PubMed

    Burns, S E; Zhang, M

    2001-01-01

    Air sparging is a relatively new, cost-effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While the method has met with reasonable success at a large number of field sites, implementation of the technique is restricted to relatively coarse-grained soils with large values of air permeability, which significantly limits its applicability. An understanding of the fundamental parameters that control the formation and distribution of air in the sparging process is useful for optimizing the system implementation and extending its range of applicability. This work presents the results of an experimental investigation into the effect of process control parameters on the size and size distribution of air bubbles produced in aqueous and idealized saturated porous media systems. The experiments used digital image analysis to image and quantify the physical characteristics of the bubbles generated in a bench scale test cell. Results demonstrated that the average bubble size and range of size distribution increased as the injection pressure and size of the injection orifice were increased. Larger diameter bubbles with wider size distributions were produced in the presence of particles when compared to aqueous systems. As the particle size was decreased, the size of bubbles produced increased. Finally, the presence of trace quantities of the surfactant Triton X100 led to uniformly small diameter bubbles under all experimental conditions. The presence of the surfactant coating produced bubbles with physical characteristics that are more suited to in situ stripping of VOCs than the bubbles produced in the absence of a surfactant. PMID:11352012

  3. Effects of system parameters on the physical characteristics of bubbles produced through air sparging.

    PubMed

    Burns, S E; Zhang, M

    2001-01-01

    Air sparging is a relatively new, cost-effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While the method has met with reasonable success at a large number of field sites, implementation of the technique is restricted to relatively coarse-grained soils with large values of air permeability, which significantly limits its applicability. An understanding of the fundamental parameters that control the formation and distribution of air in the sparging process is useful for optimizing the system implementation and extending its range of applicability. This work presents the results of an experimental investigation into the effect of process control parameters on the size and size distribution of air bubbles produced in aqueous and idealized saturated porous media systems. The experiments used digital image analysis to image and quantify the physical characteristics of the bubbles generated in a bench scale test cell. Results demonstrated that the average bubble size and range of size distribution increased as the injection pressure and size of the injection orifice were increased. Larger diameter bubbles with wider size distributions were produced in the presence of particles when compared to aqueous systems. As the particle size was decreased, the size of bubbles produced increased. Finally, the presence of trace quantities of the surfactant Triton X100 led to uniformly small diameter bubbles under all experimental conditions. The presence of the surfactant coating produced bubbles with physical characteristics that are more suited to in situ stripping of VOCs than the bubbles produced in the absence of a surfactant.

  4. A robust genetic system for producing heterodimeric native and mutant cytochrome bc(1).

    PubMed

    Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Lanciano, Pascal; Daldal, Fevzi

    2013-10-15

    The ubihydroquinone:cytochrome c oxidoreductase, or cytochrome bc1, is central to the production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation in many organisms. Its three-dimensional structure depicts it as a homodimer with each monomer composed of the Fe-S protein, cytochrome b, and cytochrome c1 subunits. Recent genetic approaches successfully produced heterodimeric variants of this enzyme, providing insights into its mechanism of function. However, these experimental setups are inherently prone to genetic rearrangements as they carry repeated copies of cytochrome bc1 structural genes. Duplications present on a single replicon (one-plasmid system) or a double replicon (two-plasmid system) could yield heterogeneous populations via homologous recombination or other genetic events at different frequencies, especially under selective growth conditions. In this work, we assessed the origins and frequencies of genetic variations encountered in these systems and describe an improved variant of the two-plasmid system. We found that use of a recombination-deficient background (recA) minimizes spontaneous formation of co-integrant plasmids and renders the homologous recombination within the cytochrome b gene copies inconsequential. On the basis of the data, we conclude that both the newly improved RecA-deficient and the previously used RecA-proficient two-plasmid systems reliably produce native and mutant heterodimeric cytochrome bc1 variants. The two-plasmid system developed here might contribute to the study of "mitochondrial heteroplasmy"-like heterogeneous states in model bacteria (e.g., Rhodobacter species) suitable for bioenergetics studies. In the following paper (DOI 10.1021/bi400561e), we describe the use of the two-plasmid system to produce and characterize, in membranes and in purified states, an active heterodimeric cytochrome bc1 variant with unusual intermonomer electron transfer properties.

  5. Systems and methods for harvesting and storing materials produced in a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Heinold, Mark R.; Dayal, Yogeshwar; Brittingham, Martin W.

    2016-04-05

    Systems produce desired isotopes through irradiation in nuclear reactor instrumentation tubes and deposit the same in a robust facility for immediate shipping, handling, and/or consumption. Irradiation targets are inserted and removed through inaccessible areas without plant shutdown and placed in the harvesting facility, such as a plurality of sealable and shipping-safe casks and/or canisters. Systems may connect various structures in a sealed manner to avoid release of dangerous or unwanted matter throughout the nuclear plant, and/or systems may also automatically decontaminate materials to be released. Useable casks or canisters can include plural barriers for containment that are temporarily and selectively removable with specially-configured paths inserted therein. Penetrations in the facilities may limit waste or pneumatic gas escape and allow the same to be removed from the systems without over-pressurization or leakage. Methods include processing irradiation targets through such systems and securely delivering them in such harvesting facilities.

  6. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  7. [Efficacy of a new fenbendazole formulation produced by nanotechnology-based drug delivery system against nematodosis].

    PubMed

    Varlamova, A I; Arkhipov, I A; Odoevskaia, I M; Danilevskaia, N V; Khalikov, S S; Chistiachenko, Iu S; Dushkin, A V

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of a new fenbendazile formulation produced by nanotechnology-based drug delivery system was investigated in45 sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The formulation showed 95.6% efficacy against Nematodes spp. at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg dw of its active ingredient and 100% efficacy against other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Given at a dose of 10 mg/kg dw, the basic drug--fenbendazole (substance) displayed 96.39 and 100% efficacy, respectively.

  8. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  9. Tubular perfusion system culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds produced using a supercritical carbon dioxide-assisted process

    PubMed Central

    Pisanti, Paola; Yeatts, Andrew B.; Cardea, Stefano; Fisher, John P.; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    In vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation and differentiation is dependent on scaffold design parameters and specific culture conditions. In this study, we investigate how scaffold microstructure influences hMSC behavior in a perfusion bioreactor system. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds are fabricated using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) gel drying. This production method results in scaffolds fabricated with nanostructure. To introduce a microporous structure, porogen leaching was used in addition to this technique to produce scaffolds of average pore size of 100, 250, and 500 µm. These scaffolds were then cultured in static culture in well plates or dynamic culture in the tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor. Results indicated that hMSCs were able to attach and maintain viability on all scaffolds with higher proliferation in the 250 µm and 500 µm pore sizes of bioreactor cultured scaffolds and 100 µm pore size of statically cultured scaffolds. Osteoblastic differentiation was enhanced in TPS culture as compared to static culture with the highest alkaline phosphatase expression observed in the 250 µm pore size group. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 was also analyzed and expression levels were highest in the 250 µm and 500 µm pore size bioreactor cultured samples. These results demonstrate cellular response to pore size as well as the ability of dynamic culture to enhance these effects. PMID:22528808

  10. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  11. System and process for producing fuel with a methane thermochemical cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B.

    2015-12-15

    A thermochemical process and system for producing fuel are provided. The thermochemical process includes reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon to form an alkane and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. Another thermochemical process includes reducing a metal oxide to form a reduced metal oxide, reducing an oxygenated-hydrocarbon with the reduced metal oxide to form an alkane, and using the alkane in a reforming reaction as a reducing agent for water, a reducing agent for carbon dioxide, or a combination thereof. The system includes a reformer configured to perform a thermochemical process.

  12. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  13. Aquarius's Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) Automated to Acquire, Process, Trend Data and Produce Radiometric System Assessment Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Aquarius Radiometer, a subsystem of the Aquarius Instrument required a data acquisition ground system to support calibration and radiometer performance assessment. To support calibration and compose performance assessments, we developed an automated system which uploaded raw data to a ftp server and saved raw and processed data to a database. This paper details the overall functionalities of the Aquarius Instrument Science Data System (ISDS) and the individual electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) which produced data files that were infused into the ISDS. Real time EGSEs include an ICDS Simulator, Calibration GSE, Labview controlled power supply, and a chamber data acquisition system. ICDS Simulator serves as a test conductor primary workstation, collecting radiometer housekeeping (HK) and science data and passing commands and HK telemetry collection request to the radiometer. Calibration GSE (Radiometer Active Test Source) provides source choice from multiple targets for the radiometer external calibration. Power Supply GSE, controlled by labview, provides real time voltage and current monitoring of the radiometer. And finally the chamber data acquisition system produces data reflecting chamber vacuum pressure, thermistor temperatures, AVG and watts. Each GSE system produce text based data files every two to six minutes and automatically copies the data files to the Central Archiver PC. The Archiver PC stores the data files, schedules automated uploads of these files to an external FTP server, and accepts request to copy all data files to the ISDS for offline data processing and analysis. Aquarius Radiometer ISDS contains PHP and MATLab programs to parse, process and save all data to a MySQL database. Analysis tools (MATLab programs) in the ISDS system are capable of displaying radiometer science, telemetry and auxiliary data in near real time as well as performing data analysis and producing automated performance assessment reports of the Aquarius

  14. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority (Revised) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Guide Produced for the Tennessee Valley Authority provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a regional wind resource map and a list of incentives and contacts for more information.

  15. Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, A; Döring, G; Høiby, N; Valerius, N H

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The present study was designed to examine the effect of alkaline protease and elastase purified from P. aeruginosa on human neutrophil function. Neutrophil chemotaxis, oxygen consumption, glucose oxidation, superoxide production, and nitro blue tetrazolium reduction were studied. It was found that alkaline protease and elastase at fairly low concentrations (0.05 and 0.0025 micrograms/ml, respectively) inhibited chemotaxis. The inhibitory effect of both enzymes was increased at higher concentrations. The chemotaxis of preincubated and washed cells was also inhibited. Alkaline protease but not elastase inhibited opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophil oxygen consumption, whereas neither of the enzymes had any effect on glucose oxidation and nitro blue tetrazolium-reducing activity of stimulated neutrophils. The data on superoxide production ability of the cells indicated that the cells preincubated with enzyme and washed were capable of producing superoxide equal to the amount produced by untreated cells when they were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or zymosan. However, when elastase was present in the reaction mixture, the reduction of cytochrome c as a measure of superoxide production was inhibited. Inhibition of neutrophil function, particularly chemotaxis, will have important bearing on the escape of the microorganism from the phagocytic defense system of the host. The role of these products in localized infections and avascular areas such as skin burns, cornea, and, at least initially, in chronic lung colonization in cystic fibrosis patients becomes important.

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the Hot Acidities were comparable for fresh and most aged samples. A meaningful "net" acidity can be determined from a measured Hot Acidity or by calculation from the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved metals concentrations. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Hot Aciditymeasured) to design mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar ponds in alkaline lake and oil well regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M.A.K.

    1996-05-01

    Solar ponds are probably the simplest technology available for useful conversion of solar energy. The basic technology is proven. Solar ponds have been shown to be technically feasible and economically viable for many applications particularly for thermal use. The electrical conversion and use of solar energy via solar ponds is still questionable in general for economic viability. By putting the untapped sources together in the South Plains region it looks promising economically both for thermal and electrical conversions and applications. There are a number of alkaline lake basins randomly scattered in the South Plains region of the USA. In that area there are thousands of crude oil producing wells which produce brine in abundance. Selection of suitable alkaline lake basins as a solar pond site and as depository sites of brine from oil wells and using of this brine and salty water from alkaline lakes makes the solar pond economically viable for both thermal and electrical demands in the area.

  18. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  19. Agricultural produce grading and sorting system using color CCD and new color identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongsheng; Zou, Jizuo; Yang, Yunping; Dong, Jianhua; Zhang, Yuanxiang

    1996-10-01

    A high-speed automatic agricultural produce grading and sorting system using color CCD and new color identification algorithm has been developed. In a typical application, the system can sort almonds into tow output grades according to their color. Almonds ar rich in 18 kinds of amino acids and 13 kinds of micro minerals and vitamins and can be made into almond drink. In order to ensure the drink quality, almonds must be sorted carefully before being made into a drink. Using this system, almonds can be sorted into two grades: up to grade and below grade almonds or foreign materials. A color CCD inspects the almonds passing on a conveyor of rotating rollers, a color identification algorithm grades almonds and distinguishes foreign materials from almonds. Employing an elaborately designed mechanism, the below grade almonds and foreign materials can be removed effectively from the raw almonds. This system can be easily adapted for inspecting and sorting other kinds of agricultural produce such as peanuts, beans tomatoes and so on.

  20. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  1. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Moreno, Ruth; Acosta, Sandra; Hernalsteens, Jean Pierre; Jofre, Juan; Muniesa, Maite

    2006-01-01

    Background The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene. Results Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol. Conclusion This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer. PMID:16984631

  2. Roles of renal erythropoietin-producing (REP) cells in the maintenance of systemic oxygen homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic induction is critical for enhancing the efficiency of oxygen delivery during the chronic phase of the systemic hypoxia response. The erythroid growth factor erythropoietin (Epo) triggers the erythropoietic induction through the activation of erythroid genes related to cell survival, differentiation, and iron metabolism. Because Epo is produced in renal Epo-producing (REP) cells in a hypoxia-inducible manner, REP cells serve as a control center for the systemic hypoxia response. In fact, the loss of Epo production in REP cells causes chronic severe anemia in genetically modified mice, and REP cell-specific inactivation of PHD2 (prolyl-hydroxylase domain enzyme 2) results in erythrocytosis via overexpression of the Epo gene due to the constitutive activation of HIF2α (hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 2α). REP cells are located in the interstitial spaces between renal tubules and capillaries, where the oxygen supply is low but oxygen consumption is high, for the highly sensitive detection of decreased oxygen supplies to the body. Under disease conditions, REP cells transform to myofibroblasts and lose their Epo-producing ability. Therefore, elucidation of Epo gene regulation and REP cell features directly contributes to understanding the pathology of chronic kidney disease. To further analyze REP cells, we introduce a newly established mouse line in which REP cells are efficiently labeled with fluorescent protein. PMID:26452589

  3. Bond strength between different bonding systems and densely sintered alumina with sandblasted surfaces or as produced.

    PubMed

    Papia, Evaggelia; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2008-01-01

    The traditional zinc phosphate cementation technique for crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) is based on mechanical retention where the geometry of the prepared tooth provides retention for the restoration. In clinical situations where mechanical retention is compromised or regarded insufficient, a bonding system can be used to provide retention. This study investigates whether bond strengths of different bonding systems to densely sintered high-strength alumina ceramics are sufficient. One hundred twenty pairs of industrially manufactured specimens--one block and one cylinder-shaped disc of densely sintered alumina--were used. The cementation surfaces of the blocks were sandblasted with 110-microm aluminium oxide while the cementation surfaces of the discs were left untreated, as produced. The pairs were then bonded with one of six different bonding systems. Each bonding group of 20 samples was randomly divided into thermocycled and non-thermocycled subgroups (n=10). Both subgroups were stored 1 week in distilled water (37 degrees C). During this week, the thermocycled subgroup underwent 5000 thermocycles (5 degrees C-55 degrees C). Following pre-treatment, the specimens were loaded until fracture in a universal testing machine to determine shear bond strength. Data were analysed using student's t-test and a one-way ANOVA. Fractured interfaces were examined under a light microscope to classify the failure mode of the debonded area as adhesive, cohesive, or a combination of the two. The highest bond strengths, achieved with two of the bonding systems, were significantly higher than the remaining bonding systems, irrespective of pretreatment--(p>0.001). The predominant failure mode for both treated and untreated surfaces was adhesive. Two of the six tested bonding systems achieved sufficient shear bond strength to densely sintered alumina. Furthermore, recommendations on whether to use surface-treated or as produced densely sintered alumina must be based on

  4. Development of an efficient algal H{sub 2}-producing system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Toon, S.P.; Seibert, M.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this effort are to generate O{sub 2}-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing mutants from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; test them in a laboratory-scale system for the continuous photo-production of H{sub 2} under aerobic conditions; and collaborate with Dr. Greenbaum at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to improve the efficiency of H{sub 2} production in intact and cell-free systems. Hydrogen production by green algae has the following significant advantages over other biological systems: ATP production is not required; high theoretical efficiencies are possible; and water is used as the source of reductant with no stored intermediary metabolites. The current practical limitations to using green algae in a photobiological H{sub 2}-producing system include the sensitivity of hydrogenases to O{sub 2}; the occurrence of a dark back reaction between O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} (i.e., the oxy-hydrogen reaction); competition between the CO{sub 2} reduction and the H{sub 2}-producing pathways for electrons from H{sub 2}O; the low equilibrium pressure of H{sub 2} release; and saturation of H{sub 2}-production at low light intensity. ORNL has been working extensively on the last issue. In this new initiative, we will address the hydrogenase O{sub 2}-sensitivity problem in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by generating and selecting for O{sub 2}-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing mutants. Our approach will involve treating cell suspensions of Chlamydomonas with a mutagen, followed by selection for growth under photoreducing conditions (which favor a functional, O{sub 2}-tolerant H{sub 2}-consuming hydrogenase), as well as for survival under conditions that favor a functional O{sub 2}-tolerant H{sub 2}-producing hydrogenase under increasing O{sub 2} stress. The dual approach will allow us to select for mutants that not only show increased O{sub 2} tolerance but may also exhibit decreased levels of the oxy-hydrogen back reaction.

  5. Automated Tracking of Tornado-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K.; Hong, Y.; Clune, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    The great majority of Earth Science events are studied using "snap-shot" observations in time, mainly due to the scarcity of observations with dense temporal coverage and the lack of robust methods amenable to connecting the "snap shots". To enable the studies of these events in the four-dimensional (4D) spatiotemporal space and to demonstrate the utility of this capability, we have applied the neighbor enclosed area tracking (NEAT) method of Inatsu (2009) to three years of high-resolution (in both time and space) NEXRAD-derived and rain-gauge-corrected QE2 precipitation observations and GOES satellite Rapid Scan Operation imagery to track tornado-producing mesoscale convective systems (MCS's). We combine information from the databases of the Tornado History Project (which provides tornado occurrence and trajectory) and the NWS Watch/Warning Archive (which provides severe weather watch/warning locations) to obtain initial estimate of the time and location of a tornado-producing MCS. The NEAT algorithm is then applied to QE2 and GOES data, both forward and backward in time, to identify the entire system as one integral entity from its inception to its eventual dissipation in the 4D spatiotemporal space. For each system so identified, we extract its morphological/structural parameters, such as perimeter length, area, and orientation, from each of the snap shots in time. We also record physical parameters such as minimum and maximum precipitation rates. In addition, we perform areal integral on the precipitation rate field, which in turn enables time integral for the entire MCS throughout its lifecycle to obtain an estimate of the system's precipitation production. We can extend this proof-of-concept prototype to other precipitation producing severe weather events, such as blizzards. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal data collected may be used to discover other data, such as satellite remote sensing observations and model analyses/simulations, which can then be combined

  6. Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

    1980-05-20

    Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

  7. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gittler, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  8. Developing a mobile produce distribution system for low-income urban residents in food deserts.

    PubMed

    Widener, Michael J; Metcalf, Sara S; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-10-01

    Low-income households in the contemporary city often lack adequate access to healthy foods, like fresh produce, due to a variety of social and spatial barriers that result in neighborhoods being underserved by full-service supermarkets. Because of this, residents commonly resort to purchasing food at fast food restaurants or convenience stores with poor selections of produce. Research has shown that maintaining a healthy diet contributes to disease prevention and overall quality of life. This research seeks to increase low-income residents' access to healthy foods by addressing spatial constraints through the characterization of a mobile market distribution system model that serves in-need neighborhoods. The model optimally locates mobile markets based on the geographic distribution of these residents. Using data from the medium-sized city of Buffalo, New York, results show that, with relatively few resources, the model increases these residents' access to healthy foods, helping to create a healthier city.

  9. Developing a mobile produce distribution system for low-income urban residents in food deserts.

    PubMed

    Widener, Michael J; Metcalf, Sara S; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-10-01

    Low-income households in the contemporary city often lack adequate access to healthy foods, like fresh produce, due to a variety of social and spatial barriers that result in neighborhoods being underserved by full-service supermarkets. Because of this, residents commonly resort to purchasing food at fast food restaurants or convenience stores with poor selections of produce. Research has shown that maintaining a healthy diet contributes to disease prevention and overall quality of life. This research seeks to increase low-income residents' access to healthy foods by addressing spatial constraints through the characterization of a mobile market distribution system model that serves in-need neighborhoods. The model optimally locates mobile markets based on the geographic distribution of these residents. Using data from the medium-sized city of Buffalo, New York, results show that, with relatively few resources, the model increases these residents' access to healthy foods, helping to create a healthier city. PMID:22648452

  10. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-04-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are

  11. Genome sequencing and systems biology analysis of a lipase-producing bacterial strain.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Li, D D; Zhang, Y Z; Yuan, Y Z; Geng, H; Xiong, L; Liu, D L

    2016-01-01

    Lipase-producing bacteria are naturally-occurring, industrially-relevant microorganisms that produce lipases, which can be used to synthesize biodiesel from waste oils. The efficiency of lipase expression varies between various microbial strains. Therefore, strains that can produce lipases with high efficiency must be screened, and the conditions of lipase metabolism and optimization of the production process in a given environment must be thoroughly studied. A high efficiency lipase-producing strain was isolated from the sediments of Jinsha River, identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Serratia marcescens, and designated as HS-L5. A schematic diagram of the genome sequence was constructed by high-throughput genome sequencing. A series of genes related to lipid degradation were identified by functional gene annotation through sequence homology analysis. A genome-scale metabolic model of HS-ML5 was constructed using systems biology techniques. The model consisted of 1722 genes and 1567 metabolic reactions. The topological graph of the genome-scale metabolic model was compared to that of conventional metabolic pathways using a visualization software and KEGG database. The basic components and boundaries of the tributyrin degradation subnetwork were determined, and its flux balance analyzed using Matlab and COBRA Toolbox to simulate the effects of different conditions on the catalytic efficiency of lipases produced by HS-ML5. We proved that the catalytic activity of microbial lipases was closely related to the carbon metabolic pathway. As production and catalytic efficiency of lipases varied greatly with the environment, the catalytic efficiency and environmental adaptability of microbial lipases can be improved by proper control of the production conditions. PMID:27050954

  12. Method and System for Producing Full Motion Media to Display on a Spherical Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starobin, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for producing full motion media for display on a spherical surface is described. The method may include selecting a subject of full motion media for display on a spherical surface. The method may then include capturing the selected subject as full motion media (e.g., full motion video) in a rectilinear domain. The method may then include processing the full motion media in the rectilinear domain for display on a spherical surface, such as by orienting the full motion media, adding rotation to the full motion media, processing edges of the full motion media, and/or distorting the full motion media in the rectilinear domain for instance. After processing the full motion media, the method may additionally include providing the processed full motion media to a spherical projection system, such as a Science on a Sphere system.

