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Sample records for alkane monolayers studied

  1. Properties of Langmuir monolayers from semifluorinated alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniatowski, M.; Macho, I. Sandez; Miñones, J.; Dynarowicz-Łątka, P.

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize several semifluorinated alkanes (SFA), of the general formula F(CF 2) m(CH 2) nH (in short F mH n), containing 25 carbon atoms in total (pentacosanes) differing in the m/ n ratio, as Langmuir monolayers at the free water surface. The following compounds have been studied: F6H19, F8H17, F10H15 and F12H13. Surface pressure ( π) and electric surface potential (Δ V) isotherms were recorded in addition to quantitative Brewster angle microscopy results. The negative sign of Δ V evidenced for the orientation of all the investigated semifluorinated pentacosanes, regardless the length of the hydrogenated segment, with their perfluorinated parts directed towards the air. As inferred from apparent dipole moment values and relative reflectivity results, the fluorinated pentacosanes with shorter perfluorinated fragment (F6H19 and F8H17) were found to be vertically oriented at the air/water interface, while those with longer perfluorinated moiety (F10H15 and F12H13) remain titled even in the vicinity of the film collapse.

  2. Monolayer solids of short (perfluoro)alkanes on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, L. W.

    2009-03-01

    Calculations are reported for the relative stability of monolayer solid latices on graphite for C2H6, C3H8, C2F6, and C3F8. Triangular, centered rectangular and two-sublattice herringbone lattices are treated. The calculations use all-atom (AA) models and are based on non-bonding interactions formulated for three dimensional dense phases of alkanes and perfluoroalkanes.

  3. Products and Kinetics of the Reactions of an Alkane Monolayer and a Terminal Alkene Monolayer with NO₃ Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Simone; Bertram, Allan K.

    2009-01-27

    The reactions of an alkanethiol and a terminal alkenethiol self-assembled monolayer with NO₃ radicals (in the presence of NO₂ and O₂) were studied. For the alkane monolayer, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the formation of organonitrates (RONO₂). The observation of organonitrates is in contrast to the recent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, which showed very little nitrogen-containing surface species. The identification of organonitrates may help explain why significant volatilization of the organic chain was not observed in recent studies of alkane monolayer oxidation by NO₃ radicals. The reactive uptake coefficient (g) of NO₃ on alkene monolayers determined in our study is higher than the values obtained in a recent study using liquid and solid alkene bulk films. A possible reason for this difference may be the location of the double bond at the interface. Using the g value determined in our studies, we show that under conditions where NO₃ is high the lifetime of an alkene monolayer in the atmosphere may be short (approximately 20 min). XPS, IR, and ToF-SIMS were used to identify surface functional groups after the oxidation of the alkene monolayers by NO₃. The results are consistent with the formation of C-O, aldehyde/ketone, carboxylic groups, and nitrogen containing species.

  4. Products and kinetics of the reactions of an alkane monolayer and a terminal alkene monolayer with NO3 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Simone; Bertram, Allan K.

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of an alkanethiol and a terminal alkenethiol self-assembled monolayer with NO3 radicals (in the presence of NO2 and O2) were studied. For the alkane monolayer, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the formation of organonitrates (RONO2). The observation of organonitrates is in contrast to the recent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, which showed very little nitrogen-containing surface species. The identification of organonitrates may help explain why significant volatilization of the organic chain was not observed in recent studies of alkane monolayer oxidation by NO3 radicals. The reactive uptake coefficient (γ) of NO3 on alkene monolayers determined in our study is higher than the values obtained in a recent study using liquid and solid alkene bulk films. A possible reason for this difference may be the location of the double bond at the interface. Using the γ value determined in our studies, we show that under conditions where NO3 is high the lifetime of an alkene monolayer in the atmosphere may be short (approximately 20 min). XPS, IR, and ToF-SIMS were used to identify surface functional groups after the oxidation of the alkene monolayers by NO3. The results are consistent with the formation of C-O, aldehyde/ketone, carboxylic groups, and nitrogen containing species.

  5. Structure and Phase Transitions of Monolayers of Intermediate-length n-alkanes on Graphite Studied by Neutron Diffraction and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, H.; Hansen, F.Y.; Diama, Amand; Matthies, Blake; Criswell, Leah; Mo, Haiding; Bai, M; Herwig, Kenneth W

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C(24)H(50) denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C(32)H(66) denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 A=sqrt[3a(g)], where a(g)=2.46 A is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a 'smectic' phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by approximately 10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.

  6. Structure and phase transitions of monolayers of intermediate-length n-alkanes on graphite studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Diama, A; Matthies, B; Herwig, K W; Hansen, F Y; Criswell, L; Mo, H; Bai, M; Taub, H

    2009-08-28

    We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C(24)H(50) denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C(32)H(66) denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 A=sqrt[3a(g)], where a(g)=2.46 A is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a "smectic" phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by approximately 10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.

  7. Structural and electric properties of two semifluorinated alkane monolayers compressed on top of a controlled hydrophobic monolayer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Abdel-Illah; Ionov, Radoslav; Goldmann, Michel

    2007-10-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior upon lateral compression of two mixed films made with one of the two semifluorinated alkanes F(CF2)8(CH2)18H and F(CF2)10(CH2)10H and the natural α -helix alamethicin peptide. Surface pressure, surface potential versus molecular area isotherms, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize this system. We show that both mixed films demix vertically to form two asymmetric flat bilayers where the lower layer is made of alamethicin and the upper layer is made of semifluorinated molecules. The structure matching of the semifluorinated alkanes (where the hydrophilic group is missing) with a suitable organization of the underlying alamethicin monolayer allows for a continuous compression of the upper semifluorinated layers while the density of the lower alamethicin monolayer remains constant. Comparing data of the two studied mixed films enables us to evaluate the effect of chain length on the in-plane organization of the molecules and on the electric properties of the upper layers.

  8. On the inclusion of alkanes into the monolayer of aliphatic alcohols at the water/alkane vapor interface: a quantum chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yuri B; Fomina, Elena S; Belyaeva, Elena A; Fainerman, Valentin B; Vollhardt, Dieter

    2013-02-14

    In the framework of the quantum chemical semiempirical PM3 method thermodynamic and structural parameters of the formation and clusterization of aliphatic alcohols C(n)H(2n+1)OH (n(OH) = 8-16) at 298 K at the water/alkane vapor C(n)H(2n+2), (n(CH(3)) = 6-16) interface were calculated. The dependencies of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy of clusterization per one monomer molecule of 2D films on the alkyl chain length of corresponding alcohols and alkanes, the molar fraction of alkanes in the monolayers and the immersion degree of alcohol molecules into the water phase were shown to be linear or stepwise. The threshold of spontaneous clusterization of aliphatic alcohols at the water/alkane vapor interface was 10-11 carbon atoms at 298 K which is in line with experimental data at the air/water interface. It is shown that the presence of alkane vapor does not influence the process of alcohol monolayer formation. The structure of these monolayers is analogous to those obtained at the air/water interface in agreement with experimental data. The inclusion of alkane molecules into the amphiphilic monolayer at the water/alkane vapor interface is possible for amphiphiles with the spontaneous clusterization threshold at the air/water interface (n(s)(0)) of at least 16 methylene units in the alkyl chain, and it does not depend on the molar fraction of alkanes in the corresponding monolayer. The inclusion of alkanes from the vapor phase into the amphiphilic monolayer also requires that the difference between the alkyl chain lengths of alcohols and alkanes is not larger than n(s)(0) - 15 and n(s)(0) - 14 for the 2D film 1 and 2D film 2, respectively.

  9. Assembling and compressing a semifluorinated alkane monolayer on a hydrophobic surface: Structural and dielectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    El Abed, Abdel I.; Ionov, Radoslav; Daoud, Mohamed; Abillon, Olivier

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior upon lateral compression of a semifluorinated alkane F(CF{sub 2}){sub 8}(CH{sub 2}){sub 18}H (denoted F{sub 8}H{sub 18}), spread on the hydrophobic top of a suitable amphiphilic monolayer: namely, a natural {alpha}-helix alamethicin peptide (alam). We show, in particular, the formation of an asymmetric flat bilayer by compressing at the air-water interface a mixed Langmuir film made of F{sub 8}H{sub 18} and alam. The particular chemical structure of F{sub 8}H{sub 18}, the suitable structure of the underlying alam monolayer and its collapse properties, allow for a continuous compression of the upper F{sub 8}H{sub 18} monolayer while the density of the lower alam monolayer remains constant. Combining grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, surface potential, and atomic force microscopy data allow for the determination of the orientation and dielectric constant of the upper F{sub 8}H{sub 18} monolayer.

  10. Structural investigation of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of semifluorinated alkanes.

    PubMed

    Dynarowicz Łatka, Patrycja; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Muñoz, Eulogia; Broniatowski, Marcin; Martín-Romero, María T; Camacho, Luis

    2006-03-30

    The behavior of a semi-fluorinated alkane (C(10)F(21)C(19)H(39)) has been studied at the air-water interface by using surface pressure and surface potential-area isotherms as well as infrared spectroscopy for the Langmuir-Blodgett films. In addition, based on the quantum chemical PM3 semiempirical approach, the dimer structure was investigated, and the double helix was found to be the most stable conformation of the dimer. The obtained results allow us to imply that the phase transition observed in the course of the surface pressure/area isotherm is due to a conformational change originating from the double helix to a vertical, single helix configuration.

  11. Theoretical study of the rhenium–alkane interaction in transition metal–alkane σ-complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cobar, Erika A.; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Bergman, Robert G.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Metal–alkane binding energies have been calculated for [CpRe(CO)2](alkane) and [(CO)2M(C5H4)CC(C5H4)M(CO)2](alkane), where M = Re or Mn. Calculated binding energies were found to increase with the number of metal–alkane interaction sites. In all cases examined, the manganese–alkane binding energies were predicted to be significantly lower than those for the analogous rhenium–alkane complexes. The metal (Mn or Re)–alkane interaction was predicted to be primarily one of charge transfer, both from the alkane to the metal complex (70–80% of total charge transfer) and from the metal complex to the alkane (20–30% of the total charge transfer). PMID:17442751

  12. Theoretical study of the rhenium-alkane interaction in transition metal-alkane sigma-complexes.

    PubMed

    Cobar, Erika A; Khaliullin, Rustam Z; Bergman, Robert G; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2007-04-24

    Metal-alkane binding energies have been calculated for [CpRe(CO)2](alkane) and [(CO)2M(C5H4)C[triple bond]C(C5H4)M(CO)2](alkane), where M = Re or Mn. Calculated binding energies were found to increase with the number of metal-alkane interaction sites. In all cases examined, the manganese-alkane binding energies were predicted to be significantly lower than those for the analogous rhenium-alkane complexes. The metal (Mn or Re)-alkane interaction was predicted to be primarily one of charge transfer, both from the alkane to the metal complex (70-80% of total charge transfer) and from the metal complex to the alkane (20-30% of the total charge transfer).

  13. A molecular dynamics study of the packing structures in monolayers of partially fluorinated amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seokmin; Collazo, Nancy; Rice, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-supported monolayers of three partially fluorinated amphiphile molecules, namely CF3(CF2)9CH2COOH, CF3(CF2)6CH2(CF2)3COOH, and CF3(CF2)6(CH2)4COOH. These studies were undertaken to provide information on the interplay between molecular flexibility and the packing structure in a monolayer so as to better interpret the results of recent experiments. The qualitative aspects of the predictions of the simulations are consistent with the recent experimental data for monolayers of CF3(CF2)9CH2COOH [S. W. Barton, A. Goudot, O. Boulassa, F. Rondelez, B. Lin, F. Novak, A. Acero, and S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 96, xxx (1992)]. In particular, the observed breakup of the homogeneous ordered monolayer into ordered islands with the same collective tilt of the molecules is correctly predicted, and the fact that the collective tilt angle is small is correctly predicted. However, the experimental and theoretical values of the tilt angles are not in quantitative agreement, which we attribute to the inadequacy of the atom-atom potentials used in the simulations. In general, for monolayers of CF3(CF2)9CH2COOH we find that the collective tilt angle predicted is a sensitive function of the area per molecule and is smaller than in monolayers of alkane alcohols and alkane acids. The results of the simulations of monolayers of other partially fluorinated species suggest that the difference in size between the fluorocarbon segments and the smaller head groups or flexible ``spacer'' CH2 segments can generate subtle changes in the packing structure of a monolayer and the relative stabilities of the untilted and tilted structures.

  14. Biochemical studies on the metabolic activation of halogenated alkanes.

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, K H; Albano, E F; Tomasi, A; Slater, T F

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews recent investigations by Slater and colleagues into the metabolic activation of halogenated alkanes in general and carbon tetrachloride in particular. It is becoming increasingly accepted that free radical intermediates are involved in the toxicity of many such compounds through mechanisms including lipid peroxidation, covalent binding, and cofactor depletion. Here we describe the experimental approaches that are used to establish that halogenated alkanes are metabolized in animal tissues to reactive free radicals. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy is used to identify free-radical products, often using spin-trapping compounds. The generation of specific free radicals by radiolytic methods is useful in the determination of the precise reactivity of radical intermediates postulated to be injurious to the cell. The enzymic mechanism of the production of such free radicals and their subsequent reactions with biological molecules is studied with specific metabolic inhibitors and free-radical scavengers. These combined techniques provide considerable insight into the process of metabolic activation of halogenated compounds. It is readily apparent, for instance, that the local oxygen concentration at the site of activation is of crucial importance to the subsequent reactions; the formation of peroxy radical derivatives from the primary free-radical product is shown to be of great significance in relation to carbon tetrachloride and may be of general importance. However, while these studies have provided much information on the biochemical mechanisms of halogenated alkane toxicity, it is clear that many problems remain to be solved. PMID:3007102

  15. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies. [Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.

    1981-09-01

    Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed.

  16. Nonlinear optical studies of organic monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.

    1988-02-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical effects are forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry, but are necessarily allowed at a surface where the inversion summary is broken. They are often sufficiently strong so that a submonolayer perturbation of the surface can be readily detected. They can therefore be used as effective tools to study monolayers adsorbed at various interfaces. We discuss here a number of recent experiments in which optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) are employed to probe and characterize organic monolayers. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Compression-Induced Conformation and Orientation Changes in an n-Alkane Monolayer on a Au(111) Surface.

    PubMed

    Endo, Osamu; Nakamura, Masashi; Amemiya, Kenta; Ozaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-13

    The influence of the preparation method and adsorbed amount of n-tetratetracontane (n-C44H90) on its orientation in a monolayer on the Au(111) surface is studied by near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (C K-NEXAFS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultrahigh vacuum, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) at the electrochemical interface in sulfuric acid solution. The n-C44H90 molecules form self-assembled lamellar structures with the chain axis parallel to the surface, as observed by STM. For small amounts adsorbed, the carbon plane is parallel to the surface (flat-on orientation). An increase in the adsorbed amount by ∼10-20% induces compression of the lamellar structure either along the lamellar axis or alkyl chain axis. The compressed molecular arrangement is observed by STM, and induced conformation and orientation changes are confirmed by in situ IRAS and C K-NEXAFS.

  18. Kinetic study of asphaltene dissolution in amphiphile/alkane solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Permsukarome, P.; Chang, C.; Fogler, H.S.

    1997-09-01

    The kinetics of dissolution of pentane-insoluble solid asphaltene precipitates by amphiphile/alkane solutions were investigated using a differential reactor flow system. Two amphiphiles, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid and nonylphenol, and five alkane solvents, ranging from hexane to hexadecane, were used. Results showed that the rate of asphaltene dissolution in amphiphile/alkane fluids could be approximated with a first-order kinetics with respect to the undissolved asphaltene mass in solution. The specific dissolution rate constant, k, varied with the concentration of amphiphiles, the type of alkane solvents, the temperature, and the fluid flow rate. The rate of asphaltene dissolution displayed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics with respect to the concentration of amphiphiles. Increasing the temperature of amphiphile/alkane fluids also enhanced the rate of asphaltene dissolution. The apparent activation energy for asphaltene dissolution was approximated to be 4--7 kcal/mol. The rate of asphaltene dissolution was also greater in amphiphile solutions containing lighter alkanes, such as hexane, with lower viscosities. These trends suggest that both surface reaction and mass transfer processes are important to the rate of asphaltene dissolution in amphiphile/alkane fluids.

  19. Compressibility study of quaternary phospholipid blend monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Leide P; Tho, Ingunn; Konovalov, Oleg; Fossheim, Sigrid; Brandl, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The mechanical properties of liposome membranes are strongly dependent on type and ratio of lipid compounds, which can have important role in drug targeting and release processes when liposome is used as drug carrier. In this work we have used Brewster's angle microscopy to monitor the lateral compression process of lipid monolayers containing as helper lipids either distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) or dioleoyl phophatidylethanolamine (DOPE) molecules on the Langmuir trough. The compressibility coefficient was determined for lipid blend monolayers containing the helper lipids above, cholesterol, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and pegylated-DSPE at room temperature. Two variables, the cholesterol fraction and the ratio ρ between the helper lipid (either DSPE or DOPE) and the reference lipid DSPC, were studied by multivariate analysis to evaluate their impact on the compressibility coefficient of the monolayers. The cholesterol level was found to be the most significant variable for DSPE blends while the ratio ρ was the most significant one for DOPE blend monolayers. It was also found that these two variables can exhibit positive interaction and the same compressibility value can be obtained with different blend compositions.

  20. Hydrogen-hydrogen bonds in highly branched alkanes and in alkane complexes: A DFT, ab initio, QTAIM, and ELF study.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Norberto K V; Firme, Caio L

    2014-03-06

    The hydrogen-hydrogen (H-H) bond or hydrogen-hydrogen bonding is formed by the interaction between a pair of identical or similar hydrogen atoms that are close to electrical neutrality and it yields a stabilizing contribution to the overall molecular energy. This work provides new, important information regarding hydrogen-hydrogen bonds. We report that stability of alkane complexes and boiling point of alkanes are directly related to H-H bond, which means that intermolecular interactions between alkane chains are directional H-H bond, not nondirectional induced dipole-induced dipole. Moreover, we show the existence of intramolecular H-H bonds in highly branched alkanes playing a secondary role in their increased stabilities in comparison with linear or less branched isomers. These results were accomplished by different approaches: density functional theory (DFT), ab initio, quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), and electron localization function (ELF).

  1. Abscisic acid-lipid interactions: a phospholipid monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Bürner, H; Benz, R; Gimmler, H; Hartung, W; Stillwell, W

    1993-08-15

    Lipid monolayer studies were performed on a Langmuir trough in the absence and in the presence of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA-induced effects on the lipid monolayers can be summarized as follows: (i) ABA as the free acid (pH below 5.3) increased the molecular area and slightly decreased the surface pressure in the collapse points of monolayers made of saturated, unsaturated and of mixed lipids; ABA as the anion showed only minor effects. (ii) The ABA-induced area increase of the lipid monolayers decreased when the surface pressure increased, but some ABA remained in the monolayers made of unsaturated phospholipids even at collapse pressure. (iii) The incorporation of ABA into the monolayers could be inhibited by adding the plant sterol beta-sitosterol to the monolayer forming phospholipids. (iv) There was no substantial difference of ABA action on plant phospholipids as compared with other phospholipids. (v) ABA had a much stronger influence on unsaturated phospholipids than on saturated ones. (vi) ABA decreased the phase-transition temperature of saturated phospholipids. These results, which agree with those obtained from phospholipid vesicle studies, indicate that the physical state of the lipid is important for the ability of ABA penetrating into the lipid monolayer. Finally, a possible relevance of these results is discussed in terms of the action of ABA on guard cell membranes of plants.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of model Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opps, S. B.; Yang, B.; Gray, C. G.; Sullivan, D. E.

    2001-04-01

    This paper examines some of the basic properties of a model Langmuir monolayer, consisting of surfactant molecules deposited onto a water subphase. The surfactants are modeled as rigid rods composed of a head and tail segment of diameters σhh and σtt, respectively. The tails consist of nt~4-7 effective monomers representing methylene groups. These rigid rods interact via site-site Lennard-Jones potentials with different interaction parameters for the tail-tail, head-tail, and head-head interactions. In a previous paper, we studied the ground-state properties of this system using a Landau approach. In the present paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble to elucidate the finite-temperature behavior of this system. Simulation techniques, incorporating a system of dynamic filters, allow us to decrease CPU time with negligible statistical error. This paper focuses on several of the key parameters, such as density, head-tail diameter mismatch, and chain length, responsible for driving transitions from uniformly tilted to untilted phases and between different tilt-ordered phases. Upon varying the density of the system, with σhh=σtt, we observe a transition from a tilted (NNN)-condensed phase to an untilted-liquid phase and, upon comparison with recent experiments with fatty acid-alcohol and fatty acid-ester mixtures [M. C. Shih, M. K. Durbin, A. Malik, P. Zschack, and P. Dutta, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9132 (1994); E. Teer, C. M. Knobler, C. Lautz, S. Wurlitzer, J. Kildae, and T. M. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1913 (1997)], we identify this as the L'2/Ov-L1 phase boundary. By varying the head-tail diameter ratio, we observe a decrease in Tc with increasing mismatch. However, as the chain length was increased we observed that the transition temperatures increased and differences in Tc due to head-tail diameter mismatch were diminished. In most of the present research, the water was treated as a hard surface, whereby the surfactants are only

  3. Monte Carlo studies of model Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Opps, S B; Yang, B; Gray, C G; Sullivan, D E

    2001-04-01

    This paper examines some of the basic properties of a model Langmuir monolayer, consisting of surfactant molecules deposited onto a water subphase. The surfactants are modeled as rigid rods composed of a head and tail segment of diameters sigma(hh) and sigma(tt), respectively. The tails consist of n(t) approximately 4-7 effective monomers representing methylene groups. These rigid rods interact via site-site Lennard-Jones potentials with different interaction parameters for the tail-tail, head-tail, and head-head interactions. In a previous paper, we studied the ground-state properties of this system using a Landau approach. In the present paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble to elucidate the finite-temperature behavior of this system. Simulation techniques, incorporating a system of dynamic filters, allow us to decrease CPU time with negligible statistical error. This paper focuses on several of the key parameters, such as density, head-tail diameter mismatch, and chain length, responsible for driving transitions from uniformly tilted to untilted phases and between different tilt-ordered phases. Upon varying the density of the system, with sigma(hh)=sigma(tt), we observe a transition from a tilted (NNN)-condensed phase to an untilted-liquid phase and, upon comparison with recent experiments with fatty acid-alcohol and fatty acid-ester mixtures [M. C. Shih, M. K. Durbin, A. Malik, P. Zschack, and P. Dutta, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9132 (1994); E. Teer, C. M. Knobler, C. Lautz, S. Wurlitzer, J. Kildae, and T. M. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1913 (1997)], we identify this as the L'(2)/Ov-L1 phase boundary. By varying the head-tail diameter ratio, we observe a decrease in T(c) with increasing mismatch. However, as the chain length was increased we observed that the transition temperatures increased and differences in T(c) due to head-tail diameter mismatch were diminished. In most of the present research, the water was treated as a hard

  4. Stable Isotopic Studies of n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Davidova, Irene A.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium. PMID:16332800

  5. Stable isotopic studies of n-alkane metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Davidova, Irene A; Gieg, Lisa M; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G; Suflita, Joseph M

    2005-12-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium.

  6. Surface freezing in binary alkane-alcohol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ofer, E.; Sloutskin, E.; Tamam, L.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B. M.

    2006-08-15

    Surface freezing was detected and studied in mixtures of alcohol and alkane molecules, using surface tensiometry and surface-specific x-ray scattering methods. Considering that surface freezing in pure alkanes forms an ordered monolayer and in alcohols it forms an ordered bilayer, the length mismatch repulsion was minimized by varying the carbon number of the alkane component around 2n, where n is the carbon number of the alcohol molecule. A solutionlike behavior was found for all mixtures, where the ideal liquid mixture phase-separates upon freezing both in the bulk and the surface. The solid exhibits a herringbone crystalline phase below an alkane mole fraction {phi}{sub t}{approx_equal}0.8 and a rotator phase above it. The surface frozen film below {phi}{sub t} is an alkane monolayer exhibiting a next-nearest neighbor molecular tilt of a composition-dependent magnitude. Above {phi}{sub t}, no diffraction peaks were observed. This could be explained by the intrinsically shorter-range order of the rotator phase and a possible proliferation of defects.

  7. The growth study of bilayer and monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Xiang, Junxiang; Liu, Ping; Xiang, Bin

    2017-09-01

    The bilayer two-dimensional (2D) material design is indispensable to its future device applications. However, a controllable growth of bilayer 2D material still remains challenging. Here, we report a growth mechanism study of bilayer and monolayer WSe2 by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. By tuning different growth parameters, we realized a bilayer growth on a monolayer WSe2 triangle domain, which was confirmed by optical microscopy, atom force microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence characterizations. Our results reveal that original nucleation site for monolayer growth plays a key role to trigger a subsequent layer growth from the top surface of a monolayer domain. We have also found that a triangle domain was evolved from a hexagonal shape structure. It provides a general guideline for controllable growth of other 2D materials.

  8. Melting of thin films of alkanes on magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, T.; Barbour, A.; Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E.; Fernandez-Canato, D.; Landry, P.; Seydel, T.; Yaron, P.; Larese, J. Z.

    2009-02-01

    Recent incoherent neutron scattering investigations of the dynamics of thin alkane films adsorbed on the Magnesium Oxide (100) surface are reported. There are marked differences in the behaviour of these films, as a function of temperature and coverage, compared to similar measurements on graphite. In particular, it has previously been shown that adsorbed multilayer films on graphite exhibit an interfacial solid monolayer that coexists with bulk-like liquid, well above the bulk melting point. In contrast, these studies show that the alkane films on MgO exhibit no such stabilization of the solid layer closest to the substrate as a function of the film thickness, even though the monolayer crystal structures are remarkably similar. These studies are supported by extensive thermodynamic data, a growing body of structural data from neutron diffraction and state of the art computer modelling

  9. Genomic and biochemical studies demonstrating the absence of an alkane-producing phenotype in Vibrio furnissii M1.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Lawrence P; Frias, Janice A; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Sukovich, David J; Cameron, Stephan M

    2007-11-01

    Vibrio furnissii M1 was recently reported to biosynthesize n-alkanes when grown on biopolymers, sugars, or organic acids (M. O. Park, J. Bacteriol. 187:1426-1429, 2005). In the present study, V. furnissii M1 was subjected to genomic analysis and studied biochemically. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene and repetitive PCR showed that V. furnissii M1 was not identical to other V. furnissii strains tested, but the level of relatedness was consistent with its assignment as a V. furnissii strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed chromosomal bands at approximately 3.2 and 1.8 Mb, similar to other Vibrio strains. Complete genomic DNA from V. furnissii M1 was sequenced with 21-fold coverage. Alkane biosynthetic and degradation genes could not be identified. Moreover, V. furnissii M1 did not produce demonstrable levels of n-alkanes in vivo or in vitro. In vivo experiments were conducted by growing V. furnissii M1 under different conditions, extracting with solvent, and analyzing extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A highly sensitive assay was used for in vitro experiments with cell extracts and [(14)C]hexadecanol. The data are consistent with the present strain being a V. furnissii with properties similar to those previously described but lacking the alkane-producing phenotype. V. furnissii ATCC 35016, also reported to biosynthesize alkanes, was found in the present study not to produce alkanes.

  10. Self-Assembled Monolayers: a Molecular Resolution STM Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhirani, Al-Amin

    Building on studies of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on the (CH_3(CH _2)_{rm n{-}1}SH) + Au(111) prototype, we have designed and constructed a high impedance STM to consider the formation and properties of new SAM systems with molecular resolution. On Au-, Ag-, and Pt-(111), the monolayer structures of n-decanethiol were found to be (1) ordered on gold and silver but not platinum (2) strongly correlated with the structures formed by simpler sulfur components. In addition the potential formation and properties of new molecular classes of ordered SAMs were considered by studying monolayers of H(C _6H_4Cequiv C)_{rm n}C _6H_4SH (n = 0 - 2) (1a - c) on Au(111). An increase in order with chain length as well as the formation of an ordered SAM by 1c were observed. Finally, current-voltage (I-V) measurements of 1 monolayers displayed an increasing nonlinearity with chain length and an asymmetry for 1c. The electrical behavior is consistent with a model based on a semi-classical tunneling formalism using the barrier height and molecular polarizability of 1.

  11. Second harmonic generation study of liquid surface and amphilphile monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis contains the following topics. In Chapter 2, we use temperature dependent SHC to study the surface structure of some neat liquids. It was found all the hydrogen bonding liquids have a stronger SHG dependence of temperature while for the non-hydrogen bonding liquids SH response is insensitive to temperature change. In Chapter 3, we discussed the general feature of the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG). We experimentally established the importance of the {chi}{sup (3)} mechanism at the air/water charged interface. In Chapter 4, we used SHG to study the p-nitrophenol (PNP) penetration into the insoluble monolayer of hexadecyl and pentadecyl acid. It was found that PNP preferentially adsorbs at the fatty acid monolayer. The population and orientation of PNP is strongly dependent on the fatty acid monolayer packing. In Chapter 5, SH signal fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the surface self-diffusion within the monolayer gas-liquid co-existence region. Assuming the uniform distribution of the liquid phase cluster size, a diffusion model was developed to fit the experimental measured autocorrelation function. In Chapter 6, SH fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the monolayer orientation spontaneous fluctuation. It was found that only the electron rich aromatic head groups exhibit the orientational fluctuation while the electron poor aromatic molecules do not have a fluctuation anomalies. Fluctuation time scale is strongly influenced by the hydrophobic chain length. A quantitative theory was presented based on Landau-Ginzburg theory to fit the time dependent orientation fluctuation. In Chapter 7, we focused on the acid-base equilibrium constant measurement at the air/water interface using both {chi}{sup (2)} and {chi}{sup (2)} method. We have measured pKa of aniline, phenol, amine, and acid at the interface. It turned out that for all these species, the neutral form is more stable at the interface.

  12. Synthesis, conformational and theoretical studies of 1,n-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachander, R.; Manimekalai, A.

    2016-01-01

    1,n-di(2-Formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes 1 and 2 and 1,3-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxymethyl)benzene 3 were synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The stable conformations of 1-3 were predicted theoretically and selected geometrical parameters were derived from optimized structures. The molecular parameters of HOMO-LUMO energies, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, natural bond orbital (NBO), atom in molecule (AIM) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces were determined by the density functional theory (DFT) method and analysed.

  13. Hydrogen bond fluctuations and dispersive interactions of alcohol/alkane mixtures. An ultrasonic relaxation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Behrends, Ralph

    2011-06-01

    The relaxation behaviour of 1-hexanol/n-heptane and 1-dodecanol/n-tetradecane mixtures has been studied at some compositions using ultrasonic attenuation spectrometry in the frequency range 0.4-3000 MHz. All mixtures reveal a relaxation term due to hydrogen network fluctuations. It is discussed in conjunction with the principle dielectric relaxation of alcohol/alkane mixtures, indicating a dynamically micro-heterogeneous liquid structure. The spectra of the long-chain alcohol system display an additional relaxation due to the structural isomerisation of the hydrocarbon chains. In terms of a torsional oscillator model this relaxation reveals the effect of molecular ordering on the enthalpy of activation.