  13. New approach to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halogens in a recyclable system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abd el-Shafey I; Cavalli, Gabriel; Bushell, Michael E; Wardell, John N; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katarina; Hay, John N

    2011-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new cross-linked N-halamine polymer against bacteria and viruses was evaluated. The polymer achieved a 9-log(10) reduction of bacteria (both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in 1.5 h and a 5-log(10) reduction of bacteriophage PRD1 in 3 h. At the same time, the ability of the nonhalogenated polymer to trap halide ions was examined. The polymer was incorporated into a multifiltration system to study the ability to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halide ions. The antimicrobial activity, useful lifetime, halide ion level, and recycling possibilities of the system were quantified on a laboratory scale. A design for a large-scale multifiltration system based on this polymer is proposed.

  14. The MultiBac Baculovirus/Insect Cell Expression Vector System for Producing Complex Protein Biologics.

    PubMed

    Sari, Duygu; Gupta, Kapil; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak Balaji; Aubert, Alice; Drncová, Petra; Garzoni, Frederic; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Berger, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Multiprotein complexes regulate most if not all cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and function of these complex cellular machines is essential for understanding biology. Moreover, multiprotein complexes by themselves constitute powerful reagents as biologics for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Recombinant production by the baculovirus/insect cell expression system is particularly useful for expressing proteins of eukaryotic origin and their complexes. MultiBac, an advanced baculovirus/insect cell system, has been widely adopted in the last decade to produce multiprotein complexes with many subunits that were hitherto inaccessible, for academic and industrial research and development. The MultiBac system, its development and numerous applications are presented. Future opportunities for utilizing MultiBac to catalyze discovery are outlined. PMID:27165327

  15. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Sakawa, Y; Kuramitsu, Y; Dono, S; Ide, T; Shibata, S; Aoki, H; Tanji, H; Sano, T; Shiroshita, A; Waugh, J N; Gregory, C D; Woolsey, N C; Takabe, H

    2012-10-01

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ~10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)]. PMID:23126856

  16. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.

    2012-10-15

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].

  17. Structure-Guided Systems-Level Engineering of Oxidation-Prone Methionine Residues in Catalytic Domain of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for Significant Improvement of Both Oxidative Stability and Catalytic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    High oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency are required for the alkaline α-amylases to keep the enzymatic performance under the harsh conditions in detergent industries. In this work, we attempted to significantly improve both the oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica by engineering the five oxidation-prone methionine residues around the catalytic domain via a systematic approach. Specifically, based on the tertiary structure analysis, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247 and Met 317) were individually substituted with oxidation-resistant threonine, isoleucine and alaline, respectively. Among the created 15 mutants, 7 mutants M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T and M317I showed significantly enhanced oxidative stability or catalytic efficiency. In previous work, we found that the replacement of M247 with leucine could significantly improve the oxidative stability. Thus, these 8 positive mutants (M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T, M247L and M317I) were used to conduct the second round of combinational mutations. Among the constructed 85 mutants (25 two-point mutants, 36 three-point mutants, 16 four-point mutants and 8 five-point mutants), the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I showed a 5.4-fold increase in oxidative stability and a 3.0-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, the specific activity, alkaline stability and thermal stability of this mutant were also increased. The increase of salt bridge and hydrogen bonds around the catalytic domain contributed to the significantly improved catalytic efficiency and stability, as revealed by the three-dimensional structure model of wild-type alkaline α-amylase and its mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I. With the significantly improved oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I has a great potential as a detergent additive, and this structure-guided systems engineering

  18. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  19. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC

  20. The visualization of surgical smoke produced by energy delivery devices: significance and effectiveness of evacuation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Devices delivering energy to biological tissues (eg lasers, RF and ultrasound) can induce surgical smoke consisting of particles, vapor, gasses and aerosols. Besides interfering with the view of the surgeon, the smoke is a risk for the health of both the users and patients. In literature, it has been shown that surgical smoke can contain carcinogenic and harmful biological agents. However, the impact on health of the users and patients is widely debated. The use of smoke evacuation systems in the OR is usually governed by economical reason instead of safety issues. A special image enhancement technique is used to study the behavior of smoke and aerosols and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. A back scatter illumination technique using 1 μs light flashes at video rate was applied to image the smoke production of various surgical devices without and with smoke evacuation while ablating biological tissues. The effectiveness of various smoke evacuation devices and strategies were compared. The ablative thermal devices produced smoke but also aerosols. If the thermal energy was delivered in high peak pulses, the presence of aerosols was more significant. Ultrasound based devices produce mainly aerosols. The distance to the target, the opening of the evacuation nozzle and the dimension of aerosols were leading for the effectiveness of the smoke evacuation. The smoke visualization technique has proven an effective tool for study the effectiveness of smoke and aerosols evacuation. The results can contribute to the necessity to use evacuation systems in the OR.

  1. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-09-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2005 through September 2005. In previous work, a series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a SMZ system coupled with a VPB to remove and ultimately destroy the organic pollutants found in produced water. Based on the laboratory scale data, a field test of the process was conducted at the McGrath Salt Water Disposal facility in July and August of 2005. The system performed well over repeated feed and regeneration cycles demonstrating the viability of the process for long term operation. Of the BTEX components present in the produced water, benzene had the lowest adsorption affinity for the SMZ and thus controlled the sorption cycle length. Regeneration of the SMZ using air sparging was found to be sufficient in the field to maintain the SMZ adsorption capacity and to allow continuous operation of the system. As expected, the BTEX concentrations in the regeneration off gas stream were initially very high in a given regeneration cycle. However, a granular activated carbon buffering column placed upstream of the VPB reduced the peak BTEX concentrations to acceptable levels for the VPB. In this way, the VPB was able to maintain stable performance over the entire SMZ regeneration period despite the intermittent nature of the feed.

  2. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  3. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  4. Characterization of micellar systems produced by new amphiphilic conjugates of poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Pignatello, R; Pantò, V; Basile, L; Leonardi, A; Guarino, C; La Rosa, C

    2014-11-01

    This study proposes polymeric micelles produced using new amphiphilic conjugates between amino- or carboxy-mPEG2000 and three different α-lipoamino acids (PEG-LAA). The characterization of these colloidal systems showed CMC values, in the order of 10(-5 )M, that are interesting in the view of an in vivo administration. The PEG-LAA micelles also showed a good stability at 37 °C and upon dilution in aqueous media. Using a colored probe as a model lipophilic compound, the loading efficiency and in vitro release profile were also outlined.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  6. Automated alkaline lysis for industrial scale cGMP production of pharmaceutical grade plasmid-DNA.

    PubMed

    Urthaler, Jochen; Ascher, Christine; Wöhrer, Helga; Necina, Roman

    2007-01-30

    Plasmid DNA for biopharmaceutical applications is mainly produced in E. coli cells. The first and most crucial step for recovering the plasmid is the cell lysis. Governed by the physico-chemical properties of the polynucleotide, alkaline lysis has been the lysis-method of choice. This chemical disintegration technique was initially developed for the lab scale and non-pharmaceutical applications. A continuous, fully automated and closed system combining alkaline lysis, neutralization and clarification in one gentle and generic operation was developed. This system consists of a three units. One unit controls mixing and contact time during the alkaline treatment, another one controls the neutralization and the concurrent formation of flocs and a third one the separation of flocs and pDNA containing lysate. Based on optimization experiments the selected process parameters resulted in yields up to 100% and homogeneities comparable to that obtained by gentle manual lysis. The process does not need enzymes and it is scalable and routinely used for cGMP-production of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA from 200 L fermentations.

  7. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production. PMID:25253193

  8. Expression System Based on an MTIIa Promoter to Produce hPSA in Mammalian Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Santos, Anderson K; Parreira, Ricardo C; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2016-01-01

    Because of the limitations of standard culture techniques, the development of new recombinant protein expression systems with biotechnological potential is a key challenge. Ideally, such systems should be able to effectively and accurately synthesize a protein of interest with intrinsic metabolic capacity. Here, we describe such a system that was designed based on a plasmid vector containing promoter elements derived from the metallothionein MTIIa promoter, as well as processing and purification elements. This promoter can be induced by heavy metals in a culture medium to induce the synthesis of human prostate-specific antigen (hPSA), which has been modified to insert elements for purification, proteolysis, and secretion. We optimized hPSA production in this system by comparing the effects and contributions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, and CuSO4 in HEK293FT, HeLa, BHK-21, and CHO-K1 cells. We also compared the effectiveness of three different transfection agents: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Lipofectamine 2000, and X-tremeGENE HP Reagent. hPSA production was confirmed via the detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence, and cell viability was determined. The expression of hPSA was compared with that of the native protein produced by LNCaP cells, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. X-tremeGENE reagent, the BHK-21 cell line, and CuSO4 showed the highest hPSA production rates. Furthermore, BHK-21 cells were more resistant to the oxidative stress caused by 100 μM CuSO4. These results suggest that the proposed optimized inducible expression system can effectively produce recombinant proteins with desired characteristics for a wide range of applications in molecular biology. PMID:27582737

  9. Expression System Based on an MTIIa Promoter to Produce hPSA in Mammalian Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Anderson K.; Parreira, Ricardo C.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the limitations of standard culture techniques, the development of new recombinant protein expression systems with biotechnological potential is a key challenge. Ideally, such systems should be able to effectively and accurately synthesize a protein of interest with intrinsic metabolic capacity. Here, we describe such a system that was designed based on a plasmid vector containing promoter elements derived from the metallothionein MTIIa promoter, as well as processing and purification elements. This promoter can be induced by heavy metals in a culture medium to induce the synthesis of human prostate-specific antigen (hPSA), which has been modified to insert elements for purification, proteolysis, and secretion. We optimized hPSA production in this system by comparing the effects and contributions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, and CuSO4 in HEK293FT, HeLa, BHK-21, and CHO-K1 cells. We also compared the effectiveness of three different transfection agents: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Lipofectamine 2000, and X-tremeGENE HP Reagent. hPSA production was confirmed via the detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence, and cell viability was determined. The expression of hPSA was compared with that of the native protein produced by LNCaP cells, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. X-tremeGENE reagent, the BHK-21 cell line, and CuSO4 showed the highest hPSA production rates. Furthermore, BHK-21 cells were more resistant to the oxidative stress caused by 100 μM CuSO4. These results suggest that the proposed optimized inducible expression system can effectively produce recombinant proteins with desired characteristics for a wide range of applications in molecular biology. PMID:27582737

  10. Watershed versus in-lake alkalinity generation: A comparison of rates using input-output studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, P.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Eshleman, K.N.; Church, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    As a means of assessing the relative contributions of watershed (terrestrial) and in-lake processes to overall lake/watershed alkalinity budgets, alkalinity production rates for watersheds and low-alkalinity lakes were compiled from the literature and compared. Analysis of data indicates that for low-alkalinity systems, areal alkalinity production rates for watersheds and lakes are approximately equal. The relationship suggests that watershed area to lake area ratio can be used as a convenient estimator of the relative importance of watershed and in-lake sources of alkalinity for drainage lake systems. For precipitation-dominated seepage lakes and other systems where hydrology limits soil-water contact, hydrologic flow paths and residence times can be of overriding importance in determining alkalinity sources. For regions dominated by drainage lakes with high watershed area to lake area ratios (such as the Northeastern U.S.), however, alkalinity budgets are dominated by watershed processes. Omission of in-lake alkalinity consideration for most lakes in such regions would have little impact on computed alkalinity budgets or on predicted response to changes in acidic-deposition loadings.

  11. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  12. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and

  14. Aluminum/alkaline earth metal composites and method for producing

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Alan M; Anderson, Iver E; Kim, Hyong J; Freichs, Andrew E

    2014-02-11

    A composite is provided having an electrically conducting Al matrix and elongated filaments comprising Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba disposed in the matrix and extending along a longitudinal axis of the composite. The filaments initially comprise Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba metal or allow and then may be reacted with the Al matrix to form a strengthening intermetallic compound comprising Al and Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba. The composite is useful as a long-distance, high voltage power transmission conductor.

  15. Co-resistance to different classes of antibiotics among ESBL-producers from aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Tacão, Marta; Moura, Alexandra; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the co-occurrence of resistance to non-beta-lactams among cefotaxime-resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers (ESBL(+)) versus non-ESBL producers (ESBL(-)), from aquatic environments. Higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were observed in ESBL(+). Among ESBL(+) resistant to tetracycline (n = 18), tet(A) was detected in 88.9% and tet(B) in 16.7%. Among fluoroquinolone-resistant-ESBL(+) (n = 15), aacA4-cr and qnrVC4 were identified in 26.6% and 40% strains, respectively. The qnrVC4 gene was detected for the first time in Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli. Class 1 integrase genes were detected in 56.41% of ESBL(+) and in 27.67% ESBL(-). Gene cassette arrays identified conferred resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA-type genes and aacA4), trimethoprim (dfrA17), chloramphenicol (catB8), fluoroquinolones (qnrVC4) and beta-lactams (blaOXA-10). Conjugation experiments were performed with CTX-M-producers. Transconjugants showed multiresistance to 3 or more classes of antibiotics, and conjugative plasmids were assigned to IncF, IncK and IncI1 replicons. Results obtained showed that co-selection of resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and tetracyclines is prevalent among ESBL-producers and that these features are successfully mobilized by IncF, IncK and IncI1 conjugative plasmids. This study reinforces the importance of natural aquatic systems as reservoir of mobile genetic platforms carrying multiple resistance determinants. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first observation of IncK::CTX-M-3 in Aeromonas hydrophila and the first report of IncK plasmids in Portugal. PMID:24091187

  16. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  17. Photonic liquid crystal fibers tuning by four electrode system produced with 3D printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertman, Slawomir; Bednarska, Karolina; Czapla, Aleksandra; Woliński, Tomasz R.

    2015-09-01

    Photonic liquid crystal fiber has been intensively investigated in last few years. It has been proved that guiding properties of such fibers could be tuned with an electric field. In particular efficient tuning could be obtained if multi-electrode system allowing for dynamic change of not only intensity of the electric field, but also its direction. In this work we report a simple to build four electrode system, which is based on a precisely aligned four cylindrical microelectrodes. As an electrodes we use enameled copper wire with diameter adequate to the diameter of the fiber to be tuned. To ensure uniform and parallel alignment of the wires a special micro-profiles has been designed and then produced with filament 3D printer. The possibility of the dynamic change of the electric field direction in such scalable and cost effective electrode assembly has been experimentally confirmed.

  18. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  19. Development of an efficient algal H{sub 2}-producing system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, M.L.; Markov, S.; Seibert, M.

    1996-10-01

    Green algae have the potential to efficiently photoevolve H{sub 2} from water using the photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolving apparatus and the reversible hydrogenase enzyme when CO{sub 2} is not present. Unfortunately algal hydrogenases are very sensitive to inactivation by O{sub 2}, the by-product of the water-splitting process. This problem has been one of the major practical factors limiting the commercial utilization of green algae for H{sub 2} production. The other major limitation, saturation of H{sub 2} production by algae at light intensities much lower than normal solar levels, is being addressed by ORNL. The objectives of this project are to generate O{sub 2}-tolerant, H{sub 2}-producing mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtti, to test them in a laboratory-scale system for continuous production of H{sub 2} under aerobic conditions; and to collaborate with ORNL to improve the overall efficiency of H{sub 2} production in intact and cell-free systems. The ultimate goal of the work is to configure a photobiological water-splitting process that will lead to a H{sub 2}-producing system that is cost effective, scalable, non-polluting, and renewable. The approach to obtain O{sub 2}-tolerant mutants of Chlamydomonas involves two types of selection techniques. The first depends on the survival of cells under photoreductive conditions, where H{sub 2} utilization is required, and the second requires the survival of the organisms under H{sub 2}-producing conditions. As part of this collaboration, the authors have independently confirmed that two of the Chlamydomonas mutants lacking photosystem I used by ORNL do in fact produce O{sub 2} in the light and also evolve H{sub 2}. Not unexpectedly, they do the latter with the same O{sub 2}-sensitivity as the WT cells. This observation is crucial for the credibility of the important ORNL work, since it confirms the potential for doubling the quantum efficiency for H{sub 2} production in these mutants.

  20. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  1. A synoptic climatology of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems in the North-Central Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Mote, Thomas L.; Byrd, Stephen F.

    2000-09-01

    Synoptic-scale environments favourable for producing derechos, or widespread convectively induced windstorms, in the North-Central Plains are examined with the goal of providing pattern-recognition/diagnosis techniques. Fifteen derechos were identified across the North-Central Plains region during 1986-1995. The synoptic environment at the initiation, mid-point and decay of each derecho was then evaluated using surface, upper-air and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets.Results suggest that the synoptic environment is critical in maintaining derecho producing mesoscale convective systems (DMCSs). The synoptic environment in place downstream of the MCS initiation region determines the movement and potential strength of the system. Circulation around surface low pressure increased the instability gradient and maximized leading edge convergence in the initiation region of nearly all events regardless of DMCS location or movement. Other commonalities in the environments of these events include the presence of a weak thermal boundary, high convective instability and a layer of dry low-to-mid-tropospheric air. Of the two corridors sampled, northeastward moving derechos tend to initiate east of synoptic-scale troughs, while southeastward moving derechos form on the northeast periphery of a synoptic-scale ridge. Other differences between these two DMCS events are also discussed.

  2. Perceived Annoyance to Noise Produced by a Distributed Electric Propulsion High Lift System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew; Rafaelof, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    Results of a psychoacoustic test performed to understand the relative annoyance to noise produced by several configurations of a distributed electric propulsion high lift system are given. It is found that the number of propellers in the system is a major factor in annoyance perception. This is an intuitive result as annoyance increases, in general, with frequency, and, the blade passage frequency of the propellers increases with the number of propellers. Additionally, the data indicate that having some variation in the blade passage frequency from propeller-to-propeller is beneficial as it reduces the high tonality generated when all the propellers are spinning in synchrony at the same speed. The propellers can be set to spin at different speeds, but it was found that allowing the motor controllers to drift within 1% of nominal settings produced the best results (lowest overall annoyance). The methodology employed has been demonstrated to be effective in providing timely feedback to designers in the early stages of design development.

  3. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  4. Design of an automated cart and mount for a hyperspectral imaging system to be used in produce fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project was to construct a cart and a mounting system that would allow a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (HLIFIS) to be used to detect fecal material in produce fields. Fecal contaminated produce is a recognized food safety risk. Previous research demonstrate...

  5. Screen printing for producing ferroelectret systems with polymer-electret films and well-defined cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sborikas, Martynas; Qiu, Xunlin; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Jenninger, Werner; Lovera, Deliani

    2014-02-01

    We report a process for preparing polymer ferroelectrets by means of screen printing—a technology that is widely used for the two-dimensional patterning of printed layers. In order to produce polymer-film systems with cavities that are suitable for bipolar electric charging, a screen-printing paste is deposited through a screen with a pre-designed pattern onto the surface of a polymer electret film. Another such polymer film is placed on top of the printed pattern, and well-defined cavities are formed in-between. During heating and curing, the polymer films are tightly bonded to the patterned paste layer so that a stable three-layer system is obtained. In the present work, polycarbonate (PC) films have been employed as electret layers. Screen printing, curing and charging led to PC ferroelectret systems with a piezoelectric d 33 coefficient of about 28 pC/N that is stable up to 100 ∘C. Due to the rather soft patterned layer, d 33 strongly decreases already for static pressures of tens of kPa. The results demonstrate the suitability of screen printing for the preparation of ferroelectret systems.

  6. Simple Experiments To Demonstrate Proton Flux in Pseudomonas after Alkaline or Acidic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, Gabriela; Giordano, Walter; Domenech, Carlos E.

    2003-12-01

    This laboratory introduces chemistry students to the ability of microorganisms to adapt to acidic or alkaline environmental conditions. A laboratory experiment to ascertain the bacterial response to the stress produced by suspension in different pH solutions has been developed. The experiment may be performed in several versions depending on the availability of lab equipment and the chemistry level of the students. This laboratory experiment has the pedagogical advantage of giving chemistry students experience with the application of various pH levels to a biological system and enables the students to expand their understanding of pH to mean more than a strictly chemical concept.

  7. Promoting discovery and access to real time observations produced by regional coastal ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Snowden, D. P.; Bochenek, R.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the U.S. coastal waters, a network of eleven regional coastal ocean observing systems support real-time coastal and ocean observing. The platforms supported and variables acquired are diverse, ranging from current sensing high frequency (HF) radar to autonomous gliders. The system incorporates data produced by other networks and experimental systems, further increasing the breadth of the collection. Strategies promoted by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) ensure these data are not lost at sea. Every data set deserves a description. ISO and FGDC compliant metadata enables catalog interoperability and record-sharing. Extensive use of netCDF with the Climate and Forecast convention (identifying both metadata and a structured format) is shown to be a powerful strategy to promote discovery, interoperability, and re-use of the data. To integrate specialized data which are often obscure, quality control protocols are being developed to homogenize the QC and make these data more integrate-able. Data Assembly Centers have been established to integrate some specialized streams including gliders, animal telemetry, and HF radar. Subsets of data that are ingested into the National Data Buoy Center are also routed to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization to assure wide international distribution. From the GTS, data are assimilated into now-cast and forecast models, fed to other observing systems, and used to support observation-based decision making such as forecasts, warnings, and alerts. For a few years apps were a popular way to deliver these real-time data streams to phones and tablets. Responsive and adaptive web sites are an emerging flexible strategy to provide access to the regional coastal ocean observations.

  8. A geopressured-geothermal, solar conversion system to produce potable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, George Samuel

    A design is presented for recovering Geopressured-Geothermal (GPGT) reservoir brines for conversion into solar ponds to renewably power coastal seawater desalination. The hot, gas-cut, high-pressure GPGT brine is flowed through a well-bore to surface systems which concentrate the brine in multi-effect evaporators and recover the gas. The gas and distilled water are used for thermal enhanced oil recovery, and the concentrated brine is used to construct solar ponds. The thermal energy from the solar ponds is used to produce electricity, which is then used to renewably power coastal desalination plants for large-scale potable water production from the sea. The design is proposed for deployment in California and Texas, where the two largest U.S. GPGT basins exist. Projections show that the design fully deployed in California could provide 5 MAF/y (million acre-ft per year) while yielding a 45% Rate of Return (combined oil and water revenues); the California municipal water load is 10 MAF/y. The dissertation contains a feasibility study of the design approach, supported by engineering analyses and simulation models, included in the appendices. A range of systems configurations and GPGT flow conditions are modeled to illustrate how the approach lends itself to modular implementation, i.e., incrementally installing a single system, tens of systems, up to 1000 systems, which corresponds to full deployment in California for the scenario analyzed. The dissertation includes a method for launching and piloting the approach, starting from a single system installation.

  9. Status of ELENCO's alkaline fuel cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, H.; van Bogaert, G.; Vennekens, G.; Vermeeren, L.; Vlasselaer, F.

    Low-temperature alkaline fuel cells which can be operated with air, oxygen-enriched air, and pure oxygen are discussed. Aspects of the electrochemical stack development, including manufacturing techniques, performance levels, and reactant purity, are first reviewed. Design, engineering, and operating aspects of the 1.5 kW, 15 kW, and 50 kW prototype fuel cell systems are considered. An ejector device based on the venturi principle is used to improve the H2 gas circulation and to reduce the H2 losses. Various industrial and aerospace applications of the modules are discussed.

  10. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of softwood: hemicellulose degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated softwood hemicelluloses degradation pathways during alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of Douglas fir. It was found that glucomannan is much more susceptible to alkaline pretreatment than xylan. Organic acids, including lactic, succinic, glycolic and formic acid are the predominant products from glucomannan degradation. At low treatment temperature (90°C), a small amount of formic acid is produced from glucomannan, whereas glucomannan degradation to lactic acid and succinic acid becomes the main reactions at 140°C and 180°C. The addition of H2O2 during alkaline pretreatment of D. fir led to a significant removal of lignin, which subsequently facilitated glucomannan solubilization. However, H2O2 has little direct effect on the glucomannan degradation reaction. The main degradation pathways involved in glucomannan conversion to organics acids are elucidated. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to optimize pretreatment conditions to maximize the value of biomass hemicellulose.

  11. Assessment of the Quality of Digital Terrain Model Produced from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Kerin, A.; Mesarič, M.; Peterman, V.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Production of digital terrain model (DTM) is one of the most usual tasks when processing photogrammetric point cloud generated from Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. The quality of the DTM produced in this way depends on different factors: the quality of imagery, image orientation and camera calibration, point cloud filtering, interpolation methods etc. However, the assessment of the real quality of DTM is very important for its further use and applications. In this paper we first describe the main steps of UAS imagery acquisition and processing based on practical test field survey and data. The main focus of this paper is to present the approach to DTM quality assessment and to give a practical example on the test field data. For data processing and DTM quality assessment presented in this paper mainly the in-house developed computer programs have been used. The quality of DTM comprises its accuracy, density, and completeness. Different accuracy measures like RMSE, median, normalized median absolute deviation and their confidence interval, quantiles are computed. The completeness of the DTM is very often overlooked quality parameter, but when DTM is produced from the point cloud this should not be neglected as some areas might be very sparsely covered by points. The original density is presented with density plot or map. The completeness is presented by the map of point density and the map of distances between grid points and terrain points. The results in the test area show great potential of the DTM produced from UAS imagery, in the sense of detailed representation of the terrain as well as good height accuracy.

  12. Modeling the competition between PHA-producing and non-PHA-producing bacteria in feast-famine SBR and staged CSTR systems.

    PubMed

    Marang, Leonie; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2015-12-01

    Although the enrichment of specialized microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) is generally performed in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), the required feast-famine conditions can also be established using two or more continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) in series with partial biomass recirculation. The use of CSTRs offers several advantages, but will result in distributed residence times and a less strict separation between feast and famine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the reactor configuration, and various process and biomass-specific parameters, on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria. A set of mathematical models was developed to predict the growth of Plasticicumulans acidivorans-as a model PHA producer-in competition with a non-storing heterotroph. A macroscopic model considering lumped biomass and an agent-based model considering individual cells were created to study the effect of residence time distribution and the resulting distributed bacterial states. The simulations showed that in the 2-stage CSTR system the selective pressure for PHA-producing bacteria is significantly lower than in the SBR, and strongly affected by the chosen feast-famine ratio. This is the result of substrate competition based on both the maximum specific substrate uptake rate and substrate affinity. Although the macroscopic model overestimates the selective pressure in the 2-stage CSTR system, it provides a quick and fairly good impression of the reactor performance and the impact of process and biomass-specific parameters.

  13. The mechanism of metals precipitation by biologically generated alkalinity in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Remoudaki, E; Hatzikioseyian, A; Kousi, P; Tsezos, M

    2003-09-01

    Microbial strains, characterized by increased tolerance and ability to grow in metal bearing wastewaters as well as by effective metal sequestering capability by both active (bioaccumulative) and passive (biosorptive) processes, were tested as inoculum for metal laden wastewater treatment systems. Their capacity to grow in metal bearing wastewater, using an easily available and inexpensive carbon source such as acetate, was studied in batch experiments. Two principal conclusions were drawn: (1). Growth was observed for all the strains examined suggesting that the strains can be acclimated to metals bearing wastewaters. (2). Solution pH increased from neutral to alkaline values during growth (pH(initial)=7, pH(final)=10). The later was observed systematically for all strains. Metal precipitation, due to the metabolically generated alkalinity is expected as a result.Supporting evidence for this hypothesis was provided during the operation of two pilot moving bed sand filters treating two different metal bearing wastewaters. Acetate was used as carbon source to support the growth and maintenance of microbial biomass on the sand grains of the filters. The characteristics of the sludge produced from the operation of the pilot plants were subsequently studied in the laboratory. Both sludges were significantly loaded with large amounts of metals.A mechanism of metal precipitation induced by the metabolically generated alkalinity, when acetate is used as carbon source, could be proposed as the main process responsible for the metals sequestering inside the moving bed sandfilter reactor. PMID:12909102

  14. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  15. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  16. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  17. Characteristics of mesoscale-convective-system-produced extreme rainfall over southeastern South Korea: 7 July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Dong-In; Wang, Chung-Chieh; Han, In-Seong

    2016-04-01

    An extreme-rainfall-producing mesoscale convective system (MCS) associated with the Changma front in southeastern South Korea was investigated using observational data. This event recorded historic rainfall and led to devastating flash floods and landslides in the Busan metropolitan area on 7 July 2009. The aim of the present study is to analyse the influences for the synoptic and mesoscale environment, and the reasons that the quasi-stationary MCS causes extreme rainfall. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses indicate that the MCS and heavy rainfall occurred in association with a stationary front which resembled a warm front in structure. A strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ) transported warm and humid air and supplied the moisture toward the front, and the air rose upwards above the frontal surface. As the moist air was conditionally unstable, repeated upstream initiation of deep convection by back-building occurred at the coastline, while old cells moved downstream parallel to the convective line with training effect. Because the motion of convective cells nearly opposed the backward propagation, the system as a whole moved slowly. The back-building behaviour was linked to the convectively generated cold pool and its outflow boundary, which played a role in the propagation and maintenance of the rainfall system. As a result, the quasi-stationary MCS caused a prolonged duration of heavy rainfall, leading to extreme rainfall over the Busan metropolitan area.

  18. New concepts in exploring subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems in mature and near producing areas of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Deminati, A.; Hcaine, M.; El Alji, M.

    1996-12-31

    The subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are one of the areally largest and paradoxally the least drilled in Morocco. Although, worldwide, these systems contain the largest potential gas reserves and contain one of the largest emerging oil plays and better still the few wells drilled to test the system in Essaouira Basin are producing commercial wet gas, these systems have never been tested in the Interatlasic and Prerif Basins. Impediments to exploration in these areas focused on the inability to map beneath the {open_quotes}geophysical basement{close_quotes}, to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rock. Recent integrated study combining newly acquired deep targeted seismic, gravity, magnetic, geochemical data and basin modelling techniques, has permitted to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution and assess source rock potential. The sub-salt Paleozoic hydrocarbon system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic-Lower Jurassic deposition of a regional seal (salt and evaporate); (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from Silurian to Carboniferous sources; and (5) re-initiation of generation from Silurian source in uplifted blocks following atlasic (Neogene) compression. Large structures and prospective stratigraphic features exhibiting many similarities to the prolific Triassic objectives of neighboring Algeria are now defined and await to be drilled. Furthermore, the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline will shortly cross both the Interatlasic and the Prerif areas providing additional positive attribute that makes these exploration areas more attractive.

  19. New concepts in exploring subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems in mature and near producing areas of Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Deminati, A.; Hcaine, M.; El Alji, M. )

    1996-01-01

    The subsalt Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are one of the areally largest and paradoxally the least drilled in Morocco. Although, worldwide, these systems contain the largest potential gas reserves and contain one of the largest emerging oil plays and better still the few wells drilled to test the system in Essaouira Basin are producing commercial wet gas, these systems have never been tested in the Interatlasic and Prerif Basins. Impediments to exploration in these areas focused on the inability to map beneath the [open quotes]geophysical basement[close quotes], to seismically image sub-salt, pre-Jurassic block faulted structures and the perceived lack of adequate source rock. Recent integrated study combining newly acquired deep targeted seismic, gravity, magnetic, geochemical data and basin modelling techniques, has permitted to decipher the pre-salt structures, interpret basin evolution and assess source rock potential. The sub-salt Paleozoic hydrocarbon system evolved in basically five stages: (1) simultaneous sediment accumulation and structural formation during the Paleozoic; (2) major tectonism and erosion in Late Paleozoic (Hercynian); (3) Triassic-Lower Jurassic deposition of a regional seal (salt and evaporate); (4) Mesozoic charging primarily from Silurian to Carboniferous sources; and (5) re-initiation of generation from Silurian source in uplifted blocks following atlasic (Neogene) compression. Large structures and prospective stratigraphic features exhibiting many similarities to the prolific Triassic objectives of neighboring Algeria are now defined and await to be drilled. Furthermore, the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline will shortly cross both the Interatlasic and the Prerif areas providing additional positive attribute that makes these exploration areas more attractive.

  20. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Nesbit, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P < 0.01). Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (P ≤ 0.003). Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion. PMID:23936808

  1. Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  3. Biological Activity of Recombinant Bovine Interferon τ Produced by a Silkworm-Baculovirus Gene Expression System

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hitomi; TSUNAZAKI, Makoto; HAMANO, Takashi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; INUMARU, Shigeki; OKANO, Akira; GESHI, Masaya; HIRAKO, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine interferon (bIFN) τ plays a crucial role in maternal-fetal recognition and was expressed using a Bombyx mori (Bm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (silkworm baculovirus) gene expression system. The biological effects of Bm-recombinant bIFNτ (rbIFNτ) on prostaglandin (PG) F2α synthesis were investigated in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells with oxytocin (OT, 100 nM) and on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Bm-rbIFNτ and OT were shown to suppress PGF2α production in a dose-dependent manner. When in vitro produced morula stage embryos were cultured for 72 hr in modified CR1aa medium supplemented with or without rbIFNτ, Bm-rbIFNτ (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted development to the expanded blastocyst stage. In conclusion, Bm-rbIFNτ was suggested to have the same bioactivity as native IFNτ. PMID:24212505

  4. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  5. Gestational IV nicotine produces elevated BDNF in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system of adolescent rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, Steven B.; Lacy, Ryan T.; Zhu, Jun; Hughes, Benjamin A.; Perna, Marla K.; Brown, Russell W.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with enduring psychopathology, such as increased likelihood of substance use, in offspring. Various animal models demonstrate that continuous nicotine exposure produces teratogenic effects in offspring, as well. In the present experiment, a novel intravenous (IV) exposure model was utilized to determine if gestational nicotine (GN) treatment produced alterations in methamphetamine-induced sensitization and the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system of adolescent offspring. Dams were injected with IV saline or nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) 3x/day on gestational days 8–21. Habituation was measured on postnatal day (PND) 25–27 and baseline activity on PND 28. On PND 29–35, offspring were injected with saline or methamphetamine (0.3 mg/kg) and locomotor activity was measured after the first and seventh injections. On PND 36, brains were removed, flash frozen, and BDNF protein levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), dorsal striatum (Str), frontal cortex (FC), and hippocampus (Hipp) were analyzed. GN did not affect habituation or the induction of methamphetamine-induced sensitization. Interestingly, GN, but not adolescent methamphetamine treatment, elevated levels of BDNF in the NAcc and Str; however, the GN-induced increase in BDNF in the FC was attenuated by adolescent methamphetamine treatment. Both GN and adolescent methamphetamine treatment increased BDNF in the Hipp. These findings indicate that GN exposure will result in increased levels of BDNF protein throughout the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system during adolescent development, and suggests that methamphetamine abuse will modulate the expression of BDNF in motivational circuitries of adolescent offspring exposed to GN. PMID:21990022

  6. On the episodic nature of derecho-producing convective systems in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.; Bentley, Mace L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated windstorms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, one of the larger-scale and most intense of these windstorms has been given the name derecho. This study illustrates the tendency for derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems to group together across the United States - forming a derecho series. The derecho series is recognized as any succession of derechos that develop within a similar synoptic environment with no more than 72 h separating individual events. A derecho dataset for the period 1994-2003 was assembled to investigate the groupings of these extremely damaging convective wind events. Results indicate that over 62% of the derechos in the dataset were members of a derecho series. On average, nearly six series affected the United States annually. Most derecho series consisted of two or three events; though, 14 series during the period of record contained four or more events. Two separate series involved nine derechos within a period of nine days. Analyses reveal that derecho series largely frequent regions of the Midwest, Ohio Valley, and the south-central Great Plains during May, June, and July. Results suggest that once a derecho occurred during May, June, or July, there was a 58% chance that this event was the first of a series of two or more, and about a 46% chance that this was the first of a derecho series consisting of three or more events. The derecho series climatology reveals that forecasters in regions frequented by derechos should be prepared for the probable regeneration of a derecho-producing convective system after an initial event occurs. Copyright

  7. An infinitely-stiff elastic system via a tuned negative-stiffness component stabilized by rotation-produced gyroscopic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochmann, D. M.; Drugan, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    An elastic system containing a negative-stiffness element tuned to produce positive-infinite system stiffness, although statically unstable as is any such elastic system if unconstrained, is proved to be stabilized by rotation-produced gyroscopic forces at sufficiently high rotation rates. This is accomplished in possibly the simplest model of a composite structure (or solid) containing a negative-stiffness component that exhibits all these features, facilitating a conceptually and mathematically transparent, completely closed-form analysis.

  8. Network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenzi, Diego; Bechini, Renzo; Boraso, Rodolfo; Cremonini, Roberto; Fratianni, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The traffic over Internet is constantly increasing; this is due in particular to social networks activities but also to the enormous exchange of data caused especially by the so-called "Internet of Things". With this term we refer to every device that has the capability of exchanging information with other devices on the web. In geoscience (and, in particular, in meteorology and climatology) there is a constantly increasing number of sensors that are used to obtain data from different sources (like weather radars, digital rain gauges, etc.). This information-gathering activity, frequently, must be followed by a complex data analysis phase, especially when we have large data sets that can be very difficult to analyze (very long historical series of large data sets, for example), like the so called big data. These activities are particularly intensive in resource consumption and they lead to new computational models (like cloud computing) and new methods for storing data (like object store, linked open data, NOSQL or NewSQL). The weather radar systems can be seen as one of the sensors mentioned above: it transmit a large amount of raw data over the network (up to 40 megabytes every five minutes), with 24h/24h continuity and in any weather condition. Weather radar are often located in peaks and in wild areas where connectivity is poor. For this reason radar measurements are sometimes processed partially on site and reduced in size to adapt them to the limited bandwidth currently available by data transmission systems. With the aim to preserve the maximum flow of information, an innovative network connectivity paradigm for the large data produced by weather radar system is here presented. The study is focused on the Monte Settepani operational weather radar system, located over a wild peak summit in north-western Italy.

  9. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone

  10. Observation of successive TGFs produced by the same thunderstorm systems throughout their lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursi, Alessandro; Marisaldi, Martino; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Dietrich, Stefano; Casella, Daniele; Sanò, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Since their discovery in early 1990s, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) exhibited a clear correlation with thunderstorm activity. The elusive nature of these events and the strong absorption of gamma-rays in the lowest layers of the atmosphere dramatically limits our observation of this phenomenon: the few missions currently detecting TGFs are probably revealing just the tip of the iceberg of a much wider population. Theoretical models, radar measurements and cross-correlations with radio waves emitted by lightning strokes suggest every storm could, in principle, produce a large number of gamma flashes throughout its entire lifetime: however, observation of more TGFs from the same thunderstorm system, even after several hours, is difficult to perform, because successive passes on the same latitude region by high-inclination orbit satellites are shifted westward by ~25°. In this perspective, the AGILE mission has a privileged role, thanks to its unique quasi equatorial (2.5° inclination) orbit, that allows for the follow-up of the same geographic region on the equator at each orbital passage. In more than 8 years activity, we identify tens of cases of more TGFs coming from the same thunderstorm system, either during the same passage, or in the successive passages. We take advantage of data acquired by meteorological satellites to characterize the meteorological scenario associated to these events.

  11. Aglycosylated antibodies and antibody fragments produced in a scalable in vitro transcription-translation system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Garces, Eudean D; Yang, Junhao; Zhang, Juan; Tran, Cuong; Steiner, Alexander R; Roos, Christine; Bajad, Sunil; Hudak, Susan; Penta, Kalyani; Zawada, James; Pollitt, Sonia; Murray, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    We describe protein synthesis, folding and assembly of antibody fragments and full-length aglycosylated antibodies using an Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system. We use DNA template design and high throughput screening at microliter scale to rapidly optimize production of single-chain Fv (scFv) and Fab antibody fragments that bind to human IL-23 and IL-13α1R, respectively. In addition we demonstrate production of aglycosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG 1) trastuzumab. These antibodies are produced rapidly over several hours in batch mode in standard bioreactors with linear scalable yields of hundreds of milligrams/L over a 1 million-fold change in scales up to pilot scale production. We demonstrate protein expression optimization of translation initiation region (TIR) libraries from gene synthesized linear DNA templates, optimization of the temporal assembly of a Fab from independent heavy chain and light chain plasmids and optimized expression of fully assembled trastuzumab that is equivalent to mammalian expressed material in biophysical and affinity based assays. These results illustrate how the open nature of the cell-free system can be used as a seamless antibody engineering platform from discovery to preclinical development of aglycosylated monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments as potential therapeutics.

  12. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  13. Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, Frederick B.

    1978-01-01

    A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.

  14. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia

    1998-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  15. Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics for Compression Ignition Vehicles: An Experimental Investigation of Solar Alkaline Water Electrolysis for Improving Diesel Combustion and a Solar Charging System for Reducing Auxiliary Engine Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negroni, Garry Inocentes

    Vehicle-integrated photovoltaic electricity can be applied towards aspiration of hydrogen-oxygen-steam gas produced through alkaline electrolysis and reductions in auxiliary alternator load for reducing hydrocarbon emissions in low nitrogen oxide indirect-injection compression-ignition engines. Aspiration of 0.516 ± 0.007 liters-per-minute of gas produced through alkaline electrolysis of potassium-hydroxide 2wt.% improves full-load performance; however, part-load performance decreases due to auto-ignition of aspirated gas prior to top-dead center. Alternator load reductions offer improved part-load and full-load performance with practical limitations resulting from accessory electrical loads. In an additive approach, solar electrolysis can electrochemically convert solar photovoltaic electricity into a gas comprised of stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen gas. Aspiration of this hydrogen-oxygen gas enhances combustion properties decreasing emissions and increased combustion efficiency in light-duty diesel vehicles. The 316L stainless steel (SS) electrolyser plates are arranged with two anodes and three cathodes space with four bipolar plates delineating four stacks in parallel with five cells per stack. The electrolyser was tested using potassium hydroxide 2 wt.% and hydronium 3wt.% at measured voltage and current inputs. The flow rate output from the reservoir cell was measured in parallel with the V and I inputs producing a regression model correlating current input to flow rate. KOH 2 wt.% produced 0.005 LPM/W, while H9O44 3 wt.% produced less at 0.00126 LPM/W. In a subtractive approach, solar energy can be used to charge a larger energy storage device, as is with plug-in electric vehicles, in order to alleviate the engine of the mechanical load placed upon it by the vehicles electrical accessories through the alternator. Solar electrolysis can improve part-load emissions and full-load performance. The average solar-to-battery efficiency based on the OEM rated

  16. Cybersemiotics: A suggestion for a transdisciplinary framework for description of observing, anticipatory and meaning producing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brier, Soren

    1998-07-01

    The ability of systems to be anticipatory seems to be intricate connected with the ability to observe and to cognate by reducing complexity through signification. The semantic capacity of living systems, the cognitive ability to assign meaning to differences perturbating the system's self-organization, seems to be the prerequisite for the phenomenon of communication, language and consciousness. In cybernetics Bateson developed the idea that information is a difference that makes a difference and second order cybernetics developed the concept of organisms as self-organized and self-produced systems (autopoietic) as the prerequisite of life and cognition. The cognitive ability seems to be qualitative different from what so far is computable on any known machine although parts of different aspects of the process can be partly simulated in AI, neutral network and AL. In semiotics the fundamental process of cognition and communication is called semiosis or signification and C. S. Peirce created a special triadic, objective idealistic, pragmatic and evolutionary philosophy to be able to give a fruitful description of the process and its relation to logic and the concept of natural law. Both second order cybernetics and semiotics sees information and meaning as something produced by individual organisms through structural couplings to the environments or other individuals through historical drift and further developed in social communication. Luhmann points out that social communication also only functions through structural couplings which he calls generalized media such as science, art, power, love and money. Peirce talks of the semiotic net as a triadic view of meanings developing through history and in animals through evolution. In accordance with this Wittgenstein points out that signification is created in language games developed in specific life forms. Life forms are the things we do in society such as seducing, commanding and explaining. As animals do not have

  17. Code System for Producing Pointwise and Multigroup Neutron and Photon Cross Sections from ENDF/B Data.

    1996-12-19

    Version 03 The NJOY nuclear data processing system is a comprehensive computer code system for producing pointwise and multigroup cross sections and related quantities from ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format, including the latest US library, ENDF/B-VI. The NJOY code works with neutrons, photons, and charged particles and produces libraries for a wide variety of particle transport and reactor analysis codes.