  14. Added Alkane Allows Thermal Thinning of Supramolecular Columns by Forming Superlattice-An X-ray and Neutron Study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ming-Huei; Chaiprapa, Jitrin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Liu, Yongsong; Cseh, Liliana; Mehl, Georg H; Ungar, Goran

    2016-05-11

    We report a columnar superlattice formed by blends of dendron-like Li 3,4,5-tris(n-alkoxy)benzoates with n-alkanes. Without the alkane, the wedge-shaped molecules form liquid crystal columns with 3 dendrons in a supramolecular disk. The same structure exists in the blend, but on heating one dendron is expelled from the disks in every third column and is replaced by the alkane. This superlattice of unequal columns is confirmed by complementary X-ray and neutron diffraction studies. Lateral thermal expansion of dendrons normally leads to the expulsion of excess molecules from the column, reducing the column diameter. However, in the already narrow columns of pure Li salt, expulsion of one of only three dendrons in a disk is not viable. The added alkane facilitates the expulsion, as it replaces the missing dendron. Replacing the alkane with a functional compound can potentially lead to active nanoarrays with relatively large periodicity by using only small molecules.

  15. Computational study on hole conduction in normal alkanes: Anisotropy and effect of dynamic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Hirano, T.; Sato, F.

    2017-02-01

    Despite its importance, carrier conduction in electrical insulators is poorly understood. This work presents a computational study of hole conduction in single crystalline alkanes (n-C18H38 and n-C36H74). Hole mobilities are computed with the combination of molecular dynamics simulation, quantum chemical calculation, and the kinetic Monte Carlo method. The hole hopping rate is computed by the Fermi golden rule rate kernel without high temperature approximation. A strong correlation between the anisotropy of hole mobility and crystalline morphology is found. Hole mobilities in the direction of the c axis are more than an order of magnitude larger than those in the a - b plane. At room temperature, hole mobility is increased by roughly a factor of 10 due to the thermal motion of molecules. Computed anisotropic hole mobilities are in reasonable agreement with experimental values when the effect of dynamic disorder is taken into account. The results strongly indicate that hole transfer in crystalline alkane occurs in the phonon-assisted transport regime.

  16. Thermodynamic aspects of cholesterol effect on properties of phospholipid monolayers: Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Małgorzata

    2013-04-04

    Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts in mammalian cell membranes. Studies of phospholipid monolayers containing cholesterol provide insight into the role of cholesterol in regulating the properties of animal cells, raft stability, and organization. In this contribution, a study of the characteristics of binary Langmuir monolayers consisting of phospholipids, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DPPG), and cholesterol (Chol), was conducted on the basis of the surface pressure-area per molecule (π-A) isotherms. Analysis of the results obtained provided information on the mean molecular area, the excess Gibbs energy of mixing, and condensation in the monolayer. The mixed monolayers were also deposited onto the mica plates and investigated by the contact angle measurements of water, formamide, and diiodomethane. The contact angles allowed calculating surface free energy of the films from the van Oss et al. approach. It was found that cholesterol determines the molecular packing and ordering of the monolayers closely connected with the kind of phospholipid. This is reflected in the values of surface free energy of the model membranes. From the thermodynamic analysis of phospholipid/cholesterol/liquid interactions, one may draw conclusions about the most favorable composition (stoichiometry) of the binary film which is especially important in view of the lipid rafts formation.

  17. Interaction of prazosin with model membranes--a Langmuir monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Klekowska, Ewelina

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the effect of prazosin on the molecular interactions between cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) within a monolayer at an air-water interface was studied. A mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayer was employed as a model lipid membrane. From a detailed analysis of surface pressure-area isotherms, it was concluded that DPPC and cholesterol were miscible and formed non-ideal monolayers on prazosin solution. The thermodynamic stability of the mixed monolayers was investigated by analyzing the free energy of mixing. It was found that the mixed monolayers were more stable than the single component monolayers. Monolayers spread over a subphase with prazosin were more compressible than those spread on pure water. To quantify the effect of prazosin on the monolayer stability, the Gibbs free energy due to the presence of prazosin in the water subphase was calculated. It was found that prazosin penetrated and destabilized mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayers. However, a comparison of the drug penetration into the pure DPPC monolayer and the mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayer showed that the presence of cholesterol in the DPPC monolayer considerably restricted the drug penetration.

  18. Microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy study of alkan-1-ol/alkylbenzoate binary solvents.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ana M; García, Begoña; Ibeas, Saturnino; Hoyuelos, Francisco J; Peñacoba, Indalecio A; Leal, José M

    2013-10-03

    The structure and dynamics of alkan-1-ol/alkylbenzoate binary mixtures have been studied by microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the 200 MHz to 20 GHz frequency range. The binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and pentan-1-ol with methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl benzoates were studied at 298.15 K. The relaxational response of the pure alcohols, pure esters, and their binary mixtures over the full composition range is properly described by the Havriliak-Negami model. The alcohol content, alcohol length, and alkyl side-chain effects on the relaxational properties have been studied for these mixtures over the whole composition range. From the experimental readings, the effective and the corrective Kirkwood and Bruggeman correlation factors have been calculated. The data gathered have been interpreted in terms of the alkyl side-chain effect and their reliance on the mixture composition.

  19. Relative rate studies of the reactions of chlorine atoms with simple alkanes and the chlorinated methanes

    SciTech Connect

    Wingen, L.; Lee, J.J.; Neavyn, R.

    1995-12-01

    The reactions of chlorine atoms with organics are of interest because atomic chlorine is a potential tropospheric oxidant. Relative rate constants for the reaction of pairs of simple alkanes (ethane/propane, ethane/n-butane, and isobutane/n-butane) and the chlorinated methanes (chloromethane, dichloromethane, and chloroform relative to methane) were measured, using the photolysis of Cl{sub 2} as the source of chlorine atoms and following the loss of the organics by GC-FID. The ratios of the relative rate constants were in excellent agreement with the literature except for ethane/n-butane, where our results are approximately 20% lower than recently published values, and for chloroform/methane, where our value is approximately 50% higher than the values recommended by JPL and JPCRD. Our results will be compard to previously published relative rate studies as well as to the results of absolute rate constant studies, and the differences will be discussed.

  20. Mechanistic Insights into Alkane Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydrides: A DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Zarur, Francisco; Solans-Monfort, Xavier; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2017-09-05

    Alkane metathesis transforms small alkanes into their higher and lower homologues. The reaction is catalyzed by either supported d(0) metal hydrides (M = Ta, W) or d(0) alkyl alkylidene complexes (M = Ta, Mo, W, Re). For the silica-supported tantalum hydrides, several reaction mechanisms have been proposed. We performed DFT-D3 calculations to analyze the viability of the proposed pathways and compare them with alkane hydrogenolysis, which is a competitive process observed at the early stages of the reaction. The results show that the reaction mechanisms for alkane metathesis and for alkane hydrogenolysis present similar energetics, and this is consistent with the fact that the process taking place depends on the concentrations of the initial reactants. Overall, a modified version of the so-called one-site mechanism that involves alkyl alkylidene intermediates appears to be more likely and consistent with experiments. According to this proposal, tantalum hydrides are precursors of the alkyl alkylidene active species. During precursor activation, H2 is released and this allows alkane hydrogenolysis to occur. In contrast, the catalytic cycle implies only the reaction with alkane molecules in excess and does not form H2. Thus, the activity for alkane hydrogenolysis decreases. The catalytic cycle proposed here implies three stages: (i) β-H elimination from the alkyl ligand, liberating ethene, (ii) alkene cross-metathesis, allowing olefin substituent exchange, and (iii) formation of the final products and alkyl alkylidene regeneration by olefin insertion and three successive 1,2-CH insertions to the alkylidene followed by α abstraction. These results relate the reactivity of silica-supported hydrides with that of the alkyl alkylidene complexes, the other common catalyst for alkane metathesis.

  1. Effects of Cardiolipin on Membrane Morphology: A Langmuir Monolayer Study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh Dinh; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a complex phospholipid that is specifically found in mitochondria. Owing to the association of the CL levels with mitochondrial physiopathology such as in Parkinson’s disease, we study the molecular effect of CL on membrane organization using model Langmuir monolayer, fluorescence microscopy, and x-ray reflectivity. We find that the liquid-expanded phase in membranes increases with increasing CL concentration, indicating an increase in the elasticity of the mixed membrane. The Gibbs excess free energy of mixing indicates that the binary monolayer composed of CL and DPPC is most thermodynamically stable at ΦCL = 10 mol %, and the stability is enhanced when the surface pressure is increased. Additionally, when ΦCL is small, the expansion of the membrane with increasing CL content was slower at higher surface pressure. These abnormal results are indicative of a folding structure being present before a collapsing structure, which was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy and was characterized by using x-ray reflectivity with the electron density profile along the membrane’s surface normal. PMID:25902437

  2. An OEGylated thiol monolayer for the tethering of liposomes and the study of liposome interactions.

    PubMed

    Briand, Elisabeth; Humblot, Vincent; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop a protocol for the specific immobilization of liposomes, via tethers, onto functionalized gold surfaces, and in addition to give one example for such a surface architecture. All surface functionalization steps are charcerized and controlled. First, mixed thiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared from COOH- and OCH(3)-terminated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) alkane thiols were characterized by polarization modulation reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS) and by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The composition of the mixed SAMs was found to be close to that of the thiol solution. Next, grafting of biotin conjugated with an NH(2)-terminated OEG spacer (biotin-OEG-NH(2)) to the COOH groups via conventional amine coupling was optimized with respect to the COOH/OCH(3) ratio of the SAM. The grafting of biotin-OEG-NH(2) was assessed by monitoring the binding of neutravidin and albumin to the biotinylated surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), as well as by PM-RAIRS. It was shown that a COOH/OCH(3) ratio of around 0.3 was sufficient to saturate the SAMs with neutravidin. Finally, tethering of liposomes onto the neutravidin-terminated SAMs, was achieved. As an application example, of a close packed layer of tethered liposomes was exposed to the membrane-penetrating peptide melittin. As monitored by QCM-D, the liposomes fused when interacting with the peptide and ruptured into an extended, supported lipid bilayer over the whole surface. In summary, the described surface modification has potential for the development of assays requiring tethered intact liposomes, or tethered planar bilayers. Such surface architectures are especially important for the study of transmembrane proteins and peptides.

  3. Length dependence of the thermal conductance of alkane-based single-molecule junctions: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöckner, J. C.; Bürkle, M.; Cuevas, J. C.; Pauly, F.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we present here a systematic ab initio study of the length dependence of the thermal conductance of single-molecule junctions. We make use of a combination of density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function techniques to investigate the length dependence of the phonon transport in single-alkane chains, contacted with gold electrodes via both thiol and amine anchoring groups. Additionally, we study the effect of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms in the alkane chains by heavier fluorine atoms to form polytetrafluoroethylenes. Our results demonstrate that (i) the room-temperature thermal conductance is fairly length independent for chains with more than 5 methylene units and (ii) the efficiency of the thermal transport is strongly influenced by the strength of the phononic metal-molecule coupling. Our study sheds light on the phonon transport in molecular junctions, and it provides clear guidelines for the design of molecular junctions for thermal management.

  4. X-ray specular reflection studies of silicon coated by organic monolayers (alkylsiloxanes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidswell, I. M.; Ocko, B. M.; Pershan, P. S.; Wasserman, S. R.; Whitesides, G. M.; Axe, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray specular reflectivity has been used to characterize the structure of silicon-silicon-oxide surfaces coated with chemisorbed hydrocarbon monolayer films (alkylsiloxanes). Using synchrotron radiation the reflectivity was followed over 9 orders of magnitude, from grazing incidence to an incident angle of φ~=6.5°, or q=(4π/λ)sin(φ)=0.8 Å-1, allowing a spatial resolution of features approximately π/0.8~=4.0 Å along the surface normal. Analysis was performed by fitting the data to reflectivities calculated from models of the surface electron density and by calculating Patterson functions directly from the data. Although the measured reflectivities could be equally well described by different sets of model parameters, the electron densities calculated from these different parameters were remarkably alike. Inspection of the electron densities allowed identification of a layer of SiO2 (~=17-Å thick), a layer of head-group region where the alkylsiloxane adsorbs to the SiO2, and the hydrocarbon layer. Fitting the data also required that the various interfaces have different widths. The fact that the same local hydrocarbon density of 0.85 g/cm3 was observed for both fully formed and partially formed monolayers with alkane chains of varying length excluded a model in which the partially formed monolayer was made up of separated islands of well-formed monolayers. Measurements before and after chemical reaction of a monolayer in which the alkyl chain was terminated by an olefinic group demonstrated the ability to use x-ray reflectivity to characterize chemical changes. The effects of radiation damage on these types of measurements are described.

  5. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Priyank

    In order to enhance the fuel efficiency of an engine and to control pollutant formation, an improved understanding of the combustion chemistry of the fuels at a fundamental level is paramount. This knowledge can be gained by developing detailed reaction mechanisms of the fuels for various combustion processes and by studying combustion analytically employing reduced-chemistry descriptions. There is a need for small detailed reaction mechanisms for alkane and alcohol fuels with reduced uncertainties in their combustion chemistry that are computationally cheaper in multidimensional CFD calculations. Detailed mechanisms are the starting points in identifying reduced-chemistry descriptions of combustion processes to study problems analytically. This research includes numerical, experimental and analytical studies. The first part of the dissertation consists of numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames. Although ethanol has gained popularity as a possible low-pollution source of renewable energy, significant uncertainties remain in its combustion chemistry. To begin to address ethanol combustion, first a relatively small detailed reaction mechanism, commonly known as the San Diego Mech, is developed for the combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, methane, methanol, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene, in air or oxygen-inert mixtures. This mechanism is tested for autoignition, premixed-flame burning velocities, and structures and extinction of diffusion flames and of partially premixed flames of many of these fuels. The reduction in uncertainties in the combustion chemistry can best be achieved by consistently updating a reaction mechanism with reaction rate data for the elementary steps based on newer studies in literature and by testing it against as many experimental conditions as available. The results of such a testing for abovementioned fuels are reported here along with the modifications of reaction-rate parameters of the most important

  6. Doping of rhenium disulfide monolayers: a systematic first principles study.

    PubMed

    Çakır, Deniz; Sahin, Hasan; Peeters, François M

    2014-08-21

    The absence of a direct-to-indirect band gap transition in ReS2 when going from the monolayer to bulk makes it special among the other semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides. The functionalization of this promising layered material emerges as a necessity for the next generation technological applications. Here, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of substitutionally doped ReS2 monolayers at either the S or Re site were systematically studied by using first principles density functional calculations. We found that substitutional doping of ReS2 depends sensitively on the growth conditions of ReS2. Among the large number of non-metallic atoms, namely H, B, C, Se, Te, F, Br, Cl, As, P, and N, we identified the most promising candidates for n-type and p-type doping of ReS2. While Cl is an ideal candidate for n-type doping, P appears to be the most promising candidate for p-type doping of the ReS2 monolayer. We also investigated the doping of ReS2 with metal atoms, namely Mo, W, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Nb, Zn, Ru, Os and Pt. Mo, Nb, Ti, and V atoms are found to be easily incorporated in a single layer of ReS2 as substitutional impurities at the Re site for all growth conditions considered in this work. Tuning chemical potentials of dopant atoms energetically makes it possible to dope ReS2 with Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, W, Ru, and Os at the Re site. We observe a robust trend for the magnetic moments when substituting a Re atom with metal atoms such that depending on the electronic configuration of dopant atoms, the net magnetic moment of the doped ReS2 becomes either 0 or 1 μB. Among the metallic dopants, Mo is the best candidate for p-type doping of ReS2 owing to its favorable energetics and promising electronic properties.

  7. Pulse radiolysis of alkanes: A time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance study

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.A.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1994-02-14

    Time-resolved spin-echo-detected electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was applied to examine short-lived alkyl radicals formed in pulse radiolysis of liquid alkanes. It was found that the ratio of yields of penultimate and interior radicals in n-alkanes at the instant of their generation is temperature-independent and is ca. 1.25 times greater than the statistical quantity. This higher-than-statistical production of penultimate radicals indicates that the fast ion molecule reactions involving radical cations are a significant route of radical generation. The analysis of spin-echo kinetics in n-alkanes suggests that the alkyl radicals are emissively polarized in spur reactions. this initial polarization rapidly increases with shortening of the aliphatic chain. Another finding is that a long-chain structure of these radicals results in much higher rate of Heisenberg spin exchange relative to the recombination rate. The relative yields of hydrogen abstraction and fragmentation for various branched alkanes are estimated. It is concluded that the fragmentation occurs prior to the formation of radicals in an excited precursor species. Effects of phenolic and alkene additives in radiolysis of n-alkanes are examined. It is demonstrated that phenoxy radicals are produced in dissociative capture of electrons and alkane holes. Another route is a reaction of phenols with free hydrogen atoms. A rapid transfer of singlet correlation from the geminate radical ion pairs is responsible for unusual polarization patterns in the phenoxy and cyclohexadienyl radicals. The significance of these results in the context of cross-linking in polyethylene and higher paraffins is discussed. 56 refs.

  8. Comparative study of alkali-vapour cells with alkane-, alkeneand 1-nonadecylbenzene-based antirelaxation wall coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Balabas, M V; Tretiak, O Yu

    2013-12-31

    The dependence of both longitudinal and transverse relaxation times of ground-state magnetic polarisation in alkali atoms on the coating temperature is experimentally studied for the first time in a rubidium-vapour cell with 1-nonadecylbenzene antirelaxation coating of inner walls. The comparison of these times with the relaxation times in a caesium-vapour cell with alkane wall coatings is presented. It is found that within the studied temperature range (294 – 340K) the transverse relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature of alkene and 1-nonadecylbenzene coatings. For the alkane coating such a dependence was not explicitly found. The longitudinal relaxation time begins to decrease in all cases when passing a certain critical temperature of the coating material. It is found that the unsaturated radical structure of the coating material molecules strongly affects its antirelaxation properties. (optical pumping)

  9. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation of Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in Different Alkane Diluents: FTIR Study.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Unangst, Jaclynn L; Nguyen, Hung D; Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous metal-ion-extracting reagents, is an important ligand used in solvent extraction processes for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, as well as other non-nuclear applications. Ligand-ligand and organic solvent-ligand interactions play an important role in these processes. The self-association behavior of TBP in various alkane diluents of different chain lengths (8, 12, and 16 carbons) and a branched alkane (iso-octane) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. By careful deconvolution of the spectra into multiple peaks, our results indicate that TBP self-associates to form not only dimers, as previous studies showed, but also trimers in the practical concentration range. Using a mathematical fitting procedure, the dimerization and trimerization constants were determined. As expected, these equilibrium constants are dependent on the solvent used. As the alkane chain for linear hydrocarbon solvents becomes longer, dimerization decreases whereas trimerization increases. For the more branched hydrocarbon, we observe a significantly higher dimerization constant. These effects are most likely due to the intermolecular van der Waals interactions between the butyl tails of each TBP molecule and the diluent hydrocarbon chain as all solvents in this study are relatively nonpolar.

  10. Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences - a case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, M.; Krause, T.; Meszner, S.; Faust, D.

    2012-04-01

    With our study (Zech et al., Quaternary International, accepted) we aim at contributing to the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment of the Saxonian loess region by investigating sedimentary n-alkanes as plant leafwax derived biomarkers in two loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs), namely the Gleina and the Rottewitz LPSs. The Weichselian paleosols are characterised by n-alkane concentration maxima when compared to the loess layers. When this coincides with high odd-over-even predominances (OEPs), this points not only to increased n-alkane input and/or production but also to increased n-alkane preservation in the soils, namely in gleysols with water-logged edaphic conditions. By contrast, the buried cambisols reveal low OEPs, indicating accelerated degradation under aerobic edaphic conditions. The n-alkane concentrations in the truncated Eemian Interglacial paleosol are very low. This reflects the removal of the formerly n-alkane-enriched Eemian topsoil, low n-alkane input into the Bt-Sd-horizon (subsoil horizon of the Eemian luvisol) and/or strong soil organic matter mineralization. Four investigated n-alkane ratios show distinct variations during the Weichselian tempting to infer vegetation changes in terms of varying contributions of tree/shrub-derived (dominated by nC27 or nC29) versus grass-derived (dominated by nC31 or nC33) n-alkanes. However, using the OEP as a proxy for degradation and considering that n-alkane ratios are prone to degradation effects, we highlight that the above interpretation is very likely incorrect. Indeed, degradation can be accounted for most variability of the n-alkane ratios. Applying an endmember model based on a modern n-alkane reference dataset allows estimating the contribution of tree/shrub- versus grass-derived n-alkanes semi-quantitatively. These modelling results suggest that both the Gleina and the Rottewitz LPSs were formed under prevailing grassland. Minor contributions of trees/shrubs are only likely for the Gleinaer Soil

  11. Experimental study of thermal rectification in suspended monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haidong; Hu, Shiqian; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Thermal rectification is a fundamental phenomenon for active heat flow control. Significant thermal rectification is expected to exist in the asymmetric nanostructures, such as nanowires and thin films. As a one-atom-thick membrane, graphene has attracted much attention for realizing thermal rectification as shown by many molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate thermal rectification in various asymmetric monolayer graphene nanostructures. A large thermal rectification factor of 26% is achieved in a defect-engineered monolayer graphene with nanopores on one side. A thermal rectification factor of 10% is achieved in a pristine monolayer graphene with nanoparticles deposited on one side or with a tapered width. The results indicate that the monolayer graphene has great potential to be used for designing high-performance thermal rectifiers for heat flow control and energy harvesting.

  12. Experimental study of thermal rectification in suspended monolayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haidong; Hu, Shiqian; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Thermal rectification is a fundamental phenomenon for active heat flow control. Significant thermal rectification is expected to exist in the asymmetric nanostructures, such as nanowires and thin films. As a one-atom-thick membrane, graphene has attracted much attention for realizing thermal rectification as shown by many molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate thermal rectification in various asymmetric monolayer graphene nanostructures. A large thermal rectification factor of 26% is achieved in a defect-engineered monolayer graphene with nanopores on one side. A thermal rectification factor of 10% is achieved in a pristine monolayer graphene with nanoparticles deposited on one side or with a tapered width. The results indicate that the monolayer graphene has great potential to be used for designing high-performance thermal rectifiers for heat flow control and energy harvesting. PMID:28607493

  13. Experimental study of thermal rectification in suspended monolayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haidong; Hu, Shiqian; Takahashi, Koji; Zhang, Xing; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Jie

    2017-06-13

    Thermal rectification is a fundamental phenomenon for active heat flow control. Significant thermal rectification is expected to exist in the asymmetric nanostructures, such as nanowires and thin films. As a one-atom-thick membrane, graphene has attracted much attention for realizing thermal rectification as shown by many molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we experimentally demonstrate thermal rectification in various asymmetric monolayer graphene nanostructures. A large thermal rectification factor of 26% is achieved in a defect-engineered monolayer graphene with nanopores on one side. A thermal rectification factor of 10% is achieved in a pristine monolayer graphene with nanoparticles deposited on one side or with a tapered width. The results indicate that the monolayer graphene has great potential to be used for designing high-performance thermal rectifiers for heat flow control and energy harvesting.

  14. First complexomic study of alkane-binding protein complexes in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Pagot, Yves; Joubert-Caron, Raymonde; Caron, Michel; Hardouin, Julie

    2010-02-15

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica uses hydrophobic substrates, such as alkanes, fatty acids and oils, for its growth. It has developed a strategy for the use of such substrates, involving the production of hydrophobic binding structures called protrusions on the cell surface. These protrusions are resemble channels connecting the cell wall to the inside of the cell, and are probably involved in transport mechanisms that we do not yet fully understand. The complete genome of the haploid Y. lipolytica strain E150 (CLIB99) was sequenced in 2004 by the Génolevures Consortium. The availability of a complete genome sequence for this species has made it possible to carry out proteomic and other investigations, leading to the characterization of lipid bodies (LB) in terms of (i) their lipid composition, (ii) the major LB proteins, as identified by mass spectrometry, and (iii) differences in protein or lipid composition as a function of the carbon source used. Functional analyses would provide insight into the biological processes associated with these bodies and 2D BN/SDS-PAGE is a highly suitable method for the analysis of protein complexes. This report provides a first description of the analysis and identification of hydrophobic binding protein complexes in Y. lipolytica. For this purpose, we used 2D BN/SDS-PAGE for the separation of protein complexes and HPLC-chip-MS for protein identification. We separated and identified 40 protein complexes (11 heteromultimeric and 29 homomultimeric), providing insight into their function. This study represents a major step forward, as most previous studies identified proteins either on the basis of sequence similarity to proteins from other organisms (44% of the proteins identified in this study) or by prediction (50% of proteins identified in this study) alone. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow reactor studies of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted oxidation of n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Tsolas, Nicholas; Lee, Jong Guen; Yetter, Richard A

    2015-08-13

    The oxidation of n-alkanes (C1-C7) has been studied with and without the effects of a nanosecond, non-equilibrium plasma discharge at 1 atm pressure from 420 to 1250 K. Experiments have been performed under nearly isothermal conditions in a flow reactor, where reactive mixtures are diluted in Ar to minimize temperature changes from chemical reactions. Sample extraction performed at the exit of the reactor captures product and intermediate species and stores them in a multi-position valve for subsequent identification and quantification using gas chromatography. By fixing the flow rate in the reactor and varying the temperature, reactivity maps for the oxidation of fuels are achieved. Considering all the fuels studied, fuel consumption under the effects of the plasma is shown to have been enhanced significantly, particularly for the low-temperature regime (T<800 K). In fact, multiple transitions in the rates of fuel consumption are observed depending on fuel with the emergence of a negative-temperature-coefficient regime. For all fuels, the temperature for the transition into the high-temperature chemistry is lowered as a consequence of the plasma being able to increase the rate of fuel consumption. Using a phenomenological interpretation of the intermediate species formed, it can be shown that the active particles produced from the plasma enhance alkyl radical formation at all temperatures and enable low-temperature chain branching for fuels C3 and greater. The significance of this result demonstrates that the plasma provides an opportunity for low-temperature chain branching to occur at reduced pressures, which is typically observed at elevated pressures in thermal induced systems.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of mixed self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigoza, Annette Fernandez

    This thesis examines the formation of multicomponent self-assembled mono-layers (SAMs) on the Au(111) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. Two methods, sequential adsorption and coadsorption, are used to create these mixed SAMs. In the sequential adsorption experiments, a clean Au(111)-on-mica sub-strate is exposed to the first molecular species and then this adsorbate-covered sample is exposed to the second molecular species. Alternately, in the coadsorption experiments, a gold surface is exposed to both adsorbates simultaneously. Exposing a coronene- or dithiocarbamate-covered surface to excess thiol in the vapor phase results in a drastic restructuring of the initial surface. This is primarily driven by the kinetics of the octanethiol monolayer formation process, but the extent to which this happens is dependent on the molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions of the adsorbate due to the initial coverage and order of the monolayer. An octanethiolate monolayer is also substantially modified when immersed in a solution containing dithiocarbamate (DTC). Defects in the octanethiol monolayer are prime sites for molecular exchange. A surplus of DTC in the solution drives substitution that can lead to the complete removal of thiol from the surface. When a Au(111) surface is exposed to solutions containing both octanethiol and dithiocarbamate (DTC), both molecular species compete for available ad- sorption sites. At equal octanethiol-to-DTC ratios, molecular exchange hinders octanethiol monolayer formation. Higher octanethiol concentration in solution results in the incorporation of thiol into the resulting monolayer, with a strong dependence on the chain length of the DTC molecules.

  17. Structural and Kinetic Studies of Novel Cytochrome P450 Small-Alkane Hydroxylases

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-02-27

    The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these engineered P450s, and (3) the changes in redox control resulting from protein engineering. To reach these goals, we have established new methods for determining the kinetics and stabilities of multicomponent P450s such as CYP153A6. Using these, we were able to determine that CYP153A6 is proficient for hydroxylation of alkanes as small as ethane, an activity that has never been observed previously in any natural P450. To elucidate the structures of the engineered P450s, we obtained x-ray diffraction data for two variants in the P450PMO (propane monooxygenase) lineage and a preliminary structure for the most evolved variant. This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. We also constructed semi-rational designed libraries mutating only residues in the enzyme active site that in one round of mutagenesis and screening produced variants that achieved nearly half of the activity of the most evolved enzymes of the P450PMO lineage. Finally, we found that changes in redox properties of the laboratory-evolved P450 alkane hydroxylases did not reflect the improvement in their electron transfer efficiency. The heme redox potential remained constant throughout evolution, while activity increased and coupling efficiency improved from 10% to 90%. The lack of correlation between heme redox potential and enzyme activity and coupling efficiency led us to search for other enzyme properties that could be better predictors for activity towards small alkanes, specifically methane. We investigated the oxidation potential of the radical

  18. Supramolecular structures of coronene and alkane acids at the Au(111)-solution interface: a scanning tunneling microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Gyarfas, Brett J; Wiggins, Bryan; Zosel, Monica; Hipps, K W

    2005-02-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is utilized to study the solution-solid interface formed between Au(111) and solutions of coronene in hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids. In all three cases adsorbed coronene is observed and lays flat on the metal surface. Heptanoic and hexanoic acid solutions produce a hexagonal symmetry monolayer. For the heptanoic and hexanoic cases, dipole-image dipole interactions and H bonding stabilize a surface structure in which 12 acid molecules surround each coronene and produce a coronene spacing of 1.45 nm. In the case of octanoic acid as solvent, the incorporation of the solvent into the monolayer is not as strongly favored. The coronene spacing can range from close-packed (1.2 nm) with no solvent presumed present in the monolayer, to 1.50 nm with up to 12 solvent molecules surrounding each coronene. The close-packed regions have hexagonal symmetry, as do those with the largest (1.5 nm) spacing. Heptanoic acid solutions give the clearest STM images and are associated with the most stable two-component monolayer. The present paper demonstrates that non-covalent interactions at the solution-metal interface can lead to complex multicomponent monolayer structures.

  19. Ambient STM study of sequentially adsorbed octanethiol and biphenylthiol monolayers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Danielle M.; Krisanda, Emily K.; Szypko, Colleen G.; Gaby Avila-Bront, L.

    2017-08-01

    The mixed monolayers of biphenyl-4-thiol (BPT) and octanethiol (OT) are studied at the molecular level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in ambient conditions and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on Au(111). The effect of both the sequence of deposition, and the concentration of the BPT solution used is investigated. We observe signs of coexisting domains in the form of disordered patches surrounding flat patches when a 100 μM solution of BPT is used. This observation holds for both OT being deposited first, and BPT being deposited first. The most clear formation of coexisting domains occurs when an OT monolayer is immersed in a 100 μM solution of BPT. The XP spectra reveal a shift in the C 1s signal of the monolayers that is unique to what films are deposited on the surface. These data demonstrate the importance characterizing mixed self-assembled monolayers that form final monolayer structures unique to each mixture.