  18. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  19. Comparison of the economic impact of different wind power forecast systems for producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, S.; Davò, F.; Sperati, S.; Benini, M.; Delle Monache, L.

    2014-05-01

    Deterministic forecasts of wind production for the next 72 h at a single wind farm or at the regional level are among the main end-users requirement. However, for an optimal management of wind power production and distribution it is important to provide, together with a deterministic prediction, a probabilistic one. A deterministic forecast consists of a single value for each time in the future for the variable to be predicted, while probabilistic forecasting informs on probabilities for potential future events. This means providing information about uncertainty (i.e. a forecast of the PDF of power) in addition to the commonly provided single-valued power prediction. A significant probabilistic application is related to the trading of energy in day-ahead electricity markets. It has been shown that, when trading future wind energy production, using probabilistic wind power predictions can lead to higher benefits than those obtained by using deterministic forecasts alone. In fact, by using probabilistic forecasting it is possible to solve economic model equations trying to optimize the revenue for the producer depending, for example, on the specific penalties for forecast errors valid in that market. In this work we have applied a probabilistic wind power forecast systems based on the "analog ensemble" method for bidding wind energy during the day-ahead market in the case of a wind farm located in Italy. The actual hourly income for the plant is computed considering the actual selling energy prices and penalties proportional to the unbalancing, defined as the difference between the day-ahead offered energy and the actual production. The economic benefit of using a probabilistic approach for the day-ahead energy bidding are evaluated, resulting in an increase of 23% of the annual income for a wind farm owner in the case of knowing "a priori" the future energy prices. The uncertainty on price forecasting partly reduces the economic benefit gained by using a

  20. Transient dynamics of pelagic producer-grazer systems in a gradient of nutrients and mixing depths.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Christoph G; Diehl, Sebastian; Matauschek, Christian; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Stibor, Herwig

    2008-05-01

    Phytoplankton-grazer dynamics are often characterized by long transients relative to the length of the growing season. Using a phytoplankton-grazer model parameterized for Daphnia pulex with either flexible or fixed algal carbon:nutrient stoichiometry, we explored how nutrient and light supply (the latter by varying depth of the mixed water column) affect the transient dynamics of the system starting from low densities. The system goes through an initial oscillation across nearly the entire light-nutrient supply space. With flexible (but not with fixed) algal stoichiometry, duration of the initial algal peak, timing and duration of the subsequent grazer peak, and timing of the algal minimum are consistently accelerated by nutrient enrichment but decelerated by light enrichment (decreasing mixing depth) over the range of intermediate to shallow mixing depths. These contrasting effects of nutrient vs. light enrichment are consequences of their opposing influences on food quality (algal nutrient content): algal productivity and food quality are positively related along a nutrient gradient but inversely related along a light gradient. Light enrichment therefore slows down grazer growth relative to algal growth, decelerating oscillatory dynamics; nutrient enrichment has opposite effects. We manipulated nutrient supply and mixing depth in a field enclosure experiment. The experimental results were qualitatively much more consistent with the flexible than with the fixed stoichiometry model. Nutrient enrichment increased Daphnia peak biomass, decreased algal minimum biomass, decreased the seston C:P ratio, and accelerated transient oscillatory dynamics. Light enrichment (decreasing mixing depth) produced the opposite patterns, except that Daphnia peak biomass increased monotonously with light enrichment, too. Thus, while the model predicts the possibility of the "paradox of energy enrichment" (a decrease in grazer biomass with light enrichment) at high light and low

  1. Apparatus for producing a thin sample band in a microchannel system

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Stewart K.

    2008-05-13

    The present invention improves the performance of microchannel systems for chemical and biological synthesis and analysis by providing a method and apparatus for producing a thin band of a species sample. Thin sample bands improve the resolution of microchannel separation processes, as well as many other processes requiring precise control of sample size and volume. The new method comprises a series of steps in which a species sample is manipulated by controlled transport through a junction formed at the intersection of four or more channels. A sample is first inserted into the end of one of these channels in the vicinity of the junction. Next, this sample is thinned by transport across the junction one or more times. During these thinning steps, flow enters the junction through one of the channels and exists through those remaining, providing a divergent flow field that progressively stretches and thins the band with each traverse of the junction. The thickness of the resulting sample band may be smaller than the channel width. Moreover, the thickness of the band may be varied and controlled by altering the method alone, without modification to the channel or junction geometries. The invention is applicable to both electroosmotic and electrophoretic transport, to combined electrokinetic transport, and to some special cases in which bulk fluid transport is driven by pressure gradients. It is further applicable to channels that are open, filled with a gel or filled with a porous or granular material.

  2. Recurrent demyelination in chronic central nervous system infection produced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1979-08-01

    A morphologic study of demyelination produced by Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in C3H/He mice was performed. Demyelination in this strain of mouse was less intense and had a milder gliomesodermal response than that observed in SJL mice. As early as 80 days after infection numerous remyelinated axons were present in C3H/He mice, and later, extensive remyelination was observed and was mainly by Schwann cells. About one-third of remyelinated plaques showed recurrent demyelinating activity at 200 days. The best evidence of recurrent demyelination was the loss of myelin by abons which had been previously remyelinated by Schwann cells. In addition, acute areas of demyelination were also seen in spinal cords which contained chronic or quiescent plaques. The demonstration of recurrent demyelination in TMEV infection is important for it increases the relevance of this model to multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition TMEV infection of C3H/He mice appears to be an excellent model for further studies of Schwann cell remyelination and recurrent demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS).

  3. An animal model of pain produced by systemic administration of an immunotherapeutic anti-ganglioside antibody.

    PubMed

    Slart, R; Yu, A L; Yaksh, T L; Sorkin, L S

    1997-01-01

    For the management of pediatric neuroblastoma, a promising experimental treatment includes slow systemic infusion of a human/ mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against the GD2 ganglioside. Beneficial actions are however, accompanied by severe pain and altered cardiovascular tone. The pain is conventionally controllable with moderate to relatively high doses of intravenous morphine. An animal model was established to examine the change in nociceptive threshold produced by anti-GD2-antibody. Rats given bolus injections of antibody through an in-dwelling jugular catheter developed a quantifiable mechanical allodynia. At higher doses, allodynia and touch evoked agitation began within the first 15-min test interval, was maximal within the first hour, and for some doses was still present, although greatly reduced at 24 and 48 h. Rapid administration of antibody led to an increase in mean resting blood pressure of 12 mmHg +/- 1.8 (P < or = 0.02) and the development of a prolonged cardiovascular response to an otherwise innocuous stimulus. These observations demonstrate that the pain associated with monoclonal antibody treatment can be modeled in animals. This approach has potential for defining the pharmacology of the allodynia and ways in which the pain state may be ameliorated.

  4. Early environmental stimulation produces long-lasting changes on beta-adrenoceptor transduction system.

    PubMed

    Escorihuela, R M; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Vivas, N M; Mármol, F; Badia, A; Dierssen, M

    1995-07-01

    Long-term behavioral and biochemical effects of exposure to differential early stimulation (postnatal handling and/or enriched environment) were studied in 18- to 20-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Postnatal handling treatment was given between 1 and 22 postnatal days. In the enriched environment procedure, the pups were maintained under enriched conditions from weaning until postnatal Day 100. At 18 months of age animals were tested for working memory in an object recognition test, based on the differential exploration of familiar and new objects. Animals reared in the enriched environment performed better in the working memory test than did control or postnatally handled rats. No interaction was observed between postnatal handling and environmental enrichment on cognitive parameters. At 20 months of age, the animals were sacrificed and cyclic AMP formation was determined under basal conditions and after activation of beta-adrenoceptors in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Both postnatal handling and its combination with exposure to enriched environment significantly increased basal cyclic AMP accumulation in cerebral cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Environmental enrichment was able to induce a long-lasting modification in the responsiveness of the beta-adrenergic neurotransmitter system as reflected by a decreased cyclic AMP accumulation after beta-adrenoceptor activation by means of isoprenaline, in either anatomical structure. It is suggested that manipulations of the environment early in life leading to a reduction in age-related memory deficits produce subtle but long-lasting modifications of noradrenergic transmission.

  5. Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.

    PubMed

    Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2014-06-01

    Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

  6. Chronic systemic administration of 5-HT produces weight loss in mature adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S

    1995-09-01

    Adult male rats were allowed to free-feed until their body weights had stabilised. They were next trained onto a 4 h per day feeding regimen, until further stabilisation occurred. All rats then received saline injections for 5 days, to establish baseline body weights. One group was then injected with 5.0 mg/kg 5-HT daily for 30 days while the other group continued with saline. Progressive and significant weight loss occurred in the drug-treated animals. After 30 days, the 5-HT-treated rats had lost 7.0% of their baseline body weights, whereas the control group had gained 1.3%. At this point, the 5-HT treated rats were switched back to saline injections to investigate rebound effects. Although the group that had received 5-HT treatment showed evidence of rebound weight gain, mean weights at the end of the 10 day rebound period were still 4.5% lower than baseline values. These data clearly indicate that chronic systemic administration of 5-HT can produce considerable weight loss in rats.

  7. Characteristics of hydrocarbon hydroxylase genes in a thermophilic aerobic biological system treating oily produced wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruyin; Gao, Yingxin; Ji, Yifeng; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Alkane and aromatic hydroxylase genes in a full-scale aerobic system treating oily produced wastewater under thermophilic condition (45-50 °C) in the Jidong oilfield, China, were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Rather than the normally encountered integral-membrane non-haem iron monooxygenase (alkB) genes, only CYP153-type P450 hydroxylase genes were detected for the alkane activation, indicating that the terminal oxidation of alkanes might be mainly mediated by the CYP153-type alkane hydroxylases in the thermophilic aerobic process. Most of the obtained CYP153 gene clones showed distant homology with the reference sequences, which might represent novel alkane hydroxylases. For the aromatic activation, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene was derived from Gram-negative PAH-degraders belonging to the Burkholderiales order, with a 0.72% relative abundance of PAH-RHD gene to 16S rRNA gene. This was consistent with the result of 16S rRNA gene analysis, indicating that Burkholderiales bacteria might play a key role in the full-scale process of thermophilic hydrocarbon degradation.

  8. Microbiological quality of carbonated drinking water produced with in-home carbonation systems.

    PubMed

    Kohnen, Wolfgang; Teske-Keiser, Susanne; Meyer, Heinz-Georg; Loos, Anja H; Pietsch, Michael; Jansen, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The microbiological quality of carbonated water produced with tap water in commercial in-home carbonation systems was determined, the results being discussed in the context of the microbiological quality of the tap water used, the properties of the drink makers, and the procedures of preparation and washing of various parts of the appliance. The last-mentioned data were received from each participant of the study by questionnaire. Escherichia coli, coliforms, fecal streptococci and spore-forming sulphite-reducing anaerobes were used as indicators for the hygienic quality of the water. Tap-water samples were collected according to the usual procedure when filling the carbonating bottle, i.e., without previous flushing and disinfection of the faucet. In 12% of tap-water samples, coliforms could be detected. On the other hand, in 20 of 52 carbonated waters (39%), coliforms as indicators of water pollution were found. By means of fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was possible to establish additional contamination not involving E. coli or coliforms alone. Analysis revealed that, in addition to contaminated tap water, a bacterial biofilm on the inner surface of the re-usable bottles had a predominant influence on the microbiological quality of the carbonated water.

  9. Use of a whole-cell biocatalyst to produce biodiesel in a water-containing system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Thomas J; Hamaker, Christopher G; Mucha, Raymond; Schola, Valeria; Stewart, Jeb; Wade, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a whole-cell biocatalyst to transesterify triglycerides, including high-Free Fatty Acid (FFA) waste greases, in a water-containing system. The whole-cell biocatalyst derived from Rhizopus oryzae (ATCC10260) was grown and reacted at room temperature without immobilization. The effectiveness of improving biodiesel yield through alteration of reaction temperature, additional alcohol, and additional transesterification reaction was also examined. Results showed that whole-cell biocatalyst was able to produce biodiesel with a yield of about 75% for virgin canola oil, 80% for waste vegetable oil and 55% for brown grease with a 72-hr transesterification reaction using no excess methanol. Elevating the reaction temperature to 35 degrees C significantly diminished the yield. An additional dose of methanol with another 24 hours of reaction time or a second 72-hr reaction resulted in biodiesel yield approaching 90% and only 3% residual glycerides (mono-, di- and tri-glycerides). These results suggest that whole-cell biocatalysts are able to transesterify waste oils or greases that are high in FFA and contain water. Brown (trap) grease and similar degraded or complex greases may be good candidates for further whole-cell biocatalyst research.

  10. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  11. Remelting of cumulates as a process for producing chemical zoning in silicic tuffs: A comparison of cool, wet and hot, dry rhyolitic magma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J. A.; Ellis, B. S.; Ramos, F. C.; Starkel, W. A.; Boroughs, S.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-11-01

    We review petrological and geochemical features of silicic pyroclastic deposits of dominantly low to moderate (0-25%) crystallinity, and volumes in the range of 5-1000 km3, erupted from caldera volcanoes. Chemical gradients in zoned deposits with compositions near the water-saturated granite minimum, for example the Bishop and Bandelier Tuffs, are consistent with mineral/melt partitioning predicted from the observed phenocryst assemblages, and are inconsistent with mixing with more mafic magma. Smaller volume alkaline (phonolite and pantellerite) systems show similar behavior. In contrast, high-temperature ignimbrites of the 'Snake River'-type typically lack compositional zoning. Internal isotopic variations are weak or absent from whole rocks in both types of rhyolite, even in systems where associated volcanic rocks exhibit wide isotopic variation and strong contrasts exist between the isotopic compositions of mantle and crust. An exception to this is 87Sr/86Sr variations in high-silica rhyolite systems, where Sr has been depleted to subchondritic concentrations and is exceptionally sensitive to open-system processes. Both types of ignimbrite commonly contain crystal aggregates, interpreted as fragments of cumulate mush. In zoned systems, these aggregates exhibit evidence for partial resorption of early-formed crystals. We infer that chemical zoning is a near closed-system process and propose that it arises through melting of cognate cumulate mush beneath a crystal-poor body of melt due to heating by invading mafic or intermediate magma with little mass transfer to the eruptible magma. If the crystal mush is fusible (e.g. dominated by sanidine + quartz), part of it melts to yield mobile, water-poor rhyolite that pools at the interface between the mush and overlying rhyolitic liquid. This new, eruptible melt has a cumulate composition and is thus less evolved than the original supernatant melt lens. The result is a chemically zoned crystal-poor rhyolitic magma

  12. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  13. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  14. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  15. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  16. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-The, Christophe; Bardin, Marc; Berard, Annette; Berge, Odile; Brillard, Julien; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric; Renault, Pierre; Tchamitchian, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed. PMID:27110986

  17. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: Trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-The, Christophe; Bardin, Marc; Berard, Annette; Berge, Odile; Brillard, Julien; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric; Renault, Pierre; Tchamitchian, Marc; Morris, Cindy E

    2016-08-15

    Fresh produce has been a growing cause of food borne outbreaks world-wide prompting the need for safer production practices. Yet fresh produce agrifood systems are diverse and under constraints for more sustainability. We analyze how measures taken to guarantee safety interact with other objectives for sustainability, in light of the diversity of fresh produce agrifood systems. The review is based on the publications at the interface between fresh produce safety and sustainability, with sustainability defined by low environmental impacts, food and nutrition security and healthy life. The paths for more sustainable fresh produce are diverse. They include an increased use of ecosystem services to e.g. favor predators of pests, or to reduce impact of floods, to reduce soil erosion, or to purify run-off waters. In contrast, they also include production systems isolated from the environment. From a socio-economical view, sustainability may imply maintaining small tenures with a higher risk of pathogen contamination. We analyzed the consequences for produce safety by focusing on risks of contamination by water, soil, environment and live stocks. Climate change may increase the constraints and recent knowledge on interactions between produce and human pathogens may bring new solutions. Existing technologies may suffice to resolve some conflicts between ensuring safety of fresh produce and moving towards more sustainability. However, socio-economic constraints of some agri-food systems may prevent their implementation. In addition, current strategies to preserve produce safety are not adapted to systems relying on ecological principles and knowledge is lacking to develop the new risk management approaches that would be needed.

  18. Sodium channel kinetic changes that produce Brugada syndrome or progressive cardiac conduction system disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu-Shan; Tranquillo, Joseph; Neplioueva, Valentina; Bursac, Nenad; Grant, Augustus O

    2007-01-01

    Some mutations of the sodium channel gene Na(V1.5) are multifunctional, causing combinations of LQTS, Brugada syndrome and progressive cardiac conduction system disease (PCCD). The combination of Brugada syndrome and PCCD is uncommon, although they both result from a reduction in the sodium current. We hypothesize that slow conduction is sufficient to cause S-T segment elevation and undertook a combined experimental and theoretical study to determine whether conduction slowing alone can produce the Brugada phenotype. Deletion of lysine 1479 in one of two positively charged clusters in the III/IV inter-domain linker causes both syndromes. We have examined the functional effects of this mutation using heterologous expression of the wild-type and mutant sodium channel in HEK-293-EBNA cells. We show that DeltaK1479 shifts the potential of half-activation, V(1/2m), to more positive potentials (V(1/2m) = -36.8 +/- 0.8 and -24.5 +/- 1.3 mV for the wild-type and DeltaK1479 mutant respectively, n = 11, 10). The depolarizing shift increases the extent of depolarization required for activation. The potential of half-inactivation, V(1/2h), is also shifted to more positive potentials (V(1/2h) = -85 +/- 1.1 and -79.4 +/- 1.2 mV for wild-type and DeltaK1479 mutant respectively), increasing the fraction of channels available for activation. These shifts are quantitatively the same as a mutation that produces PCCD only, G514C. We incorporated experimentally derived parameters into a model of the cardiac action potential and its propagation in a one dimensional cable (simulating endo-, mid-myocardial and epicardial regions). The simulations show that action potential and ECG changes consistent with Brugada syndrome may result from conduction slowing alone; marked repolarization heterogeneity is not required. The findings also suggest how Brugada syndrome and PCCD which both result from loss of sodium channel function are sometimes present alone and at other times in combination

  19. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  20. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  1. Evaluation of the microbiological quality of reclaimed water produced from a lagooning system.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cassi, X; Silvera, C; Cervero-Aragó, S; Rusiñol, M; Latif-Eugeni, F; Bruguera-Casamada, C; Civit, S; Araujo, R M; Figueras, M J; Girones, R; Bofill-Mas, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of lagooning as a complementary natural method of treating secondary effluents of wastewater treatment plants has been employed as an affordable and easy means of producing reclaimed water. However, using reclaimed water for some purposes, for example, for food irrigation, presents some risks if the effluents contain microbial pathogens. Classical bacterial indicators that are used to assess faecal contamination in water do not always properly indicate the presence of bacterial or viral pathogens. In the current study, the presence of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), heterotrophic bacterial counts (HBC), pathogens and opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella spp., Aeromonas spp., Arcobacter spp., free-living amoeba (FLA), several viral indicators (human adenovirus and polyomavirus JC) and viral pathogens (noroviruses and hepatitis E virus) were analysed for 1 year in inlet and outlet water to assess the removal efficiency of a lagooning system. We observed 2.58 (1.17-4.59) and 1.65 (0.15-3.14) log reductions in Escherichia coli (EC) and intestinal enterococci (IE), respectively, between the inlet and outlet samples. Genomic copies of the viruses were log reduced by 1.18 (0.24-2.93), 0.64 (0.12-1.97), 0.45 (0.04-2.54) and 0.72 (0.22-2.50) for human adenovirus (HAdV), JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) and human noroviruses (NoV GI and GII), respectively. No regrowth of opportunistic pathogens was observed within the system. FLA, detected in all samples, did not show a clear trend. The reduction of faecal pathogens was irregular with 6 out of 12 samples and 4 out of 12 samples exceeding the EC and IE values, specified in the Spanish legislation for reclaimed water (RD 1620/2007). This data evidences that there is a need for more studies to evaluate the removal mechanisms of lagooning systems in order to optimize pathogen reduction. Moreover, surveillance of water used to irrigate raw edible vegetables should be conducted to ensure the fulfilment of the microbial

  2. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  3. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  4. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Alkalinity generation in the sediment of the southern North Sea is the focus of several recent studies. One motivation for these efforts is the potentially enhanced buffering capacity of anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the corresponding pelagic system. An adaptation of a global multilayer sediment model (Heinze et al., 1999) in combination with a pelagic ecosystem model for shelf sea dynamics was used to study the benthic reactions on very different annual cycles (2001 - 2009) including the River Elbe summer flooding in 2002. The focus of this study is the efflux of alkalinity, their different contributors (aerobic respiration, denitrification, net sulfate reduction, calcite dissolution, nitrification) and their seasonal and interannual cycles. Similar to the observations covering the southern North Sea (Brenner et al., 2015) the model results show large horizontal gradients from the near-shore high productive areas with benthic remineralization up to Rmin = 10.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 and TA generation RTA = 2 mol C m-2 yr-1 to off-shore moderate productive areas with mean Rmin = 2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 and mean TA generation RTA = 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1. Beside calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration (producing ammonium) and denitrification are the largest contributors to alkalinity generation. Nitrification is reducing alkalinity in the sediment. Due to low regenerated primary production in summer, the year 2001 exhibits the lowest input of particulate organic matter into the sediment (POCexp=2.3 mol C m-2 yr-1), while the year 2003 exhibits the highest export production (POCexp=2.6 mol C m-2 yr-1). The biogeochemical reactions and the effluxes from the sediment follow these pelagic amplitudes with a time lag of about one year with damped amplitudes. References Brenner, H., Braeckman, U., Le Guitton, M., Meysman, F.J.R., 2015. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea. Biogeosiences Discussion, 12(15): 12395-12453. Heinze, C

  5. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated

  6. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Alkalinity generation in the sediment of the southern North Sea is the focus of several recent studies. One motivation for these efforts is the potentially enhanced buffering capacity of anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the corresponding pelagic system. An adaptation of a global multilayer sediment model (Heinze et al., 1999) in combination with a pelagic ecosystem model for shelf sea dynamics was used to study the benthic reactions on very different annual cycles (2001 - 2009) including the River Elbe summer flooding in 2002. The focus of this study is the efflux of alkalinity, their different contributors (aerobic respiration, denitrification, net sulfate reduction, calcite dissolution, nitrification) and their seasonal and interannual cycles. Similar to the observations covering the southern North Sea (Brenner et al., 2015) the model results show large horizontal gradients from the near-shore high productive areas with benthic remineralization up to Rmin = 10.6 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 and TA generation RTA = 2 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 to off-shore moderate productive areas with mean Rmin = 2.5 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 and mean TA generation RTA = 0.4 mol C m‑2 yr‑1. Beside calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration (producing ammonium) and denitrification are the largest contributors to alkalinity generation. Nitrification is reducing alkalinity in the sediment. Due to low regenerated primary production in summer, the year 2001 exhibits the lowest input of particulate organic matter into the sediment (POCexp=2.3 mol C m‑2 yr‑1), while the year 2003 exhibits the highest export production (POCexp=2.6 mol C m‑2 yr‑1). The biogeochemical reactions and the effluxes from the sediment follow these pelagic amplitudes with a time lag of about one year with damped amplitudes. References Brenner, H., Braeckman, U., Le Guitton, M., Meysman, F.J.R., 2015. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea. Biogeosiences Discussion, 12

  7. Electron-beam inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in fresh produce and model systems.

    PubMed

    Sanglay, Gabriel C; Li, Jianrong; Uribe, R M; Lee, Ken

    2011-07-01

    Norovirus remains the leading cause of foodborne illness, but there is no effective intervention to eliminate viral contaminants in fresh produce. Murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) was inoculated in either 100 ml of liquid or 100 g of food. The inactivation of MNV-1 by electron-beam (e-beam), or high-energy electrons, at varying doses was measured in model systems (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]) or from fresh foods (shredded cabbage, diced strawberries). E-beam was applied at a current of 1.5 mA, with doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 kGy. The surviving viral titer was determined by plaque assays in RAW 264.7 cells. In PBS and DMEM, e-beam at 0 and 2 kGy provided less than a 1-log reduction of virus. At doses of 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 kGy, viral inactivation in PBS ranged from 2.37 to 6.40 log, while in DMEM inactivation ranged from 1.40 to 3.59 log. Irradiation of inoculated cabbage showed up to a 1-log reduction at 4 kGy, and less than a 3-log reduction at 12 kGy. On strawberries, less than a 1-log reduction occurred at doses up to 6 kGy, with a maximum reduction of 2.21 log at 12 kGy. These results suggest that a food matrix might provide increased survival for viruses. In foods, noroviruses are difficult to inactivate because of the protective effect of the food matrix, their small sizes, and their highly stable viral capsid. PMID:21740718

  8. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  9. 78 FR 29364 - Independent Power Producers of New York, Inc. v. New York Independent System Operator, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... York, Inc. (IPPNY or Complainant) filed a complaint against New York Independent System Operator, Inc... were served on the contacts of New York Independent System Operator, Inc. as listed on the Commission's... Energy Regulatory Commission Independent Power Producers of New York, Inc. v. New York Independent...