  20. Mid Infrared Near Field Study of Monolayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Z.; Andreev, G. O.; Bao, W.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhao, Z.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.; Fogler, M. M.; Lau, C. N.; Keilmann, F.; Basov, D. N.

    2011-03-01

    We have performed near-field spectroscopic studies of both monolayer suspended graphene (SG) and graphene on Si O2 /Si substrate (GOS) using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). Our data show that SG produces reliable near-field signal in mid-infrared frequencies. Images taken with high spatial resolution (~ 20 nm) show nanoscopic features such as ripples and electronic inhomogeneities. The Si O2 /Si substrate contributes a phonon resonance in the near-field signal around 1130 cm-1 . This resonance is remarkably strengthened and broadened by just a single layer of graphene in the case of GOS. By probing the resonance spectrum we find over 400% contrast in near field signal between GOS and the bare substrate. The detailed analysis of the contrast suggests that GOS is slightly doped. This study therefore provides much needed insight into the thickness resolution of the s-SNOM technique, proving it can be sensitive to just a single layer of atoms, and advances the fundamental understanding of graphene-light interactions by probing in the near-field regime.

  1. First principles study of metal contacts to monolayer black phosphorous

    SciTech Connect

    Chanana, Anuja; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-11-28

    Atomically thin layered black phosphorous (BP) has recently appeared as an alternative to the transitional metal dichalcogenides for future channel material in a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor due to its lower carrier effective mass. Investigation of the electronic property of source/drain contact involving metal and two-dimensional material is essential as it impacts the transistor performance. In this paper, we perform a systematic and rigorous study to evaluate the Ohmic nature of the side-contact formed by the monolayer BP (mBP) and metals (gold, titanium, and palladium), which are commonly used in experiments. Employing the Density Functional Theory, we analyse the potential barrier, charge transfer and atomic orbital overlap at the metal-mBP interface in an optimized structure to understand how efficiently carriers could be injected from metal contact to the mBP channel. Our analysis shows that gold forms a Schottky contact with a higher tunnel barrier at the interface in comparison to the titanium and palladium. mBP contact with palladium is found to be purely Ohmic, where as titanium contact demonstrates an intermediate behaviour.

  2. Exploring Ag(111) Substrate for Epitaxially Growing Monolayer Stanene: A First-Principles Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Stanene, a two-dimensional topological insulator composed of Sn atoms in a hexagonal lattice, is a promising contender to Si in nanoelectronics. Currently it is still a significant challenge to achieve large-area, high-quality monolayer stanene. We explore the potential of Ag(111) surface as an ideal substrate for the epitaxial growth of monolayer stanene. Using first-principles calculations, we study the stability of the structure of stanene in different epitaxial relations with respect to Ag(111) surface, and also the diffusion behavior of Sn adatom on Ag(111) surface. Our study reveals that: (1) the hexagonal structure of stanene monolayer is well reserved on Ag(111) surface; (2) the height of epitaxial stanene monolayer is comparable to the step height of the substrate, enabling the growth to cross the surface step and achieve a large-area stanene; (3) the perfect lattice structure of free-standing stanene can be achieved once the epitaxial stanene monolayer is detached from Ag(111) surface; and finally (4) the diffusion barrier of Sn adatom on Ag(111) surface is found to be only 0.041 eV, allowing the epitaxial growth of stanene monolayer even at low temperatures. Our above revelations strongly suggest that Ag(111) surface is an ideal candidate for growing large-area, high-quality monolayer stanene. PMID:27373464

  3. Drug-Membrane Interactions Studied in Phospholipid Monolayers Adsorbed on Non-porous Alkylated Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    LUKACOVA, VIERA; PENG, MING; FANUCCI, GAIL; TANDLICH, ROMAN; HINDERLITER, ANNE; MAITY, BIKASH; MANIVANNAN, ETHIRAJAN; COOK, GREGORY R.; BALAZ, STEFAN

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of interactions with phospholipids is an integral part of the in vitro profiling of drug candidates because of the roles the interactions play in tissue accumulation and passive diffusion. Currently used test systems may inadequately emulate the bilayer core solvation properties (immobilized artificial membranes - IAM), suffer from potentially slow transport of some chemicals (liposomes in free or immobilized forms), and require a tedious separation (if used for free liposomes). Here we introduce a well-defined system overcoming these drawbacks: nonporous octadecylsilica particles coated with a self-assembled phospholipid monolayer. The coating mimics the structure of the headgroup region, as well as the thickness and properties of the hydrocarbon core more closely than IAM. The monolayer has a similar transition temperature pattern as the corresponding bilayer. The particles can be separated by filtration or a mild centrifugation. The partitioning equilibria of 81 tested chemicals were dissected into the headgroup and core contributions, the latter using the alkane/water partition coefficients. The deconvolution allowed a successful prediction of the bilayer/water partition coefficients with the standard deviation of 0.26 log units. The plate-friendly assay is suitable for high-throughput profiling of drug candidates without sacrificing the quality of analysis or details of the drug-phospholipid interactions. PMID:17218665

  4. Studies on monolayers. Part 2. Design monolayer assemblies of mixed films of surface-active azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, J.

    1980-03-26

    This work is concerned with designed self-organization of surfactants to highly organized monomolecular layers, which may be used for molecular engineering. The monolayer properties of 2-component and 3-component films are studied at the air-water and air-glass interface. The 2-component films consist of the chromophoric diglyceride and the chromophoric triglyceride (one fatty acid residue was substituted by n-(4'nitro-1'-phenylazo-P-phe methylaminopropionic acid). The Pi-Alpha curves of the mixed films showed marked deviations from the addivity rule. For the mole fraction 0.35 of the diglyceride component the surface pressure-area isotherm shows the characteristics of an eutectic film. The results of absorbance spectra and surface pressure-area isotherms suggest that the close-packed monolayer of the eutectic mixture consist of molecules in the stretched conformation with the chromophores in a card-pack-like arrangement (H aggregates). The 3-component films consists of stearic acid, stearylamine, and 12-(4'nitro-4- dimethylaminoazobenzene-3'-car acid. Neutral 3-component films are deposited onto glass slides and absorbance spectra are measured with polarized light.

  5. Interactions of gas molecules with monolayer MoSe2: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Munish; Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a first principle study of interaction of toxic gas molecules (NO, NO2 and SO2) with monolayer MoSe2. The predicted order of sensitivity of gas molecule is NO2 > SO2 > NO. Adsorbed molecules strongly influence the electronic behaviour of monolayer MoSe2 by inducing impurity levels in the vicinity of Fermi energy. NO and SO2 is found to induce p-type doping effect while semiconductor to metallic transitions occur on NO2 adsorption. Our findings may guide the experimentalist for fabricating sensor devices based on MoSe2 monolayer.

  6. Monolayer Bismuthene-Metal Contacts: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Pan, Feng; Ye, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yangyang; Li, Jingzhen; Zhang, Xiuying; Zhang, Han; Pan, Yuanyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2017-07-12

    Bismuthene, a bismuth analogue of graphene, has a moderate band gap, has a high carrier mobility, has a topological nontriviality, has a high stability at room temperature, has an easy transferability, and is very attractive for electronics, optronics, and spintronics. The electrical contact plays a critical role in an actual device. The interfacial properties of monolayer (ML) bismuthene in contact with the metal electrodes spanning a wide work function range in a field-effect transistor configuration are systematically studied for the first time by using both first-principles electronic structure calculations and quantum transport simulations. The ML bismuthene always undergoes metallization upon contact with the six metal electrodes owing to a strong interaction. According to the quantum transport simulations, apparent metal-induced gap states (MIGSs) formed in the semiconductor-metal interface give rise to a strong Fermi-level pinning. As a result, the ML bismuthene forms an n-type Schottky contact with Ir/Ag/Ti electrodes with electron Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) of 0.17, 0.22, and 0.25 eV, respectively, and a p-type Schottky contact with Pt/Al/Au electrodes with hole SBHs of 0.09, 0.16, and 0.38 eV, respectively. The effective channel length of the ML bismuthene transistors is also significantly reduced by the MIGSs. However, the MIGSs are eliminated and the effective channel length is increased when ML graphene is used as an electrode, accompanied by a small hole SBH of 0.06 eV (quasi-Ohmic contact). Hence, an insight is provided into the interfacial properties of the ML bismuthene-metal composite systems and a guidance is provided for the choice of metal electrodes in ML bismuthene devices.

  7. Orientation and Morphology of Calcite Nucleated under Floating Monolayers: A Magnesium-ion-enhanced Nucleation Study

    SciTech Connect

    B Stripe; A Uysal; P Dutta

    2011-12-31

    We have studied the biomimetic growth of calcium carbonate crystals under floating monolayer templates, in the presence of Mg ions, using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging. Crystals grown under sulfate monolayers nucleate from the (0 0 1) plane with and without Mg ions, while undergoing substantial changes in morphology. Crystals grown under alcohol monolayers nucleate from the (1 0 4) plane in the presence of Mg. X-ray data do not detect orientation in crystals grown under acid monolayers, but at higher Mg concentrations the resulting morphologies are indicative of template-nucleated growth. These results suggest that Mg provides living organisms a way to enhance the orientation and control the morphology of acid-templated crystals.

  8. Liquid-liquid interfaces of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers with water, alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Flint; Tsige, Mesfin; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S

    2008-12-18

    The liquid-liquid interface between semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1-(CH2)m-1CH3 and water, protonated alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. A modified version of the OPLS-AA (Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom) force field of Jorgensen et al. has been used to study the interfacial behavior of semifluorinated diblocks. Aqueous interfaces are found to be sharp, with correspondingly large values of the interfacial tension. Due to the reduced hydrophobicity of the protonated block compared to the fluorinated block, hydrogen enhancement is observed at the interface. Water dipoles in the interfacial region are found to be oriented nearly parallel to the liquid-liquid interface. A number of protonated alkanes and perfluorinated alkanes are found to be mutually miscible with the semifluorinated diblocks. For these liquids, interdiffusion follows the expected Fickian behavior, and concentration-dependent diffusivities are determined.

  9. Liquid-liquid interfaces of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers with water, alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes.

    SciTech Connect

    Perahia, Dvora, Dr.; Pierce, Flint; Tsige, Mesfin; Grest, Gary Stephen, Dr.

    2008-08-01

    The liquid-liquid interface between semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1-(CH2)m-1CH3 and water, protonated alkanes, and perfluorinated alkanes are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. A modified version of the OPLS-AA (Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom) force field of Jorgensen et al. has been used to study the interfacial behavior of semifluorinated diblocks. Aqueous interfaces are found to be sharp, with correspondingly large values of the interfacial tension. Due to the reduced hydrophobicity of the protonated block compared to the fluorinated block, hydrogen enhancement is observed at the interface. Water dipoles in the interfacial region are found to be oriented nearly parallel to the liquid-liquid interface. A number of protonated alkanes and perfluorinated alkanes are found to be mutually miscible with the semifluorinated diblocks. For these liquids, interdiffusion follows the expected Fickian behavior, and concentration-dependent diffusivities are determined.

  10. A study of binuclear zirconium hydride catalysts of the hydrogenolysis of alkanes by the density functional theory method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustynyuk, L. Yu.; Fast, A. S.; Ustynyuk, Yu. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    Binuclear hydride centers containing two Zr(IV) atoms are suggested as promising catalysts for the hydrogenolysis of alkanes under mild conditions ( T < 450 K, p ˜ 1 atm). Reactions of model compounds L2(H)Zr(X)2Zr(H)L2 (X = H, L = OSi≡ ( 4a), X = L = OMe ( 4d)), L(H)Zr(O)2Zr(H)L (L = OSi≡ ( 4b), Cp( 4c)) and (≡SiO)2(H)Zr-O-Zr(H)(OSi≡)2 ( 4e and 4f) with the propane molecule were studied using the density functional theory method. The results show that centers of the 4a, 4e, and 4f types and especially 4b are promising catalysts of the hydrogenolysis of alkanes due to a high degree of unsaturation of two Zr atoms and their sequential participation in the splitting of the C-C bond and hydrogenation of ethylene formed as a result of splitting.

  11. Membrane binding of a lipidated N-Ras protein studied in lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bringezu, Frank; Majerowicz, Monika; Wen, Shaoying; Reuther, Guido; Tan, Kui-Thong; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Huster, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    The adsorption of doubly lipidated full-length N-Ras protein on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers was studied by lateral pressure analysis, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), and specular reflectivity (XR). N-Ras protein adsorbs to the DPPC monolayer (lateral pressure of 20 mN/m) from the subphase thereby increasing the lateral pressure in the monolayer by 4 mN/m. The protein insertion does not alter the tilt angle and structure of the lipid molecules at the air/water interface but influences the electron density profile of the monolayer. Further, electron density differences into the subphase were observed. The Fresnel normalized reflectivity could be reconstructed in the analysis using box models yielding electron density profiles of the DPPC monolayer in the absence and in the presence of N-Ras protein. The electron density profiles of the DPPC monolayer in the presence of Ras showed clear intensity variations in the headgroup/glycerol/upper chain region, the so-called interface region where previous bilayer studies had confirmed Ras binding.

  12. A first-principles study of the SnO2 monolayer with hexagonal structure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2016-11-07

    We report the structural, electronic, magnetic, and elastic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb stannic oxide (SnO2) monolayer based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The free-standing and well-ordered 2D centered honeycomb SnO2 (T-SnO2) monolayer with D3d point-group symmetry has good dynamical stability, as well as thermal stability at 500 K. The T-SnO2 monolayer is a nonmagnetic wide-bandgap semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 2.55/4.13 eV obtained by the generalized gradient approximation with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof/Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional, but it acquires a net magnetic moment upon creation of a Sn vacancy defect. The elastic constants obtained from the relaxed ion model show that the T-SnO2 monolayer is much softer than MoS2. The bandgap monotonically decreases with increasing strain from -8% to 15%. An indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs upon applying biaxial strain below -8%. Synthesis of the T-SnO2 monolayer is proposed. We identify the Zr(0001) surface as being suitable to grow and stabilize the T-SnO2 monolayer. The unique structure and electronic properties mean that the T-SnO2 monolayer has promising applications in nanoelectronics. We hope that the present study on the stable free-standing SnO2 monolayer will inspire researchers to further explore its importance both experimentally and theoretically.

  13. Sum-frequency spectroscopic study of Langmuir monolayers of lipids having oppositely charged headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sung, Woongmo; Seok, Sangjun; Kim, Doseok; Tian, C S; Shen, Y R

    2010-12-07

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, with the help of surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherm, was used to study lipid Langmuir monolayers composed of molecules with positively and negatively charged headgroups as well as a 1:1 neutral mixture of the two. The spectral profiles of the CH(x) stretch vibrations are similar for all monolayers in the liquid-condensed (LC) phase. They suggest a monolayer structure of closely packed alkyl chains that are nearly all-trans and well oriented along the surface normal. In the liquid-expanded (LE) phase, the spectra of all monolayers appear characteristic of loosely packed chains with significant gauche defects. The OH stretch spectra of interfacial water for both positively and negatively charged monolayers are significantly enhanced in comparison with a neutral water interface, but the phase measurement of SFVS indicates that OH in the two cases points toward the bulk and the interface, respectively. The enhancement results mainly from surface-field-induced polar ordering of interfacial water molecules. For a charge-neutral monolayer composed of an equal number of positively and negatively charged lipid molecules, no such enhancement is observed. This mixed monolayer exhibits a wide range of LC/LE coexistence region extended to very low surface pressure and its CH(x) spectral profile in the coexistence region resembles that of the LC phase. This result suggests that in the LC/LE coexistence region, the mixed monolayer consists of coexisting LC and LE patches in which oppositely charged lipid molecules are homogeneously mixed and dispersed.

  14. A first-principles study of the SnO2 monolayer with hexagonal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2016-11-01

    We report the structural, electronic, magnetic, and elastic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb stannic oxide (SnO2) monolayer based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The free-standing and well-ordered 2D centered honeycomb SnO2 (T-SnO2) monolayer with D3d point-group symmetry has good dynamical stability, as well as thermal stability at 500 K. The T-SnO2 monolayer is a nonmagnetic wide-bandgap semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 2.55/4.13 eV obtained by the generalized gradient approximation with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof/Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional, but it acquires a net magnetic moment upon creation of a Sn vacancy defect. The elastic constants obtained from the relaxed ion model show that the T-SnO2 monolayer is much softer than MoS2. The bandgap monotonically decreases with increasing strain from -8% to 15%. An indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs upon applying biaxial strain below -8%. Synthesis of the T-SnO2 monolayer is proposed. We identify the Zr(0001) surface as being suitable to grow and stabilize the T-SnO2 monolayer. The unique structure and electronic properties mean that the T-SnO2 monolayer has promising applications in nanoelectronics. We hope that the present study on the stable free-standing SnO2 monolayer will inspire researchers to further explore its importance both experimentally and theoretically.

  15. Fracture behaviors of pre-cracked monolayer molybdenum disulfide: A molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-huan; Tian, Xiao-geng

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fracture strength and crack propagation of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) sheets with various pre-existing cracks are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The uniaxial tensions of pre-cracked monolayer MoS2 sheets with different crack tips, different locations of crack, different crack lengths and angled cracks are simulated and studied. The results show that the configuration of crack tip can influence significantly the fracture behaviors of monolayer MoS2 sheets while the location of crack does not influence the fracture strength. With the increase of crack length, the fracture strength of monolayer MoS2 sheets reduces almost linearly, and the fracture of monolayer MoS2 sheets is transformed from almost brittle to ductile. By making comparison between the MDS results and the predictions of continuum fracture mechanics theories, including Inglis' model, Griffith's model with and without finite size effect, it is found that MDS results agree well with the predictions of Griffith's model with finite size effect, differ from the predictions of Inglis' model and Griffith's model without finite size effect. Finally, the MDS results of monolayer MoS2 sheets with different angled crack are also analyzed based on the continuum fracture mechanics model. PMID:27826515

  16. Studies on behaviors of dipalmitoylposphatidylcholine and bilirubin in mixed monolayer at the air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuhua; Tang, Yufeng; Xie, Anjian; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Shikuo; Zhang, Yong

    2006-06-01

    Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoylposphatidylcholine (DPPC) and bilirubin (BR) were prepared on different subphases. The properties of DPPC/BR monolayer, such as collapse pressure ( πcoll), limiting area per molecule ( Alim), surface compressibility modulus, free energy (Δ Gmix) and excess free energy (Δ Gex), were investigated based on the analysis of the surface pressure-area isotherms on pure water. The results showed that DPPC and BR were miscible and formed non-ideal mixed monolayers at the air/water interface. With the molar fraction of BR ( XBR) increasing, the LE-LC coexistence region of DPPC monolayer was eliminated gradually. The DPPC/BR complex (M D-B) of 1:2 stoichiometry formed as a result of the strong hydrogen bonds between the polar groups of DPPC and BR. The studies of effects of pH values and calcium ions in subphase on the DPPC/BR monolayers showed that the mixed monolayer became expanded on alkali aqueous solution and on 1 mmol/L CaCl 2 aqueous solution. The orientation of DPPC and BR at air/water interface was also discussed.

  17. Comparative Study on Single-Molecule Junctions of Alkane- and Benzene-Based Molecules with Carboxylic Acid/Aldehyde as the Anchoring Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Peng, Lin-Lu; Hong, Ze-Wen; Mao, Jin-Chuan; Zheng, Ju-Fang; Shao, Yong; Niu, Zhen-Jiang; Zhou, Xiao-Shun

    2016-08-01

    We have measured the alkane and benzene-based molecules with aldehyde and carboxylic acid as anchoring groups by using the electrochemical jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (ECSTM-BJ) approach. The results show that molecule with benzene backbone has better peak shape and intensity than those with alkane backbone. Typically, high junction formation probability for same anchoring group (aldehyde and carboxylic acid) with benzene backbone is found, which contributes to the stronger attractive interaction between Cu and molecules with benzene backbone. The present work shows the import role of backbone in junction, which can guide the design molecule to form effective junction for studying molecular electronics.

  18. Improved Alkane Production in Nitrogen-Fixing and Halotolerant Cyanobacteria via Abiotic Stresses and Genetic Manipulation of Alkane Synthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering.

  19. Formation of protein molecular imprints within Langmuir monolayers: a quartz crystal microbalance study.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas W; Wright, Bryon E; Hlady, Vladimir; Britt, David W

    2007-04-01

    Protein imprinting leading to enhanced rebinding of ferritin to ternary lipid monolayers is demonstrated using a quartz crystal microbalance. Monolayers consisting of cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, non-ionic methyl stearate, and poly(ethylene glycol) bearing phospholipids were imprinted with ferritin at the air/water interface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough and transferred hydrated to hydrophobic substrates for study. This immobilization was shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to significantly hinder any further diffusion of lipids, while rebinding studies demonstrated up to a six-fold increase in ferritin adsorption to imprinted versus control monolayers. A diminished rebinding of ferritin to its imprint was observed through pH reduction to below the protein isoelectric point, demonstrating the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Rebinding to films where imprint pockets remained occupied by the template protein was also minimal. Studies with a smaller acidic protein revealed the importance of the steric influence of poly(ethylene glycol) in forming the protein binding pockets, as albumin-imprinted monolayers showed low binding of ferritin, while ferritin-imprinted monolayers readily accommodated albumin. The controllable structure-function relationship and limitations of this system are discussed with respect to the application of protein imprinting in sensor development as well as fundamental studies of proteins at dynamic interfaces.

  20. Formation of protein molecular imprints within Langmuir monolayers: A quartz crystal microbalance study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Nicholas W.; Wright, Bryon E.; Hlady, Vladimir; Britt, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Protein imprinting leading to enhanced rebinding of ferritin to ternary lipid monolayers is demonstrated using a quartz crystal microbalance. Monolayers consisting of cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, non-ionic methyl stearate, and poly(ethylene glycol) bearing phospholipids were imprinted with ferritin at the air/water interface of a Langmuir-Blodgett trough and transferred hydrated to hydrophobic substrates for study. This immobilization was shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to significantly hinder any further diffusion of lipids, while rebinding studies demonstrated up to a six-fold increase in ferritin adsorption to imprinted versus control monolayers. A diminished rebinding of ferritin to its imprint was observed through pH reduction to below the protein isoelectric point, demonstrating the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Rebinding to films where imprint pockets remained occupied by the template protein was also minimal. Studies with a smaller acidic protein revealed the importance of the steric influence of poly(ethylene glycol) in forming the protein binding pockets, as albumin-imprinted monolayers showed low binding of ferritin, while ferritin-imprinted monolayers readily accommodated albumin. The controllable structure-function relationship and limitations of this system are discussed with respect to the application of protein imprinting in sensor development as well as fundamental studies of proteins at dynamic interfaces. PMID:17204279

  1. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  2. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  3. Fluctuations in a ferrofluid monolayer: an integral equation study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liang; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2009-07-21

    Using integral equation theory in the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC) approximation we investigate the structure and phase behavior of a monolayer of dipolar spheres. The dipole orientations of the particles fluctuate within the plane. The resulting angle dependence of the correlation functions is treated via an expansion in two-dimensional rotational invariants. For homogeneous, isotropic states the RHNC correlation functions turn out to be in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation data. We then use the RHNC theory combined with a stability (fluctuation) analysis to identify precursors of the low-temperature behavior. As expected, the fluctuations point to pair and cluster formation in the range of low and moderate densities. At high densities, there is no clear indication for a ferroelectric transition, contrary to what is found in three-dimensional dipolar fluids. The stability analysis rather indicates an alignment of chains supplemented by local crystal-like order.

  4. Theoretical Study of Electrical Conduction Through Alkanethiol Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomfohr, John; Sankey, Otto; Lindsay, Stuart; Cui, Xiaodong

    2000-03-01

    We have investigated theoretically the conduction of electrons through alkanethiol chains CH_3(CH_2)_nSH of various lengths and other simple organic molecules. We use, in part, a common method derived from scattering theory. Structural, energetic and dynamical information is obtained from an approach based on density-functional theory which utilizes a basis of slightly excited pseudo-atomic-orbitals. Alkanethiol monolayers have been used as supporting and insulating material in which molecules such as carotenoids are embedded so that their conductive properties may be measured with an STM probe. A comparison with experiments is made. In addition to ``tunneling" and resonant conduction we discuss progress in including vibrations in a time-dependent solution of the problem.

  5. Carbon Isotopes of Alkanes in Hydrothermal Abiotic Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperatures and Pressures: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques [1-4]. With more evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history [5-7], abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis during serpentization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars [8, 9]. While the experimental studies performed to date leave little doubt that chemical reactions exist for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds by mineral surface-catalyzed reactions [10-12], little is known about the reaction pathways by which CO2 and/or CO are reduced under hydrothermal conditions. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of alkanes have been used as an effective tool to constrain the origin and reaction pathways of hydrocarbon formation. Alkanes generated by thermal breakdown of high molecular weight organic compounds have carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures completely distinct from those formed abiotically [13-15]. Recent experimental studies, however, showed that different abiogenic hydrocarbon formation processes (e.g., polymerization vs. depolymerization) may have different carbon and hydrogen isotopic patterns [16]. Results from previous experiments studying decomposition of higher molecular weight organic compounds (lignite) also suggested that pressure could be a crucial factor affecting fractionation of carbon isotopes [17]. Under high pressure conditions, no experimental data are available describing fractionation of carbon isotope during mineral catalyzed FTT synthesis. Thus, hydrothermal experiments present an excellent opportunity to provide the requisite carbon isotope data. Such data can also be used to identify reaction pathways of abiotic organic synthesis under experimental conditions.

  6. Studies on monolayers. Part 1. Surface tension and absorption spectroscopic measurements of monolayers of surface-active azo and stilbene dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, J.

    1980-03-26

    In order to develop new molecules as function components of monolayer assemblies, a series of 9 surface-active azo and stilbene compounds are synthesized. Their monolayer properties at the air-water interface are studied by surface pressure-surface area measurements and spectroscopic techniques. The results show that small changes in the molecular structure of the surfactants (such as, length of the fatty acid chain and type of the chromphore) have an immense influence on the monolayer properties. For monolayers of compounds I and III-VIII, van der Walls-like isotherms are obtained, which show a liquid expanded state, a phase transition region, and a condensed state. From monolayer absorbance spectra it is found that in the liquid expanded state at 100 to 110 sq angstroms/molecule the chromphores lie flatly on the water surface, forming monomers. The phase transition region of the isotherms can be assigned to a change of orientation of the chromophore axis (horizontal to vertical) and an aggregation process of the chromophores (monomers to H aggregates). 20 references.

  7. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Andreas; Rude, Mathew A; Li, Xuezhi; Popova, Emanuela; del Cardayre, Stephen B

    2010-07-30

    Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the genetics and biochemistry behind this biology have remained elusive. Here we describe the discovery of an alkane biosynthesis pathway from cyanobacteria. The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. The aldehyde decarbonylase is related to the broadly functional nonheme diiron enzymes. Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. Synthesis of a photo-caged aminooxy alkane thiol.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Rock J; Li, Ronald C; Tolstyka, Zachary P; Maynard, Heather D

    2009-12-07

    A photo-caged aminooxy alkane thiol synthesized in 7 steps and 15% overall yield was used to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Photo-deprotection on the surface was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and contact angle goniometry. Conjugation of a small molecule ketone, ethyl levulinate, further confirmed the presence of aminooxy groups on the surface.

  9. IR spectroscopic study of the displacement of an SF6 monolayer on graphite by Xe.

    PubMed

    Hess, G B; Xia, Yu

    2017-09-07

    We report a study of displacement by xenon of a monolayer of sulphur hexafluoride initially condensed on a graphite surface. Earlier work showed that, below 112 K, Xe displaces SF6 almost completely in a first-order transition. Working at higher temperatures, we show that this system has a simple eutectic-like phase diagram, at least for SF6 not too dilute. In our experiment, both adsorbates are in equilibrium with their respective vapors in a cold cell. In our infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy measurements, the SF6 coverage on the surface is monitored by the frequency shift due to dynamic dipole coupling of the collective mode of the strong SF6 ν3 vibrational resonance. Simulations relate this frequency shift to the SF6 areal density. Below T ≈ 134 K, with increasing Xe pressure, a small amount Xe dissolves in the solid SF6 monolayer preceding its displacement by a solid predominantly Xe monolayer in a first-order transition. Above 134 K, there is a weaker first-order transition to a mixed liquid monolayer, followed by continuous increase in Xe concentration. If the initial SF6 monolayer is near its melting line, the melting transition on adding Xe appears to become continuous.

  10. IR spectroscopic study of the displacement of an SF6 monolayer on graphite by Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, G. B.; Xia, Yu

    2017-09-01

    We report a study of displacement by xenon of a monolayer of sulphur hexafluoride initially condensed on a graphite surface. Earlier work showed that, below 112 K, Xe displaces SF6 almost completely in a first-order transition. Working at higher temperatures, we show that this system has a simple eutectic-like phase diagram, at least for SF6 not too dilute. In our experiment, both adsorbates are in equilibrium with their respective vapors in a cold cell. In our infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy measurements, the SF6 coverage on the surface is monitored by the frequency shift due to dynamic dipole coupling of the collective mode of the strong SF6 ν3 vibrational resonance. Simulations relate this frequency shift to the SF6 areal density. Below T ≈ 134 K, with increasing Xe pressure, a small amount Xe dissolves in the solid SF6 monolayer preceding its displacement by a solid predominantly Xe monolayer in a first-order transition. Above 134 K, there is a weaker first-order transition to a mixed liquid monolayer, followed by continuous increase in Xe concentration. If the initial SF6 monolayer is near its melting line, the melting transition on adding Xe appears to become continuous.

  11. Temperature-Tuned Faceting and Shape Changes in Liquid Alkane Droplets

    DOE PAGES

    Guttman, Shani; Sapir, Zvi; Ocko, Benjamin M.; ...

    2017-01-09

    Recent extensive studies reveal that surfactant-stabilized spherical alkane emulsion droplets spontaneously adopt polyhedral shapes upon cooling below a temperature Td while remaining liquid. Further cooling induces the growth of tails and spontaneous droplet splitting. Two mechanisms were offered to account for these intriguing effects. One assigns the effects to the formation of an intradroplet frame of tubules consisting of crystalline rotator phases with cylindrically curved lattice planes. The second assigns the sphere-to-polyhedron transition to the buckling of defects in a crystalline interfacial monolayer, known to form in these systems at some Ts > Td. The buckling reduces the extensional energymore » of the crystalline monolayer’s defects, unavoidably formed when wrapping a spherical droplet by a hexagonally packed interfacial monolayer. The tail growth, shape changes, and droplet splitting were assigned to the decrease and vanishing of surface tension, γ. Here we present temperature-dependent γ(T), optical microscopy measurements, and interfacial entropy determinations for several alkane/surfactant combinations. We demonstrate the advantages and accuracy of the in situ γ(T) measurements made simultaneously with the microscopy measurements on the same droplet. The in situ and coinciding ex situ Wilhelmy plate γ(T) measurements confirm the low interfacial tension, ≲0.1 mN/m, observed at Td. Here, our results provide strong quantitative support validating the crystalline monolayer buckling mechanism.« less

  12. Neutron reflectivity studies on the DNA adsorption on lipid monolayers at the air liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Jeng, U.-Ser; Torikai, Naoya

    2006-11-01

    In situ neutron reflectivity was used to study the DC-Chol and TC-Chol monolayers at the air-liquid interface in the presence and absence of DNA in the subphase. It was found that the DC-Chol is more effective in adsorbing the DNA than the TC-Chol. It was also found that a compact DNA layer formed beneath the DC-Chol monolayer with a DNA gap spacing around 20 Å and a less compact DNA layer adsorbed to the TC-Chol monolayer with a DNA spacing around 60 Å, as estimated from the determined neutron scattering length density. From the determined neutron scattering length density profiles, the adsorbed DNA somewhat penetrates into the head group region of the charged lipids.

  13. Titanium Trisulfide Monolayer as a Potential Thermoelectric Material: A First-Principles-Based Boltzmann Transport Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Xiaolin; Wen, Yanwei; Shi, Lu; Chen, Rong; Liu, Huijun; Shan, Bin

    2017-01-25

    Good electronic transport capacity and low lattice thermal conductivity are beneficial for thermoelectric applications. In this study, the potential use as a thermoelectric material for the recently synthesized two-dimensional TiS3 monolayer is explored by applying first-principles method combined with Boltzmann transport theory. Our work demonstrates that carrier transport in the TiS3 sheet is orientation-dependent, caused by the difference in charge density distribution at band edges. Due to a variety of Ti-S bonds with longer lengths, we find that the TiS3 monolayer shows thermal conductivity much lower compared with that of transition-metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2. Combined with a high power factor along the y-direction, a considerable n-type ZT value (3.1) can be achieved at moderate carrier concentration, suggesting that the TiS3 monolayer is a good candidate for thermoelectric applications.

  14. First-principles study of the electrical and lattice thermal transport in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Ransell; Mukherjee, Sugata

    2017-02-01

    We report the transport properties of monolayer and bilayer graphene from first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory (BTE). Our resistivity studies on monolayer graphene show Bloch-Grüneisen behavior in a certain range of chemical potentials. By substituting boron nitride in place of a carbon dimer of graphene, we predict a twofold increase in the Seebeck coefficient. A similar increase in the Seebeck coefficient for bilayer graphene under the influence of a small electric field ˜0.3 eV has been observed in our calculations. Graphene with impurities shows a systematic decrease of electrical conductivity and mobility. We have also calculated the lattice thermal conductivities of monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene using phonon BTE which show excellent agreement with experimental data available in the temperature range 300-700 K.

  15. The study of the formation of monolayers of quantum dots at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Ilya A.; Goryacheva, Irina Y.; Brezesinski, Gerald; Gluhovskoy, Evgeny G.

    2016-04-01

    The process of formation of Langmuir monolayers of quantum dots at the different subphase temperatures was studied by means of compression isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The increasing of the maximum surface pressure from 32 to 44 mN/m takes place with decreasing the temperature from 34 to 11°C. This is due to a decrease in the rate of dissolution of surfactant molecules in water. The increasing of a filling degree of monolayer by the quantum dots and increasing of it uniformity in thickness takes place in this temperature range. The area of bilayer and multilayer film of quantum dots decreasing and the area of quantum dots monolayer is increasing. This change explained by the difference in the phase condition of oleic acid molecules, which stabilized quantum dots.

  16. The integration of plant-derived n-alkanes into sedimentary archives across the Swiss Alps; implications for paleoclimate studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberry, S. L.; Kahmen, A.

    2016-12-01

    The compound-specific δ2H values of terrestrial plant leaf wax n-alkanes are a potentially powerful paleoclimate proxy. Important biotic and abiotic processes that drive n-alkane δ2H values at the individual leaf scale have already been described. One critical aspect that requires elucidation is how processes operating at the individual leaf level become integrated at the landscape level producing the sedimentary n-alkane δ2H value chronologies we make paleoclimate reconstructions from. Our goal was to assess how the n-alkanes present in extent vegetation relate to those preserved in surface soils and lacustrine surface sediments, specifically investigating what signals are recorded and where. For this, we selected 6 self-contained alpine lake catchments in the Swiss Alps on the basis of variable altitude, vegetation coverage, species composition, size, and topography. We mapped the 5 dominant plant species and their % coverage, and sampled for leaf water δ2H, xylem water δ2H, n-alkane δ2H and n-alkane concentration. With this information we build n-alkane concentration- plant species biomass weighted- integrated spatial analyses of n-alkane δ2H values from the existing vegetation and compared these to the n-alkane δ2H values recovered from soils throughout the catchment and lake sediment. Results suggest the δ2H values of extent vegetation are highly variable with 120 ‰ δ2H variability observed for nC29 from a single site, collected at the same time. Much of this variability can be explained by broad plant functional groups, with grass species averaging -220 ‰ δ2H for nC29; while woody plant species average -150 ‰ δ2H. Significant differences in surface sedimentary n-alkane δ2H values, molecular distributions, and concentrations between the different lake catchments suggest some catchments, and some specific n-alkane chains, are more appropriate for paleoreconstructions over others. These findings have significant implications for paleoclimate

  17. A molecular dynamics study of the effect of thermal boundary conductance on thermal transport of ideal crystal of n-alkanes with different number of carbon atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zeng, Yi; Khodadadi, J. M.

    2016-05-28

    Phase change materials such as n-alkanes that exhibit desirable characteristics such as high latent heat, chemical stability, and negligible supercooling are widely used in thermal energy storage applications. However, n-alkanes have the drawback of low thermal conductivity values. The low thermal conductivity of n-alkanes is linked to formation of randomly oriented nano-domains of molecules in their solid structure that is responsible for excessive phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. Thus, understanding the thermal boundary conductance at the grain boundaries can be crucial for improving the effectiveness of thermal storage systems. The concept of the ideal crystal is proposed in this paper, which describes a simplified model such that all the nano-domains of long-chain n-alkanes are artificially aligned perfectly in one direction. In order to study thermal transport of the ideal crystal of long-chain n-alkanes, four (4) systems (C{sub 20}H{sub 42}, C{sub 24}H{sub 50}, C{sub 26}H{sub 54}, and C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) are investigated by the molecular dynamics simulations. Thermal boundary conductance between the layers of ideal crystals is determined using both non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. Both NEMD and EMD simulations exhibit no significant change in thermal conductance with the molecular length. However, the values obtained from the EMD simulations are less than the values from NEMD simulations with the ratio being nearly three (3) in most cases. This difference is due to the nature of EMD simulations where all the phonons are assumed to be in equilibrium at the interface. Thermal conductivity of the n-alkanes in three structures including liquid, solid, and ideal crystal is investigated utilizing NEMD simulations. Our results exhibit a very slight rise in thermal conductivity values as the number of carbon atoms of the chain increases. The key understanding is that thermal transport can be

  18. A molecular dynamics study of the effect of thermal boundary conductance on thermal transport of ideal crystal of n-alkanes with different number of carbon atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Rouzbeh; Zeng, Yi; Khodadadi, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    Phase change materials such as n-alkanes that exhibit desirable characteristics such as high latent heat, chemical stability, and negligible supercooling are widely used in thermal energy storage applications. However, n-alkanes have the drawback of low thermal conductivity values. The low thermal conductivity of n-alkanes is linked to formation of randomly oriented nano-domains of molecules in their solid structure that is responsible for excessive phonon scattering at the grain boundaries. Thus, understanding the thermal boundary conductance at the grain boundaries can be crucial for improving the effectiveness of thermal storage systems. The concept of the ideal crystal is proposed in this paper, which describes a simplified model such that all the nano-domains of long-chain n-alkanes are artificially aligned perfectly in one direction. In order to study thermal transport of the ideal crystal of long-chain n-alkanes, four (4) systems (C20H42, C24H50, C26H54, and C30H62) are investigated by the molecular dynamics simulations. Thermal boundary conductance between the layers of ideal crystals is determined using both non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations. Both NEMD and EMD simulations exhibit no significant change in thermal conductance with the molecular length. However, the values obtained from the EMD simulations are less than the values from NEMD simulations with the ratio being nearly three (3) in most cases. This difference is due to the nature of EMD simulations where all the phonons are assumed to be in equilibrium at the interface. Thermal conductivity of the n-alkanes in three structures including liquid, solid, and ideal crystal is investigated utilizing NEMD simulations. Our results exhibit a very slight rise in thermal conductivity values as the number of carbon atoms of the chain increases. The key understanding is that thermal transport can be significantly altered by how the molecules and the

  19. Studies of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers embedded with endohedral metallofullerene (Dy@C82).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhining; Li, Xiaofang; Yang, Shihe

    2009-11-17

    Toxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention. In this work, we studied the interaction between Dy@C(82) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in a monolayer at the N(2)/Tris buffer interface by thermodynamic analysis of surface pressure-area (pi-A) and surface potential-area (DeltaV-A) isotherms. Dy@C(82) was found to impact considerably more on the physical properties of the monolayers than C(60) because of its elliptical structure and distinctive dipole. The addition of Dy@C(82) essentially closed down the liquid expanded-liquid condensed (LE-LC) phase coexistence region of the mixed monolayers. Furthermore, Dy@C(82) reduced elasticity of the monolayers, as indicated by the decreasing elastic modulus (C(s)(-1)) with increasing molar ratio of Dy@C(82) (X(Dy@C82)). Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the dispersion of Dy@C(82) depend on the state of the mixed films. Dy@C(82) formed flocs from aggregation of Dy@C(82) towers in the LE and LE-LC coexistence regions, accompanied by gradual falling down of Dy@C(82) from the towers and permeation of the falling metallofullerenes into the LE phase during their compression-induced reorientation process. In the LC and solid phases, the Dy@C(82) flocs were dispersed into isolated towers, accompanied by the partial squeezing out of the embedded metallofullerenes to above the DPPC monolayer. The continuous falling down of Dy@C(82) from the towers resulted in their height decrease but diameter enlargement. When the surface pressure was increased to the kink value (53 mN/m), Dy@C(82) was almost completely extruded from the DPPC monolayers. These findings are believed to be important for understanding the impact of fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and nanomaterials in general on biological membranes.

  20. Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and theoretical studies of 1-halohexane monolayers on graphite

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas; Werblowsky, Tova L.; Florio, Gina M.; Berne, Bruce J.; Flynn, George W.

    2005-01-01

    A simple model system for the 2D self-assembly of functionalized organic molecules on surfaces was examined in a concerted experimental and theoretical effort. Monolayers of 1-halohexanes were formed through vapor deposition onto graphite surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy allowed the molecular conformation, orientation, and monolayer crystallographic parameters to be determined. Essentially identical noncommensurate monolayer structures were found for all 1-halohexanes, with differences in image contrast ascribed mainly to electronic factors. Energy minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations reproduced structural parameters of 1-bromohexane monolayers quantitatively. An analysis of interactions driving the self-assembly process revealed the crucial role played by small but anisotropic electrostatic forces associated with the halogen substituent. While alkyl chain dispersion interactions drive the formation of a close-packed adsorbate monolayer, electrostatic headgroup forces are found to compete successfully in the control of both the angle between lamella and backbone axes and the angle between surface and backbone planes. This competition is consistent with energetic tradeoffs apparent in adsorption energies measured in earlier temperature-programmed desorption studies. In accordance with the higher degree of disorder observed in scanning tunneling microscopy images of 1-fluorohexane, theoretical simulations show that electrostatic forces associated with the fluorine substituent are sufficiently strong to upset the delicate balance of interactions required for the formation of an ordered monolayer. The detailed dissection of the driving forces for self-assembly of these simple model systems is expected to aid in the understanding of the more complex self-assembly processes taking place in the presence of solvent. PMID:15758073

  1. Incorporation of lipolysis in monolayer permeability studies of lipid-based oral drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Layek, Buddhadev; Prabha, Swayam

    2017-05-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems, a well-tolerated class of formulations, have been evaluated extensively to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. However, it has been difficult to predict the in vivo performance of lipid dosage forms based on conventional in vitro techniques such as cell monolayer permeability studies because of the complexity of the gastrointestinal processing of lipid formulations. In the current study, we explored the feasibility of coupling Caco-2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney monolayer permeability studies with lipolysis, a promising in vitro technique to evaluate lipid systems. A self-emulsifying lipid delivery system was formulated using a blend of oil (castor oil), surfactant (Labrasol® or PL497), and co-surfactant (lecithin). Formulations demonstrating high drug solubility and rapid self-emulsification were selected to study the effect of lipolysis on in vitro cell permeability. Lipolysis of the formulations was carried out using pancreatin as the digestive enzyme. All the digested formulations compromised monolayer integrity as indicated by lowered trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and enhanced Lucifer yellow (LY) permeability. Further, the changes in TEER value and LY permeability were attributable to the digestion products of the formulation rather than the individual lipid excipients, drug, digestion enzyme, or the digestion buffer. The digested formulations were fractionated into pellet, oily phase, and aqueous phase, and the effect of each of these on cell viability was examined. Interestingly, the aqueous phase, which is considered important for in vivo drug absorption, was responsible for cytotoxicity. Because lipid digestion products lead to disruption of cell monolayer, it may not be appropriate to combine lipolysis with cell monolayer permeability studies. Additional in vivo studies are needed to determine any potential side effects of the lipolysis products on the intestinal permeability barrier

  2. Study of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer monolayers as barriers to protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogikalmath, Gangadhar

    Protein adsorption resistant surfaces find use in many biomedical applications, such as catheters, dialysis devices and biosensors that involve blood contacting surfaces. To ensure long-term functioning of a device in an environment containing protein, there is a need to produce homogeneous surfaces that are resistant to protein adsorption. A polymer brush covered surface, produced by either physical adsorption or chemical grafting of hydrophilic polymers to surfaces, is one of the approaches used in creating such surfaces. High grafting densities needed to make an effective barrier are usually not realized in chemical grafting/adsorption from solution, due to self-exclusion of surface grafted molecules. In this dissertation polymer brush surfaces formed by chemically grafted PEO molecules and transferred monolayers of PS-b-PEO diblock copolymers are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface pressure measurement techniques. An AFM adhesion mapping technique was used to evaluate the surface heterogeneity of chemically modified PEO and transferred diblock copolymer monolayer surfaces. The behavior of PS-b-PEO molecules at the air-water interface was studied using Langmuir trough. The stability of transferred diblock copolymer monolayers was investigated using AFM. Using SPR, protein adsorption to the diblock copolymer layers was investigated as a function of protein size (using HSA and ferritin) as a function of grafting density of PEO in the monolayer. It was seen that a lower density of the PS-b-PEO monolayer was sufficient to prevent ferritin adsorption (larger protein) while a higher density brush layer was required to achieve complete prevention of HSA adsorption to the surface. The effect of mobility of the polymer brush layer on protein adsorption prevention was analyzed using SPR and surface pressure measurements. It was seen that the copolymer monolayer (at the air-buffer interface) rearranged itself to

  3. Interactions of doxorubicin with self-assembled monolayer-modified electrodes: electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and gravimetric studies.

    PubMed

    Nieciecka, Dorota; Krysinski, Pawel

    2011-02-01

    We present the results on the partitioning of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer drug, through the model membrane system, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold electrodes. The monolayers were formed from alkanethiols of comparable length with different ω-terminal groups facing the aqueous electrolyte: the hydrophobic -CH(3) groups for the case of dodecanethiol SAMs or hydrophilic -OH groups of mercaptoundecanol SAMs. The electrochemical experiments combined with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and gravimetric studies show that doxorubicin is likely adsorbed onto the surface of hydrophilic monolayer, while for the case of the hydrophobic one the drug mostly penetrates the monolayer moiety. The adsorption of the drug hinders further penetration of doxorubicin into the monolayer moiety.

  4. X-Ray Standing Wave Studies of Underpotentially Deposited Metal Monolayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    DTIC E, ELECTE FEB 02 1994 N - X-ray Standing Wave Studies of Underpotentially Deposited Metal Monolayers G. M. Bommarito, D. Acevedo, J. F... underpotentially deposited (UPD) copper on an iodine covered platinum surface and of copper on a Au(100) single crystal electrode. For Cu UPD on Pt, surface...INTRODUCTION 4• The process of underpotential deposition (UPD) of metals has been extensively I studied during the past two decades due to its

  5. Using comprehensive GC × GC to study PAHs and n-alkanes associated with PM2.5 in urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Lv, Yan; Cheng, Tiantao; Li, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) utilizing a flow modulator was applied to study particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in the urban atmosphere. Samples were collected onto quartz fiber filters using a PM2.5 sampler at Megacity Shanghai, China. Sample preparation included extraction into n-hexane-dichloromethane mixture and cleanup on silver-impregnated silica column. Analyses were performed well with GC × GC-FID and GC × GC-TOFMS equipment. Average particulate PAHs and n-alkane concentrations were in the range of 40-100 ng/m(3) and 120-500 pg/m(3), respectively. It is alarming to note that PAHs and n-alkane concentrations were increasing with urban PM2.5 values and exceeded the air quality standards in many sampling events. Among them, 2-ring, 3-ring, and 4-ring PAHs accounted for the majority of total PAHs, and C10-15 accounted for the majority of particulate n-alkanes. Potential sources of PAHs in PM2.5 were identified using the diagnostic ratios between PAHs. Local emission sources such as combustion from gasoline and diesel engines were the main contributors of particulate-associated PAHs, while long-range transport had minor contribution to the particulate PAHs. Additionally, we determined the overall carcinogenicity of the samples based on PAH concentrations by a dose addition model and found that the overall carcinogenicity during polluted period was obviously higher than during good air quality period.

  6. Conformation, orientation and interaction in molecular monolayers: A surface second harmonic and sum frequency generation study

    SciTech Connect

    Superfine, R.; Huang, J.Y.; Shen, Y.R.

    1988-12-01

    We have used sum frequency generation (SFG) to study the order in a silane monolayer before and after the deposition of a coadsorbed liquid crystal monolayer. We observe an increase in the order of the chain of the silane molecule induced by the interpenetration of the liquid crystal molecules. By using second harmonic generation (SHG) and SFG, we have studied the orientation and conformation of the liquid crystal molecule on clean and silane coated glass surfaces. On both surfaces, the biphenyl group is tilted by 70{degree} with the alkyl chain end pointing away from the surface. The shift in the C-H stretch frequencies in the coadsorbed system indicates a significant interaction between molecules. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Physisorption and chemisorption of alkanes and alkenes in H-FAU: a combined ab initio-statistical thermodynamics study.

    PubMed

    De Moor, Bart A; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Marin, Guy B

    2009-04-28

    The sorption in H-FAU zeolite of C4-C12 n-alkanes, and linear and branched C2-C8 alkenes has been quantified up to 800 K by combining QM-Pot(MP2//B3LYP) with statistical thermodynamics calculations. The physisorption strength increases linearly with increasing carbon number by 8.5 kJ mol(-1) and does not depend on the detailed alkane or alkene structure. Van der Waals interactions are dominant in physisorption, but alkenes are additionally stabilized by 20 kJ mol(-1) by formation of a pi-complex. Protonation of an alkene leads to the formation of alkoxides, which are more stable than the physisorbed species. As for physisorption a linear relation between the chemisorption energy and the carbon number is obtained. Protonation energies are independent of the carbon number but depend on the type of CC double bond being protonated. The relative stability difference between the secondary and tertiary alkoxides is 15 kJ mol(-1) in favor of the former. Both physisorption and chemisorption are accompanied with entropy losses which increase linearly with the carbon number. A typical compensation effect is obtained: the stronger the stabilization of the sorbed species the more pronounced the entropy loss. For temperatures ranging from 0 to 800 K, all of the derived linear relations expressing the physisorption and/or chemisorption enthalpy and entropy of the alkanes and the alkanes as function of the carbon number are independent of temperature. A good agreement between calculated and experimental values for alkanes is obtained at 500 K.

  8. Metathesis of alkanes and related reactions.

    PubMed

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Copéret, Christophe; Soulivong, Daravong; Taoufik, Mostafa; Cazat, Jean Thivolle

    2010-02-16

    The transformation of alkanes remains a difficult challenge because of the relative inertness of the C-H and C-C bonds. The rewards for asserting synthetic control over unfunctionalized, saturated hydrocarbons are considerable, however, because converting short alkanes into longer chain analogues is usually a value-adding process. Alkane metathesis is a novel catalytic and direct transformation of two molecules of a given alkane into its lower and higher homologues; moreover, the process proceeds at relatively low temperature (ambient conditions or higher). It was discovered through the use of a silica-supported tantalum hydride, ([triple bond]SiO)(2)TaH, a multifunctional catalyst with a single site of action. This reaction completes the story of the metathesis reactions discovered over the past 40 years: olefin metathesis, alkyne metathesis, and ene-yne cyclizations. In this Account, we examine the fundamental mechanistic aspects of alkane metathesis as well as the novel reactions that have been derived from its study. The silica-supported tantalum hydride catalyst was developed as the result of systematic and meticulous studies of the interaction between oxide supports and organometallic complexes, a field of study denoted surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). A careful examination of this surface-supported tantalum hydride led to the later discovery of alumina-supported tungsten hydride, W(H)(3)/Al(2)O(3), which proved to be an even better catalyst for alkane metathesis. Supported tantalum and tungsten hydrides are highly unsaturated, electron-deficient species that are very reactive toward the C-H and C-C bonds of alkanes. They show a great versatility in various other reactions, such as cross-metathesis between methane and alkanes, cross-metathesis between toluene and ethane, or even methane nonoxidative coupling. Moreover, tungsten hydride exhibits a specific ability in the transformation of isobutane into 2,3-dimethylbutane as well as in the metathesis

  9. Atomic Scale Study on Growth and Heteroepitaxy of ZnO Monolayer on Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atomically thin semiconducting oxide on graphene carries a unique combination of wide band gap, high charge carrier mobility, and optical transparency, which can be widely applied for optoelectronics. However, study on the epitaxial formation and properties of oxide monolayer on graphene remains unexplored due to hydrophobic graphene surface and limits of conventional bulk deposition technique. Here, we report atomic scale study of heteroepitaxial growth and relationship of a single-atom-thick ZnO layer on graphene using atomic layer deposition. We demonstrate atom-by-atom growth of zinc and oxygen at the preferential zigzag edge of a ZnO monolayer on graphene through in situ observation. We experimentally determine that the thinnest ZnO monolayer has a wide band gap (up to 4.0 eV), due to quantum confinement and graphene-like structure, and high optical transparency. This study can lead to a new class of atomically thin two-dimensional heterostructures of semiconducting oxides formed by highly controlled epitaxial growth. PMID:28002942

  10. Variable temperature STM study of Co deposition on a dodecanethiol self assembled monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitwieser, Romain; Campiglio, Paolo; Chacon, Cyril; Repain, Vincent; Nemausat, Ruidy; Girard, Yann; Lagoute, Jérôme; Rousset, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    The present scanning tunneling microscopy study reports on the growth processes of Co vapor-deposited on a dodecanethiol (DDT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au(111). We observe strongly modified surface and depth diffusions of Co adatoms depending on the growth temperature. Co deposited at 300 K shows an extremely incomplete regime of condensation on the organic layer. Besides, Co penetrates the DDT monolayer and resides at the DDT/Au(111) interface as 2D clusters. This phenomenon takes place through defects in the SAM which are transient channels. In contrast, Co deposited at 50 K shows a complete condensation and nucleates on defects of the SAM layer as 3D islands sitting most likely on top of the DDTs. These results are of interest in the growing field of organic spintronics where the quality of the organic/ferromagnetic interface is a key issue.

  11. Wedge energy bands of monolayer black phosphorus: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Park, Minwoo; Bae, Hyeonhu; Lee, Seunghan; Yang, Li; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-08-03

    On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present intriguing electronic properties of halogen-striped functionalized monolayer black phosphorus. The halogen-striped monolayer black phosphorus is found to have a wedge energy band with the energy-momentum relation of [Formula: see text] when the stripe-stripe distance is smaller than ~40 Å. Our tight-binding study shows that the wedge energy band occurs when 2-atom basis 1D lattices are periodically repeated aligned with each other in a 2D lattice. We also discuss the possible applications of this wedge energy band in electron supercollimation with high mobility or severely anisotropic electronic transport, which can be used for the development of optics-like nano-electronics.

  12. Study for fabrication, evaluation, and testing of monolayer woven type materials for space suit insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, E. B.

    1979-01-01

    An alternative space suit insulation concept using a monolayer woven pile material is discussed. The material reduces cost and improves the durability of the overgarment, while providing protection similar to that provided by multilayer insulation (MLI). Twelve samples of different configurations were fabricated and tested for compressibility and thermal conductivity as a function of compression loading. Two samples which showed good results in the initial tests were further tested for thermal conductivity with respect to ambient pressure and temperature. Results of these tests were similar to results of the MLI tests, indicating the potential of the monolayer fabric to replace the present MLI. A seaming study illustrated that the fabric can be sewn in a structurally sound seam with minimal heat loss. It is recommended that a prototype thermal meteroid garment be fabricated.

  13. Revealing fibrinogen monolayer conformations at different pHs: electrokinetic and colloid deposition studies.

    PubMed

    Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Wasilewska, Monika; Sadowska, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Adsorption mechanism of human fibrinogen on mica at different pHs is studied using the streaming potential and colloid deposition measurements. The fibrinogen monolayers are produced by a controlled adsorption under diffusion transport at pH of 3.5 and 7.4. Initially, the electrokinetic properties of these monolayers and their stability for various ionic strength are determined. It is shown that at pH 3.5 fibrinogen adsorbs irreversibly on mica for ionic strength range of 4×10(-4) to 0.15 M. At pH 7.4, a partial desorption is observed for ionic strength below 10(-2) M. This is attributed to the desorption of the end-on oriented molecules whereas the side-on adsorbed molecules remain irreversibly bound at all ionic strengths. The orientation of molecules and monolayer structure is evaluated by the colloid deposition measurements involving negatively charged polystyrene latex microspheres, 820 nm in diameter. An anomalous deposition of negative latex particles on substrates exhibiting a negative zeta potential is observed. At pH 3.5 measurable deposition of latex is observed even at low ionic strength where the approach distance of latex particles exceeded 70 nm. At pH 7.4 this critical distance is 23 nm. This confirms that fibrinogen monolayers formed at both pHs are characterized by the presence of the side-on and end-on oriented molecules that prevail at higher coverage range. It is also shown that positive charge is located at the end parts of the αA chains of the adsorbed fibrinogen molecules. Therefore, it is concluded that the colloid deposition method is an efficient tool for revealing protein adsorption mechanisms at solid/electrolyte interfaces.

  14. Surface crystallization in normal-alkanes and alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.; Wu, X.Z. |; Sirota, E.B.; Sinha, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    A new, rare surface freezing, phenomenon is observed in molten normal-alkanes and their derivatives (alcohols, thiols, etc.). X-ray and surface tension measurements show the formation of a crystalline monolayer on the surface of the liquid alkane at temperatures up to 3 C above the bulk solidification temperature, T{sub f}. For alcohols, a single bilayer is formed. In both cases, the molecules in the layer are hexagonally packed and oriented normal to the surface for short chain lengths, and tilted for long ones. In both cases the single layer persists down to T{sub f}. In terms of wetting theory, this constitutes a very limited partial wetting of the liquid surface by the crystalline layer. The new surface phase is obtained only for chain lengths 14 < n {le} 50 in alkanes, and 16 < n < 30 in alcohols. The measurements are satisfactorily accounted for within a simple theory based on surface energy considerations.

  15. Couette flows of a granular monolayer: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, K.E.; Ahmadi, G.; Kvasnak, W.

    1995-03-01

    An experimental study concerning rapid flows of granular materials in a two dimensional planar granular Couette flow apparatus is performed. The device is capable of generating particulate flows in grain-inertia regime at different shearing rates and solid volume fractions. Multi-color spherical glass particles are sheared across an annular test-section for several wall angular velocities. A video recorder is used to record the motion of particles, and consecutive images are stored and analyzed by an image processing technique for evaluating individual grain velocities. Experimental data for the mean velocity, the root mean-square fluctuation velocity components and the solid volume fraction profile are obtained. The resulting mean velocity profiles have a roughly linear variation for the range of solid volume fractions and shear rates studied. The solid volume fraction profiles exhibit nonuniform variations with the highest concentration occuring near the center of the shearing cell. The RMS-fluctuation velocities are roughly constant, with the streamwise fluctuation being somewhat larger than the cross-stream direction. The experimentally measured flow properties are in reasonable agreement with the earlier theoretical and simulation results.

  16. Surface anchoring structure of a liquid crystal monolayer studied via dual polarization interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Osbert; Cross, Graham H.

    2009-02-01

    The self-organization of liquid crystal molecules of 4- n -pentyl- 4' -cyanobiphenyl (5CB) forming an oriented monolayer by condensation from the vapor phase onto a silicon oxynitride surface has been observed using the evanescent wave dual slab waveguide dual polarization mode interferometry (DPI) technique. Two distinct stages to the layer formation are observed: After the formation of a layer of molecules lying prone on the surface, further condensation begins to densify the layer and produces a gradual mutual alignment of the molecules until the fully condensed, fully aligned monolayer is reached. At this limit the full coverage 5CB monolayer on this surface and at a temperature of 25°C , is found to be anchored with an average molecular axis polar angle of 56±1° and with a measured thickness of 16.6±0.5Å . These results are in reasonable agreement with the molecular dimensions provided by molecular models. The apparent precision and accuracy of these results resolves some wide disparity between earlier studies of such systems. Previous difficulties in determining optogeometrical properties of such ultrathin birefringent films using ellipsometry or in the need for complex modeling of the film layer structure using x-ray reflectivity are overcome in this instance. We provide a technique for analyzing the dual polarization data from DPI such that the bulk refractive index values, when known, can be used to determine the orientation and thickness of a layer that is on the nanometer or subnanometer scale.

  17. A comparative study for Hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jinlian; Guo, Yanhua; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Yingru; Cao, Juexian

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study for hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers has been investigated within the framework of first-principle calculations. Our results show that the binding energies of Li, Ca, Sc, Ti on graphyne nanotubes are stronger than that on graphyne monolayers. Such strong binding would prevent the formation of metal clusters on graphyne nanotubes. From the charge transfer and partial density of states, it is found that the curvature effect of nanotubes plays an important role for the strong binding strength of metal on graphyne nanotubes. And the hydrogen storage capacity is 4.82 wt%, 5.08 wt%, 4.88 wt%, 4.76 wt% for Li, Ca, Sc, Ti decorated graphyne nanotubes that promise a potential material for storing hydrogen. - Graphical abstract: Metal atoms (Li, Ca, Sc and Ti) can strongly bind to graphyne nanotubes to avoid the formation of metal clusters, and a capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015. Twenty-four hydrogen molecules absorb to Ti-decorated graphyne nanotube. - Highlights: • The binding strength for metal on graphyne nanotubes is much stronger than that on γ-graphyne monolayer. • Metal atoms can strongly bind to the curving triangle acetylenes rings to avoid the formation of metal clusters. • A capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015.