  10. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  11. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  12. Acclimatization of microbial consortia to alkaline conditions and enhanced electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enren; Zhai, Wenjing; Luo, Yue; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2016-07-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), obtained by inoculating with an aerobic activated sludge, were activated over a one month period, at pH 10.0, to obtain alkaline MFCs. The alkaline MFCs produced stable power of 118mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 213mWm(-2) at pH 10.0, using glucose as substrate. The performance of the MFCs was enhanced to produce a stable power of 140mWm(-2) and a maximum power density of 235mWm(-2) by increasing pH to 11.0. This is the highest pH for stably operating MFCs reported in the literature. Power production was found to be suppressed at higher pH (12.0) and lower pH (9.0). Microbial analysis indicated that Firmicutes phylum was largely enriched in the anodic biofilms (88%), within which Eremococcus genus was the dominant group (47%). It is the first time that Eremococcus genus was described in bio-electrochemical systems.

  13. Use of highly alkaline conditions to improve cost-effectiveness of algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Canon-Rubio, Karen A; Sharp, Christine E; Bergerson, Joule; Strous, Marc; De la Hoz Siegler, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms have been proposed as an alternative to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and to produce biofuels and other valuable products. Low CO2 absorption rates, low volumetric productivities, and inefficient downstream processing, however, currently make algal biotechnology highly energy intensive, expensive, and not economically competitive to produce biofuels. This mini-review summarizes advances made regarding the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms at highly alkaline conditions, as well as other innovations oriented toward reducing the energy input into the cultivation and processing stages. An evaluation, in terms of energy requirements and energy return on energy invested, is performed for an integrated high-pH, high-alkalinity growth process that uses biofilms. Performance in terms of productivity and expected energy return on energy invested is presented for this process and is compared to previously reported life cycle assessments (LCAs) for systems at near-neutral pH. The cultivation of alkaliphilic phototrophic microorganisms in biofilms is shown to have a significant potential to reduce both energy requirements and capital costs.

  14. Survey of egg producers on the introduction of alternative housing systems for laying hens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Sonck, B; Staes, M; Van Gansbeke, S; Van den Bogaert, T; Ampe, B

    2011-04-01

    In the context of the European Union ban on battery cages by 2012, a survey was conducted among Flemish egg producers (60% response rate, 140 completed questionnaires) about the introduction and opinion of alternative housing systems. Belgium appears to be among the countries in the European Union that are slower to adopt alternative housing. Belgium's egg industry is thus likely to undergo drastic changes to comply with the 2012 deadline. As of 2010, the battery cage was the dominant housing system (56% housing units, 67% hens), followed by floor housing (33% housing units, 15% hens) and aviary (10% housing units, 15% hens), whereas colony cages and furnished cages were extremely rare. Future- and market-oriented production was the most important reason for choosing a certain type of alternative system, although the importance of hen performance and amount of labor seemed to increase. A quarter of the producers with battery cages had detailed plans to convert to an alternative system (most planned to install aviaries, followed by colony cages, furnished cages, and floor housing) by 2012. Many older farmers indicated that they would stop farming, whereas others found it more profitable to delay the conversion as long as possible. Apart from hen welfare, producers expressed a negative opinion (relative to battery cages) about noncage systems and, to a lesser extent, furnished cages. However, users of alternative systems reported being quite satisfied, except for the amount of labor and hen health. The housing system had several effects on user satisfaction: positive effect of flock size, negative effect of experience with battery cages, and negative effect of outdoor area on hen health. Although not all opinions were supported by evidence, such surveys provide feedback about the success of alternative systems in practice. This information is valuable to further improve these systems and to producers who have yet to convert. Moreover, producer attitude may determine

  15. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  16. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound. PMID:27223116

  17. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  18. Design of an automated cart and mount for a hyperspectral imaging system to be used in produce fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kistler, Ross; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to construct a cart and a mounting system that would allow a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (HLIFIS) to be used to detect fecal material in produce fields. Fecal contaminated produce is a recognized food safety risk. Previous research demonstrated the HLIFIS could detect fecal contamination in a laboratory setting. A cart was designed and built, and then tested to demonstrate that the cart was capable of moving at constant speeds or at precise intervals. A mounting system was designed and built to facilitate the critical alignment of the camera's imaging and the laser's illumination fields, and to allow the HLIFIS to be used in both field and laboratory settings without changing alignments. A hardened mount for the Powell lens that is used to produce the appropriate illumination profile was also designed, built, and tested.

  19. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  20. Seawater neutralization of alkaline bauxite residue and implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Menzies, N W; Fulton, I M; Morrell, W J

    2004-01-01

    Reaction of bauxite residue with seawater results in neutralization of alkalinity through precipitation of Mg-, Ca-, and Al-hydroxide and carbonate minerals. In batch studies, the initial pH neutralization reaction was rapid (<5 min), with further reaction continuing to reduce pH for several weeks. Reaction with seawater produced a residue pH of 8 to 8.5. Laboratory leaching column studies were undertaken to provide information on seawater neutralization of the coarse-textured fraction of the waste, residue sand (RS), under conditions comparable with those that might be applied in the field. An 0.80-m-deep column of RS was neutralized by the application of the equivalent of 2-m depth of seawater. In addition to lowering the pH and Na content of the residue, seawater neutralization resulted in the addition of substantial amounts of the plant nutrients Ca, Mg, and K to the profile. Similar results were also obtained from a field-scale assessment of neutralization. However, the accumulation of precipitate, consisting of hydrotalcite, aragonite, and pyroaurite, in the drainage system may preclude the use of in situ seawater neutralization as a routine rehabilitation practice. Following seawater neutralization, RS remains too saline to support plant growth and would require fresh water leaching before revegetation. PMID:15356249

  1. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

  2. Tracing the Cambro-Ordovician ferrosilicic to calc-alkaline magmatic association in Iberia by in situ U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology (Gredos massif, Spanish Central System batholith)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Fernández, Carlos; Chichorro, Martim; Castro, Antonio; Pereira, Manuel Francisco

    2016-06-01

    U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from nodular granites and Qtz-diorites comprising part of Variscan high-grade metamorphic complexes in Gredos massif (Spanish Central System batholith) points out the significant presence of Cambro-Ordovician protoliths among the Variscan migmatitic rocks that host the Late Carboniferous intrusive granitoids. Indeed, the studied zone was affected by two contrasted tectono-magmatic episodes, Carboniferous (Variscan) and Cambro-Ordovician. Three main characteristics denote a close relation between the Cambro-Ordovician protholiths of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade metamorphic complex, strongly reworked during the Variscan Orogeny, and other Cambro-Ordovician igneous domains in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif: (1) geochemical features show the ferrosilicic signature of nodular granites. They plot very close to the average analysis of the metavolcanic rocks of the Ollo de Sapo formation (Iberia). Qtz-diorites present typical calc-alkaline signatures and are geochemically similar to intermediate cordilleran granitoids. (2) Both Qtz-diorite and nodular granite samples yield a significant population of Cambro-Ordovician ages, ranging between 483 and 473 Ma and between 487 and 457 Ma, respectively. Besides, (3) the abundance of zircon inheritance observed on nodular granites matches the significant component of inheritance reported on Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia. The spatial and temporal coincidence of both peraluminous and intermediate granitoids, and specifically in nodular granites and Qtz-diorite enclaves of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade complex, is conducive to a common petrogenetic context for the formation of both magmatic types. Tectonic and geochemical characteristics describe the activity of a Cambro-Ordovician arc-back-arc tectonic setting associated with the subduction of the Iapetus-Tornquist Ocean and the birth of the Rheic Ocean. The extensional

  3. A Mixed-Signal VLSI System for Producing Temporally Adapting Intraspinal Microstimulation Patterns for Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Kevin A.; Holinski, Bradley J.; Everaert, Dirk G.; Mushahwar, Vivian K.; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Neural pathways can be artificially activated through the use of electrical stimulation. For individuals with a spinal cord injury, intraspinal microstimulation, using electrical currents on the order of 125 μA, can produce muscle contractions and joint torques in the lower extremities suitable for restoring walking. The work presented here demonstrates an integrated circuit implementing a state-based control strategy where sensory feedback and intrinsic feed forward control shape the stimulation waveforms produced on-chip. Fabricated in a 0.5 μm process, the device was successfully used in vivo to produce walking movements in a model of spinal cord injury. This work represents progress towards an implantable solution to be used for restoring walking in individuals with spinal cord injuries. PMID:26978832

  4. Sequential injection system with higher dimensional electrochemical sensor signals Part 2. Potentiometric e-tongue for the determination of alkaline ions.

    PubMed

    Cortina, M; Gutés, A; Alegret, S; Del Valle, Manuel

    2005-06-15

    An intelligent, automatic system based on an array of non-specific-response chemical sensors was developed. As a great amount of information is required for its correct modelling, we propose a system generating it itself. The sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique was chosen as it enables the processes of training, calibration, validation and operation to be automated simply. Detection was carried out using an array of potentiometric sensors based on PVC membranes of different selectivity. The diluted standard solutions needed for system learning and response modelling are automatically prepared from more concentrated standards. The electrodes used were characterised with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, and the response surface of each was represented; this characterisation enabled an interference study of great practical utility. The combined response was modelled by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs), and thus it was possible to obtain an automated electronic tongue based on SIA. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network's parameters were optimised and its usefulness in determining NH(4)(+), K(+) and Na(+) ions in synthetic samples was then tested. Finally, it was used to determine these ions in commercial fertilisers, the obtained results being compared with reference methods. PMID:18970109

  5. Alkalinity distribution in the western North Atlantic Ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Jiang, Li-Qing; Wang, Yongchen; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Zhang, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Total alkalinity (TA) distribution and its relationship with salinity (S) along the western North Atlantic Ocean (wNAO) margins from the Labrador Sea to tropical areas are examined in this study. Based on the observed TA-S patterns, the mixing processes that control alkalinity distribution in these areas can be categorized into a spectrum of patterns that are bracketed by two extreme mixing types, i.e., alongshore current-dominated and river-dominated. Alongshore current-dominated mixing processes exhibit a segmented mixing line with a shared mid-salinity end-member. In such cases (i.e., Labrador Sea, Gulf of Maine, etc.), the y-intercept of the high salinity segment of the mixing line is generally higher than the local river alkalinity values, and it reflects the mixing history of the alongshore current. In contrast, in river-dominated mixing (Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, etc.), good linear relationships between alkalinity and salinity are generally observed, and the zero salinity intercepts of the TA-S regressions roughly match those of the regional river alkalinity values. TA-S mixing lines can be complicated by rapid changes in the river end-member value and by another river nearby with a different TA value (e.g., Mississippi-Atchafalaya/Gulf of Mexico). In the wNAO margins, regression intercepts and river end-members have a clear latitudinal distribution pattern, increasing from a low of ˜300 μmol kg-1 in the Amazon River plume to a high value between ˜500-1100 μmol kg-1 in the middle and high latitude margins. The highest value of ˜2400 μmol kg-1 is observed in the Mississippi River influenced areas. In addition to mixing control, biological processes such as calcification and benthic alkalinity production may also affect ocean margin alkalinity distribution. Therefore, deriving inorganic carbon system information in coastal oceans using alkalinity-salinity relationships, in particular, those of generic nature, may lead to significant errors.

  6. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  7. Uniform composite in a hypermonotectic alloy system and a method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugal, Richard N. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A uniform composite of hypermonotectic composition and a method for producing the same wherein the composition has a plurality of aligned and constrained fibers therein. These fibers serve to uniformly distribute L.sub.11 from the reaction L.sub.I .fwdarw.S.sub.I +L.sub.II.

  8. Development of an automated multiplexed immunomagnetic separation system for isolating Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli(STEC) have become an emerging problem. Efforts have been devoted to facilitating and speeding their detection, however, their isolation from high background microbiota foods remains problematic. To solve this problem, immunomagnetic se...

  9. Microbial Community Analysis of a Methane-Producing Biocathode in a Bioelectrochemical System

    PubMed Central

    Van Eerten-Jansen, Mieke C. A. A.; Veldhoen, Anna B.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Buisman, Cees J. N.

    2013-01-01

    A methane-producing biocathode that converts CO2 into methane was studied electrochemically and microbiologically. The biocathode produced methane at a maximum rate of 5.1 L CH4/m2 projected cathode per day (1.6 A/m2) at −0.7 V versus NHE cathode potential and 3.0 L CH4/m2 projected cathode per day (0.9 A/m2) at −0.6 V versus NHE cathode potential. The microbial community at the biocathode was dominated by three phylotypes of Archaea and six phylotypes of bacteria. The Archaeal phylotypes were most closely related to Methanobacterium palustre and Methanobacterium aarhusense. Besides methanogenic Archaea, bacteria seemed to be associated with methane production, producing hydrogen as an intermediate. Biomass density varied greatly with part of the carbon electrode covered with a dense biofilm, while only clusters of cells were found on other parts. Based on our results, we discuss how inoculum enrichment and changing operational conditions may help to increase biomass density and to select for microorganisms that produce methane. PMID:24187516

  10. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  11. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  12. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. PMID:26855359

  13. The Nickel(111)/Alkaline Electrolyte Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuilong; Chottiner, G. S.; Scherson, D. A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of Ni (111) prepared and characterized in ultra high vacuum, UHV, by surface analytical techniques have been examined in alkaline media by cyclic voltammetry using an UHV-electrochemical cell transfer system designed and built in this laboratory. Prior to the transfer, the Ni(111) surfaces were exposed to saturation coverages of CO in UHV in an attempt to protect the surface from possible contamination with other gases during the transfer. Temperature Programmed Desorption, TPD, of CO-dosed Ni (111) surfaces displaying sharp c(4x2), LEED patterns, subsequently exposed to water-saturated Ar at atmospheric pressure in an auxiliary UHV compatible chamber and finally transferred back to the main UHV chamber, yielded CO2 and water as the only detectable products. This indicates that the CO-dosed surfaces react with water and/or bicarbonate and hydroxide as the most likely products. Based on the integration of the TPD peaks, the combined amounts of H2O and CO2 were found to be on the order of a single monolayer. The reacted c(4x2)CO/Ni(111) layer seems to protect the surface from undergoing spontaneous oxidation in strongly alkaline solutions. This was evidenced by the fact that the open circuit potential observed immediately after contact with deaerated 0.1 M KOH was about 0.38 V vs. DHE, drifting slightly towards more negative values prior to initiating the voltametric scans. The average ratio of the integrated charge obtained in the first positive linear scan in the range of 0.35 to 1.5 V vs. DHE (initiated at the open circuit potential) and the first (and subsequent) linear negative scans in the same solution yielded for various independent runs a value of 3.5 +/- 0.3. Coulometric analysis of the cyclic voltammetry curves indicate that the electrochemically formed oxyhydroxide layer involves a charge equivalent to 3.2 +/- 0.4 layers of Ni metal.

  14. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  15. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-03-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements.

  16. Low-cost management aspects for developing, producing and operating future space transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehlich, Robert A.; Rücker, Udo

    2005-01-01

    It is believed that a potential means for further significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results also in a stimulation of launch rates of small satellites, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. Therefore, not only launching small satellites with expendable rockets on non-regular flights but also with reusable rockets on regular flights should be considered for the long term. However, developing, producing and operating reusable rockets require a fundamental change in the current "business as usual" philosophy. Under current conditions, it might not be possible to develop, to produce or to operate a reusable vehicle fleet economically. The favorite philosophy is based on "smart business" processes adapted by the authors using cost engineering techniques. In the following paper, major strategies for reducing costs are discussed, which are applied for a representative program proposal.

  17. Method to Produce Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection System Resistant to High Aeroacoustic Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor); Calamito, Dominic P. (Inventor); Jong, Anthony (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of producing a three dimensional angle interlock ceramic fiber which is stable to high aeroacoustic noise of about 170 decibels and to high temperatures of about 2500 F is disclosed. The method uses multiple separate strands of a ceramic fiber or ceramic tow suitable for weaving having multiple warp fibers and multiple fill fibers woven with a modified fly-shuttle loom or rapier shuttleless loom which has nip rolls, a modified fabric advancement mechanism and at least eight harnesses in connection with a Dobby pattern chain utilizing sufficient heddles for each warp fiber and a reed which accommodates at least 168 ends per inch. The method produces a multilayered top fabric, rib fabric and single-layered bottom fabric.

  18. Bioeconomic evaluation of embryo transfer in beef production systems: III. Embryo lines for producing bulls.

    PubMed

    Ruvuna, F; Taylor, J F; Walter, J P; Turner, J W; Thallman, R M

    1992-04-01

    A model was developed for the economic evaluation of embryos for producing bull lines for use in commercial beef production. The fundamental concept underlying the model is that a cloned and sexed embryo of known genetic characteristics for beef traits is used to produce a bull. After reaching physiological maturity, the bull is used in natural matings. Equations relating feed energy requirements and growth rates based on NRC requirements and costs and returns discounted to present value allow investigation of expected economic merits of progeny from different embryo bull lines. The model has the flexibility to determine optimal embryo characteristics for different production environments. Model sensitivity to variation in progeny sex ratios, growth rates, yield and quality grades, and herd fertility characteristics was examined. Net present values (NPV) per embryo transferred were determined at the optimal marketing age of progeny produced from mating the bull to 30 cows per year for 5 yr. Relative to the lowest NPV of $18,209 for progeny with an expected quality grade of Select and yield grade of 4 at 400 d, increments in NPV ranged from $329 to $22,708 depending on differences in expected progeny carcass grade characteristics. The difference between NPV for 100% male and 40% male sex ratios was $7,518. The NPV differences between progeny growth rates of 1.6 and .9 kg/d holding herd conception rate constant at .9 and .5 were $8,311 and $4,611, respectively. The model evaluates relative economic values of embryo lines for producing bulls, accommodating interactions among progeny characteristics, and environments.

  19. Wet-chemical systems and methods for producing black silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Yost, Vernon; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Page, Matthew

    2015-05-19

    A wet-chemical method of producing a black silicon substrate. The method comprising soaking single crystalline silicon wafers in a predetermined volume of a diluted inorganic compound solution. The substrate is combined with an etchant solution that forms a uniform noble metal nanoparticle induced Black Etch of the silicon wafer, resulting in a nanoparticle that is kinetically stabilized. The method comprising combining with an etchant solution having equal volumes acetonitrile/acetic acid:hydrofluoric acid:hydrogen peroxide.

  20. From highly polluted Zn-rich acid mine drainage to non-metallic waters: implementation of a multi-step alkaline passive treatment system to remediate metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Rötting, Tobias S; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Complete metal removal from highly-polluted acid mine drainage was attained by the use of a pilot multi-step passive remediation system. The remediation strategy employed can conceptually be subdivided into a first section where the complete trivalent metal removal was achieved by the employment of a previously tested limestone-based passive remediation technology followed by the use of a novel reactive substrate (caustic magnesia powder dispersed in a wood shavings matrix) obtaining a total divalent metal precipitation. This MgO-step was capable to abate high concentrations of Zn together with Mn, Cd, Co and Ni below the recommended limits for drinking waters. A reactive transport model anticipates that 1 m(3) of MgO-DAS (1 m thick × 1 m(2) section) would be able to treat a flow of 0.5 L/min of a highly acidic water (total acidity of 788 mg/L CaCO(3)) for more than 3 years. PMID:22819882

  1. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule.