  18. Biophysical studies in polymer therapeutics: the interactions of anionic and cationic PAMAM dendrimers with lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Marleen; Green, Rebecca J; Sanders, Michael R; Greco, Francesca

    2017-08-25

    Understanding how polymers interact with biological membranes is important for the development of polymer-based therapeutics and wider biomedical applications. Here, biophysical methods (surface pressure measurements, external reflection FTIR) have been used to investigate the interaction between PAMAM dendrimers (Generation 5 or 4.5) and anionic (DPPG) or zwitterionic (DPPC) model membranes. We observed a concentration-dependent binding behaviour of both PAMAM species to both model membranes; however, equivalent levels of penetration into DPPC monolayers required approximately 10-fold higher dendrimer concentrations than for penetration into DPPG monolayers. Overall, the anionic PAMAM G4.5 showed a slightly better penetration ability which could be caused by repulsive forces towards the lipid layers. In comparison, increasing concentration of cationic PAMAM G5 leads to saturation of adsorption at the anionic lipid surface before penetration into the lipid layer likely driven by electrostatic attraction. Our studies also showed that physiologically relevant concentrations of sodium chloride (144 mM) decreased PAMAM penetration into DPPG monolayers but did not significantly affect the dendrimer-DPPC interaction. These results provide an insight into the mechanism of interaction between charged dendritic polymers with a lipid interface and show that the nature of such interactions are affected by lipid headgroup, dendrimer charge and solution salinity.

  19. Magnetic Field Studies Near Superconducting Transition in MBE Grown Monolayer NbSe2 on Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Seita; Ugeda, Miguel M.; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yi; Ojeda-Aristizabal, Claudia; Ryu, Hyejin; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Crommie, Michael F.; Zettl, Alex

    Following the work by Frindt on the superconductivity of NbSe2 at reduced thicknesses, recent breakthroughs have enabled the study of bilayers and monolayers. Staley et. al., Tsen et. al., Cao et. al. and Xi et. al. have studied superconductivity in bilayers and monolayers of NbSe2 after mechanical exfoliation and encapsulation with another layered material to protect from air. In this work, we have investigated the superconductivity in monolayer NbSe2 prepared by molecular beam epitaxy growth (MBE) on bilayer graphene (BLG). The superconducting transition has an onset temperature of 1.9K, midpoint temperature of 0.65K and reaches zero resistance at 0.46K. The upper critical field perpendicular to the NbSe2 monolayer is 0.5T at 100mK. We will show the effect of magnetic fields near the superconducting transition and compare with existing theories

  20. Interaction of poly(L-arginine) with negatively charged DPPG membranes: calorimetric and monolayer studies.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Christian; Blume, Alfred

    2009-08-10

    The interaction of poly(L-arginine) (PLA) with dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) bilayer membranes and monolayers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and monolayer experiments. The binding of PLA affected the main transition temperature of lipid bilayers (T(m)) only marginally. Depending on the PLA chain length, T(m) was slightly increased or decreased. This finding was attributed to the superposition of two counteracting effects on the transition after PLA binding. The main transition enthalpy (DeltaH(m)) was decreased upon PLA binding and the formation of a ripple phase (P(beta)') was suppressed. ITC experiments showed that two distinct processes are involved in binding of PLA to gel phase (L(beta)') membranes. At low peptide content the binding reaction is endothermic, and at high peptide concentration the binding becomes exothermic. However, the enthalpy of binding to fluid (L(alpha)) membranes was exothermic for all peptide-to-lipid ratios. The temperature dependence of PLA binding to fluid palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) membranes showed a decrease in binding enthalpy with increasing temperature (Delta(R)C(p) < 0), indicating hydrophobic contributions to the free energy of binding. For longer PLA chains, the binding enthalpy for L(alpha) membranes was more exothermic than for shorter chains. Monolayer adsorption experiments showed two consecutive binding processes. At low initial surface pressures (pi(0)) a condensation of the lipid film (Deltapi < 0) is first observed after PLA injection into the subphase, followed by an increase in film pressure (Deltapi > 0) due to insertion of peptide side chains into the monolayer. At higher pi(0) only an increase in film pressure can be observed due to the insertion of the side chains. Deltapi increases with increasing pi(0). The insertion of the peptide into the monolayer is corroborated by the observed shift of pi-A isotherms to higher

  1. Reaction pathway for alkane dehydrocyclization

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Buchang; Davis, B.H.

    1996-08-01

    Naphtha reforming to produce high octane gasoline is an important process. Many reaction mechanisms are involved in this process. For example, the study of the fundamentals of this process led to the concept of bi- or poly-functional catalysis. The results of this study provide additional mechanistic information about the dehydrocyclization of an n-alkane to produce aromatics. The reaction coordinate diagram advanced to account for the observation of irreversible adsorption should be modified to account for the present results. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  2. On the atomistic mechanisms of alkane (methane-pentane) separation by distillation: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Dirk

    2007-11-01

    Insights into the liquid-vapor transformation of methane-pentane mixtures were obtained from transition path sampling molecular dynamics simulations. This case study of the boiling of non-azeotropic mixtures demonstrates an unprejudiced identification of the atomistic mechanisms of phase separation in the course of vaporization which form the basis of distillation processes. From our simulations we observe spontaneous segregation events in the liquid mixture to trigger vapor nucleation. The formation of vapor domains stabilizes and further promotes the separation process by preferential evaporation of methane molecules. While this discrimination holds for all mixtures of different composition studied, a full account of the boiling process requires a more complex picture. At low methane concentration the nucleation of the vapor domains includes both methane and pentane molecules. The pentane molecules, however, tend to form small aggregates and undergo rapid re-condensation within picoseconds to nanoseconds scales. Accordingly, two aspects of selectivity accounting for methane-pentane separation in the course of liquid-vapor transformations were made accessible to molecular dynamics simulations: spontaneous segregation in the liquid phase leading to selective vapor nucleation and growth favoring methane vaporization and selective re-condensation of pentane molecules.

  3. Study of relaxation process of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers at air-water interface: effect of electrostatic energy.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Wei; Weis, Martin; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2011-04-21

    The instability of organic monolayer composed of polar molecules at the air-water interface has been a spotlight in interface science for many decades. However, the effect of electrostatic energy contribution to the free energy in the system is still not understood. Herein, we investigate the mechanical and electrical properties by studying the isobaric relaxation process of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayer on water subphase with various concentrations of divalent ions to reveal the effect of electrostatic energy on thermodynamics and kinetics of the collapse mechanism. Our results demonstrate that electrical energy among the dipolar molecules plays an important role in the stability of monolayer and enhances the formation of micelles into subphase under high pressure. In addition, to confirm the electrostatic energy contribution, the well-known thermal effect on the stability of the film is compared. Hence, the general description of the monolayer free energy with contribution of electrostatic energy is suggested to describe the phase transition.

  4. Reactivity of alkanes on zeolites: a computational study of propane conversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Blowers, Paul

    2005-12-01

    In this work, quantum chemical methods were used to study propane conversion reactions on zeolites; these reactions included protolytic cracking, primary hydrogen exchange, secondary hydrogen exchange, and dehydrogenation reactions. The reactants, products, and transition-state structures were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G level and the energies were calculated with CBS-QB3, a complete basis set composite energy method. The computed activation barriers were 62.1 and 62.6 kcal/mol for protolytic cracking through two different transition states, 30.4 kcal/mol for primary hydrogen exchange, 29.8 kcal/mol for secondary hydrogen exchange, and 76.7 kcal/mol for dehydrogenation reactions. The effects of basis set for the geometry optimization and zeolite acidity on the reaction barriers were also investigated. Adding extra polarization and diffuse functions for the geometry optimization did not affect the activation barriers obtained with the composite energy method. The largest difference in calculated activation barriers is within 1 kcal/mol. Reaction activation barriers do change as zeolite acidity changes, however. Linear relationships were found between activation barriers and zeolite deprotonation energies. Analytical expressions for each reaction were proposed so that accurate activation barriers can be obtained when using different zeolites as catalysts, as long as the deprotonation energies are first acquired.

  5. Fabrication of dynamic self-assembled monolayers for cell migration and adhesion studies.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2011-01-01

    How cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is important for a number of fundamental -processes in cell biology. However, the ECM is highly complex and in order to simplify the matrix for cell biological studies, it has been modeled with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold substrates. In this chapter, we outline procedures to create dynamic surfaces by functionalizing SAMs. SAMs based on quinone, oxyamine, and alcohol-terminated thiols were used to immobilize cell adhesive peptides with spatial control. Cells were seeded to these surfaces to provide cell co-culture -patterns suitable for biological studies.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of Alkanethiolate Self-Assembled Monolayer Coated Gold Nanoparticle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    component of function results for the uncoated gold nanoparticle to the the Irving -Kirkwood (IK) pressure tensor. [321 The normal results for an...pp. 24-34, 1983. Studies." Langmuir , 4, pp. 546-558, 1988. 23. Shevade, A. V., J. Zhou, M. T. Zin, and S. Jiang. Phase 8. Rosenbaum, A.W, M.A. Freedman...Au(l 11): A Configurational-Bias Monte Carlo Assembled Monolayers of Varying Chain Length." Journal of Simulation Study. Langmuir 17, pp. 7566-7572

  7. Flash kinetics in liquefied noble gases: Studies of alkane activation and ligand dynamics at rhodium carbonyl centers, and a search for xenon-carbene adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Yeston, Jake Simon

    2001-01-01

    A general introduction is given to place the subsequent chapters in context for the nonspecialist. Results are presented from a low temperature infrared (IR) flash kinetic study of C-H bond activation via photoinduced reaction of Cp*Rh(CO)2 (1) with linear and cyclic alkanes in liquid krypton and liquid xenon solution. No reaction was observed with methane; for all other hydrocarbons studied, the rate law supports fragmentation of the overall reaction into an alkane binding step followed by an oxidative addition step. For the binding step, larger alkanes within each series (linear and cyclic) interact more strongly than smaller alkanes with the Rh center. The second step, oxidative addition of the C-H bond across Rh, exhibits very little variance in the series of linear alkanes, while in the cyclic series the rate decreases with increasing alkane size. Results are presented from an IR flash kinetic study of the photoinduced chemistry of Tp*Rh(CO)2 (5; Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borato) in liquid xenon solution at –50 °C. IR spectra of the solution taken 2 μs after 308 nm photolysis exhibit two transient bands at 1972-1980 cm-1 and 1992-2000 cm-1, respectively. These bands were assigned to (η3-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe and (η2-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe solvates on the basis of companion studies using Bp*Rh(CO)2 (9; Bp* = dihydridobis(3,5-dimethyl pyrazolyl)borato). Preliminary kinetic data for reaction of 5 with cyclohexane in xenon solution indicate that both transient bands still appear and that their rates of decay correlate with formation of the product Tp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)(H). The preparation and reactivity of the new complex Bp*Rh(CO)(pyridine) (11) are described. The complex reacts with CH3I to yield the novel Rh carbene hydride complex HB(Me2pz)2Rh(H)(I)(C5H5N)(C(O)Me) (12), resulting from formal addition of CH

  8. Adsorption of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides at water/alkane interfaces: competitive adsorption of alkanes and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Fainerman, V B; Mucic, N; Pradines, V; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R

    2013-11-12

    The adsorption of members of the homologous series of alkyl trimethylammonium bromides (C(n)TAB) is studied at water/alkane interfaces by drop profile analysis tensiometry. The results are discussed in terms of a competitive adsorption process of alkane and surfactant molecules. A thermodynamic model, derived originally for the adsorption of surfactant mixtures, is adapted such that it describes a competitive adsorption of the surfactant molecules from the aqueous phase and alkane molecules from the oil phase. This new model involves the interspecies attraction coefficient, which mutually increases the adsorption activities of the alkane and C(n)TAB. The effects of the alkyl chain length n of C(n)TABs and the influence of the number of C atoms in the alkane chain are discussed, and the physical quantities are compared to those determined at the aqueous solution/air interface. The new theoretical model for aqueous solution/oil interfaces is also compared to a theory that does not consider the adsorption of alkane. The proposed new model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Products of Chemistry: Alkanes: Abundant, Pervasive, Important, and Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history and commercialization of alkanes. Examines the nomenclature and uses of alkanes. Studies polymerization and several types of polyethylenes: low-density, high-density, low-molecular-weight, cross-linked, linear low-density, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight. Includes a glossary of hydrocarbon terms. (MVL)

  10. Products of Chemistry: Alkanes: Abundant, Pervasive, Important, and Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history and commercialization of alkanes. Examines the nomenclature and uses of alkanes. Studies polymerization and several types of polyethylenes: low-density, high-density, low-molecular-weight, cross-linked, linear low-density, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight. Includes a glossary of hydrocarbon terms. (MVL)

  11. Monte Carlo study of dimer adsorption at monolayer on square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Riccardo, J. L.; Pereyra, V. D.

    1998-08-01

    The localized monolayer adsorption of interacting homonuclear dimers (AA) on square lattices is studied using a lattice-gas model. The effect of lateral interactions on the behavior of different thermodynamic quantities is considered. Phase diagrams (i.e. critical temperature versus coverage) are calculated using Monte Carlo simulation and finite-size scaling for both attractive and repulsive nearest-neighbors lateral interactions. Of special interest is the repulsive case where different ordered structures are observed, confirming the results given by Phares et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 26 (1993) 6847] based upon exact transfer-matrix method for dimers on a semi-infinite square lattice.

  12. Optical characteristic study of monolayer VS2 based on first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhiyuan; Peng, Junhao; Xie, Xing; Hu, Jianwei; Yang, Hanqi; Wu, Fugen; Dong, Huafeng

    2017-10-01

    Monolayer VS2 has two common stable phases, 2H-phase and 1T-phase. Based on first-principles calculations, we studied the optical properties of 2D-VS2, including their dielectric functions, absorption coefficients, refraction indexes and energy loss functions. Also, we fully analyzed the relationship between the electronic structure and the optical characteristics of 2D-VS2. We found that the differences of density of states are the fundamental reasons for the differences of the two phase optical absorption behavior.

  13. Ultrafast electron diffraction optimized for studying structural dynamics in thin films and monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Badali, D. S.; Gengler, R. Y. N.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2016-01-01

    A compact electron source specifically designed for time-resolved diffraction studies of free-standing thin films and monolayers is presented here. The sensitivity to thin samples is achieved by extending the established technique of ultrafast electron diffraction to the “medium” energy regime (1–10 kV). An extremely compact design, in combination with low bunch charges, allows for high quality diffraction in a lensless geometry. The measured and simulated characteristics of the experimental system reveal sub-picosecond temporal resolution, while demonstrating the ability to produce high quality diffraction patterns from atomically thin samples. PMID:27226978

  14. Perforated monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Regen, S.L.

    1992-12-01

    Goal of this research program is to create ultrathin organic membranes that possess uniform and adjustable pores ( < 7[angstrom] diameter). Such membranes are expected to possess high permeation selectivity (permselectivity) and high permeability, and to provide the basis for energy-efficient methods of molecular separation. Work carried out has demonstrated feasibility of using perforated monolayer''-based composites as molecular sieve membranes. Specifically, composite membranes derived from Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of the calix[6]arene-based surfactant shown below plus poly[l-(trimethylsilyl)-l-propyne] (PTMSP) were found to exhibit sieving behavior towards He, N[sub 2] and SF[sub 6]. Results of derivative studies that have also been completed are also described in this report.

  15. Green synthesis and anti-inflammatory studies of a series of 1,1-bis(heteroaryl)alkane derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jaratjaroonphong, Jaray; Tuengpanya, Surisa; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Udompong, Sarinporn; Srisook, Klaokwan

    2014-08-18

    Molecular iodine has been used as an efficient catalyst for a double Friedel-Crafts reaction of various heteroarenes, i.e. 2-methylfuran, 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylthiophene, pyrrole, N-methylpyrrole and indole, using aldehydes as alkylating agents under "open-flask" conditions with toluene or water as the reaction media. In the presence of 10 mol% iodine in toluene at room temperature, both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes reacted smoothly to give the corresponding bis(heteroaryl)alkanes in good to excellent yields. Interestingly, with water as the solvent, the bis(heteroaryl)alkane adducts were obtained in moderate to good yields. The use of mild reaction conditions, low catalyst loadings, and eco-friendly reagents in a single step synthesis are the advantages of the present procedure. In an effort to discover novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, the synthesized bis(heteroaryl)alkanes were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage model. These compounds (50 μM) significantly inhibited NO production and did not exhibit significant cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells. Among them, bis[(5-methyl)2-furyl](4-nitrophenyl) methane exhibited the most potent inhibition of NO with IC50 value of 42.4 ± 1.9, which is similar to that of the positive control, aminoguanidine (43.3 ± 2.5 μM). Thus, the bis[(5-methyl)2-furyl](4-nitrophenyl) methane could be considered a lead compound for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel transparent zirconium-based hybrid material with multilayered nanostructures: studies of surface dewettability toward alkane liquids.

    PubMed

    Masheder, Benjamin; Urata, Chihiro; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared unique inorganic-organic hybrid materials that demonstrate excellent transparency and dewettability toward various alkane liquids (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane and n-decane) without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. Such coatings were made using a novel family of hybrid materials generated by substituting carboxylic acids, with a range of alkyl chain lengths (CH(3)(CH(2))(x-2)COOH where x = total carbon number, i.e., 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22, or 24, into zirconium (Zr) tetra-propoxide complexes. This precursor was then mixed with acetic acid and spincast to produce transparent thin Zr-carboxylic acid (ZrCA(x)) hybrid films using a nonhydrolytic sol-gel process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided proof of Zr-O-Zr network formation in the films upon casting and also followed changes to the physical nature (liquid-like or solid-like) of the alkyl chain assemblies depending upon alkyl chain length. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the hybrid films prepared using the longer chain carboxylic acids (ZrCA(x≥18)) spontaneously self-assembled into lamella structures with d-spacings ranging from 29.5 to 32.7 Angstroms, depending on the length of the alkyl chain. On the other hand the remaining films (ZrCA(x<18)) showed no such ordering. Moreover, the dynamic dewetting behavior of our hybrid films with alkane liquids was also strongly affected by alkyl chain length. ZrCA(x) films with x = 12, 14, and 16 showed the best dynamic oleophobicity among the seven hybrid films. In particular, small volume alkane droplets (5 μL) could be easily set in motion to move across and off ZrCA(14) film surfaces without pinning at low tilt angles (~6°).

  17. Melting of linear alkanes between swollen elastomers and solid substrates.

    PubMed

    Nanjundiah, Kumar; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2013-10-01

    We have measured the melting and freezing behavior of linear alkanes confined between cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers and solid sapphire substrates. Small molecules are often used as lubricants to reduce friction or as plasticizers, but very little is directly known about the migration or changes in physical properties of these small molecules at interfaces, particularly the changes in transition temperatures upon confinement. Our previous studies highlighted striking differences between the crystal structure of confined and unconfined pentadecane crystals in contact with sapphire substrates. Here, we have used surface-sensitive infrared-visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy (SFG) to study the melting temperatures (Tm) of alkanes in nanometer thick interfacial regions between swollen PDMS elastomers in contact with sapphire substrate. We find that confined alkanes show depression in Tm compared to the melting temperature of unconfined bulk alkanes. The depression in Tm is a function of chain length, and these differences were smallest for shorter alkanes and largest for 19 unit long alkanes. In comparison, the DSC results for swollen PDMS elastomer show a broad distribution of melting points corresponding to different sizes of crystals formed within the network. The Tm for confined alkanes has been modeled using the combination of Flory-Rehner and Gibbs-Thomson models, and the depression in Tm is related to the thickness of the confined alkanes. These findings have important implications in understanding friction and adhesion of soft elastomeric materials and also the effects of confinement between two solid materials.

  18. Insights into rapid climate change: A high resolution, compound-specific n-alkane δD study of the 8.2 ka event (Tenaghi Philippon, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, F.; Niedermeyer, E.; Schwab, V.; Pross, J.; Mulch, A.

    2013-12-01

    Despite being characterized as remarkably stable, the Holocene climate has experienced a number of abrupt, relatively short-term climate changes. Arguably the most prominent climate perturbation, the 8.2 ka event, was caused by the catastrophic drainage of the ice-dammed Laurentide ice-lake into the North Atlantic, leading to a severe weakening of thermohaline circulation, causing a decline in temperature and significant changes in atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in the North Atlantic realm and Europe. Being located between the climate systems of the higher and lower latitudes, the Mediterranean region is particularly susceptible to rapid climate change. Available proxy data and climate models provide first-order insight into the impact of the 8.2 ka event in this area but often lack the temporal resolution to supply information about changes in seasonality, hence severely hindering the understanding of rapid climate changes and revealing the need for high resolution terrestrial archives. Here, we present a multi-proxy, high resolution stable isotope study across the 8.2 ka event on a peat core from the classical site of Tenaghi Philippon (NE Greece). We aim to characterize the effects of changing temperature and rainfall patterns by using compound-specific δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes as a proxy for terrestrial (summer) precipitation. We compare changes in hydrogen isotopic composition to the concentration of the long-chain n-alkanes as well as to δ13Cbulk measurements of the organic material and high-resolution palynomorphic data from the same core. Analysis of 35 samples of telmatic peat shows significant decreases in concentration of the long-chain n-alkanes along with strong positive shifts in δD (over 40 ‰ in δDC29) during the 8.2 ka event. The general trend of δD of the n-Alkanes n-C27, n-C29 and n-C31 coincides with changes in δ13Cbulk, and to some degree reflects changes in moisture availability. We attribute

  19. First-principles studies of chromium line-ordered alloys in a molybdenum disulfide monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambelaza, N. F.; Mapasha, R. E.; Chetty, N.

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the thermodynamic stability, structural and electronic properties of various chromium (Cr) line-ordered alloy configurations in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) hexagonal monolayer for band gap engineering. Only the molybdenum (Mo) sites were substituted at each concentration in this study. For comparison purposes, different Cr line-ordered alloy and random alloy configurations were studied and the most thermodynamically stable ones at each concentration were identified. The configurations formed by the nearest neighbor pair of Cr atoms are energetically most favorable. The line-ordered alloys are constantly lower in formation energy than the random alloys at each concentration. An increase in Cr concentration reduces the lattice constant of the MoS2 system following the Vegard’s law. From density of states analysis, we found that the MoS2 band gap is tunable by both the Cr line-ordered alloys and random alloys with the same magnitudes. The reduction of the band gap is mainly due to the hybridization of the Cr 3d and Mo 4d orbitals at the vicinity of the band edges. The band gap engineering and magnitudes (1.65 eV to 0.86 eV) suggest that the Cr alloys in a MoS2 monolayer are good candidates for nanotechnology devices.

  20. A DMPA Langmuir monolayer study: from gas to solid phase. An atomistic description by molecular dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Giner-Casares, J J; Camacho, L; Martín-Romero, M T; Cascales, J J López

    2008-03-04

    In this work, a DMPA Langmuir monolayer at the air/water interface was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Thus, an atomistic picture of a Langmuir monolayer was drawn from its expanded gas phase to its final solid condensed one. In this sense, some properties of monolayers that were traditionally poorly or even not reproduced in computer simulations, such as lipid domain formation or pressure-area per lipid isotherm, were properly reproduced in this work. Thus, the physical laws that control the lipid domain formation in the gas phase and the structure of lipid monolayers from the gas to solid condensed phase were studied. Thanks to the atomistic information provided by the molecular dynamics simulations, we were able to add valuable information to the experimental description of these processes and to access experimental data related to the lipid monolayers in their expanded phase, which is difficult or inaccessible to study by experimental techniques. In this sense, properties such as lipids head hydration and lipid structure were studied.

  1. Toward a reliable computational description of hydrocarbon activation in zeolites : a study of cracking, dehydrogenation, and H/D Exchange of alkanes in H-ZSM-5.

    SciTech Connect

    Zygmunt, S. A.; Bootz, B. L.; Miller, A. W.; Curtiss, L. A.; Iton, L. E.

    2000-11-01

    During the past decade, quantum-chemical calculations have been used to model hydrocarbon reactions in zeolite acid catalysts. In the interest of computational feasibility, the zeolite has often been represented by a very small cluster model, at times including only one tetrahedrally-coordinated atom (a 1T cluster). The results of such calculations have given important qualitative insights such as possible reaction pathways and transition state geometries, but the calculated activation energies for hydrocarbon reactions have usually been 50 percent or more higher than experimental values. In our recent work we developed a methodology of quantum-chemical techniques and corrections that allowed us to calculate a quantitatively accurate activation energy for protolytic cracking of ethane in H-ZSM-5 [1]. In order to test the limits of our computational method, we have carried out a study of protolytic cracking, dehydrogenation, and H/D exchange of the n-alkanes ethane, propane, and butane using a cluster model of H-ZSM-5. Our goal is to study the dependence of the activation energy on the alkane chain length in these reactions and to determine whether this method can produce results in quantitative agreement with available experimental results [2-5].

  2. A delicate balance of complexation vs. activation of alkanes interacting with [Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)] studied with NMR and time-resolved IR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Graham E.; Brookes, Christopher M.; Cowan, Alexander J.; Darwish, Tamim A.; George, Michael W.; Kawanami, Hajime K.; Portius, Peter; Rourke, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The organometallic alkane complexes Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)(alkane) and Re(Cp)(CO)2(alkane) have been detected after the photolysis of Re(Cp)(CO)2(PF3) in alkane solvent. NMR and time-resolved IR experiments reveal that the species produced by the interaction of n-pentane with [Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)] are an equilibrium mixture of Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)(pentane) and Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)(pentyl)H. The interaction of cyclopentane with [Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)] most likely results in a similar equilibrium between cyclopentyl hydride and cyclopentane complexes. An increasing proportion of alkane complex is observed on going from n-pentane to cyclopentane to cyclohexane, where only a small amount, if any, of the cyclohexyl hydride form is present. In general, when [Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)] reacts with alkanes, the products display a higher degree of oxidative cleavage in comparison with [Re(Cp)(CO)2], which favors alkane complexation without activation. Species with the formula Re(Cp)(CO)(PF3)(alkane) have higher thermal stability and lower reactivity toward CO than the analogous Re(Cp)(CO)2(alkane) complexes. PMID:17435163

  3. Infrared microscopy for the study of biological cell monolayers. I. Spectral effects of acetone and formalin fixation.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Gary; Wang, Ruili; Krug, Peter; Katz, David; Hilliard, Julia

    2008-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy of biological cell monolayers grown on surfaces is a poorly developed field. This is unfortunate because these monolayers have potential as biological sensors. Here we have used infrared microscopy, in both transmission and transflection geometries, to study air-dried Vero cell monolayers. Using both methods allows one to distinguish sampling artefactual features from real sample spectral features. In transflection experiments, amide I/II absorption bands down-shift 9/4 cm(-1), respectively, relative to the corresponding bands in transmission experiments. In all other spectral regions no pronounced frequency differences in spectral bands in transmission and transflection experiments were observed. Transmission and transflection infrared microscopy were used to obtain infrared spectra for unfixed and acetone- or formalin-fixed Vero cell monolayers. Formalin-fixed monolayers display spectra that are very similar to that obtained using unfixed cells. However, acetone fixation leads to considerable spectral modifications. For unfixed and formalin-fixed monolayers, a distinct band is observed at 1740 cm(-1). This band is absent in spectra obtained using acetone-fixed monolayers. The 1740 cm(-1) band is associated with cellular ester lipids. In support of this hypothesis, two bands at 2925 and 2854 cm(-1) are also found to disappear upon acetone fixation. These bands are associated with C-H modes of the cellular lipids. Acetone fixation also leads to modification of protein amide I and II absorption bands. This may be expected as acetone causes coagulation of soluble cellular proteins. Other spectral changes associated with acetone or formalin fixation in the 1400-800 cm(-1) region are discussed.

  4. Study of dithiol monolayer as the interface for controlled deposition of gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Cichomski, M.; Tomaszewska, E.; Kosla, K.; Kozlowski, W.; Grobelny, J.

    2011-03-15

    Self-assembled monolayer of dithiol molecules, deposited on polycrystalline Au (111), prepared at room atmosphere, was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Dithiols were used as interface, which chemically bonds to the deposited gold nanoparticles through strong covalent bonds. The size and size distribution of the deposited nanoparticles were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results showed that nanoparticles are immobilized and stable during scanning procedure and do not contaminate the AFM tip. The size of monodisperse nanoparticles obtained from the DLS measurements is slightly higher than that obtained from the AFM and SEM measurements. This is due to the fact that the DLS measures the hydrodynamic radius, dependent on the protective chemical layer on nanoparticles. - Research Highlights: {yields} Dithiols molecules create chemically bounded layers on a Au (111) surface. {yields} Gold nanoparticles can be chemically bounded to a self-assembled monolayer. {yields} Nanoparticles are stable during AFM probe interactions.

  5. A theoretical study for electronic and transport properties of covalent functionalized MoS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lijuan; Yang, Zhao-Di; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-06-01

    The geometries, electronic and electron transport properties of a series of functionalized MoS2 monolayers were investigated using density-functional theory (DFT) and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) methods. n-Propyl, n-trisilicyl, phenyl, p-nitrophenyl and p-methoxyphenyl are chosen as electron-donating groups. The results show covalent functionalization with electron-donating groups could make a transformation from typical semiconducting to metallic properties for appearance of midgap level across the Fermi level (Ef). The calculations of transport properties for two-probe devices indicate that conductivities of functionalized systems are obviously enhanced relative to pristine MoS2 monolayer. Grafted groups contribute to the major transport path and play an important role in enhancing conductivity. The NDR effect is found. The influence of grafted density is also studied. Larger grafted density leads to wider bandwidth of midgap level, larger current response of I-V curves and larger current difference between peak and valley.

  6. A study of capping layers for sulfur monolayer doping on III-V junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, J. H.; Shin, H. S.; Hill, R.; Oh, J.; Lee, H. D.; Mushinski, Ryan M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Loh, W. Y.; Wang, Wei-E.; Kirsch, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Recently, high dosage doping on Si multi-gate field effect transistors and III-V planar structures using a self-limiting monolayer doping technique was reported to overcome challenges in scaling nano-sized transistors. The stoichiometry or composition of the capping layer was found to affect the diffusion efficiency of this process. In this work, we study the effect of a capping layer in sulfur monolayer doping on III-V junctions. Various capping temperatures and growth methods were compared. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, we suggest an optimized scheme consisting of a bi-layer capping structure. From Hall measurements and secondary ion mass spectrometry, a SiNx/BeO bi-layer capping, compared to single layer cap, exhibited the best results with a surface sheet resistance of 232 Ω/sq, junction depth of 11 nm, dopant profile abruptness of 3.5 nm/dec, electrically active S concentration of 4.9 × 1019/cm3 (=1.34 × 1013/cm2), and 3 times higher activation efficiency without significant transient-enhanced dopant diffusion.