  2. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  3. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  4. On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, W. F.

    2014-02-01

    Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10). Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage < 5%) to cut down uncertainty. Dew quantities and soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km). Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

  5. Passive active vibration isolation systems to produce zero or infinite dynamic modulus: theoretical and conceptual design strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J. T.; Xiong, Y. P.; Price, W. G.

    2005-09-01

    The application of mechanical springs connected in parallel and/or in series with active springs can produce dynamical systems characterised by infinite or zero value stiffness. This mathematical model is extended to more general cases by examining the dynamic modulus associated with damping, stiffness and mass effects. This produces a theoretical basis on which to design an isolation system with infinite or zero dynamic modulus, such that stiffness and damping may have infinite or zero values. Several theoretical designs using a mixture of passive and active systems connected in parallel and/or in series are proposed to overcome limitations of feedback gain experienced in practice to achieve an infinite or zero dynamic modulus. It is shown that such systems can be developed to reduce the weight supported by active actuators as demonstrated, for example, by examining suspension systems of very low natural frequency or with a very large supporting stiffness or with a viscous damper or a self-excited vibration oscillator. A more general system is created by combining these individual systems allowing adjustment of the supporting stiffness and damping using both displacement and velocity feedback controls. Frequency response curves show the effects of active feedback control on the dynamical behaviour of these systems. The theoretical design strategies presented can be applied to design feasible hybrid vibration control systems displaying increased control performance.

  6. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  7. Electrocemical Production of Ocean Alkalinity for Carbon Dioxide and Acid Mitigation, and Hydrogen Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    Various schemes have been proposed to increase air-to-sea CO2 transfer and storage, including the addition of alkalinity to the ocean. Examples include the addition of: Ca(OH)2 derived from the thermal calcination of limestone (Kheshgi, 1995), NaOH from the electrochemical splitting of salt (House et al., 2007), and CaCO3 to carbonate-undersaturated waters (Harvey, 2008). Diluted in the ocean (to pH<9) such alkalinity would react with dissolved CO2 to form primarily dissolved mineral bicarbonates. Another alternative would be to generate Ca(OH)2 directly in seawater via electrochemically forced dissolution of CaCO3. Using DC current of appropriate voltage, protons generated by a water-splitting anode submerged in seawater could be used to chemically decompose otherwise insoluble limestone leading to formation of Ca(OH)2 and thus chemical enhancement of CO2 absorption by the ocean. In turn, H2 gas produced at the cathode could be used to recover/store energy, helping defray process costs. Chlorine generation might be avoided via the use of certain current densities, or the use of oxygen- selective anodes, the net reaction then being: CaCO3+CO2+2H2O---DC--- >1/2O2+H2+Ca(HCO3)2aq. Laboratory experiments showed that such a system can generate excess alkalinity and elevated pH in seawater that subsequently allowed the absorption of 0.8 mM atmospheric CO2. Thus at larger scales, wind-, wave-, or solar-powered, fixed/floating platforms at the shoreline, in coastal waters, or in the open ocean might be employed to electrochemically increase ocean alkalinity. Such platforms would then: 1) enhance the ocean's natural absorption of atmospheric CO2, 2) help neutralize or offset the effects of ongoing ocean acidification, via the calcium hydroxide and/or bicarbonate production, and 3) generate carbon-negative H2 in the ratio 22kg CO2 absorbed/kg H2 produced.

  8. An assessment of the long-term environmental impacts of reusing alkaline clay on coal refuse piles with a dynamic solute transport model at a watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.; Patterson, J.; Jaw, F. K.; Koranchie-Boah, P.

    2011-12-01

    Coal refuse piles play a significant role in producing acid mining drainage (AMD) that deteriorates water quality at a watershed scale. The waste produced from coal refuse piles results in a decrease of the pH value in soil water and river flow. Metal compounds, such as ferric and ferrous solutions, are also continuously released from the coal pile due to the extensive and complicated chemical reactions in the acidic environment. Alkaline clay, a byproduct of alumina refining process, has a high residual pH in the material. If the alkaline clay is used innovatively with the coal mine refuse, the problems associated with each (e.g., high and low pH values) are likely to be effectively resolved. In addition, the solubility of the sulfur and iron will be reduced significantly. This will effectively eliminate the AMD problem at the coal refuse pile and improve the water quality at the watershed scale. This study investigates the long-term impacts of the combined mixture (i.e., alkaline clay + coal refuse) on the environment (e.g., in the soil column and in the river system) through systematic modeling simulations in a combination with field measurements. In particular, a dynamic solute transport model that accounts for processes of the pyrite oxidation, oxygen diffusion, absorption, desorption, and advection is developed and is coupled with the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) to assess the environmental impacts at the watershed scale. The model-simulated sulfur and iron concentrations are compared with field observations and the long-term impacts of the combined mixture (i.e., alkaline clay + coal refuse) on the environment are investigated. This study paves the way for monitoring and assessing the impacts of the reuse of the alkaline clay and refuse mixture on the environment at a watershed scale.

  9. Olivine/melt transition metal partitioning, melt composition, and melt structure—Melt polymerization and Qn-speciation in alkaline earth silicate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2008-10-01

    The two most abundant network-modifying cations in magmatic liquids are Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. To evaluate the influence of melt structure on exchange of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ with other geochemically important divalent cations ( m-cations) between coexisting minerals and melts, high-temperature (1470-1650 °C), ambient-pressure (0.1 MPa) forsterite/melt partitioning experiments were carried out in the system Mg 2SiO 4-CaMgSi 2O 6-SiO 2 with ⩽1 wt% m-cations (Mn 2+, Co 2+, and Ni 2+) substituting for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. The bulk melt NBO/Si-range ( NBO/Si: nonbridging oxygen per silicon) of melt in equilibrium with forsterite was between 1.89 and 2.74. In this NBO/Si-range, the NBO/Si(Ca) (fraction of nonbridging oxygens, NBO, that form bonds with Ca 2+, Ca 2+- NBO) is linearly related to NBO/Si, whereas fraction of Mg 2+- NBO bonds is essentially independent of NBO/Si. For individual m-cations, rate of change of KD( m-Mg) with NBO/Si(Ca) for the exchange equilibrium, mmelt + Mg olivine ⇌ molivine + Mg melt, is linear. KD( m-Mg) decreases as an exponential function of increasing ionic potential, Z/ r2 ( Z: formal electrical charge, r: ionic radius—here calculated with oxygen in sixfold coordination around the divalent cations) of the m-cation. The enthalpy change of the exchange equilibrium, Δ H, decreases linearly with increasing Z/ r2 [Δ H = 261(9)-81(3)· Z/ r2 (Å -2)]. From existing information on (Ca,Mg)O-SiO 2 melt structure at ambient pressure, these relationships are understood by considering the exchange of divalent cations that form bonds with nonbridging oxygen in individual Qn-species in the melts. The negative ∂ KD( m-Mg) /∂( Z/ r2) and ∂(Δ H)/∂( Z/ r2) is because increasing Z/ r2 is because the cations forming bonds with nonbridging oxygen in increasingly depolymerized Qn-species where steric hindrance is decreasingly important. In other words, principles of ionic size/site mismatch commonly observed for trace and minor elements in crystals, also

  10. Effects of Aging on PuO2∙xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States’ weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2∙xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 2–4-nm PuO2∙xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  11. Feasibility studies of using the Catfish Immune System to produce monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using a teleost cell line to produce monoclonal antibodies. Studies were undertaken to demonstrate the production of a polyclonal response of channel catfish (Icatalurus punctatus) challenged with mycotoxins coupled to a protein carrier. Companion studies were also performed to induce a permanent cell line with catfish lymphocytes. Attempts to demonstrate a polyclonal response to haptenized mycotoxins were inconclusive. Tests to induce an immortal, permanent cell line with benzene and x-ray irradiated cells were also inconclusive. 3 refs., 13 tabs.

  12. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  13. Engineering challenges of ocean alkalinity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, T.; Renforth, P.

    2012-04-01

    The addition of calcium oxide (CaO) to the ocean as a means of enhancing the capacity of the ocean as a carbon sink was first proposed by Haroon Kheshgi in 1995. Calcium oxide is created by heating high purity limestone in a kiln to temperatures of approximately 1000°C. Addition of this material to the ocean draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (approximately 1 tonne of CaO could sequester 1.3 tonnes of CO2). Abiotic carbonate precipitation is inhibited in the surface ocean. This is a carbon and energy expensive process, where approximately 0.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced at a point source for every tonne sequestered. The feasibility of ocean alkalinity enhancement requires capture and storage of the point source of CO2. We present details of a feasibility study of the engineering challenges of Kheshgi's method focusing on the potential scalability and costs of the proposed process. To draw down a PgC per year would require the extraction and processing of ~6Pg of limestone per year, which is similar in scale to the current coal industry. Costs are estimated at ~USD30-40 per tonne of CO2 sequestered through the process, which is favourable to comparative processes. Kheshgi, H. (1995) Energy 20 (9) 915-922

  14. Saline gas-produced waters treatment with macrophytes in a hydroponic system. Final report, July 1, 1991-December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.J.; Albright, L.D.; Cummings, R.J.; Hicks, E.E.; Nock, T.D.

    1993-06-01

    A review of potential pollution problems of natural gas produced waters emphasized that present regulations do not adversely affect gas production, but future changes may be a concern (Fillo et al.). Also, the economics of the present treatment and disposal practices are becoming unacceptably high. Thus, new and more effective methods of treating and disposing of produced waters should be sought. A hydroponic system has been developed at Cornell University and piloted on domestic sewage partly with support from the Gas Research Institute, the U.S. Department of Energy (SERI), USEPA and New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Jewell et al.). The hydroponic plant system is referred to as the 'Nutrient Film Technique' (NFT). The general goal of the project is to conduct a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of developing a biological treatment system capable of removing organic and inorganic pollutants from highly saline waters while minimizing the effluent volume by enhanced evapotranspiration.

  15. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Accompanied by Psoriasis Induces IL-27-Producing Cells in Both Affected Areas of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Gen-ichi; Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2012-01-01

    IL-27 is mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and has been reported in various Th1/Th17-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, and even in Th2-complexed disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe a 51-year-old Japanese man with SLE accompanied by psoriasis. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed the existence of IL-27-producing cells in biopsy specimens from both SLE and psoriasis. Our findings might suggest relationships between IL-27 and the pathogenesis of these inflammatory diseases. PMID:23071464

  16. Study on Aotf-Based Near-Infrared Spectroscopyanalysis System of Farm Produce Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochao; Hu, Xiaoan; Zhang, Yinqiao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Hui

    The technology of near-infrared spectroscopy analysis is one of the important ways to test agricultural products inside quality quantitatively. The nearinfrared spectral analysis system which used the technology of sound and light tunable filter (AOTF) can be applied to on-line measurement. The system constructed by AOTF, analysis optimization wavelength together with genetic algorithm, execute data filtering with wavelet analysis technology, process data of signal with second differential and Mahalanobis-distance, establish Partial Least-Squares model, tested the wheat and powdered milk. Reflects the development of the near-infrared spectral analysis system can be applied to the quality of agricultural products preferably.

  17. Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Fairbanks, Michael David; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; McKinzie, II, Billy John; Hirshblond, Stephen Palmer

    2012-07-31

    A system configured to heat a portion of a formation includes a plurality of heat sources. At least one production well is in the formation. A bottom portion of the production well is a sump in an underburden of the formation below the heated portion of the formation. Fluids from the heated portion of the formation are allowed to flow into the sump. A pump system has an inlet in the sump. A production conduit is coupled to the pump system. The production conduit is configured to transport fluids in the sump out of the formation.

  18. Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Fairbanks, Michael David [Katy, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2011-05-17

    A system that includes a plurality of heat sources configured to heat a portion of a formation is described. At least one production well is in the formation. A bottom portion of the production well is a sump in an underburden of the formation below the heated portion of the formation. Fluids from the heated portion of the formation are allowed to flow into the sump. A pump system has an inlet in the sump. A production conduit is coupled to the pump system. The production conduit is configured to transport fluids in the sump out of the formation.

  19. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

  20. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-07-05

    A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

  1. A Disk-Based System for Producing and Distributing Science Products from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, Edward; Wolfe, Robert; Sinno, Scott; Ye Gang; Teague, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Since beginning operations in 1999, the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) has evolved to take advantage of trends in information technology, such as the falling cost of computing cycles and disk storage and the availability of high quality open-source software (Linux, Apache and Perl), to achieve substantial gains in processing and distribution capacity and throughput while driving down the cost of system operations.

  2. A Gateway recombination herpesvirus cloning system with negative selection that produces vectorless progeny.

    PubMed

    Kunec, Dusan; van Haren, Sandra; Burgess, Shane C; Hanson, Larry A

    2009-01-01

    Crossover recombination based on the lambda phage integration/excision functions enables insertion of a gene of interest into a specific locus by a simple one-step in vitro recombination reaction. Recently, a highly efficient recombination system for targeted mutagenesis, which utilizes lambda phage crossover recombination cloning, has been described for a human herpesvirus 2 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The disadvantages of the system are that it allows only neutral selection (loss of green fluorescent protein) of desired recombinants and that it regenerates herpesvirus progeny containing the BAC sequence inserted in the herpesvirus genome. In this study, the existing channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) infectious clone (in the form of overlapping fragments) was modified to allow introduction of foreign genes by modified lambda phage crossover recombination cloning. This novel system enables negative and neutral selection and regenerates vectorless herpesvirus progeny. Construction of two CCV mutants expressing lacZ, one from the native CCV ORF5 promoter and the other from the immediate-early cytomegalovirus promoter, demonstrated the efficiency and reliability of this system. This novel cloning system enables rapid incorporation, direct delivery and high-level expression of foreign genes by a herpesvirus. This system has broad utility and could be used to facilitate development of recombinant viruses, viral vectors and better vaccines. PMID:18948138

  3. An automated system for producing uniform surface deposits of dry particles.

    PubMed

    Antley, J T; Vanderpool, R W; Harper, S L

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory system has been constructed that uniformly deposits dry particles onto any type of test surface. Devised as a quality assurance tool for the purpose of evaluating surface sampling methods for lead, it also may be used to generate test surfaces for any contaminant that uses particles or dust as a transport mechanism. Additionally, it may be used to spike surfaces for studies concerning particle transport, resuspension, reentrainment, and exposure. The electromechanical system includes a rugged aluminum chamber housing deposition equipment, a computer-controlled positioning system, and a 0.61 x 0.61 m target surface area (2 x 2 ft). Media used to evaluate the system have included glass beads of various size fractions (physical diameters between 30 and 500 microm), and Arizona Test Dust (aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 80 microm). Presieved particle size fractions may be used individually to study the effects of monodisperse particles, or may be mixed to create custom polydisperse size distributions. Using arrays of 16 coupons placed on the surface to collect representative samples from every test, the uniformity of the particle deposition can be quantified. The system achieved an average coefficient of variation of less than 20% for the 16 coupons for the particle types and sizes mentioned above and for a variety of total surface loadings (0.3-19 g/m2). Calculations of the system's repeatability (as the average coefficient of variation of mass gains for individual coupon locations compared across multiple identically configured runs) yielded approximately 10 +/- 5% (one standard deviation). Tests of the system's accuracy, defined as the absolute percentage difference between predicted surface loadings and actual loadings, yielded 3.7 +/- 1.3% (one standard deviation).

  4. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  5. Characterization of the phosphatidylinositol-glycan membrane anchor of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.D.; Berger, J.; Gerber, L.; Familletti, P.; Udenfriend, S.

    1987-09-01

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1) is a member of a diverse group of membrane proteins whose attachment to the lipid bilayer is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan. To investigate structural aspects of the glycolipid anchor, cultured WISH cells were used because, they produce the enzyme in abundant quantities. When cell suspensions were incubated with purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, most of the placental alkaline phosphatase was released from membranes in a hydrophilic form. On incubation of the cells with (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine, (/sup 14/C)myristic acid, or myo(/sup 3/H)inositol, each was incorporated into the phosphatase near the carboxyl terminus, showing that these components, which are found in other phosphatidylinositol membrane-linked proteins, are also present in placental alkaline phosphatase.

  6. Deposit-refund systems for managing hazardous wastes produced by small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Cuckovich, W.P.; Schwartz, S.I. )

    1989-09-01

    This article examines the potential of an economic incentive device virtually unused in the United States for managing hazardous wastes-- deposit-refund systems. The emphasis is on reducing the high rate of illegal disposal of hazardous wastes by small firms. We give evidence that illegal disposal is a problem and identify its underlying causes, principally lack of enforcement. Theory and operation of deposit-refund systems are described, with illustrative situations showing the crucial role of the size of the refund relative to the cost of legal disposal. Economic effects, advantages, and problems of design and implementation are examined. We conclude that deposit-refund systems are potentially effective for reducing illegal disposal, and that they promote economic efficiency and equity. Pilot programs are recommended.

  7. Evaluation of SHM System Produced by Additive Manufacturing via Acoustic Emission and Other NDT Methods

    PubMed Central

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called “effective structural health monitoring” (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals. PMID:26506349

  8. Evaluation of SHM system produced by additive manufacturing via acoustic emission and other NDT methods.

    PubMed

    Strantza, Maria; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; de Baere, Dieter; Guillaume, Patrick; van Hemelrijck, Danny

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used in order to detect damage in structures. We have developed a novel structural health monitoring approach, the so-called "effective structural health monitoring" (eSHM) system. The current SHM system is incorporated into a metallic structure by means of additive manufacturing (AM) and has the possibility to advance life safety and reduce direct operative costs. It operates based on a network of capillaries that are integrated into an AM structure. The internal pressure of the capillaries is continuously monitored by a pressure sensor. When a crack nucleates and reaches the capillary, the internal pressure changes signifying the existence of the flaw. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the crack detection capacity of the eSHM system and crack location accuracy by means of various non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques. During this study, detailed acoustic emission (AE) analysis was applied in AM materials for the first time in order to investigate if phenomena like the Kaiser effect and waveform parameters used in conventional metals can offer valuable insight into the damage accumulation of the AM structure as well. Liquid penetrant inspection, eddy current and radiography were also used in order to confirm the fatigue damage and indicate the damage location on un-notched four-point bending AM metallic specimens with an integrated eSHM system. It is shown that the eSHM system in combination with NDT can provide correct information on the damage condition of additive manufactured metals.

  9. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  10. An Improved Model of Producing Saliency Map for Visual Attention System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingang; Kong, Bin; Cheng, Erkang; Zheng, Fei

    The iLab Neuromorphic Vision Toolkit (iINVT), steadily kept up to date by the group around Laurent Itti, is one of the currently best known attention systems. Their model of bottom up or saliency-based visual attention as well as their implementation serves as a basis for many research groups. How to combine the feature maps finally into the saliency map is a key point for this kind of visual attention system. We modified the original model of Laurent Itti to make it more corresponding with our perception.

  11. The energetic contributions of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river system.

    PubMed

    Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P

    2016-03-01

    Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) primary producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River system (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic primary producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the primary producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic primary producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically

  12. The energetic contributions of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river system.

    PubMed

    Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P

    2016-03-01

    Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) primary producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River system (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic primary producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the primary producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic primary producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically

  13. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  14. Emergency power for fish produced in intensive, pond-based systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Power failure in a heavily stocked and fed pond-based culture system can result in massive fish losses within minutes. Even in a conventional pond with a stand-by tractor powered aerator, the shock of a sudden loss of power can dramatically affect production resulting in mortalities and reduced perf...

  15. Modal liquid crystal lens driven by low voltage produced from a wireless controlling and driving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Loktev, Mikhail; Vdovin, Gleb

    2005-04-01

    A wireless driving and controlling setup constructed by a coil system and a simple power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor switch circuit for modal liquid crystal lens has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Electrical and structural modeling and analysis have been applied to the design of the wireless power transforming and controlling system. Some key electrical characteristics of coils with different diameter and winding, such as resistance, impedance, capacitance, inductance, and Q factor, which determine the driving and controlling behaviors of the coil system constructed, are given. The liquid crystal lens can be operated under relatively low driving voltage ranging from about 1.5to12Vrms. Under dynamic operation, the prototype system has shown a stable driving and controlling performance to liquid crystal lens under the condition of switching mode of a few KHz. The possibility of integrating very small coils connected in series onto a small-size silicon chip as an integrated receiver in biomedicine application has been shown experimentally.

  16. Precise Scheduling of Chemotherapy Primes VEGF-producing Tumors for Successful Systemic Oncolytic Virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Timothy; Chester, John; Ilett, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jill; Diaz, Rosa; Coffey, Matt; Selby, Peter; Nuovo, Gerard; Pulido, Jose; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Pandha, Hardev; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported that a burst of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling to tumor-associated endothelium induces a proviral state, during which systemically delivered oncolytic reovirus can replicate in endothelium, thereby inducing immune-mediated vascular collapse and significant antitumor therapy. Using chimeric receptors, we show here that induction of the proviral state proceeds through VEGFR2, but not VEGFR1, signaling in endothelial cells. In contrast, innate immune activation by reovirus-exposed endothelial cells was predominantly through VEGFR1. By screening conventional chemotherapies for their ability to induce similar effects in combination with reovirus both in vitro and in vivo, we observed that the proviral state could also be induced in endothelial cells exposed to VEGF during rebound from paclitaxel-mediated inhibition of VEGF signaling. We translated these in vitro findings in vivo by careful scheduling of paclitaxel chemotherapy with systemic virotherapy, neither of which alone had therapeutic effects against B16 tumors. Systemic availability of reovirus during endothelial cell recovery from paclitaxel treatment allowed for endothelial replication of the virus, immune-mediated therapy, and tumor cures. Therefore, careful scheduling of combination viro- and chemotherapies, which preclinical testing suggests are individually ineffective against tumor cells, can lead to rational new clinical protocols for systemic treatments with oncolytic viruses. PMID:21792179

  17. AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING UNIFORM SURFACE DEPOSITS OF DRY PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory system has been constructed that uniformly deposits dry particles onto any type of test surface. Devised as a quality assurance tool for the purpose of evaluating surface sampling methods for lead, it also may be used to generate test surfaces for any contaminant ...

  18. Precise scheduling of chemotherapy primes VEGF-producing tumors for successful systemic oncolytic virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Timothy; Chester, John; Ilett, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jill; Diaz, Rosa; Coffey, Matt; Selby, Peter; Nuovo, Gerard; Pulido, Jose; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Pandha, Hardev; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that a burst of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling to tumor-associated endothelium induces a proviral state, during which systemically delivered oncolytic reovirus can replicate in endothelium, thereby inducing immune-mediated vascular collapse and significant antitumor therapy. Using chimeric receptors, we show here that induction of the proviral state proceeds through VEGFR2, but not VEGFR1, signaling in endothelial cells. In contrast, innate immune activation by reovirus-exposed endothelial cells was predominantly through VEGFR1. By screening conventional chemotherapies for their ability to induce similar effects in combination with reovirus both in vitro and in vivo, we observed that the proviral state could also be induced in endothelial cells exposed to VEGF during rebound from paclitaxel-mediated inhibition of VEGF signaling. We translated these in vitro findings in vivo by careful scheduling of paclitaxel chemotherapy with systemic virotherapy, neither of which alone had therapeutic effects against B16 tumors. Systemic availability of reovirus during endothelial cell recovery from paclitaxel treatment allowed for endothelial replication of the virus, immune-mediated therapy, and tumor cures. Therefore, careful scheduling of combination viro- and chemotherapies, which preclinical testing suggests are individually ineffective against tumor cells, can lead to rational new clinical protocols for systemic treatments with oncolytic viruses. PMID:21792179

  19. Improved head-controlled TV system produces high-quality remote image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, R.; Lindberg, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1967-01-01

    Manipulator operator uses an improved resolution tv camera/monitor positioning system to view the remote handling and processing of reactive, flammable, explosive, or contaminated materials. The pan and tilt motions of the camera and monitor are slaved to follow the corresponding motions of the operators head.

  20. Did Solar Energetic Particles Produce the Short-lived Nuclides Present in the Early Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Marhas, K. K.; Sahijpal, S.

    2001-03-01

    Production of the short-lived nuclides 41Ca, 36Cl, 26Al, and 53Mn by solar energetic particles (SEP) interacting with dust grains of chondritic (=solar) composition is estimated considering a broad range of spectral parameters for the SEP and appropriate nuclear reaction cross sections. The dust grains are assumed to follow a power-law size distribution and to range in size from 10 μm to 1 cm. The possibility that an enhanced flux of SEP from an active early (T Tauri) Sun could have been responsible for the production of these short-lived nuclides in the early solar system is investigated. SEP production of 41Ca and 36Cl will match their abundances in the early solar system inferred from meteorite data if the SEP irradiation duration was ~5×105-106 yr and the SEP flux was higher by a factor of more than 5×103 than the contemporary long-term averaged value of Nproton (E>10 MeV)~100 cm-2 s-1. However, corresponding production of 26Al will be much below the level needed to match its inferred abundance in the early solar system. SEP production, therefore, fails to explain the observed correlated presence of 41Ca and 26Al with canonical initial abundances in early solar system solids. The abundance of 53Mn in the early solar system is not tightly constrained by the meteorite data, and the various estimates differ by a factor of 5. Coproduction of 41Ca, 36Cl, and 53Mn that will match the meteorite data for the higher initial abundance of 53Mn is possible if the SEP irradiation persisted for about a million years or more with a flux enhancement factor of ~5000-10,000. On the other hand, the lower initial value of 53Mn can also be matched by a flux enhancement factor of ~1000 and an irradiation duration of a few million years; the corresponding production of the other nuclides will be <=10% of the level needed to match their abundances in the early solar system. Target abundance consideration rules out the possibility of SEP production of 60Fe, another short

  1. Competition between links in "producer-consumer" trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components.

    PubMed

    Pisman, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Somova, L A

    2001-01-01

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers--Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only. Grant numbers: N99-04-96017, N25.

  2. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  3. Competition between links in "producer-consumer" trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components.

    PubMed

    Pisman, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Somova, L A

    2001-01-01

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers--Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only. Grant numbers: N99-04-96017, N25. PMID:11695442

  4. Competition between links in ``producer-consumer'' trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Somova, L. A.

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers - Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only.

  5. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  6. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report, Revision

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. In-line System to Produce High-Purity Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a new device that generates a high-purity acid solution. It comprises three compartments divided by anion-exchange membranes and filled with ion-exchange resins. Fluorochemical cation-exchange membranes, which tolerate electrochemical wear and permit bulk flow, are inserted between each electrode and the anion-exchange resin. A bipolar boundary is a composite boundary comprising anion and cation exchangers. This device has four bipolar boundaries to separate the location of acid generation from the location where water is electrolyzed. It can tolerate high pressures, resist degradation due to electrolysis at the electrodes, and produce high-purity acid solutions that are free from gases and cationic impurities. The acid solution is generated on the basis of an electrokinetic phenomenon at the surfaces of ion-exchange resins and membranes in an electric field; its concentration can be controlled at rates from 0.01 to 100 μmol/min by adjusting the electrical current applied to the device. PMID:27302592

  8. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Matsunaga, N.; Tsubaki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    1986-10-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 ..mu..mol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria.

  9. Development of a gene cloning system for the hydrogen-producing marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Matsunaga, N; Tsubaki, K; Tanaka, T

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-six strains of marine photosynthetic bacteria were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for plasmid DNA content. Among these strains, 12 carried two to four different plasmids with sizes ranging from 3.1 to 11.0 megadaltons. The marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 had two plasmids, pRD06S and pRD06L. The smaller plasmid, pRD06S, had a molecular weight of 3.8 megadaltons and was cut at a single site by restriction endonucleases SalI, SmaI, PstI, XhoI, and BglII. Moreover, the marine photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 containing plasmid pRD06 had a satisfactory growth rate (doubling time, 7.5 h), a hydrogen-producing rate of 0.96 mumol/mg (dry weight) of cells per h, and nitrogen fixation capability. Plasmid pRD06S, however, had neither drug resistance nor heavy-metal resistance, and its copy number was less than 10. Therefore, a recombinant plasmid consisting of pRD06S and Escherichia coli cloning vector pUC13 was constructed and cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106. As a result, Rhodopseudomonas sp. NKPB002106 developed ampicillin resistance. Thus, a shuttle vector for gene transfer was constructed for marine photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:3020006

  10. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs. PMID:26878319

  11. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  12. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  13. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes. PMID:17630120

  14. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  15. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  16. Ratiometric electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Goggins, Sean; Naz, Christophe; Marsh, Barrie J; Frost, Christopher G

    2015-01-11

    A novel ferrocene-derived substrate for the ratiometric electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was designed and synthesised. It was demonstrated to be an excellent electrochemical substrate for the ALP-labelled enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  17. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  18. Comparison of metoprolol tartrate multiple-unit lipid matrix systems produced by different technologies.

    PubMed

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Roškar, Robert; Sovány, Tamás; Regdon, Géza; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Dreu, Rok

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and compare extended release mini-matrices based on metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and either glyceryl behenate (GB) or glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS). Mini-matrices were produced by three different techniques: hot melt extrusion, compression of melt granulates and prilling. Hot-melt extrusion and compression of granules obtained from melted material proved to be reliable, robust and reproducible techniques with aim of obtaining extended release matrices. Prilling tended to be susceptible to increased melt viscosity. Direct compression was not applicable for mini-matrix production due to poor powder flow. In general MPT release from all matrices was affected by its loading and the size of the units/particles. Processing of GB-MPT mixtures by different techniques did not lead to different drug release rates and patterns, while in case of GPS differently obtained matrices provided diverse MPT release outcomes. Matrices based on GB tended to have higher porosity compared to ones composed of GPS and thus most of the GB-based formulations showed faster drug delivery. FT-IR analysis revealed no interactions between primary components used for matrix production and Raman mapping outlined uniform MPT distribution throughout the units. DSC and X-ray studies revealed significant changes in the crystallinity of glycerides after storage under room conditions (GPS samples) and at increased temperature (GB and GPS samples), which was correlated to the changes seen in drug release rate and pattern after storage. Media composition in general tended to insignificantly affect GB matrices, while in case of GPS matrices increasing the pH and presence of biorelevant compounds induced faster drug release.

  19. Tessaracoccus flavus sp. nov., isolated from the drainage system of a lindane-producing factory.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Schumann, Peter; Lal, Rup

    2016-04-01

    Strain RP1T, a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from drainage of India Pesticides Limited, a lindane-producing unit situated at Chinhat, Lucknow, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain RP1T belongs to the family Propionibacteriaceae and was closely related to the members of the genus Tessaracoccus with a similarity range of 95.4-97.6%. Strain RP1T was facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and capable of nitrate reduction. Strain RP1T contained peptidoglycan type A3γ', with ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and glycine at position 1 of the peptide subunit. The major cellular fatty acid of strain RP1T was anteiso-C15 : 0 but a significant amount of iso-C14:0 was also detected. MK-9(H4) was the major respiratory quinone and polyamines detected were spermine and spermidine. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown glycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 66.7 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between RP1T and Tessaracoccus lubricantis KSS-17SeT, Tessaracoccus oleiagri SL014B-20A1T and Tessaracoccus flavescens SST-39T were 49.8, 34.8 and 23.5%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data presented, strain RP1T can be differentiated from previously described species of the genus Tessaracoccus, and thus represents a novel species, for which the name Tessaracoccus flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RP1T (=DSM 100159T=MCC 2769T=KCTC 39686T). PMID:26869509

  20. Comparison of metoprolol tartrate multiple-unit lipid matrix systems produced by different technologies.

    PubMed

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Roškar, Robert; Sovány, Tamás; Regdon, Géza; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Dreu, Rok

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and compare extended release mini-matrices based on metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and either glyceryl behenate (GB) or glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS). Mini-matrices were produced by three different techniques: hot melt extrusion, compression of melt granulates and prilling. Hot-melt extrusion and compression of granules obtained from melted material proved to be reliable, robust and reproducible techniques with aim of obtaining extended release matrices. Prilling tended to be susceptible to increased melt viscosity. Direct compression was not applicable for mini-matrix production due to poor powder flow. In general MPT release from all matrices was affected by its loading and the size of the units/particles. Processing of GB-MPT mixtures by different techniques did not lead to different drug release rates and patterns, while in case of GPS differently obtained matrices provided diverse MPT release outcomes. Matrices based on GB tended to have higher porosity compared to ones composed of GPS and thus most of the GB-based formulations showed faster drug delivery. FT-IR analysis revealed no interactions between primary components used for matrix production and Raman mapping outlined uniform MPT distribution throughout the units. DSC and X-ray studies revealed significant changes in the crystallinity of glycerides after storage under room conditions (GPS samples) and at increased temperature (GB and GPS samples), which was correlated to the changes seen in drug release rate and pattern after storage. Media composition in general tended to insignificantly affect GB matrices, while in case of GPS matrices increasing the pH and presence of biorelevant compounds induced faster drug release. PMID:26980237

  1. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  2. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  3. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea. PMID:26841066

  4. Leptin acts in the central nervous system to produce dose-dependent changes in arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Correia, M L; Morgan, D A; Sivitz, W I; Mark, A L; Haynes, W G

    2001-03-01

    Systemic leptin increases energy expenditure through sympathetic mechanisms, decreases appetite, and increases arterial pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the pressor action of leptin is mediated by the central nervous system. The interaction of dietary salt with leptin was also studied. Leptin was infused for 2 to 4 weeks into the third cerebral ventricle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Arterial pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. To control for the effects of leptin on body weight, vehicle-treated rats were pair-fed to the leptin group. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin at 200 ng/h in salt-depleted rats caused a reduction in food intake, weight loss, tachycardia, and decreased arterial pressure. Leptin at 1000 ng/h caused further reduction in food intake, weight loss, and tachycardia and prevented the hypotensive effect of weight loss observed in pair-fed, vehicle-treated animals. Intracerebroventricular leptin at 1000 ng/h in high-salt-fed rats also caused a sustained pressor response (+3+/-1 mm Hg), but high-salt intake did not potentiate the pressor effect of leptin. Intracerebroventricular leptin potentiated the pressor effect of air-jet stress. Intravenous administration of the same dose of leptin (1000 ng/h) did not change weight or arterial pressure, suggesting a direct central nervous system action. In contrast, a high dose of intravenous leptin (18 000 ng/h) caused weight loss and prevented the depressor effect of weight loss. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high-dose leptin increases arterial pressure and heart rate through central neural mechanisms but leptin does not enhance salt sensitivity of arterial pressure. Leptin appears to oppose the depressor effect of weight loss.

  5. Status of VLTI control system: how to make an optical interferometer a data producing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallander, Anders; Argomedo, Javier; Ballester, Pascal; Bauvir, Bertrand; Comin, Mauro; Donaldson, Rob; Duhoux, Philippe; Gennai, Alberto; Gilli, Bruno; Housen, Nico; Huxley, Alexis; Karban, Robert; Kiekebush, Mario; Longinotti, Antonio; Munoz, Ivan M.; Duc, Than Phan

    2002-12-01

    After having established routine science operations for four 8 m single dish telescopes and their first set of instruments at the Paranal Observatory, the next big engineering challenge for ESO has been the VLT Interferometer. Following an intense integration period at Paranal, first fringes were obtained in the course of last year, first with two smaller test siderostats and later with two 8 m VLT telescopes. Even though optical interferometry today may be considered more experimental than single telescope astronomy, we have aimed at developing a system with the same requirements on reliability and operability as for a single VLT telescope. The VLTI control system is responsible for controlling and co-ordinating all devices making up VLTI, where a telescope is just one out of many subsystems. Thus the pure size of the complete system increases the complexity and likelihood of failure. Secondly, some of the new subsystems introduced, in particular the delay lines and the associated fringe-tracking loop, have more demanding requirements in terms of control loop bandwidth, computing power and communication. We have developed an innovative generic multiprocessor controller within the VLT framework to address these requirements. Finally, we have decided to use the VLT science operation model, whereby the observation is driven by observation blocks with minimum human real-time interaction, which implies that VLTI is seen as one machine and not as a set of telescopes and other subsystems by the astronomical instrument. In this paper we describe the as-built architecture of the VLTI control and data flow system, emphasising how new techniques have been incorporated, while at the same time the investments in technology and know-how obtained during the VLT years have been protected. The result has been a faster development cycle, a robustness approaching that of VLT single dish telescopes and a "look and feel" identical to all other ESO observing facilities. We present

  6. Rapid solidification processing system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2004-06-08

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the in-flight atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  7. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models. PMID:27340414

  8. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  9. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Manuel F. Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-15

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  10. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  11. Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-09-01

    High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(−3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(−3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

  12. The dynamics of alkaline phosphatase activity during operculum regeneration in the polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Réka; Ferrier, David E K

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase enzymes are found throughout the living world and fulfil a variety of functions. They have been linked to regeneration, stem cells and biomineralisation in a range of animals. Here we describe the pattern of alkaline phosphatase activity in a spiralian appendage, the operculum of the serpulid polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii. The P. lamarckii operculum is reinforced by a calcified opercular plate and is capable of rapid regeneration, making it an ideal model system to study these key processes in annelids. Alkaline phosphatase activity is present in mesodermal tissues of both intact and regenerating opercular filaments, in a strongly regionalised pattern correlated with major morphological features. Based on the lack of epidermal activity and the broad distribution of staining in mesodermal tissues, calcification- or stem cell-specific roles are unlikely. Transcriptomic data reveal that at least four distinct genes contribute to the detected activity. Opercular alkaline phosphatase activity is sensitive to levamisole. Phylogenetic analysis of metazoan alkaline phosphatases indicates homology of the P. lamarckii sequences to other annelid alkaline phosphatases, and shows that metazoan alkaline phosphatase evolution was characterised by extensive lineage-specific duplications. PMID:25690977

  13. Total alkalinity versus buffer value (capacity) as a sensitivity indicator for fresh waters receiving acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, S.D.

    1983-09-01

    The frequently stated idea that total alkalinity is a measure of the buffer capacity of a natural water is refuted. Total alkalinity is a measure of the acid neutralizing capacity, equivalents/liter, of a water. In natural waters, the carbonate system provides most of this neutralizing capacity. In as much as the pH values of natural fresh waters lie below 8.3, the total alkalinity is, for all intents and purposes, the total bicarbonate content. Any contributions of carbonate and hydroxide to total alkalinity are nil. The buffer capacity or buffer value is the relation between the increment of a strong base, or strong acid, that causes a one unit change in the pH value. The values of total alkalinity and pH, considered individually cannot give an accurate assessment of the impact of acid deposition on a natural water. Rather it is necessary to combine the pH and alkalinity values into the beta concept in order to assess accurately and to calculate the capacity of a natural water to resist the impact of acid deposition. An analytical determination of total alkalinity is given with an application of the beta value. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  15. System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valve switching

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Various Downhole Equipment systems have been designed for typical applications in three California Oilfields,based on well data gathered from three different Operating Companies. The first system, applicable to a 2,000 ft deep reservoir (Monarch) a highly underpressured, unconsolidated sand of 200 ft net pay, located in the Midway-Sunset field, is based on the use of a new well. The second well configuration considered was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with a 7 inches casing and penetrating into two separate sandstone reservoirs, at normal pressures in the North Antelope Hills field. Only the bottom layer is presently in production through a gravel-packed 5.5 inch linear, while the upper zone is behind the cemented casing. The third case studied was the re-entry into an existing well equipped with an 8 5/8 inch casing, presently unperforated, into a thin under-pressured sand reservoir (Weber) in the Midway-Sunset field. All three California fields contain Heavy Oils of different but relatively high viscosities. A new class of potential applications of our new technology has also been considered: the recovery of Light Oil (> 20 API) by steam injection in under-pressured Carbonate reservoirs which lay at depths beyond the economic limit for conventional steam injection technology. The possibility of including this application in a Field Test proposal to the DOE, under the Class II Oil Program, is now under review by various Operators. A drilling contractor experienced in drilling multiple horizontal wells in Carbonate reservoirs and a team of reservoir engineers experienced in the recovery of Light Oil by steam in fractured reservoirs have expressed their interest in participating in such a joint Field Project. Laboratory tests on specific prototypes of Downhole Sealing Elements are underway.

  16. Cryopreservation of In Vitro-Produced Early-Stage Porcine Embryos in a Closed System

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Spate, Lee D.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryostorage of porcine embryos in a closed pathogen-free system is essential for the maintenance and safeguard of swine models. Previously, we reported a protocol for the successful cryopreservation of porcine embryos at the blastocyst stage in 0.25 mL ministraws. In this experiment, we aimed at developing a protocol to apply the same concept for the cryopreservation of early-stage porcine embryos. Porcine embryos from day 2 through day 4 were delipidated by using a modified two-step centrifugation method and were then cryopreserved in sealed 0.25 mL straws by using a slow cooling method. Control groups included open pulled straw (OPS) vitrified embryos after delipidation and noncryopreserved embryos without delipidation. There were no significant differences in cryosurvival between embryos frozen in 0.25 mL straws and OPS vitrified embryos across all the stages (two cell to morula) examined (p>0.05). Similarly, in all groups examined, the blastocyst rates were not different between the two cryopreserved groups. However, the blastocyst rates from the cryopreserved groups were significantly lower than the noncryopreserved controls (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrated that early-stage porcine embryos can survive cryopreservation in a closed system by using a slow cooling method at a comparable rate to those vitrified by using an ultrarapid cooling method (p>0.05). However, the developmental competence was significantly reduced after cryopreservation compared to noncryopreserved embryos. Further research is needed to optimize the protocol to improve the developmental potential of cryopreserved early-stage porcine embryos in sealed straws. PMID:26309801

  17. Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Martz, Todd R; Dickson, Andrew G; DeGrandpre, Michael D

    2006-03-15

    We introduce a new titration methodology, tracer monitored titration (TMT), in which analyses are free of volumetric and gravimetric measurements and insensitive to pump precision and reproducibility. Spectrophotometric monitoring of titrant dilution, rather than volume increment, lays the burden of analytical performance solely on the spectrophotometer. In the method described here, the titrant is a standardized mixture of acid-base indicator and strong acid. Dilution of a pulse of titrant in a titration vessel is tracked using the total indicator concentration measured spectrophotometrically. The concentrations of reacted and unreacted indicator species, derived from Beer's law, are used to calculate the relative proportions of titrant and sample in addition to the equilibrium position (pH) of the titration mixture. Because the method does not require volumetric or gravimetric additions of titrant, simple low-precision pumps can be used. Here, we demonstrate application of TMT for analysis of total alkalinity (A(T)). High-precision, high-accuracy seawater A(T) measurements are crucial for understanding, for example, the marine CaCO3 budget and saturation state, anthropogenic CO2 penetration into the oceans, calcareous phytoplankton blooms, and coral reef dynamics. We present data from 286 titrations on three types of total alkalinity standards: Na2CO3 in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, NaOH in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, and a seawater Certified Reference Material (CRM). Based on Na2CO3 standards, the accuracy and precision are +/-0.2 and +/-0.1% (4 and 2 micromol kg x soln(-1) for A(T) approximately 2100-2500 micromol kg x soln(-1), n = 242), using low-precision solenoid pumps to introduce sample and titrant. Similar accuracy and precision were found for analyses run 42 days after the initial experiments. Excellent performance is achieved by optimizing the spectrophotometric detection system and relying upon basic chemical thermodynamics for calculating the

  18. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-09-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2004 through September 2004. Our previous work demonstrated that a polyurethane foam biofilter could successfully biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, establishing the biomass on the polyurethane foam packing was relatively time consuming and daily recirculation of a concentrated nutrient solution was required for efficient operation of the foam biofilter. To simplify the start up and operating requirements of the biofilter system, a simple, compost-based biofilter was investigated for its ability to treat the BTEX contaminants generated during the SMZ regeneration process. The investigation of the compost biofilter was divided into three experimental phases that spanned 180 days of biofilter operation. During Phase 1, the biofilter was continuously supplied a BTEX-contaminated waste gas stream. During Phase 2, a series of periodic shutdown tests were conducted to assess how the biofilter responded when the BTEX feed was discontinued for periods ranging from 1 day to 2.8 days. The Phase 3 experiments focused on determining how the biofilter would handle periodic spikes in inlet BTEX concentration as would be expected when it is coupled with an SMZ column. Results from the continuous feed (Phase 1) experiments demonstrated that the compost biofilter could maintain BTEX removals of greater than 98% within two weeks of startup. Results of the shutdown experiments indicated that benzene removal was the most sensitive to interruptions in the BTEX feed. Nevertheless, the BTEX removal efficiency exceeded 95% within 6 hours of reestablishing the BTEX feed to the biofilter. When the biofilter was subjected to periodic spikes in BTEX concentration (Phase 3), it was found that the total BTEX removal efficiency stabilized at approximately 75% despite the fact that the biofilter was only fed BTEX contaminants 8 hours per day. Finally, the effects of nutrient

  19. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations on the immune system of women.