  7. Microscopic wetting of mixed self-assembled monolayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Szöri, Milán; Tobias, Douglas J; Roeselová, Martina

    2009-04-02

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the evolution of the organization of water molecules on the flat surface of well-ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of eight-carbon alkanethiolate chains bound to a gold substrate, as the character of the surface is finely tuned from completely hydrophobic to completely hydrophilic, and as the level of hydration is increased from submonolayer to the equivalent of about two monolayers of water. The hydrophilicity of the SAM surfaces is increased by randomly replacing methyl-terminated alkanethiolate chains with carboxylic acid-terminated chains. We report on the evolution of the structure of the surfaces of the SAMs, both in the absence and presence of water, and the organization of water molecules and the extent of wetting of the surfaces, as the fraction of hydrophilic groups is increased. The results suggest that on the flat organic surfaces with a small fraction of the hydrophilic components the hydrophilic spots serve as nucleation sites, resulting in the growth of a larger number of (smaller) water droplets compared to the completely hydrophobic surface, whereas on the surfaces with a large fraction of the hydrophilic component the uptake of water proceeds via a water film growing, at first, over the hydrophilic domains and, eventually, bridging over the hydrophobic patches, and spreading out over the entire surface. We discuss the implications of these processes on the properties of the organic aerosols in the atmosphere.

  8. Sensing properties of monolayer borophane nanosheet towards alcohol vapors: A first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, V; Chandiramouli, R

    2017-05-01

    The electronic properties of borophane nanosheet and adsorption behavior of three distinct alcohol vapors namely methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol on borophane nanosheet is studied using density functional theory method for the first time. The state-of-the-art provides insights on to the development of new two dimensional materials with the surface passivation on boron nanostructures. The density of states spectrum provides a clear perception on charge transfer upon adsorption of alcohol vapors on borophane nanosheets. The monolayer of borophane band gap widens upon adsorption of alcohol vapors, which can be used for the detection for volatile organic vapors. The adsorption properties of alcohol vapors on borophane base material are analyzed in terms of natural bond orbital, average energy gap variation, adsorption energy and energy gap. The most suitable adsorption sites of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on borophane nanosheet are investigated in atomistic level. The adsorption of alcohol molecules on borophane nanosheet is found to be more favorable. The findings suggest that the monolayer borophane nanosheet can be utilized to detect the presence of alcohol vapors in the atmosphere.

  9. The insertion of human apolipoprotein H into phospholipid membranes: a monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Wang, S X; Cai, G P; Sui, S F

    1998-10-15

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a plasma glycoprotein isolated from human serum. The interactions of ApoH with lipid membrane were reported to be essential for its physiological and pathogenic roles. In this paper we studied the ability of ApoH to insert into phospholipid membranes using the monolayer approach. The results show that ApoH is surface active and can insert into the lipid monolayers. The insertion ability of ApoH is stronger when a higher content of negatively charged lipids is present in the membrane. The acidic-pH and low-ionic-strength conditions will also enhance ApoH insertion, but these factors may not have much influence on the final insertion ability of ApoH, suggesting that, in the mechanism of ApoH insertion, not only electrostatic forces, but also hydrophobic interactions, are evidently involved. Modification by heat inactivation and reduction/alkylation does not change the critical insertion pressure (pic) of ApoH, suggesting a stable domain, maybe a linear sequence motif, but not the native three-dimensional structure of ApoH, is responsible for its insertion. The extent to which insertion of ApoH into phospholipid membranes may facilitate the 'immune cleaning' of plasma liposomes is discussed.

  10. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-03-22

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) waveguide-based, 36 degree-rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO₃) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO₂ layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection.

  11. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) waveguide–based, 36 degree–rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO3) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO2 layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. PMID:28327504

  12. Adsorption of linear alkanes on Cu(111): Temperature and chain-length dependence of the softened vibrational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosser, Kari A.; Kang, Joo H.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Wöll, Christof

    2007-05-01

    The vibrational spectra of linear alkanes, with lengths ranging from n-propane to n-octane, were examined on a copper surface by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The appearance and frequency of the "soft mode," a feature routinely seen in studies of saturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on metals, were examined and compared between the different adsorbates. The frequency of the mode was found to be dependent on both the number of methylene units of each alkane as well as specific aspects of the order of the monolayer phase. Studies of monolayer coverages at different temperatures provide insights into the nature of the two-dimensional (2D) melting transitions of these adlayer structures, ones that can be inferred from observed shifts in the soft vibrational modes appearing in the C-H stretching region of the infrared spectrum. These studies support recently reported hypotheses as to the origins of such soft modes: the metal-hydrogen interactions that mediate them and the dynamics that underlay their pronounced temperature dependencies. The present data strongly support a model for the 2D to one-dimensional order-order phase transition arising via a continuous rather than discrete first-order process.

  13. Structure and stability studies of mixed monolayers of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids under low-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lin; Ge, Aimin; Osawa, Masatoshi; Ye, Shen

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, stability and structure of single and binary mixed monolayers of an unsaturated phospholipid, DOPC, and a saturated phospholipid, DPPC-d75, on the water surface, were explored using the π-A isotherm, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in various environments. Our results demonstrated that DOPC in the monolayers becomes unstable after the exposure to a low concentration of ozone (20 ± 10 ppb) or even to ambient laboratory air, which has a similar ozone level, but is stable in nitrogen or oxygen. DOPC can be selectively oxidized by a trace amount of ozone in the ambient environment but can be partially inhibited by the presence of DPPC in the monolayer. The present study provides useful information for understanding the physicochemical properties of the cell membranes.

  14. Case studies on the formation of chalcogenide self-assembled monolayers on surfaces and dissociative processes

    PubMed Central

    Bendounan, Azzedine; Harish, Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh; Giglia, Angelo; Kubsky, Stefan; Sirotti, Fausto; Pasquali, Luca; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Summary This report examines the assembly of chalcogenide organic molecules on various surfaces, focusing on cases when chemisorption is accompanied by carbon–chalcogen atom-bond scission. In the case of alkane and benzyl chalcogenides, this induces formation of a chalcogenized interface layer. This process can occur during the initial stages of adsorption and then, after passivation of the surface, molecular adsorption can proceed. The characteristics of the chalcogenized interface layer can be significantly different from the metal layer and can affect various properties such as electron conduction. For chalcogenophenes, the carbon–chalcogen atom-bond breaking can lead to opening of the ring and adsorption of an alkene chalcogenide. Such a disruption of the π-electron system affects charge transport along the chains. Awareness about these effects is of importance from the point of view of molecular electronics. We discuss some recent studies based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that shed light on these aspects for a series of such organic molecules. PMID:26977383

  15. Further study for fabrication, evaluation, and testing of monolayer woven materials for space suit insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, R.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements to the monolayer woven pile concept were evaluated in terms of increased durability and thermal performance. Three varieties of the monolayer material were tested for thermal conductance under various conditions simulating those which occur in space. In addition, the tendency of the pile to unravel was subjectively evaluated.

  16. Do n-alkane biomarkers in soils/sediments reflect the δ²H isotopic composition of precipitation? A case study from Mt. Kilimanjaro and implications for paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate research.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Zech, Roland; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Gleixner, Gerd; Zech, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade compound-specific deuterium ((2)H) analysis of plant leaf wax-derived n-alkanes has become a promising and popular tool in paleoclimate research. This is based on the widely accepted assumption that n-alkanes in soils and sediments generally reflect δ(2)H of precipitation (δ(2)H(prec)). Recently, several authors suggested that δ(2)H of n-alkanes (δ(2)H(n-alkanes)) can also be used as a proxy in paleoaltimetry studies. Here, we present results from a δ(2)H transect study (∼1500 to 4000 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) carried out on precipitation and soil samples taken from the humid southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Contrary to earlier suggestions, a distinct altitude effect in δ(2)H(prec) is present above ∼2000 m a.s.l., that is, δ(2)H(prec) values become more negative with increasing altitude. The compound-specific δ(2)H values of nC27 and nC29 do not confirm this altitudinal trend, but rather become more positive both in the O-layers (organic layers) and the Ah-horizons (mineral topsoils). Although our δ(2)H(n-alkane) results are in agreement with previously published results from the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro [Peterse F, van der Meer M, Schouten S, Jia G, Ossebaar J, Blokker J, Sinninghe Damsté J. Assessment of soil n-alkane δD and branched tetraether membrane lipid distributions as tools for paleoelevation reconstruction. Biogeosciences. 2009;6:2799-2807], a re-interpretation is required given that the δ(2)H(n-alkane) results do not reflect the δ(2)H(prec) results. The theoretical framework for this re-interpretation is based on the evaporative isotopic enrichment of leaf water associated with the transpiration process. Modelling results show that relative humidity, decreasing considerably along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro (from 78% in ∼2000 m a.s.l. to 51% in 4000 m a.s.l.), strongly controls δ(2)H(leaf water). The modelled (2)H leaf water enrichment along the altitudinal transect matches well the

  17. A neutron reflectivity study of polymer-modified phospholipid monolayers at the solid-solution interface: polyethylene glycol-lipids on silane-modified substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, T L; Majewski, J; Wong, J Y; Steinberg, S; Leckband, D E; Israelachvili, J N; Smith, G S

    1998-01-01

    The structure of polymer-decorated phospholipid monolayers at the solid-solution interface was investigated using neutron reflectometry. The monolayers were composed of distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) matrixed with varying amounts of DSPE-PEG (DSPE with polyethylene glycol covalently grafted to its headgroup). Mixed lipid monolayers were Langmuir-Blodgett deposited onto hydrophobic quartz or silicon substrates, previously hydrophobized by chemically grafting a robust monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). We show that this method results in homogeneous and continuous phospholipid monolayers on the silanated substrates and determine that the grafted PEG chains extend away from the monolayers into the solvent phase as a function of their density, as expected from scaling theories. In addition, ligands were coupled to the end of the PEG chains and selective binding was demonstrated using fluorescence microscopy. Our results demonstrate that these constructs are ideal for further characterization and studies with well-defined monomolecular films. PMID:9788930

  18. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  19. Isolating the non-polar contributions to the intermolecular potential for water-alkane interactions.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Deepti; Venkataraman, Pradeep; Fouad, Wael A; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2014-08-14

    Intermolecular potential models for water and alkanes describe pure component properties fairly well, but fail to reproduce properties of water-alkane mixtures. Understanding interactions between water and non-polar molecules like alkanes is important not only for the hydrocarbon industry but has implications to biological processes as well. Although non-polar solutes in water have been widely studied, much less work has focused on water in non-polar solvents. In this study we calculate the solubility of water in different alkanes (methane to dodecane) at ambient conditions where the water content in alkanes is very low so that the non-polar water-alkane interactions determine solubility. Only the alkane-rich phase is simulated since the fugacity of water in the water rich phase is calculated from an accurate equation of state. Using the SPC/E model for water and TraPPE model for alkanes along with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for the cross parameters produces a water solubility that is an order of magnitude lower than the experimental value. It is found that an effective water Lennard-Jones energy ε(W)/k = 220 K is required to match the experimental water solubility in TraPPE alkanes. This number is much higher than used in most simulation water models (SPC/E-ε(W)/k = 78.2 K). It is surprising that the interaction energy obtained here is also higher than the water-alkane interaction energy predicted by studies on solubility of alkanes in water. The reason for this high water-alkane interaction energy is not completely understood. Some factors that might contribute to the large interaction energy, such as polarizability of alkanes, octupole moment of methane, and clustering of water at low concentrations in alkanes, are examined. It is found that, though important, these factors do not completely explain the anomalously strong attraction between alkanes and water observed experimentally.

  20. Graphene adhesion on MoS₂ monolayer: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yandong; Dai, Ying; Guo, Meng; Niu, Chengwang; Huang, Baibiao

    2011-09-01

    The geometric and electronic structures of graphene adsorption on MoS(2) monolayer have been studied by using density functional theory. It is found that graphene is bound to MoS(2) with an interlayer spacing of 3.32 Å and with a binding energy of -23 meV per C atom irrespective of adsorption arrangement, indicating a weak interaction between graphene and MoS(2). A detailed analysis of the electronic structure indicates that the nearly linear band dispersion relation of graphene can be preserved in MoS(2)/graphene hybrid accompanied by a small band-gap (2 meV) opening due to the variation of on-site energy induced by MoS(2). These findings are useful complement to experimental studies of this new synthesize system and suggest a new route to facilitate the design of devices where both finite band-gap and high carrier mobility are needed.

  1. Computational study of phononic resonators and waveguides in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulou, A; Sgouros, A P; Sigalas, M M

    2017-03-15

    Using molecular dynamics and semi-empirical potentials, large scale transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers (TMDM) were examined. The focus of the study was the modification of the phonon spectrum of TMDMs by engineering substitutional defects to produce phononic resonators and waveguides on the atomic scale. The resonant frequencies of the aforementioned structures can be tuned by applying tensile or compressive stresses. The TMDMs exhibited wide phononic band gaps (PBG) in their phonon spectrum because they consist of atoms with quite different atomic masses. The PBG from the present semi-empirical calculations were found to be in reasonable agreement with previous ab initio calculations. The problem is very broad since many varieties of TMDMs (with or without defects) can be made. The present study focused on MX2 composites with M being Mo or W and X being S or Se. The most interesting behavior was found in WS2 with substitutional defects of either S ↔ Se or W ↔ Mo.

  2. Quantitative analysis of molecular orientation in chlorophyll a Langmuir monolayer: a polarized visible reflection spectroscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, E; Hasegawa, T; Umemura, J

    1995-01-01

    Polarized visible reflection spectra of a chlorophyll a (Chl.a) Langmuir monolayer have been measured in situ at various surface pressures. By applying Hansen's optics to the three-phase plane-bounded system (air/Chl.a monolayer/water), the negative reflection absorbances observed were reproduced satisfactorily by the theoretical calculation. Molecular orientation of Chl.a in the monolayer was evaluated quantitatively as a function of surface pressure, from the reflection absorbance of p- and s-polarized spectra of the red (Qy) band. It has been proven that Chl.a molecules in the monolayer form aggregates (islands) even in the low surface pressure region and that during the monolayer compression the molecules are gradually reorganized from inhomogeneous islands to ordered structures, with the chromophores oriented on the average vertically to the water surface. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8519968

  3. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity studies on DNA adsorption on mixed DPPC/DC-Cholesterol monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Jeng, U.-Ser; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Gutberlet, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    We have studied DNA adsorption on mixed DPPC/DC-Chol monolayers. Solid supported mixed monolayers on silicon wafers were prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) dipping technique. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity measurements were used to characterize these LB monofilms. For LB monofilms with DNA adsorption, the reflectivity data of the DPPC/DNA film are very close to that from the DPPC film, which indicates only minor DNA adsorption on the pure DPPC monolayer. Increasing the percentage of DC-Chol, film thickness increases. The DC-Chol/DNA film is thicker than the pure DC-Chol film (film thickness 18 Å) by about 9 Å due to the presence of adsorbed DNA. A model is presented to explain the structure of the lipid/DNA film.

  4. Microscopy and spectroscopy studies of (silicon(m)germanium(n))(p) superlattices and alkylthiol monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun

    1999-12-01

    The main ingredients of this thesis are divided into two parts. In the first part, we have investigated the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of short- period (Si mGen) p strained layer superlattices (SLS). The measured c(2) 311 for (Si5Ge5)3 sample is 1.0 × 10-7 esu at 1.17 eV (1064 nm) and 7.2 × 10 -7 esu at 1.55 eV (800 nm). In addition to the Si-Ge bond contribution from Si/Ge interfaces, we attribute an inhomogeneous strain due to lattice mismatch in the superlattice layers to be the main source of the SH responses we observed. Theoretical calculation of strain induced c(2) gives the value comparable to the one experimentally determined. This strain model can also explain the larger SH responses from superlattices samples containing stacking fault defects. We finally show that a multistructure of alternative strained superlattices and Si buffer layers can coherently generate SH, hence make such material potentially useful in practice. In the second part, we have studied the frictional property for alkyl-thiol monolayers CH3(CH2)nSH (n = 6, 9, 17) self-assembled on Au(111) with different molecular configurations under annealing. From scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies, it is known that these molecules form ordered (3× 3) R30° structure after self- assembly at room temperature. With annealing at sufficient high temperatures for an extended time period, the ordering of the films would first degrade and then form another order stripe-phase as partial desorption of the molecules takes place. Such thermally induced irreversible structural changes are further confirmed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform inferred spectroscopy (FTIR). Our friction results on these films measured by frictional force microscope (FFM) with a Si3N4 tip show that friction increases as the monolayer ordering deteriorates and then reaches to a saturation level of ~4 times larger for the

  5. Regulation of alkane oxidation in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, A; Shapiro, J; Fennewald, M; Bacha, P; Leahy, J; Markbreiter, K; Nieder, M; Toepfer, M

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the appearance of whole-cell oxidizing activity for n-alkanes and their oxidation products in strains of Pseudomonas putida carrying the OCT plasmid. Our results indicate that the OCT plasmid codes for inducible alkane-hydroxylating and primary alcohol-dehydrogenating activities and that the chromosome codes for constitutive oxidizing activities for primary alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes, and fatty acids. Mutant isolation confirms the presence of an alcohol dehydrogenase locus on the OCT plasmid and indicated the presence of multiple alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase loci on the P. putida chromosome. Induction tests with various compounds indicate that inducer recognition has specificity for chain length and can be affected by the degree of oxidation of the carbon chain. Some inducers are neither growth nor respiration substrates. Growth tests with and without a gratuitous inducer indicate that undecane is not a growth substrate because it does not induce alkane hydroxylase activity. Using a growth test for determining induction of the plasmid alcohol dehydrogenase it is possible to show that heptane induces this activity in hydroxylase-negative mutants. This suggests that unoxidized alkane molecules are the physiological inducers of both plasmid activities. PMID:1150626

  6. Structural Studies of Liquid Surface Self-Assembled Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Jacob

    The phenomenon of self--assembly has become increasingly relevant due to the role it can play in nanofabrication and the emergence of macro-scale structure. This phenomenon has been seen in a broad range of material systems. For example, iron oxide nanoparticles undergo self-assembly into well-ordered monolayer films of macroscopic size at an air-water interface. It is this system that is the topic of the work herein. The self-assembly process is the result of the van der Waals forces between the constituent particles. For roughly spherical particles the monolayer is a 2D hexagonal close packed lattice. Using a variety of X-Ray scattering techniques including Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GID), X-Ray Reflectivity (XR), and Grazing Incidence X-Ray Off-Specular Scattering (GIXOS) the structure of some of the emergent characteristics of these films is studied. Namely, the microscale multilayering that occurs when these films are laterally compressed, exhibits varying morphologies which depend on the size of the constituent particles. Additionally, when these films are formed from bi-dispersed mixtures containing 10 and 20 nm particles, the particles phase separate into well--ordered patches during the self-assembly process. The domain sizes of these phase separated regions are at most a factor of 2-3 times smaller than that of a film comprising only mono-dispersed particles, and their degree of disorder is comparable. Finally, using these iron oxide nanoparticle monolayers as a test system, a novel analysis is demonstrated that allows a direct comparison between Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of ex-situ films and GID measurements of in-situ films: the results demonstrate that structural information comparable to that contained in the GID measurements can be obtained by Fourier transform analysis of the SEM images taken of the film after it has been transferred to a silicon substrate. Furthermore this comparison suggests that the Langmuir-Schaefer method of

  7. Spin polarized first principles study of Mn doped gallium nitride monolayer nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Venus; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita; Kumar, Tankeshwar

    2017-05-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of gallium nitride nanosheet (GaNs) doped with Mn atoms have been studied using spin polarized density functional theory. The binding energy per atom, Energy Band gap, Fermi energy, magnetic moment, electric dipole moment have been found. The doped nanosheet is found to be more stable than pure GaN monolayer nanosheet. Adsorption of Mn atom has been done at four different sites on GaNs which affects the fermi level position. It is found that depending on the doping site, Mn can behave both like p-type semiconductor and also as n-type semiconductor. Also, it is ascertained that Mn doped GaNs (GaNs-Mn) exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.

  8. The striped phases of ethylthiolate monolayers on the Au(111) surface: a scanning tunneling microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangsen; Tang, Lin; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Gao, Jianzhi; Guo, Quanmin

    2013-05-21

    Striped phases of ethylthiolate monolayers, corresponding to surface coverage in between 0.2 ML and 0.27 ML, were studied using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy. Striped phases consist of rows of Au-adatom-diethythiolate (AAD) aligned along the [112] direction. In the perpendicular [110] direction, the AAD rows adjust their spacing according to the surface coverage. A (5√3 × √3)-R30° striped phase with 0.27 ML thiolate and a (6√3 × √3)-R30° striped phase with 0.23 ML thiolate, both with long-range order, are found. A localized (5 × √3)-rect. phase is also found as a minority phase embedded in the 5√3 × √3)-R30° phase. This (5 × √3)-rect. phase can be constructed using di-Au-adatom-tri-thiolate species.

  9. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μB per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock-salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms.

  10. First-principles study of thermoelectric transport properties of monolayer gallium chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xu-Jin; Qin, Dan; Yao, Kai-Lun; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-10-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we study the thermoelectric transport properties of monolayer gallium chalcogenides GaX with X being S, Se or Te. We show that, the Mexican-hat-shaped dispersion near the valence band maximum, absent in the bulk, effectively enhances their thermoelectric performance. We analyze these results using a simple model Hamiltonian, and show that it can be understood as an effective one-dimensional band structure emerging from these two-dimensional materials. These results support recent proposals of using low-dimensional electronic band in high-dimensional materials in the search of new high-performance thermoelectric materials. Moreover, for n-doping, we find that strain engineering could be an efficient way of tuning the position of conduction band minimum and the corresponding thermoelectric performance.

  11. Transepithelial transport of aliphatic carboxylic acids studied in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M.J.; Adson, A.; Kezdy, F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Transport of 14C-labeled acetic, propionic (PA), butyric, valeric, heptanoic (HA), and octanoic (OA) acids across the Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell monolayer grown on a porous polycarbonate membrane was studied in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37{degrees}C in both apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. At micromolar concentrations of solutes, metabolic decomposition was significant as evidenced by (14C)CO2 production during the OA transport. The apparent permeability (Pe) indicates that as lipophilicity increases, diffusion across the unstirred boundary layer becomes rate limiting. In support of this notion, transport of OA and HA was enhanced by agitation, showed an activation energy of 3.7 kcal/mol for OA, and resulted in identical Pe values for both transport directions. Analysis of Pe changes with varying alkyl chain length resulted in a delta G of -0.68 +/- 0.09 kcal/mol for -CH2-group transfer from an aqueous phase to the MDCK cells. When the intercellular tight junctions were opened by the divalent chelator EGTA in Ca2+/Mg2(+)-free HBSS, transport of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer yellow greatly increased because of paracellular leakage. PA transport also showed a significant increase, but OA transport was independent of EGTA. Although albumin also undergoes paracellular transport in the presence of EGTA and OA binds strongly to albumin, OA transport in EGTA solution was unchanged by albumin. These observations indicate that transmembrane transport is the major mechanism for lipophilic substances. The present study, together with earlier work on the transport of polar substances, shows that the MDCK cell monolayer is an excellent model of the transepithelial transport barrier.

  12. Maxwell displacement current allows to study structural changes of gramicidin A in monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Vitovic, Pavol; Weis, Martin; Tomcík, Pavol; Cirák, Július; Hianik, Tibor

    2007-05-01

    We applied methods of measurement Maxwell displacement current (MDC) pressure-area isotherms and dipole potential for analysis of the properties of gramicidin A (gA) and mixed gA/DMPC monolayers at an air-water interface. The MDC method allowed us to observe the kinetics of formation of secondary structure of gA in monolayers at an air-water interface. We showed, that secondary structure starts to form at rather low area per molecule at which gA monolayers are in gaseous state. Changes of the MDC during compression can be attributed to the reorientation of dipole moments in a gA double helix at area 7 nm(2)/molecule, followed by the formation of intertwined double helix of gA. The properties of gA in mixed monolayers depend on the molar fraction of gA/DMPC. At higher molar fractions of gA (around 0.5) the shape of the changes of dipole moment of mixed monolayer was similar to that for pure gA. The analysis of excess free energy in a gel (18( ) degrees C) and in a liquid-crystalline phase (28( ) degrees C) allowed us to show influence of the monolayer structural state on the interaction between gA and the phospholipids. In a gel state and at the gA/DMPC molar ratio below 0.17 the aggregates of gA were formed, while above this molar ratio gA interacts favorably with DMPC. In contrast, for DMPC in a liquid-crystalline state aggregation of gA was observed for all molar fractions studied. The effect of formation ordered structures between gA and DMPC is more pronounced at low temperatures.

  13. Heterologous biosynthesis and manipulation of alkanes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Xie, Ze-Xiong; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Biosynthesis of alkanes in microbial foundries offers a sustainable and green supplement to traditional fossil fuels. The dynamic equilibrium of fatty aldehydes, key intermediates, played a critical role in microbial alkanes production, due to the poor catalytic capability of aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). In our study, exploration of competitive pathway together with multi-modular optimization was utilized to improve fatty aldehydes balance and consequently enhance alkanes formation in Escherichia coli. Endogenous fatty alcohol formation was supposed to be competitive with alkane production, since both of the two routes consumed the same intermediate-fatty aldehyde. Nevertheless, in our case, alkanes production in E. coli was enhanced from trace amount to 58.8mg/L by the facilitation of moderate fatty alcohol biosynthesis, which was validated by deletion of endogenous aldehyde reductase (AHR), overexpression of fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and consequent transcriptional assay of aar, ado and adhP genes. Moreover, alkanes production was further improved to 81.8mg/L, 86.6mg/L or 101.7mg/L by manipulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, lipids degradation or electron transfer system modules, which directly referenced to fatty aldehydes dynamic pools. A titer of 1.31g/L alkanes was achieved in 2.5L fed-batch fermentation, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our research has offered a reference for chemical overproduction in microbial cell factories facilitated by exploring competitive pathway.

  14. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol.

  15. Semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in monolayer ZrS2: GGA+U study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Tankeshwar, K.

    2015-06-01

    We report structural and electronic properties of ZrS2 monolayer within density functional theory (DFT) by inclusion of Hubbard on-site Coulomb and exchange interactions. The importance of on-site interactions for both ZrS2 bulk and monolayer has been highlighted that significantly improves the electronic band-gap. It is demonstrated that mechanical strain induces structural phase transition that results in semiconductor-to-metal transition in monolayer ZrS2. This phenomenon has important implications in technological applications such as flexible, low power and transparent electronic devices.

  16. Structure and dynamics of fluorinated alkanes on silicon dioxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-03-01

    Despite their great promise in various applications, the structure and dynamics of fluorinated alkanes at interfaces is still an open question. In particular, the knowledge from both theoretical and experimental perspectives is very limited when it comes to understanding the interface between these systems and a solid substrate. Molecular dynamics simulations based on the All Atom OPLS model are used to predict the equilibrium structure and dynamics of short fluorinated alkanes on both amorphous and crystalline silicon dioxide surfaces. In order to understand the effect of layer-layer interaction on the ordering of chains in a given layer, the thickness of the liquid film is increased layer-by-layer from monolayer to multilayers. Results for structural and dynamics of the liquid films near the silicon dioxide surfaces will be presented.

  17. Degradation of alkanes by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Fernando

    2009-10-01

    Pollution of soil and water environments by crude oil has been, and is still today, an important problem. Crude oil is a complex mixture of thousands of compounds. Among them, alkanes constitute the major fraction. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons of different sizes and structures. Although they are chemically very inert, most of them can be efficiently degraded by several microorganisms. This review summarizes current knowledge on how microorganisms degrade alkanes, focusing on the biochemical pathways used and on how the expression of pathway genes is regulated and integrated within cell physiology.

  18. Self-diffusion in molecular liquids: Medium-chain n-alkanes and coenzyme Q10 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuda, Christoph; Busch, Sebastian; Gemmecker, Gerd; Unruh, Tobias

    2008-07-01

    A systematic time-of-flight quasielastic neutron scattering (TOF-QENS) study on diffusion of n-alkanes in a melt is presented for the first time. As another example of a medium-chain molecule, coenzyme Q10 is investigated in the same way. The data were evaluated both in the frequency and in the time domain. TOF-QENS data can be satisfactorily described by different models, and it turned out that the determined diffusion coefficients are largely independent of the applied model. The derived diffusion coefficients are compared with values measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). With increasing chain length, an increasing difference between the TOF-QENS diffusion coefficient and the PFG-NMR diffusion coefficient is observed. This discrepancy in the diffusion coefficients is most likely due to a change of the diffusion mechanism on a nanometer length scale for molecules of medium-chain length.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of the molecular weight dependence of surface tensions of normal alkanes and methyl methacrylate oligomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunli; Choi, Phillip

    2006-04-06

    Surface tensions (gamma) of normal alkanes and methyl methacrylate (MMA) oligomers at various molecular weights in the low molecular weight range were computed using a newly proposed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation strategy which was developed based on the definition of gamma = ( partial differential U/ partial differential sigma)n,V,S. The MD simulations, even with the use of a generic force field, reproduced the experimentally observed molecular weight dependence of gamma (i.e., gamma proportional Mn(-2/3), where Mn is the number-average molecular weight) for both series of oligomers. Analysis of the data reveals that solvent accessible surface area, one of the key input variables used for the calculation of gamma, exhibits an Mn(2/3) (rather than Mn(1)) dependence. The reason for such dependence is that solvent accessible surface area formed by the chainlike small molecules depends, to a larger extent, on their orientations rather than their size. However, this is not the case for high molecular weight molecules as solvent accessible surface area of such surfaces are determined by the orientations of their segments which are determined by the conformations of the molecules. This may explain why surface tension of polymers experimentally exhibits an Mn(-1) dependence. It is inferred that the corresponding molecular weight dependence of the entropy changes associated with molecules in the low and high molecular weight ranges would be different.

  20. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Pakiza; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  1. Synchrotron X-ray study of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B in lipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K Y; Majewski, J; Kuhl, T L; Howes, P B; Kjaer, K; Lipp, M M; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A; Smith, G S

    2001-01-01

    This work reports the first x-ray scattering measurements to determine the effects of SP-B(1-25), the N-terminus peptide of lung surfactant-specific protein SP-B, on the structure of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers. In-plane diffraction shows that the peptide fluidizes a portion of the monolayer but does not affect the packing of the residual ordered phase. This implies that the peptide resides in the disordered phase, and that the ordered phase is essentially pure lipid, in agreement with fluorescence microscopy studies. X-ray reflectivity shows that the peptide is oriented in the lipid monolayer at an angle of approximately 56 degrees relative to the interface normal, with one end protruding past the hydrophilic region into the fluid subphase and the other end embedded in the hydrophobic region of the monolayer. The quantitative insights afforded by this study lead to a better understanding of the lipid/protein interactions found in lung surfactant systems. PMID:11423439

  2. Revisiting the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Low-Temperature Oxidation Pathways of Alkanes: A Case Study of the Three Pentane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Bugler, John; Somers, Kieran P; Silke, Emma J; Curran, Henry J

    2015-07-16

    This paper describes our developing understanding of low-temperature oxidation kinetics. We have investigated the ignition of the three pentane isomers in a rapid compression machine over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, including conditions of negative temperature coefficient behavior. The pentane isomers are small alkanes, yet have structures that are complex enough to allow for the application of their kinetic and thermochemical rules to larger molecules. Updates to the thermochemistry of the species important in the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made based on a thorough literature review. An evaluation of recent quantum-chemically derived rate coefficients from the literature pertinent to important low-temperature oxidation reaction classes has been performed, and new rate rules are recommended for these classes. Several reaction classes have also been included to determine their importance with regard to simulation results, and we have found that they should be included when developing future chemical kinetic mechanisms. A comparison of the model simulations with pressure-time histories from experiments in a rapid compression machine shows very good agreement for both ignition delay time and pressure rise for both the first- and second-stage ignition events. We show that revisions to both the thermochemistry and the kinetics are required in order to replicate experiments well. A broader validation of the models with ignition delay times from shock tubes and a rapid compression machine is presented in an accompanying paper. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the combustion of straight- and branched-chained alkanes.