    PubMed

    Boscol, P; Di Sciascio, M B; D'Ostilio, S; Del Signore, A; Reale, M; Conti, P; Bavazzano, P; Paganelli, R; Di Gioacchino, M

    2001-06-12

    The object of this study was to investigate the immune system of 19 women with a mean age of 35 years, for at least 2 years (mean = 13 years) exposed to electromagnetic fields (ELMFs) induced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations in their residential area. In September 1999, the ELMFs (with range 500 KHz-3 GHz) in the balconies of the homes of the women were (mean +/- S.D.) 4.3 +/- 1.4 V/m. Forty-seven women of similar age, smoking habits and atopy composed the control group, with a nearby resident ELMF exposure of < 1.8 V/m. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid (a metabolite of benzene), markers of exposure to urban traffic, were higher in the control women. The ELMF exposed group showed a statistically significant reduction of blood NK CD16+-CD56+, cytotoxic CD3(-)-CD8+, B and NK activated CD3(-)-HLA-DR+ and CD3(-)-CD25+ lymphocytes. 'In vitro' production of IL-2 and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the ELMF exposed group, incubated either with or without phytohaemoagglutinin (PHA), was significantly lower; the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 was significantly correlated with blood CD16+-CD56+ lymphocytes. The stimulation index (S.I.) of blastogenesis (ratio between cell proliferation with and without PHA) of PBMC of ELMF exposed women was lower than that of the control subjects. The S.I. of blastogenesis of the ELMF exposed group (but not blood NK lymphocytes and the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 and INF-gamma by PBMC) was significantly correlated with the ELMF levels. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid were barely correlated with immune parameters: the urinary metabolite of benzene of the control group was only correlated with CD16+-CD56+ cells indicating a slight effect of traffic on the immune system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high frequency ELMFs reduce cytotoxic activity in the peripheral blood of women without a dose-response effect.

  20. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costarrosa, L.; Calvino-Casilda, V.; Ferrera-Escudero, S.; Durán-Valle, C. J.; Martín-Aranda, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N 2 adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation.

  1. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  2. Cation effects in the oxidative coupling of methane on silica-supported binary alkali and alkaline earths

    SciTech Connect

    Voyatzis, R.; Moffat, J.B. )

    1993-07-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane has been investigated with a series of silica-supported binary oxide catalysts containing alkali or alkaline earths or combinations of the former and latter. The conversion of methane and the stability of the silica-supported binary alkali metal oxides were found to increase with decreasing cation mobility, while the selectivities and conversions observed with the binary alkaline earths increase with cation size. The selectivities and conversions of binary alkali/alkaline earths appear to depend upon the size of the alkali and alkaline earth cations, respectively. With small quantities of TCM (CCl[sub 4]) added continuously to the feedstream, catalysts containing small alkali and large alkaline earth cations produced the largest selectivities and conversions. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Xina Xie; Greg Bala

    2004-11-01

    Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Polymer technology relies mainly on the use of polyacrylamides cross-linked by a hazardous metal or organic. Contemporary polymer plugging has investigated the stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to produce polymers (Jenneman et. al., 2000) and the use of biocatalysts to trigger gelling (Bailey et. al., 2000). The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium species ATCC # 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. Microbial polymers are of interest due to their potential cost savings, compared to conventional use of synthetic chemical polymers. Numerous microorganisms are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. One microbiological polymer of interest is curdlan, â - (1, 3) glucan, which has demonstrated gelling properties by a reduction in pH. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability.

  4. Effect of particles of ashes produced from sugarcane burning on the respiratory system of rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L E N; Muniz, B V; Bittar, T O; Berto, L A; Figueroba, S R; Groppo, F C; Pereira, A C

    2014-11-01

    The practice of burning sugarcane obtained by non-mechanized harvesting exposes workers and the people of neighboring towns to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) that is harmful to health, and may trigger a series of cardiorespiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the micro-particles coming from sugarcane burning residues and to verify the effects of this micro-particulate matter on lung and tracheal tissues. Micro-particulate matter (PM10) was obtained by dissolving filter paper containing burnt residues in NaCl solution. This material was instilled into the Wistar rats' nostrils. Histological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin - HE) of cardiac, lung and tracheal tissues were performed. Inflammatory mediators were measured in lung tissues by using ELISA. The chemical composition of the particulate material revealed a large quantity of the phthalic acid ester, high concentrations of phenolic compounds, anthracene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Histological analysis showed a reduction in subjacent conjunctive tissue in the trachea, lung inflammation with inflammatory infiltrate formation and reduction of alveolar spaces and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the release of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and INF-γ in the group treated with PM10 when compared to the control group. We concluded that the burning sugarcane residues release many particles, which have toxic chemical compounds. The micro-particulate matter can induce alterations in the respiratory system.

  5. Ribosomal proteins produced in excess are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min-Kyung; Reitsma, Justin M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-09-01

    Ribosome assembly is an essential process that consumes prodigious quantities of cellular resources. Ribosomal proteins cannot be overproduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because the excess proteins are rapidly degraded. However, the responsible quality control (QC) mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of multiple proteins of the small and large yeast ribosomal subunits is suppressed. Rpl26 overexpressed from a plasmid can be detected in the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, but it largely fails to assemble into ribosomes and is rapidly degraded. However, if the endogenous RPL26 loci are deleted, plasmid-encoded Rpl26 assembles into ribosomes and localizes to the cytosol. Chemical and genetic perturbation studies indicate that overexpressed ribosomal proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and not by autophagy. Inhibition of the proteasome led to accumulation of multiple endogenous ribosomal proteins in insoluble aggregates, consistent with the operation of this QC mechanism in the absence of ribosomal protein overexpression. Our studies reveal that ribosomal proteins that fail to assemble into ribosomes are rapidly distinguished from their assembled counterparts and ubiquitinated and degraded within the nuclear compartment. PMID:27385339

  6. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5α(H)- and 5β(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17β(H),21β(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  7. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. ); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. ); Toja, J. ); Leeuw, J.W. De. )

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  8. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  9. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  10. The Photoprotective Role of Spermidine in Tomato Seedlings under Salinity-Alkalinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:25340351

  11. The photoprotective role of spermidine in tomato seedlings under salinity-alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lipan; Xiang, Lixia; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus.

  12. The photoprotective role of spermidine in tomato seedlings under salinity-alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lipan; Xiang, Lixia; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:25340351

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  14. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment.

  15. Improved Performance of the Alkaline-Side CSEX Process for Cesium Extraction from Alkaline High-Level Waste Obtained by Characterization of the Effect of Surfactant Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    1999-11-04

    identify the harmful impurities as undecyl- and dodecylsulfonate. Subsequent tests with purchased sodium dodecylsulfonate confirmed that this surfactant could produce decreased stripping performance of the magnitude equivalent to that observed when using the simulant associated with the worse performance. With the identification of the impurity now settled, it is clear that poor stripping arises from ion-pair species in the solvent comprised of the cesium-extractant complex cation and the alkylsulfonate anion. Because the Gibbs energy of transfer of this anion and the complexation of the cesium cation by the extractant are both so favorable, the stripping of the cesium, nitrate from the solvent is correspondingly unfavorable. Thus, once the cesium associated with nitrate ion in the solvent has been stripped, further stripping of the remaining cesium in the solvent becomes inefficient. A simple remedy is the addition of a lipophilic amine such as trioctylamine to the solvent. This well-known amine extractant, once proposed for reprocessing, remains neutral and essentially inert during extraction of the alkaline waste but converts to the trioctylammonium nitrate salt on scrubbing and stripping. This lipophilic salt remains in the organic phase and allows the final traces of cesium in the solvent to be stripped by supplying the alkylsulfonate impurity in the solvent with equivalent cationic charges. Further results regarding this and other improvements to the solvent system will be described elsewhere.

  16. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  17. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1993-09-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  18. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  19. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  20. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    The comparative wave planetology [1, 5] successfully overcomes the most principal martian test having now analyses of alkaline rocks from Columbia Hills [2, 3, 4]. This kind of rocks was predicted earlier on basis of the wave paradigm having stated that "the higher planetary relief range - the higher density difference between lithologies composing hypsometrically (tectonically) contrasting blocks [5]. This paradigm declares that "celestial bodies are dichotomic"(Theorem 1), "celestial bodies are sectoral" (Theorem 2), "celestial bodies are granular"(Theorem 3), "angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal" (Theorem 4)[1, 5]. Mars is a typical terrestrial planet but the farthest from Sun and thus with the smallest tide effects. Nevertheless it has the highest relief range and seems to be most distorted (ellipsoid in shape) and broken by deep fissures. The wave approach explains this by a warping action of standing waves of 4 ortho- and diagonal directions - they are the longest and highest in the martian case. These interfering warping waves caused by the elliptic keplerian orbits implying periodically changing accelerations and inertia-gravity forces produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy (the fundamental wave 1 long 2πR), sectoring (wave 2, πR, and other overtones), granulation. A granule size depends on an orbital frequency: the higher frequency the smaller granule. The Earth's granule, as a scale, is πR/4 (see it in NASA's PIA04159), Venus ` πR/6, Mercury's πR/16, Mars' πR/2 (the sizes are strictly tied to orb. fr.). Along with the granule sizes increase relief ranges ( Mercury ˜5 km, Venus 14, Earth 20, Mars ˜30) and compositional (density) difference between lowland and highland lithologies [5]. The lowland compositions become Fericher and denser: enstatite (Mercury), Mg-basalt (Venus), tholeiite (Earth), Fe-basalt (Mars). The highland compositions get less dense, lighter: anorthosite, alkaline basalt, andesite and conditional "albitite

  1. Chapter A6. Section 6.6. Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2002-01-01

    Alkalinity (determined on a filtered sample) and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) (determined on a whole-water sample) are measures of the ability of a water sample to neutralize strong acid. Alkalinity and ANC provide information on the suitability of water for uses such as irrigation, determining the efficiency of wastewater processes, determining the presence of contamination by anthropogenic wastes, and maintaining ecosystem health. In addition, alkalinity is used to gain insights on the chemical evolution of an aqueous system. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the USGS field protocols for alkalinity/ANC determination using either the inflection-point or Gran function plot methods, including calculation of carbonate species, and provides guidance on equipment selection.

  2. Establishment of a real-time PCR method for quantification of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. in recirculating aquaculture systems.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Marc; Pilote, Alexandre; Proulx, Emilie; Proulx, Daniel; Vandenberg, Grant; Villemur, Richard

    2011-12-15

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been associated with off-flavour problems in fish and seafood products, generating a strong negative impact for aquaculture industries. Although most of the producers of geosmin and MIB have been identified as Streptomyces species or cyanobacteria, Streptomyces spp. are thought to be responsible for the synthesis of these compounds in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). The detection of genes involved in the synthesis of geosmin and MIB can be a relevant indicator of the beginning of off-flavour events in RAS. Here, we report a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol targeting geoA sequences that encode a germacradienol synthase involved in geosmin synthesis. New geoA-related sequences were retrieved from eleven geosmin-producing Actinomycete strains, among them two Streptomyces strains isolated from two RAS. Combined with geoA-related sequences available in gene databases, we designed primers and standards suitable for qPCR assays targeting mainly Streptomyces geoA. Using our qPCR protocol, we succeeded in measuring the level of geoA copies in sand filter and biofilters in two RAS. This study is the first to apply qPCR assays to detect and quantify the geosmin synthesis gene (geoA) in RAS. Quantification of geoA in RAS could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. This information will be most valuable for fish producers to manage further development of off-flavour events.

  3. Photoelastic response of alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Smedskjaer, Morten M; Saxton, Scott A; Ellison, Adam J; Mauro, John C

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the structural origins of the photoelastic response in oxide glasses is important for discovering new families of zero-stress optic glasses and for developing a predictive physical model. In this Letter, we have investigated the composition dependence of the stress optic coefficient C of 32 sodium aluminosilicate glasses with different types of alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO). We find that most of the composition dependence of the stress optic response can be captured by a linear regression model and that the individual contributions from the alkaline earths to C depend on the alkaline earth-oxygen bond metallicity. High bond metallicity is required to allow bonds to be distorted along both the bonding direction and perpendicular to it. These findings are valuable for understanding the photoelastic response of oxide glasses.

  4. Recombinant Nox4 cytosolic domain produced by a cell or cell-free base systems exhibits constitutive diaphorase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Zhang, Leilei; Lhomme, Stanislas; Mouz, Nicolas

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparison of two bacterial cell and cell-free protein expression systems is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins are produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nox4 has a constitutive diaphorase activity which is independent of cytosolic factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isoform Nox4B is unable to initiate the first electronic transfer step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of Nox4 oxidase activity. -- Abstract: The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 which needs a stimulus to be active. Although the precise mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species by Nox2 is well characterized, the electronic transfer throughout Nox4 remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the initial electronic transfer step (diaphorase activity) of the cytosolic tail of Nox4. For this purpose, we developed two different approaches to produce soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins. We synthesized soluble recombinant proteins either by in vitro translation or by bacteria induction. While proteins obtained by bacteria induction demonstrate an activity of 4.4 {+-} 1.7 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 20.5 {+-} 2.8 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c, the soluble proteins produced by cell-free expression system exhibit a diaphorase activity with a turn-over of 26 {+-} 2.6 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 48 {+-} 20.2 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c. Furthermore, the activity of the soluble proteins is constitutive and does not need any stimulus. We also show that the cytosolic tail of the isoform Nox4B lacking the first NADPH binding site is unable to demonstrate any diaphorase activity pointing out the

  5. Rapid, scalable, and low-cost purification of recombinant adeno-associated virus produced by baculovirus expression vector system

    PubMed Central

    Buclez, Pierre-Olivier; Dias Florencio, Gabriella; Relizani, Karima; Beley, Cyriaque; Garcia, Luis; Benchaouir, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) are largely used for gene transfer in research, preclinical developments, and clinical trials. Their broad in vivo biodistribution and long-term efficacy in postmitotic tissues make them good candidates for numerous gene transfer applications. Upstream processes able to produce large amounts of rAAV were developed, particularly those using baculovirus expression vector system. In parallel, downstream processes present a large panel of purification methods, often including multiple and time consuming steps. Here, we show that simple tangential flow filtration, coupled with an optimized iodixanol-based isopycnic density gradient, is sufficient to purify several liters of crude lysate produced by baculovirus expression vector system in only one working day, leading to high titers and good purity of rAAV products. Moreover, we show that the viral vectors retain their in vitro and in vivo functionalities. Our results demonstrate that simple, rapid, and relatively low-cost methods can easily be implemented for obtaining a high-quality grade of gene therapy products based on rAAV technology. PMID:27226971

  6. The effect of the United States Great Lakes on the maintenance of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, M.; Sparks, J.; Graham, R.

    2003-04-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the United States Great Lakes on the intensity of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). One of the greatest nowcast challenges during the warm season is anticipating the impact of the Great Lakes on severe convection, particularly MCSs capable of producing damaging widespread windstorms known as derechos. Since a major derecho activity corridor lies over the Great Lakes region, it is important to understand the effects of the Lakes on the intensity and propagation of severe wind producing MCSs. Specific objectives of the research include: 1) The development of a short-term climatology of MCS events that have impacted the Great Lakes region over the past seven years; 2) An analysis of radar, satellite, surface (including buoy and lighthouse observations), and lake surface temperature data to determine the environmental conditions impacting the evolution of MCSs passing over a Great Lake; 3) An examination of MCS initiation times and seasonal frequencies of occurrence to delineate temporal consistencies in MCS evolution due to changing lake surface temperatures; and 4) The development of conceptual and forecast models to help anticipate MCS intensity and morphology as these systems interact with the Great Lakes environment.

  7. A comparison of computer methods for seawater alkalinity titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. L.; Dyrssen, D.; Jones, E. P.; Wedborg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Potentiometric hydrochloric acid titration of seawater provides a powerful technique for determining components of the carbonate system. Recently, questions have been raised regarding older computer procedures for extracting the carbonate system parameters from the titration curve. We compare four evaluation methods, an early Gran method, the GEOSECS Gran method, a new modified Gran method, and a curve-fitting method. We conclude that the new modified Gran method and the curve-fitting can result in a precision of better than 0.1% but because of possible problems associated with representing all relevant chemical reactions during titration, an alkalinity standard must be established before accuracies of 0.1% can be achieved.

  8. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  9. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26113394

  10. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26113394

  11. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications.

  12. A System to Produce Precise Global GPS Network Solutions for all Geodetic GPS Stations in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an end-to-end system that automatically seeks and routinely retrieves geodetic GPS data from ~5000 stations (currently) around the globe, reduces the data into unique, daily global network solutions, and produces high precision time series for station coordinates ready for time-series analysis, geophysical modeling and interpretation. Moreover, “carrier range” data are produced for all stations, enabling epoch-by-epoch tracking of individual station motions by precise point positioning for investigation of sub-daily processes, such as post-seismic after-slip and ocean tidal loading. Solutions are computed in a global reference frame aligned to ITRF, and optionally in user-specified continental-scale reference frames that can filter out common-mode signals to enhance regional strain anomalies. We describe the elements of this system, the underlying signal processing theory, the products, operational statistics, and scientific applications of our system. The system is fundamentally based on precise point positioning using JPL's GIPSY OASIS II software, coupled with ambiguity resolution and a global network adjustment of ~300,000 parameters per day using our newly developed Ambizap3 software. The system is designed to easily and efficiently absorb stations that deliver data very late, by recycling prior computations in the network adjustment, such that the resulting network solution is identical to starting from scratch. Thus, it becomes possible to trawl continuously the Internet for late arriving data, or for newly discovered data, and seamlessly update all GPS station time series using the new information content. As new stations are added to the processing archive, automated e-mail requests are made to H.-G. Scherneck's server at Chalmers University to compute ocean loading coefficients used by the station motion model. Rinex file headers are parsed and compared with alias tables in order to infer the correct receiver type and antenna

  13. Laser-produced plasma sensor-probe system for in situ molten metal analysis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W.

    1997-01-28

    The radically new methodology of in-situ laser-produced plasma (LPP) analysis of molten metals, as developed at Lehigh University, has been implemented into an LPP sensor-probe system, ready for deployment at steelmaking facilities. The system consists of an LPP sensor-probe head, which is immersed into the molten metal bath for the short duration of measurement, a control console, an umbilical cord connecting the above two units, and a support console providing coolants and pneumatic supports to the control console. The Department of Energy funding has supported Phase III-A and -B of the project in a joint sponsorship with AISI, CTU 5-2 Consortium, and Lehigh University. The objectives have been to: (1) implement the molten metal calibration protocol for the LPP analysis methodology; (2) implement the methodology in the form of a second-generation LPP sensor-probe system, which facilitates real-time process control by in-situ determination of elemental composition of molten steel alloys; (3) deploy such developmental systems in steelmaking facilities; (4) upgrade the systems to a third-generation design; and (5) effect technology transfer by selecting a manufacturer of commercial LPP sensor-probe systems. Four of the five objectives have been fully met. The deployment objective has been partially realized at present. The full LPP sensor-probe system has been put through trial immersion runs at a foundry, but its deployment at steelmaking facilities has progressed to a stage where various issues of financial and legal nature are being codified into a formal agreement between a host site and Lehigh University.

  14. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  15. Is litter decomposition 'primed' by primary producer-release of labile carbon in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    It is possible that recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) can be 'activated' by inputs of labile organic matter (LOM) through the priming effect (PE). Investigating the PE is of major importance to fully understand the microbial use of ROM and its role on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In aquatic ecosystems it is thought that the PE is triggered by periphytic algae release of LOM. Analogously, in terrestrial systems it is hypothesized that the LOM released in plant rhizospheres, or from the green crusts on the surface of agricultural soils, stimulate the activity and growth of ROM decomposers. Most previous studies on PE have utilised pulse additions of single substrates at high concentrations. However, to achieve an assessment of the true importance of the PE, it is important to simulate a realistic delivery of LOM. We investigated, in a series of 2-week laboratory experiments, how primary producer (PP)-release of LOM influence litter degradation in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems. We used soil (terrestrial) and pond water (aquatic) microbial communities to which litter was added under light and dark conditions. In addition, glucose was added at PP delivery rates in dark treatments to test if the putative PE in light systems could be reproduced. We observed an initial peak of bacterial growth rate followed by an overall decrease over time with no treatment differences. In light treatments, periphytic algae growth and increased fungal production was stimulated when bacterial growth declined. In contrast, both fungal growth and algal production were negligible in dark treatments. This reveals a direct positive influence of photosynthesis on fungal growth. To investigate if PP LOM supplements, and the associated fungal growth, translate into a modulated litter decomposition, we are using stable isotopes to track the use of litter and algal-derived carbon by determining the δ13C in produced CO2. Fungi and bacteria

  16. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs.

  17. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

  18. Construction of a Baculovirus-Silkworm Multigene Expression System and Its Application on Producing Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Yao, Ning; He, Jian; Peng, Li; Sun, Jingchen

    2012-01-01

    A new baculovirus-silkworm multigene expression system named Bombyx mori MultiBac is developed and described here, by which multiple expression cassettes can be introduced into the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) genome efficiently. The system consists of three donor vectors (pCTdual, pRADM and pUCDMIG) and an invasive diaminopimelate (DAP) auxotrophic recipient E. coli containing BmNPV-Bacmid (BmBacmid) with a homologous recombination region, an attTn7 site and a loxp site. Two genes carried by pCTdual are firstly inserted into BmBacmid by homologous recombination, while the other eight genes in pRADM and pUCDMIG are introduced into BmBacmid through Tn7 transposition and cre-loxp recombination. Then the invasive and DAP auxotrophic E. coli carrying recombinant BmBacmid is directly injected into silkworm for expressing heterologous genes in larvae or pupae. Three structural genes of rotavirus and three fluorescent genes have been simultaneously expressed in silkworm larvae using our new system, resulting in the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) of rotavirus and the color change of larvae. The VLPs were purified from hemolymph by ultracentrifugation using CsCl gradients, with a yield of 12.7 µg per larva. For the great capacity of foreign genes and the low cost of feeding silkworm, this high efficient BmMultiBac expression system provides a suitable platform to produce VLPs or protein complexes. PMID:22403668

  19. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  20. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.