  3. Adhesion of human leukocytes to biomaterials: an in vitro study using alkanethiolate monolayers with different chemically functionalized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Judite N; Barbosa, Mário A; Aguas, Artur P

    2003-06-15

    The adhesion of human leukocytes to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined surface chemistry was investigated in vitro. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leukocytes were isolated from human blood by centrifugation techniques. The effect on adhesion of cell activation produced by pre-incubation of leukocytes with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was also studied. Gold substrates were modified by treatment with alkanethiols with three different terminal chemical groups: COOH, OH, and CH(3). After incubation with the two subpopulations of leukocytes, the monolayers were washed, treated with fixative, stained with a Giemsa method, and observed by light microscopy to quantify the number of attached leukocytes. Comparative quantification of the density of leukocyte adhesion to the three types of self-assembled monolayers was determined. The hydrophobic surface expressing CH(3) was found to be the one that induced the highest adhesion density of leukocytes, both of PMN and mononuclear cells. In vitro activation of both mononuclear and PMN leukocytes further increased cell adhesion to the chemically defined monolayers that were used. This enhancement was higher for PHA-activated than for PMA-stimulated mononuclear cells, whereas PMA treatment of neutrophils resulted in a higher rate of adhesion of these cells than PHA stimulation.

  4. Ab-initio study of p magnetism in CaN and CaC monolayers on Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Hadi; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Nourbakhsh, Zahra; Hashemifar, S. Javad

    2014-03-01

    Ab-initio calculations are performed to study the p ferromagnetic CaC and CaN compounds in the zinc-blend (zb) and rock-salt (rs) structures and their monolayers on Cu(001). It is observed that within the generalized gradient functional both structures of the bulk compounds are half-metal, while the rs structure exhibits higher stability. It is argued the strong interatomic exchange interaction in these systems controls the splitting of the spin resolved bond points while it has no considerable effect on total bond strength. In contrast to the bulk compounds, the CaC and CaN monolayers on Cu(001) generally favor the zb structure and the anion terminated monolayers are more stable than the cation terminated ones. On the other hand, the anion terminated systems are non- or weak magnetic systems while the less stable cation terminated layers exhibit strong magnetization. In the case of CaN monolayer on Cu(001), the nudged elastic band calculations show an activation barrier of 1.18 eV per CaN unit between the higher energy ferromagnetic and the stable nonmagnetic terminations. Therefore, epitaxial growth of a Ca terminated CaN thin film on Cu (001) is likely a practical way to form a novel half-metal/metal junction.

  5. Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of the reversible thermal C-H activation/reductive elimination of alkanes at iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.M.; Stryker, J.M.; Bergman, R.G.

    1986-04-02

    The hydrido alkyl iridium complex Cp*(PMe/sub 3/)Ir(Cy)(H) (1, Cp* = eta/sup 5/-C/sub 5/; Cy = cyclohexyl) has been isolated by air-free chromatography at -80/sup 0/C, and its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. Thermolysis of 1 in benzene cleanly produces cyclohexane and Cp*(PMe/sub 3/)Ir(Ph)(H) (2). The rate of reaction is first-order in 1, zero-order in benzene, and inhibited by cyclohexane; its activation parameters are ..delta..H/sup + +/ = 35.6 +/- 0.5 kcal/mol and ..delta..S/sup + +/ = +10 +/- 2 eu. An inverse isotope effect, kappa/sub h/kappa/sub d/ = 0.7 +/- 0.1, is calculated from rates of cyclohexane and cyclohexane-d/sub 12/ reductive elimination at 130/sup 0/C, and deuterium scrambling between the hydride and ..cap alpha..-cyclohexyl positions is observed to occur competitively with reductive elimination. A mechanism is proposed in which cyclohexane loss from 1 is reversible and produces (Cp*(PMe/sub 3/)Ir), which oxidatively adds to a C-H bond in a benzene solvent molecule to form 2. Evidence is also presented for the possible intermediacy of a cyclohexane/(Cp*(PMe/sub 3/)Ir) sigma-complex, which is formed before free (Cp*(PMe/sub 3/)Ir) is released. Equilibrium constants for the equilibration of several pairs of alkanes and their corresponding iridium(III) hydrido alkyl complexes have been determined and imply the following trend in solution phase iridium-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies: phenyl >> n-pentyl > 2,3-dimethylbutyl > cyclopentyl approx. cyclohexyl > neopentyl.

  6. X-ray studies of the liquid/vapor interface: Water and polymer and fatty acid monolayers on water

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossman, M.L.; Schwartz, D.K.; Kawamoto, E.H.; Kellogg, G.J.; Pershan, P.S. ); Ocko, B.M. ); Kim, M.W.; Chung, T.C. . Corporate Research Labs.)

    1989-01-01

    X-ray specular reflectivity is used to study the liquid-vapor interface of pure water and of fatty acid and polymer monolayers at that interface. For the pure water surface the reflectivity was measured for three different spectrometer resolutions and simultaneous fits with only one free parameter to all of the data are in excellent agreement with the prediction of capillary wave theory for the RMS surface roughness. Diffuse scattering away from the specular condition, at wavevectors corresponding to those of the capillary waves, yields intensities and line shapes in agreement with theory with no significant adjustable parameters. Reflectivity from separate monolayers of co-poly 1, 2-butadiene/butyl alcohol (50% random substitution) and lignoceric acid (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 22}COOH) at the water/vapor interface are interpreted to obtain profiles of the average electron density {rho}(z) as a function of distance z along the surface normal. For the polymer monolayer we find the following: (1) a local maximum in the electron density approximately 10% larger than that of the bulk polymer and (2) the RMS roughness of the vapor/polymer interface agrees with capillary wave theory predictions for the lower surface pressures. For the highest surface pressure the RMS roughness exceeds the value predicted by the capillary wave model. Measurements of reflectivity from a lignoceric acid monolayer, as a function of surface pressure throughout an isotherm (near room temperature), reveal the following behavior: (1) the overall thickness of the monolayer increases with increasing pressure and (2) the head groups occupy a progressively larger region along the surface normal as the pressure increases, indicating that they rearrange normal to the interface. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. First-principle studies of electronic structure and magnetic excitations in FeSe monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhirov, Timur; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent experimental advances made it possible to study single-layered superconducting systems of iron-based compounds. The results show evidence of significant enhancement of superconducting properties compared to the bulk case. We use first-principle pseudopotential density functional theory techniques and the local spin-density approximation to study the electronic properties of an FeSe monolayer in different spin configurations. The results show that the experimental shape of the Fermi surface is best described by a checkerboard antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin arrangement. To explore the underlying pairing mechanism, we study the evolution of the non-magnetic to the AFM-ordered structures under constrained magnetization, and we estimate the electronic coupling to magnetic excitations involving transfer and increase of iron magnetic moments and compare it to the electron-phonon coupling. Finally, we simulate the substrate-induced interaction by using uniform charge doping and show that the latter can lead to an increase in the density of states at the Fermi level and possibly produce higher superconducting transition temperatures. This work was supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's NERSC facility

  8. Perforated monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Regen, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research over this past grant period has focused on (1) developing methods for making in situ permeation measurements at the air-water interface, (2) defining the structural and conformational behavior of selected calix(4)arenes, (3) defining the metal complexation properties of certain upper-rim functionalized calix(4)arenes, and (4) synthesizing a broad series of polymerizable calixarenes, to be used for constructing perforated monolayers and multilayers.

  9. A diffusionless transition in a normal alkane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nene, Shailesh; Karhu, Eric; Flemming, Roberta L.; Hutter, Jeffrey L.

    2009-12-01

    The normal alkanes are an interesting class of material, both in terms of their intrinsic properties and because many biological materials contain hydrocarbon domains. The normal alkanes often exhibit complicated phase behavior, with phase diagrams containing multiple solid phases. We report here a study of a curious pattern of twinned domains seen in one phase of tricosane (C 23H 48), which we have studied by X-ray diffraction, as well as by optical and atomic force microscopy. This pattern is seen in the rotator R V phase, a monoclinic arrangement of tricosane molecules without orientational order. Transitions between this polymorph and the orthorhombic R I rotator phase lying at higher temperatures preserve features at the molecular level, and thus represent a diffusionless, martensitic-like transformation.

  10. Design of BAs-AlN monolayered honeycomb heterojunction structures: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino

    2016-04-01

    BAs and AlN are semiconductor materials with an indirect and direct gap respectively in the bulk phase. Recently, electronic calculations have demonstrated that a single-layer or few layers of BAs and AlN exhibit a graphite-like structure with interesting electronic properties. In this work, infinite sheets single-layer heterojunction structures based on alternated strips with honeycomb BAs and AlN layers are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different strip widths joined along zigzag and armchair edges. Results in optimized heterojunction geometries revealed that BAs narrow strips exhibit a corrugation effect due to a lattice mismatch. It was found that zigzag heterojunctions are more energetically favored than armchair heterojunctions. Furthermore, the formation energy presents a maximum at the point where the heterojunction becomes a planar structure. Electronic charge density results yielded a more ionic behavior in Alsbnd N bonds than the Bsbnd As bonds in accordance with monolayer results. It was observed that the conduction band minimum for both heterojunctions exhibit confined states located mainly at the entire AlN strips whereas the valence band maximum exhibits confined states located mainly at BAs strips. We expect that the present investigation will motivate more experimental and theoretical studies on new layered materials made of III-V semiconductors.

  11. Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2012-07-01

    In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum-localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs.

  12. Adsorption of self-assembled monolayer on Cu(111): First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Cheng, Jiang-Tao; Ma, Shang-Yi; Wang, Hong-De

    2017-08-01

    The density function theory is used to explore the structures of alkyl-thiolate (RS, R=CH3, CF3) monolayer on the Cu(111) surface. By performing the total energy calculations for RS at three possible adsorption sites (fcc, hcp, bridge) with five different coverages (1/12, 1/9, 1/6, 1/4, 1/3), we obtained the stable adsorption configurations of the Cu-RS system. Especially, the effect of Van der Waals interaction on the adsorption configurations was studied by the DFT-D2 method. The work functions for Cu-RS (R=CH3, CF3) systems were calculated, we find that the CH3S adsorbed on the Cu(111) surface decreases the metal work function remarkably, and the work functions strongly depend on the coverage. In the case of the Cu-CF3S system, the results are just the opposite. Thus, controlling the kind and coverage of the surface adsorbates would be an effective technique to tune the work function of the metal.

  13. Comparative study of decyl thiocyanate and decanethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreesen, L.; Volcke, C.; Sartenaer, Y.; Peremans, A.; Thiry, P. A.; Humbert, C.; Grugier, J.; Marchand-Brynaert, J.

    2006-09-01

    In a recent paper Ciszek et al. [J.W. Ciszek, M.P. Stewart, J.M. Tour, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 13172] showed that organic thiocyanates may be an interesting alternative to the use of thiols for thiolate assemblies. We use scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), infrared reflection absorption and sum-frequency generation spectroscopies (IRRAS and SFG) in order to study the adsorption properties of decyl thiocyanates (DTCN) and compare them to the decanethiol (DT) ones. Firstly, IRRAS measurements show that DTCN molecules form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold via a thiolate link with the metallic substrate. Secondly, the DTCN SAM on gold is less ordered than the DT one as highlighted by SFG spectroscopy. Indeed, the intensities of the methyl vibration modes vanish while the methylene ones increase when DTCN molecules are adsorbed on the substrate instead of DT. We explain the differences in SAMs quality on the basis of STM measurements which reveal differences in molecular order and packing.

  14. Comparative molecular dynamics study of Abeta adsorption on the self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuming; Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Jingdai; Yang, Jui-Chen; Yu, Xiang; Zheng, Jie

    2010-03-02

    The adsorption and aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides on the cell membrane plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the interactions of Abeta oligomer with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with hydrophobic CH(3) and hydrophilic OH functional groups, with particular interests in how surface chemistry and Abeta orientation affect the adsorption behavior of Abeta. Simulation results show that the CH(3)-SAM has a stronger binding affinity to Abeta than the OH-SAM does, although both surfaces can induce Abeta adsorption. Regardless of the characteristics of the surface, the hydrophobic C-terminal region is more likely to be adsorbed on the SAMs, indicating a preferential orientation and interface for Abeta adsorption. Structural and energetic comparison among six Abeta-SAM systems further reveals that Abeta orientation, SAM surface hydrophobicity, and interfacial waters all determine Abeta adsorption behavior on the surface, highlighting the importance of hydrophobic interactions at the interface. This work may provide parallel insights into the interactions of Abeta with lipid bilayers.

  15. Computational studies of the structure of monolayers of chlorine physisorbed on the basal plane of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Kenton D.; McDonald, Ian R.; Tildesley, Dominic J.

    Results are reported of energy minimizations and molecular-dynamics calculations for chlorine physisorbed on the basal plane of graphite. The dispersion-repulsion component of the intermolecular potential is modelled by an anisotropic site-site potential and the permanent electrostatic potential is represented by distributed multipoles at the atomic nuclei. The molecule-surface interaction includes the anisotropic polarizability of the graphite, image-multipole interactions and substrate mediation of the dispersion interaction. The energy minimizations show that the adsorbed molecules are likely to favour a two-sublattice, herringbone structure; a four-sublattice pinwheel arrangement is also a possibility if image interactions play a sufficiently important role. Difficulties in reproducing the experimental X-ray scattering pattern are discussed. The molecular-dynamics calculations suggest that the low-symmetry structure postulated by Klee et al., (1986, Surf. Sci., 171, 103) is unstable, and melting of the simulated monolayers occurs at temperatures at least 100K below the claimed experimental value. There is a clear need for further thermodynamic and structural studies of this system.

  16. Transport of nanoparticles across pulmonary surfactant monolayer: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Deng, Li; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang; Yue, Tongtao

    2017-07-21

    Pulmonary nanodrug delivery is an emerging concept, especially for targeted lung cancer therapy. Once inhaled, the nanoparticles (NPs) acting as drug carriers need to efficiently cross the pulmonary surfactant monolayer (PSM) of lung alveoli, which act as the first barrier for external particles entering the lung. Herein, by performing molecular dynamics simulations, we study how inhaled NPs interact with the PSM, particularly focusing on the transport of NPs with different properties across the PSM. While hydrophilic NPs translocate directly across the PSM, transport of hydrophobic NPs is achieved as the PSM wraps them. Intriguingly, when hydrophilic NPs are decorated with lipid molecules (LCNPs), they are wrapped by the PSM efficiently with mild PSM perturbation. Moreover, the structure formed is like a vesicle, which will likely fuse with cell membranes to accomplish the transport of hydrophilic NPs into secondary organs. This behavior makes the LCNP a prospective candidate for pulmonary nanodrug delivery. Herein, the effects of the physical properties of LCNPs on their transport are investigated. Increasing the LCNP size promotes its wrapping by reducing the PSM bending energy. The binding energy that drives transport can be strengthened by increasing the lipid coating density and the lipid tail length, both of which also reduce the risk of PSM rupture during transport. These results should help researchers understand how to better use surface decorations to achieve efficient pulmonary entry, which may provide useful guidance for the design of nano-based platforms for inhaled drug delivery.

  17. Ab initio study of energy loss and wake potential in the vicinity of a graphene monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despoja, V.; Dekanić, K.; Šunjić, M.; Marušić, L.

    2012-10-01

    A propagator of the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction in the vicinity of a graphene monolayer is calculated using ground-state Kohn-Sham orbitals, and the imaginary part of this propagator is used to calculate the energy-loss rate of a static blinking point charge due to excitation of electronic modes in graphene. Energy loss calculated for all (Q,ω) modes gives intensities of electronic excitations, including plasmon dispersions in graphene, with low-energy two-dimensional (2D) and high-energy π1, π2, and π+σ plasmons. Plasmon energies are in good agreement with experimental results. This spectral analysis also enables us to study the contribution of each plasmon mode to the stopping power and potential induced by a point charge moving parallel to the graphene. We find the bow waves that in pristine graphene appear for higher velocities (v≥2vF) and predominantly originate from excitation of π plasmons. Doping induces extra features which appear for lower v≈vF velocities and predominantly originate from the excitation of 2D or Drude plasmons.

  18. Study on transport properties of silicene monolayer under external field using NEGF method

    SciTech Connect

    Syaputra, Marhamni Wella, Sasfan Arman; Wungu, Triati Dewi Kencana; Purqon, Acep; Suprijadi

    2015-09-30

    We investigate the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a pristine monolayer silicene using non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) method combining with density functional theory (DFT). This method succeeded in showing the relationship of I and V on silicene corresponding to the electronic characteristics such as density of states. The external field perpendicular to the silicene monolayer affects in increasing of the current. Under 0.2 eV external field, the current reaches the maximum peak at Vb = 0.3 eV with the increase is about 60% from what it is in zero external field.

  19. [Establishment of Caco-2 cell monolayer model with collagen coating 6-well plates for study of traditional Chinese medicine prescription].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Wu, Ni; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2014-02-01

    Caco-2 cell monolayer model is widely utilized in drug absorption study and 12-well transwellTM plates were commonly used to study the absorption of different kinds of natural products. To establish a stable method for the study of traditional Chinese medicine prescription, 6-well plates were chosen because of the larger well volumes than 12-well plates. To study the impacts of collagen kinds, coating density as well as coating time on the cell culture, the transepithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on different collagen coating transwells was determined, and the permeations of propranolol and atenolol as standard markers were detected with HPLC. The results showed that the kinds of collagen, the different coating densities and coating time of rat tail collagen had no significant influences on the Caco-2 cell monolayer integrality and absorption capacity. 6-well plates coated with 2 micro g Scm-2 rat tail collagen for 1 hour were enough reliable and suitable for the study of traditional Chinese medicine prescription in vitro.

  20. Characterizing the mechanics of cultured cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Loic; Bellis, Julien; Baum, Buzz; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Charras, Guillaume T.

    2012-01-01

    One-cell-thick monolayers are the simplest tissues in multicellular organisms, yet they fulfill critical roles in development and normal physiology. In early development, embryonic morphogenesis results largely from monolayer rearrangement and deformation due to internally generated forces. Later, monolayers act as physical barriers separating the internal environment from the exterior and must withstand externally applied forces. Though resisting and generating mechanical forces is an essential part of monolayer function, simple experimental methods to characterize monolayer mechanical properties are lacking. Here, we describe a system for tensile testing of freely suspended cultured monolayers that enables the examination of their mechanical behavior at multi-, uni-, and subcellular scales. Using this system, we provide measurements of monolayer elasticity and show that this is two orders of magnitude larger than the elasticity of their isolated cellular components. Monolayers could withstand more than a doubling in length before failing through rupture of intercellular junctions. Measurement of stress at fracture enabled a first estimation of the average force needed to separate cells within truly mature monolayers, approximately ninefold larger than measured in pairs of isolated cells. As in single cells, monolayer mechanical properties were strongly dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin, and intercellular adhesions interfacing adjacent cells. High magnification imaging revealed that keratin filaments became progressively stretched during extension, suggesting they participate in monolayer mechanics. This multiscale study of monolayer response to deformation enabled by our device provides the first quantitative investigation of the link between monolayer biology and mechanics. PMID:22991459

  1. Interfacial properties of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint; Tsige, Mesfin; Borodin, Oleg; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2008-06-01

    The liquid-vapor interfacial properties of semifluorinated linear alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1(CH2)m-1CH3 are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The chemical composition and the conformation of the molecules at the interface are identified and correlated with the interfacial energies. A modified form of the Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom (OPLS-AA) force field of Jorgensen and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 6638 (1984); 118, 11225 (1996); J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4118 (2001)], which includes specific dihedral terms for H-F blocks-and corrections to the H-F nonbonded interaction, is used together with a new version of the exp-6 force field developed in this work. Both force fields yield good agreement with the available experimental liquid density and surface tension data as well as each other over significant temperature ranges and for a variety of chain lengths and compositions. The interfacial regions of semifluorinated alkanes are found to be rich in fluorinated groups compared to hydrogenated groups, an effect that decreases with increasing temperature but is independent of the fractional length of the fluorinated segments. The proliferation of fluorine at the surface substantially lowers the surface tension of the diblock copolymers, yielding values near those of perfluorinated alkanes and distinct from those of protonated alkanes of the same chain length. With decreasing temperatures within the liquid state, chains are found to preferentially align perpendicular to the interface, as previously seen.

  2. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Response of Lipid Bilayers and Monolayers to Trehalose

    PubMed Central

    Skibinsky, Anna; Venable, Richard M.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Surface tensions evaluated from molecular dynamics simulations of fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and monolayers at surface areas/lipid of 54, 64, and 80 Å2 are uniformly lowered 4–8 dyn/cm upon addition of trehalose in a 1:2 trehalose/lipid ratio. Constant surface tension simulations of bilayers yield the complementary result: an increase in surface area consistent with the surface pressure-surface area (π-A) isotherms. Hydrogen bonding by trehalose, replacement of waters in the headgroup region, and modulation of the dipole potential are all similar in bilayers and monolayers at the same surface area. These results strongly support the assumption that experimental measurements on the interactions of surface active components such as trehalose with monolayers can yield quantitative insight to their effects on bilayers. The simulations also indicate that the 20–30 dyn/cm difference in surface tension of the bilayer leaflet and monolayer arises from differences in the chain regions, not the headgroup/water interfaces. PMID:16183878

  3. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Pritam; Noutsi, Pakiza; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low. PMID:27245215

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Two-Dimensional Diffusion Behavior in Smectic Liquid Crystalline Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Go; Saito, Jun-ichi; Fujita, Yusuke; Tabe, Yuka

    2013-08-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for monolayers of smectic A and C liquid crystal (LC) phases in order to investigate the in-plane molecular diffusion from the microscopic point of view. In contrast to similar complex two-dimensional systems (e.g., biomembranes) whose molecular diffusion is anomalous, in-plane mean square displacements (MSDs) for both phases increase linearly with passing time similar to typical fluids on the nanosecond time scale. By following the relation between the diffusion and the viscosity in the fluids, we estimated the viscosity coefficients for both LC monolayers, and the obtained values indicate that the smectic A monolayer has a higher viscosity than the smectic C one. Moreover, we investigate the in-plane self-diffusion anisotropy D\\|/D\\bot for smectic C and found that the diffusion parallel to the molecular tilt is 1.5 times larger than that in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropic diffusion property in the smectic C monolayer has not been clearly confirmed thus far.

  5. Studies of molecular monolayers at air-liquid interfaces by second harmonic generation: question of orientational phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Rasing, T.; Shen, Y.R.; Kim, M.W.; Grubb, S.; Bock, J.

    1985-06-01

    Insoluble molecular monolayers at gas-liquid interfaces provide an insight to the understanding of surfactants, wetting, microemulsions and membrane structures and offer a possibility to study the rich world of 2-dimensional phase transitions. In the interpretation of the observed properties of these systems various assumptions about the molecular orientation are often made, but so far few clear experimental data exist. In this paper we will show how optical second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used to measure the molecular orientation of monolayers of surfactant molecules at water-air interfaces. By simultaneously measuring the surface pressure versus surface molecular area we can show for the first time that the observed liquid condensed-liquid expanded transition is an orientational phase transition. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Rubredoxins Involved in Alkane Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Jan B.; Neuenschwander, Martin; Smits, Theo H. M.; Roth, Christian; Balada, Stefanie B.; Witholt, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Rubredoxins (Rds) are essential electron transfer components of bacterial membrane-bound alkane hydroxylase systems. Several Rd genes associated with alkane hydroxylase or Rd reductase genes were cloned from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms able to grow on n-alkanes (Alk-Rds). Complementation tests in an Escherichia coli recombinant containing all Pseudomonas putida GPo1 genes necessary for growth on alkanes except Rd 2 (AlkG) and sequence comparisons showed that the Alk-Rds can be divided in AlkG1- and AlkG2-type Rds. All alkane-degrading strains contain AlkG2-type Rds, which are able to replace the GPo1 Rd 2 in n-octane hydroxylation. Most strains also contain AlkG1-type Rds, which do not complement the deletion mutant but are highly conserved among gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Common to most Rds are the two iron-binding CXXCG motifs. All Alk-Rds possess four negatively charged residues that are not conserved in other Rds. The AlkG1-type Rds can be distinguished from the AlkG2-type Rds by the insertion of an arginine downstream of the second CXXCG motif. In addition, the glycines in the two CXXCG motifs are usually replaced by other amino acids. Mutagenesis of residues conserved in either the AlkG1- or the AlkG2-type Rds, but not between both types, shows that AlkG1 is unable to transfer electrons to the alkane hydroxylase mainly due to the insertion of the arginine, whereas the exchange of the glycines in the two CXXCG motifs only has a limited effect. PMID:11872724

  7. Studies on the interactions between parabens and lipid membrane components in monolayers at the air/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    Flasiński, Michał; Gawryś, Maciej; Broniatowski, Marcin; Wydro, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between parabens (PBs) and lipid components of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes were investigated in model systems of Langmuir monolayers. Me-, Et-, Pr- and Bu-paraben studied in this paper are frequently applied as cosmetics and food preservatives, since they possess broad antimicrobial activity. The mode of PB action is connected with their incorporation into the membrane of bacterial organisms, however; it is not known what is the role of the respective lipid species in this mechanism. This problem is crucial to understand the differences in paraben activity toward individual microorganisms and to shed the light onto the problem of PB cytotoxicity reported in studies on mammalian cells. In this paper, the mentioned aspects were investigated with application of the Langmuir monolayer technique complemented with BAM and GIXD. Our experiments revealed that the influence of PBs depends on their chemical structure, solution concentration and on the class of lipid. The strongest modification of the monolayer characteristics, leading to its collapse at low surface pressure, occurred in the presence of BuPB, having the largest chain. PBs interact preferentially with the monolayers possessing low degree of condensation, whereas for LC state, the effect was weaker and observed only as modification of the 2D unit cells. In the model systems, PBs interact with phospholipids characteristic for mammalian membranes (phosphatidylcholine) stronger than with bacterial (phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin). This strong influence of parabens on the model systems composed of animal lipids may explain cytotoxic activity of these preservatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  8. Mechanism of Pb Adsorption to Fatty Acid Langmuir Monolayers Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanov, M.I.; Kmetko, J.; Shibata, T.; Datta, A.; Dutta, P.; Bunker, B.A.

    2010-09-30

    The local atomic environment of lead (Pb) adsorbed to a CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 19}COOH Langmuir monolayer was investigated in situ using grazing-incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GI-XAFS) spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} edge. Measurements were performed at pH 6.5 of the 10{sup -5} M PbCl{sub 2} solution subphase, a condition under which grazing incidence diffraction (GID) revealed a large-area commensurate superstructure underneath the close-packed organic monolayer. The XAFS results indicate covalent binding of the Pb cations to the carboxyl headgroups, and the observed Pb-Pb coordination suggests that the metal is adsorbed as a hydrolysis polymer, rather than as individual Pb{sup 2+} ions. The data are consistent with a bidentate chelating mechanism and a one Pb atom to one carboxyl headgroup binding stoichiometry. We discuss how this adsorption model can explain the peculiarities observed with Pb in previous metal-Langmuir monolayer studies. A systematic study of lead perchlorate and lead acetate aqueous solutions is presented and used in the analysis. XAFS multiple scattering effects from alignment of the Pb-C-C atoms in the lead acetate solutions are reported.

  9. Stability, bonding and electronic structures of halogenated MoS2 monolayer: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxing; Huang, Min; Cao, Gengyu

    2017-07-01

    Surface decoration is a convenient and effective way to tune the properties of two dimensional (2D) materials. Here we performed a first-principles study of the functionalization of MoS2 monolayer by halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br and I). The adsorption of halogen monomer, halogen dimer on MoS2 monolayer, and the halogenation of one side of MoS2 were studied. Halogen monomers can adsorb stably on MoS2 inducing impurity states and magnetic moment of 1.0 μB per supercell. Long range antiferromagnetic (AFM) couplings are found between halogen adatoms. Semihalogenated Cl- and Br-MoS2 can be in nonbonding or bonding state, with the nonbonding state being more energetic favorable. Semihalogenated I-MoS2 can only be in nonbonding state. Semifluorinated F-MoS2 can stabilize in bonding state with a titled configuration and large binding energy. MoS2 monolayer is transferred from a semiconductor to metal upon semifluorination.

  10. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S.; Alekseev, A. S.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V. Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  11. The behavior of the adsorption of cytochrome C on lipid monolayers: A study by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Sun, Runguang; Hao, Changchun; He, Guangxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is an essential component of the inner mitochondrial respiratory chain because of its function of transferring electrons. The feature is closely related to the interaction between Cyt c and membrane lipids. We used Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer technique combined with AFM to study the interaction of Cyt c with lipid monolayers at air-buffer interface. In our work, by comparing the mixed Cyt c-anionic (DPPS) and Cyt c-zwitterionic (DPPC/DPPE) monolayers, the adsorption capacity of Cyt c on lipid monolayers is DPPS>DPPE>DPPC, which is attributed to their different headgroup structures. π-A isothermal data show that Cyt c (v=2.5 μL) molecules are at maximum adsorption quantity on lipid monolayer. Moreover, Cyt c molecules would form aggregations and drag some lipids with them into subphase if the protein exceeds the maximum adsorption quantity. π-T curve indicates that it takes more time for Cyt c molecular conformation to rearrange on DPPE monolayer than on DPPC. The compressibility study reveals that the adsorption or intermolecular aggregation of Cyt c molecules on lipid monolayer will change the membrane fluidization. In order to quantitatively estimate Cyt c molecular adsorption properties on lipid monolayers, we fit the experimental isotherm with a simple surface state equation. A theoretical model is also introduced to analyze the liquid expanded (LE) to liquid condensed (LC) phase transition of DPPC monolayer. The results of theoretical analysis are in good agreement with the experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar photothermochemical alkane reverse combustion.

    PubMed

    Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Islam, Mohammad Fakrul; Dennis, Brian H; MacDonnell, Frederick M

    2016-03-08

    A one-step, gas-phase photothermocatalytic process for the synthesis of hydrocarbons, including liquid alkanes, aromatics, and oxygenates, with carbon numbers (Cn) up to C13, from CO2 and water is demonstrated in a flow photoreactor operating at elevated temperatures (180-200 °C) and pressures (1-6 bar) using a 5% cobalt on TiO2 catalyst and under UV irradiation. A parametric study of temperature, pressure, and partial pressure ratio revealed that temperatures in excess of 160 °C are needed to obtain the higher Cn products in quantity and that the product distribution shifts toward higher Cn products with increasing pressure. In the best run so far, over 13% by mass of the products were C5+ hydrocarbons and some of these, i.e., octane, are drop-in replacements for existing liquid hydrocarbons fuels. Dioxygen was detected in yields ranging between 64% and 150%. In principle, this tandem photochemical-thermochemical process, fitted with a photocatalyst better matched to the solar spectrum, could provide a cheap and direct method to produce liquid hydrocarbons from CO2 and water via a solar process which uses concentrated sunlight for both photochemical excitation to generate high-energy intermediates and heat to drive important thermochemical carbon-chain-forming reactions.

  13. Solar photothermochemical alkane reverse combustion

    PubMed Central

    Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Islam, Mohammad Fakrul; Dennis, Brian H.; MacDonnell, Frederick M.

    2016-01-01

    A one-step, gas-phase photothermocatalytic process for the synthesis of hydrocarbons, including liquid alkanes, aromatics, and oxygenates, with carbon numbers (Cn) up to C13, from CO2 and water is demonstrated in a flow photoreactor operating at elevated temperatures (180–200 °C) and pressures (1–6 bar) using a 5% cobalt on TiO2 catalyst and under UV irradiation. A parametric study of temperature, pressure, and partial pressure ratio revealed that temperatures in excess of 160 °C are needed to obtain the higher Cn products in quantity and that the product distribution shifts toward higher Cn products with increasing pressure. In the best run so far, over 13% by mass of the products were C5+ hydrocarbons and some of these, i.e., octane, are drop-in replacements for existing liquid hydrocarbons fuels. Dioxygen was detected in yields ranging between 64% and 150%. In principle, this tandem photochemical–thermochemical process, fitted with a photocatalyst better matched to the solar spectrum, could provide a cheap and direct method to produce liquid hydrocarbons from CO2 and water via a solar process which uses concentrated sunlight for both photochemical excitation to generate high-energy intermediates and heat to drive important thermochemical carbon-chain-forming reactions. PMID:26903631

  14. Studying and controlling order within nanoparticle monolayers fabricated through electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, Alexander J.

    Langmuir Blodgett films can be used to create very thin NP films. Templated substrates in combination with spin coating have been used to order blockcopolymers; this could be adapted for NP arrays as well. Some of these techniques can be applied for forming ordered arrays of NPs in two-dimensions, creating nanoparticle monolayers (NPMs), the focus of this work. NPMs are attractive for many applications in devices such as magnetic storage, solar cells, and biosensors. One particularly attractive feature of NPMs is the high surface area to volume ratio of the films. For example, through collaboration, we are investigating PL properties of two monolayers, composed of two different types of NPs, stacked on top of one another. Although challenging, there now are a variety of techniques for the fabrication of NPMs. This dissertation introduces a new process by which one can fabricate monolayers, electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Literature exists on using EPD to fabricate NPMs, but this literature is very limited. One such study deposited films of Au NPs on carbon films and another Pt NPs on carbon films. To the best of our knowledge, only NPMs of metallic NPs on carbon have been fabricated. Of the EPD studies in which NPMs have been fabricated, the technique has not been investigated in depth or has not been generalized for deposition of many types of materials. If NPM formation via EPD could be generalized, the NPMs could be industrially attractive as EPD has many industrially advantageous properties. For instance, EPD is highly versatile in multiple ways: many types of particles can be deposited, the size of the electrodes can be varied over many orders of magnitude, and a large variety of solvents can be used to suspend NPs. For example, our group has deposited materials of different shapes including tubes, sheets, and spheres; different materials such as polymers, metals, semiconductors, and magnetic materials; and on a variety of substrates including steel, silicon

  15. Specific binding of avidin to biotin containing lipid lamella surfaces studied with monolayers and liposomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Qin, H; Xiao, C; Wen, C; Wang, S; Sui, S F

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of avidin (from egg white) with phospholipid (monolayer and bilayer) model membranes containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids has been studied. In the first part, using surface sensitive techniques (ellipsometry and surface plasmon resonance) we demonstrated that the nonspecific adsorption of avidin to phospholipid lamella could be abolished by adding an amount of Ca2+, Mg2+ or Ba2+ that led to an electrostatic interaction. The specific binding of avidin to lipid mixtures containing biotin-conjugated phospholipids was obviously composition dependent. The ratio 1:12 of a B-DPPE/DPPE mixture was found to be the optimum molar ratio. When we compared the results from the surface sensitive techniques with those from the electron micrographs of a two dimensional crystal of avidin (obtained in our laboratory), the optimum ratio was found to be determined by the effect of lateral steric hindrance. In the second part, we observed the pattern of the layers of fluorescently labeled phospholipid and adsorbed proteins with a home-made micro fluorescence film balance. The fluorescence images showed that avidin was preferentially bound to the receptors that were in the fluid domains. Further, with a sensitive fluorescence assay method, the effect of the phase behavior of liposomes on the specific binding of avidin was measured. This showed that avidin interacted with biotinlipid more weakly in the gel state liposome than in the liquid state liposome. The major conclusion was that the binding of avidin to a membrane bound model receptor was significantly restricted by two factors: one was the lateral steric hindrance and the other was the fluidity of the model membrane.

  16. A Quantitative Study of Tethered Chains in Various Solution Conditions Using Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Michael S.

    1999-08-13

    This article summarizes our investigations of tethered chain systems using Langmuir monolayer of polydimethysiloxane-poly styrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on organic liquids. In this system, the PDMS block adsorbs to the air surface while the PS block dangles into the subphase liquid. The air surface can be made either repulsive or attractive for the tethered PS chain segments by choosing a subphase liquid which has a surface tension lower or greater than that of PS, respectively. The segment profile of the PS block is determined by neutron reflection as a function of the surface density, the molecular weights of the PS and PDMS blocks, and the solution conditions. We cover the range of reduced surface density (SIGMA) characteristic of the large body of data in the literature for systems of chains tethered onto solid surfaces from dilute solution in good or theta solvent conditions (SIGMA < 12). We emphasize quantitative comparisons with analytical profile forms and scaling predictions. We find that the strong-stretching limit invoked in analytical SCF and scaling theories is not valid over this Z range. On the other hand, over a large portion of this range (SIGMA < 5) tethered layers are well described by a renormalization group theory addressing weakly interacting or noninteracting chains. Simultaneous with the study of the profile form, the free energy of the chains is examined through the surface tension. A strong increase in the surface pressure is observed with increasing surface density which determines the maximum surface density which can be achieved. This apparently nonequilibrium effect is attributed to steric interactions and limited lateral interpenetration. This effect may explain several outstanding discrepancies regarding the adsorption of end-functionalized chains and diblock copolymers onto solid surfaces.

  17. Molecular simulation studies of the structure of phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; He, Yi; Chen, Shengfu; Li, Lingyan; Bernards, Matthew T.; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2006-11-01

    We report a study of the structure of phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayers (PC-SAMs) on Au(111) surfaces using both molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques. The lattice structure (i.e., packing densities and patterns) of the PC chains was determined first, by examining the packing energies of different structures by MM simulations in an implicit solvent. The chain orientation (i.e., antiparallel and parallel arrangements of the PC head groups) was then evaluated. The initial azimuthal angles of the PC chains were also adjusted to ensure that the optimal lattice structure was found. Finally, the two most probable lattice structures were solvated with explicit water molecules and their energies were compared after 1.5ns of MD simulations to verify the optimal structures obtained from MM. We found that the optimal lattice structure of the PC-SAM corresponds to a √7×√7 R19° lattice structure (i.e., surface coverage of 50.4Å2/molecule) with a parallel arrangement of the head groups. The corresponding thickness of the optimal PC-SAM is 13.4Å which is in agreement with that from experiments. The head groups of the PC chains are aligned on the surface in such a way that their dipole components are minimized. The P →N vector of the head groups forms an angle of 82° with respect to the surface normal. The tilt direction of molecular chains was observed to be towards their next nearest neighbor.

  18. Direct laser patterning of self-assembled monolayer using elliptical laser beams: A theoretical parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Martin Y.; Shadnam, Mohammad Reza; Amirfazli, A.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical quantitative analysis of processing parameters for application of an elliptical laser beam to achieve maximum patterning area is the focus of this study. Direct laser patterning (DLP) of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) is achieved by localized heating of the sample above the SAM desorption temperature. Through use of elliptical laser beams in the present work, three goals are achieved by analyzing the heat diffusion model and related thermo-kinetics model: (1) optimal working conditions (combination of laser power, scanning velocity and aspect ratio) for DLP to produce maximum feature size, or highest processing velocity at a given power; (2) identification of conditions that reduces the potential thermal damage to the substrate; (3) shedding light on issues related to uniformity or homogeneity of heating a substrate using an elliptical laser beam. A heat diffusion model is employed to provide the resulting surface temperature caused by elliptical laser beams, and the coupled thermo-kinetics model is used to determine the final SAM coverage generated by DLP. Parametric analysis revealed that 70-150 mW can be used to pattern feature sizes in the range of 2-10 times of equivalent circular beam size. It is also found that each elliptical laser beam has a unique optimal aspect ratio to result in the widest feature size for a given laser power and scanning velocity. The edge transition width increases with an increase of the aspect ratio. Keeping the aspect ratio of elliptical laser beam small (i.e. β<20), a sharp edge definition could be obtained; if an aspect ratio larger than 30 is used, a surface with gradual edge definition could be obtained.

  19. Markedly different adsorption behaviors of gas molecules on defective monolayer MoS2: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxing; Huang, Min; Cao, Gengyu

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur vacancy (SV) is one of the most typical defects in two-dimensional monolayer MoS2, leading to reactive sites. We presented a systematic study of the adsorption behaviors of gas molecules, CO2, N2, H2O, CO, NH3, NO, O2, H2 and NO2, on monolayer MoS2 with single SV by first-principles calculations. It was found that CO2, N2 and H2O molecules physisorbed at the proximity of single SV. Our adsorption energy calculations and charge transfer analysis showed that the interactions between CO2, N2 and H2O molecules and defective MoS2 are stronger than the cases of CO2, N2 and H2O molecules adsorbed on pristine MoS2, respectively. The defective MoS2 based gas sensors may be more sensitive to CO2, N2 and H2O molecules than pristine MoS2 based ones. CO, NO, O2 and NH3 molecules were found to chemisorb at the S vacancy site and thus modify the electronic properties of defective monolayer MoS2. Magnetism was induced upon adsorption of NO molecules and the defective states induced by S vacancy can be completely removed upon adsorption of O2 molecules, which may provide some helpful information for designing new MoS2 based nanoelectronic devices in future. The H2 and NO2 molecules were found to dissociate at S vacancy. The dissociation of NO2 molecules resulted in O atoms located at the S vacancy site and NO molecules physisorbed on O-doped MoS2. The calculated results showed that NO2 molecules can help heal the S vacancy of the MoS2 monolayer.

  20. X-ray Reflectivity Studies of cPLA?-C2 Domains Adsorbed onto Langmuir Monolayers of SOPC

    SciTech Connect

    Malkova,S.; Long, F.; Stahelin, R.; Pingali, S.; Murray, D.; Cho, W.; Schlossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity is used to study the interaction of C2 domains of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2) with a Langmuir monolayer of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) supported on a buffered aqueous solution containing Ca{sup 2+}. The reflectivity is analyzed in terms of the known crystallographic structure of cPLA2{alpha}-C2 domains and a slab model representing the lipid layer to yield an electron density profile of the lipid layer and bound C2 domains. This new method of analysis determines the angular orientation and penetration depth of the cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2 domains bound to the SOPC monolayer, information not available from the standard slab model analysis of x-ray reflectivity. The best-fit orientation places the protein-bound Ca{sup 2+} ions within 1 Angstrom of the lipid phosphate group (with an accuracy of {+-}3 Angstroms). Hydrophobic residues of the calcium-binding loops CBL1 and CBL3 penetrate deepest into the lipid layer, with a 2 Angstrom penetration into the tailgroup region. X-ray measurements with and without the C2 domain indicate that there is a loss of electrons in the headgroup region of the lipid monolayer upon binding of the domains. We suggest that this is due to a loss of water molecules bound to the headgroup. Control experiments with a non-calcium buffer and with domain mutants confirm that the cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2 binding to the SOPC monolayer is Ca{sup 2+}-dependent and that the hydrophobic residues in the calcium-binding loops are critical for membrane binding. These results indicate that an entropic component (due to water loss) as well as electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions contributes to the binding mechanism.

  1. X-ray Reflectivity Studies of cPLA?-C2 Domains Adsorbed onto Langmuir Monolayers of SOPC

    SciTech Connect

    Raghothamachar,B.; Dudley, M.; Wang, B.; Callahan, M.; Bliss, D.; Konkapaka, P.; Wu, H.; Spencer, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity is used to study the interaction of C2 domains of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2) with a Langmuir monolayer of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) supported on a buffered aqueous solution containing Ca{sup 2+}. The reflectivity is analyzed in terms of the known crystallographic structure of cPLA2{alpha}-C2 domains and a slab model representing the lipid layer to yield an electron density profile of the lipid layer and bound C2 domains. This new method of analysis determines the angular orientation and penetration depth of the cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2 domains bound to the SOPC monolayer, information not available from the standard slab model analysis of x-ray reflectivity. The best-fit orientation places the protein-bound Ca{sup 2+} ions within 1 Angstrom of the lipid phosphate group (with an accuracy of {+-}3 Angstroms). Hydrophobic residues of the calcium-binding loops CBL1 and CBL3 penetrate deepest into the lipid layer, with a 2 Angstrom penetration into the tailgroup region. X-ray measurements with and without the C2 domain indicate that there is a loss of electrons in the headgroup region of the lipid monolayer upon binding of the domains. We suggest that this is due to a loss of water molecules bound to the headgroup. Control experiments with a non-calcium buffer and with domain mutants confirm that the cPLA{sub 2{alpha}}-C2 binding to the SOPC monolayer is Ca{sup 2+}-dependent and that the hydrophobic residues in the calcium-binding loops are critical for membrane binding. These results indicate that an entropic component (due to water loss) as well as electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions contributes to the binding mechanism.

  2. Evidence for alkane coordination to an electron-rich uranium center.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Nakai, Hidetaka; Gantzel, Peter; Zakharov, Lev N; Rheingold, Arnold L; Meyer, Karsten

    2003-12-24

    A series of five uranium-alkane complexes of the general formula [(ArO)3tacn)U(alkane)].(cy-alkane) has been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. In all cases, X-ray diffraction studies revealed a pseudo-six-coordinate trivalent uranium core structure, [(ArO)3tacn)U], with a coordinated alkane ligand at the axial position. The average U-C bond distance to the bound alkane was determined to be 3.798 A, which is considerably shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the U atom and a CH2 or CH3 unit (3.9 A). In all complexes, the alkane is coordinated in an eta2-H,C fashion.

  3. Search for the molecular mechanism of mercury toxicity. Study of the mercury(II)-surfactant complex formation in Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Dynarowicz-Łatka, Patrycja

    2009-04-02

    Surface pressure and electric surface potential measurements complemented with Brewster angle microscope observations have been used to study the interactions of Hg(2+) ions with selected surfactants spread in Langmuir monolayers. The chosen surfactants had the same hydrocarbon chain length (18 carbon atoms) and different polar groups, such as -COOH, -NH(2), -OH, and -SH, which can be found in natural cells. Our results indicate that Hg(2+) interacts strongly not only with the -SH group, which is believed to be the main target for mercury ions, but also with -COOH and -NH(2) groups. Another important finding is that hydracid or oxoacid mercury salts interact with surfactants differently. The observed differences were explained as being due to different coordination of mercury in the respective complexes. Similar experiments as for mercury salts have also been performed for other heavy metal ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Ag(+)). It turned out that the interactions with the investigated surfactants monolayers were considerably different, which was explained by different coordination properties of the above cations. The profound changes exerted by Hg(2+) ions on Langmuir monolayers of the selected herein surfactants (multilayer formation, induction of aggregation) may be related to natural membranes and can contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of mercury toxicity.

  4. Molecular structure of cysteamine monolayers on silver and gold substrates. Comparative studies by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michota, Agnieszka; Kudelski, Andrzej; Bukowska, Jolanta

    2002-04-01

    Monolayers of cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) frequently work as linkage layers for adsorption of other molecules on metal surfaces. We compared the structure of cysteamine monolayers formed on gold and silver and the influence of various electrolytes on the structure of monolayers formed on both substrates. The monolayers formed on silver contain significantly higher portion of a trans conformer than monolayers on gold. Probably monolayers on silver are self-assembled in such a way that higher portion of the amino groups is unbonded to the surface, thus being available for attaching other molecules. The structure of cysteamine monolayers formed on gold is considerably more stable and resistive to the influence of electrolytes as compared to the silver substrate. The greater stability of the monolayers on Au surface was ascribed to the strong affinity of the amine groups toward this metal.

  5. Mn monolayer modified Rh for syngas-to-ethanol conversion: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyu; Jiang, De-en; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Chen, Zhongfang

    2012-02-21

    Rh is unique in its ability to convert syngas to ethanol with the help of promoters. We performed systematic first-principles computations to examine the catalytic performance of pure and Mn modified Rh(100) surfaces for ethanol formation from syngas. CO dissociation on the surface as well as CO insertion between the chemisorbed CH(3) and the surface are the two key steps. The CO dissociation barrier on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is remarkably lowered by ~1.5 eV compared to that on Rh(100). Moreover, the reaction barrier of CO insertion into the chemisorbed CH(3) group on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is 0.34 eV lower than that of methane formation. Thus the present work provides new mechanistic insight into the role of Mn promoters in improving Rh's selectivity to convert syngas to ethanol. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Mn Monolayer Modified Rh for Syngas-to-Ethanol Conversion: A First-Principles Study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fengyu; Jiang, Deen; Zeng, X.C.; Chen, Zhongfang

    2012-01-01

    Rh is unique in its ability to convert syngas to ethanol with the help of promoters. We performed systematic first-principles computations to examine the catalytic performance of pure and Mn modified Rh(100) surfaces for ethanol formation from syngas. CO dissociation on the surface as well as CO insertion between the chemisorbed CH{sub 3} and the surface are the two key steps. The CO dissociation barrier on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is remarkably lowered by {approx}1.5 eV compared to that on Rh(100). Moreover, the reaction barrier of CO insertion into the chemisorbed CH{sub 3} group on the Mn monolayer modified Rh(100) surface is 0.34 eV lower than that of methane formation. Thus the present work provides new mechanistic insight into the role of Mn promoters in improving Rh's selectivity to convert syngas to ethanol.

  7. The Interface between Gd and Monolayer MoS2: A First-Principles Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of interfaces between two-, four- and six-layer Gd(0001) and monolayer MoS2 by first-principles calculations. Strong chemical bonds shift the Fermi energy of MoS2 upwards into the conduction band. At the surface and interface the Gd f states shift to lower energy and new surface/interface Gd d states appear at the Fermi energy, which are strongly hybridized with the Mo 4d states and thus lead to a high spin-polarization (ferromagnetically ordered Mo magnetic moments of 0.15 μB). Gd therefore is an interesting candidate for spin injection into monolayer MoS2. PMID:25482498

  8. The work function of sub-monolayer cesium-covered gold: A photoelectronspectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, J.L.; White, J.D.; Nahler, N.H.; Liu, Z.; Sun, Y.; Pianetta, P.A.; Auerbach, D.J.; Wodtke, A.M.; /SLAC, SSRL /UC, Santa Barbara, Chem. Dept.

    2008-06-13

    Using visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we measured the work function of a Au(111) surface at a well-defined sub-monolayer coverage of Cs. For a Cs coverage producing a photoemission maximum with a He-Ne laser, the work function is 1.61 {+-} 0.08 eV consistent with previous assumptions used to analyze vibrationally promoted electron emission. A discussion of possible Cs layer structures is also presented.

  9. Abundance and diversity of n-alkane-degrading bacteria in a forest soil co-contaminated with hydrocarbons and metals: a molecular study on alkB homologous genes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Unraveling functional genes related to biodegradation of organic compounds has profoundly improved our understanding of biological remediation processes, yet the ecology of such genes is only poorly understood. We used a culture-independent approach to assess the abundance and diversity of bacteria catalyzing the degradation of n-alkanes with a chain length between C(5) and C(16) at a forest site co-contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and metals for nearly 60 years. The alkB gene coding for a rubredoxin-dependent alkane monooxygenase enzyme involved in the initial activation step of aerobic aliphatic hydrocarbon metabolism was used as biomarker. Within the area of study, four different zones were evaluated: one highly contaminated, two intermediately contaminated, and a noncontaminated zone. Contaminant concentrations, hydrocarbon profiles, and soil microbial respiration and biomass were studied. Abundance of n-alkane-degrading bacteria was quantified via real-time PCR of alkB, whereas genetic diversity was examined using molecular fingerprints (T-RFLP) and clone libraries. Along the contamination plume, hydrocarbon profiles and increased respiration rates suggested on-going natural attenuation at the site. Gene copy numbers of alkB were similar in contaminated and control areas. However, T-RFLP-based fingerprints suggested lower diversity and evenness of the n-alkane-degrading bacterial community in the highly contaminated zone compared to the other areas; both diversity and evenness were negatively correlated with metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of alkB denoted a shift of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from Gram-positive bacteria in the control zone (most similar to Mycobacterium and Nocardia types) to Gram-negative genotypes in the contaminated zones (Acinetobacter and alkB sequences with little similarity to those of known bacteria). Our results underscore a qualitative rather than a quantitative response of

  10. Variation in n-Alkane Distributions of Modern Plants: Questioning Applications of n-Alkanes in Chemotaxonomy and Paleoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Long chain n-alkanes (n-C21 to n-C37) are synthesized as part of the epicuticular leaf wax of terrestrial plants and are among the most recognizable and widely used plant biomarkers. n-Alkane distributions have been utilized in previous studies on modern plant chemotaxonomy, testing whether taxa can be identified based on characteristic n-alkane profiles. Dominant n-alkanes (e.g. n-C27 or n-C31) have also been ascribed to major plant groups (e.g. trees or grasses respectively) and have been used in paleoecology studies to reconstruct fluctuations in plant functional types. However, many of these studies have been based on relatively few modern plant data; with the wealth of modern n-alkane studies, a more comprehensive analysis of n-alkanes in modern plants is now possible and can inform the usefulness of n-alkane distributions as paleoecological indicators. The work presented here is a combination of measurements made using plant leaves collected from the Chicago Botanic Garden and a compilation of published literature data from six continents. We categorized plants by type: angiosperms, gymnosperms, woody plants, forbs, grasses, ferns and pteridophytes, and mosses. We then quantified n-alkane distribution parameters such as carbon preference index (CPI), average chain length (ACL), and dispersion (a measure of the spread of the profile over multiple chain lengths) and used these to compare plant groups. Among all plants, one of the emergent correlations is a decrease in dispersion with increasing CPI. Within and among plant groups, n-alkane distributions show a very large range of variation, and the results show little or no correspondence between broad plant groups and a single dominant n-alkane or a ratio of n-alkanes. These findings are true both when data from six continents are combined and when plants from a given region are compared (North America). We also compared the n-alkane distributions of woody angiosperms, woody gymnosperms, and grasses with one

  11. How to reduce resistance to movement of alkane liquid drops across tilted surfaces without relying on surface roughening and perfluorination.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2012-12-21

    Alkylsilane-derived monolayer-covered surfaces generally display a reasonably good level of hydrophobicity but poor oleophobicity. Here, we demonstrate that the physical attributes of alkylsilane-derived surfaces (liquid-like or solid-like) are dependent on the alkyl chain length and density, and these factors subsequently have significant influence upon the dynamic dewetting behavior toward alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), where n = 7-16). In this study, we prepared and characterized hybrid films through a simple sol-gel process based on the cohydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture of a range of alkyltriethoxysilanes (C(n)H(2n+1)Si(OEt)(3), where n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Surprisingly, when the carbon number (C(n)) of alkyl chain was 10 and below, the produced hybrid films were all smooth, highly transparent, and showed negligible contact angle (CA) hysteresis. On these hybrid surfaces, 5 μL drops of alkanes (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, and n-decane) could move easily at low tilt angles (<5°) without pinning. On the other hand, when the C(n) exceeded 12, both transparency and mobility of probe liquids significantly worsened. In the former case, TMOS molecules played key roles in both forming continuous films (as a binder) and improving flexibility of alkyl chains (as a molecular spacer), resulting in the smooth liquid-like surfaces. Silylation of the hybrid film and subsequent dynamic CA measurements proved the presence of silanol groups on the outermost surfaces and demonstrated that the dynamic dewettability of hybrid films worsened as packing densities increased. Additionally, solvent effects (high affinity) between the alkyl chains and alkane liquids imparted a more liquid-like character to the surface. Thanks to these simple physical effects, the resistance to the alkane droplet motion across tilted surfaces was markedly reduced. With the longer carbon chains, the chain mobility was strictly inhibited by mutual interactions

  12. Tetraether bolaform amphiphiles as models of archaebacterial membrane lipids: Synthesis, differential scanning calorimetry, and monolayer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Thompson, D.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Four racemic tetraether lipids containing a single 1,[omega]-polymethylene chain ([omega] = 16, 20) bridging two glycerophosphate headgroups (bolaform amphiphiles) have been synthesized. These materials have been characterized at the air-water interface by monolayer balance methods and in buffered solution by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Molecular areas in excess of 100 [angstrom][sup 2]/molecule at 40 mN/m[sup 2] were observed for all bolaamphiphiles studied, suggesting a U-shaped molecular conformation that places both phosphate headgroups in the water subphase. Aqueous dispersions of these lipids have thermal and morphological properties that depend on molecular structure and solution pH. Phase transition temperatures (T[sub c]) of the structural isomers, 2,2[prime]-di-O-decyl-1, 1[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-rac-diglycero-3,3[prime]-diphosphate (PS20) and 1,1[prime]-di-O-decyl-2,2[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-3,3[prime]-diphosphate (SS20), were 49 and 38 [degrees]C, respectively, at pH 2.5. A reduction in the observed T[sub c] of [approximately] 14 [degrees]C occurred when the pH was raised to 8.1. The closely related structural analogue, 1,1[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-2-O-eicosyl-rac-diglycero-3,2[prime], 3[prime]-diphosphate (PA20), has a T[sub c] 85 [degrees]C. No phase transition was observed above 5 [degrees]C for 2,2[prime]-O-dioctyl-1,1 [prime]-O-hexadecylmethylene-rac-diglycero-3, 3[prime]-disphosphoric acid (PS16). Multilamellar structures with hydrocarbon-region spacings of 24-30 [angstrom] and overall lengths approaching 0.3 [mu]m were observed by negative stain electron microscopy. The observed lamellae distance is in good agreement with the membrane thickness expected for a bolaamphiphile in its all-anti conformation. 56 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Structure, interfacial properties, and dynamics of the sodium alkyl sulfate type surfactant monolayer at the water/trichloroethylene interface: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Xiong; Guo, Hong-Xia

    2010-05-20

    extensive studies of monolayer collapse at the air/water interface, to our knowledge the conversion of surfactants from the liquid-liquid interface to swollen micellar aggregates as described here has not been reported in the literature.

  14. Combined surface pressure-interfacial shear rheology studies of the interaction of proteins with spread phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon A; Kellaway, Ian W; Taylor, Kevin M G; Warburton, Brian; Peters, Kevin

    2005-08-26

    The adsorption of two model proteins, catalase and lysozyme, to phospholipid monolayers spread at the air-water interface has been studied using a combined surface pressure-interfacial shear rheology technique. Monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG) and DPPC:DPPG (7:3) were spread on a phosphate buffer air-water interface at pH 7.4. Protein solutions were introduced to the subphase and the resultant changes in surface pressure and interfacial storage and loss moduli were recorded with time. The results show that catalase readily adsorbs to all the phospholipid monolayers investigated, inducing a transition from liquid-like to gel-like rheological behaviour in the process. The changes in surface rheology as a result of the adsorption of catalase increase in the order DPPCmonolayer, but shows no measurable differences when injected beneath DPPC or the DPPC:DPPG (7:3) mixed monolayer. It is proposed that DPPG monolayers are more susceptible to penetration by adsorbing protein molecules. The interaction between DPPG and lysozyme is further enhanced due to electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged DPPG and the positively charged lysozyme.

  15. Alkane desaturation by concerted double hydrogen atom transfer to benzyne.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dawen; Willoughby, Patrick H; Woods, Brian P; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R

    2013-09-26

    The removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from an alkane to produce an alkene is a challenge for synthetic chemists. In nature, desaturases and acetylenases are adept at achieving this essential oxidative functionalization reaction, for example during the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, gibberellins and carotenoids. Alkane-to-alkene conversion almost always involves one or more chemical intermediates in a multistep reaction pathway; these may be either isolable species (such as alcohols or alkyl halides) or reactive intermediates (such as carbocations, alkyl radicals, or σ-alkyl-metal species). Here we report a desaturation reaction of simple, unactivated alkanes that is mechanistically unique. We show that benzynes are capable of the concerted removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon. The discovery of this exothermic, net redox process was enabled by the simple thermal generation of reactive benzyne intermediates through the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder cycloisomerization reaction of triyne substrates. We are not aware of any single-step, bimolecular reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are simultaneously transferred from a saturated alkane. Computational studies indicate a preferred geometry with eclipsed vicinal C-H bonds in the alkane donor.

  16. Effect of Tensile Strain on Thermal Conductivity in Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbons: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianwei; He, Xiaodong; Yang, Lin; Wu, Guoqiang; Sha, Jianjun; Hou, Chengyu; Yin, Cunlu; Pan, Acheng; Li, Zhongzhou; Liu, Yubai

    2013-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different tensile strain is investigated by using a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method. Significant increasing amplitude of the molecular thermal vibration, molecular potential energy vibration and thermal conductivity vibration of stretching GNRs were detected. Some 20%∼30% thermal conductivity decay is found in 9%∼15% tensile strain of GNR cases. It is explained by the fact that GNR structural ridges scatter some low-frequency phonons which pass in the direction perpendicular to the direction of GNR stretching which was indicated by a phonon density of state investigation. PMID:23881138

  17. Tunable electronic properties of monolayer silicane via fluorine doping: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Duan, Xiangmei

    2017-07-01

    The electronic structures of fluorine-doped monolayer silicane (F-silicane) are investigated using the density functional theory. We find that the concentration of fluorine has an effect on the electronic properties such as surface work function and energy band structure. The band gap of F-silicane decreases monotonously as the covering percentage of F increases. With favorable formation energy, moderate band gap and appropriate work function, 50% F doped silicane is expected to be a potential candidate for water splitting reaction.

  18. Atomic force microscopy study of the adsorption of protein molecules on transferred Langmuir monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Gainutdinov, R. V. Tolstikhina, A. L.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.; Khripunov, A. K.

    2010-09-15

    Ordered protein films have been obtained by the adsorption of protein molecules on a Langmuir monolayer, which had previously formed on a silicon substrate, using the Langmuir-Blodgett and molecular self-organization methods. A mixture of cholesterol with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and a polymer-cellulose acetopivalinate-were used as immobilization materials. Protein molecules (catalase and alkaline phosphatase) immobilized on solid substrates have been investigated by atomic force micros-copy. It was shown that the developed combined technique provides a deposition of homogeneous ultrathin protein films with a high degree of filling.

  19. Atomic force microscopy study of the adsorption of protein molecules on transferred Langmuir monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaĭnutdinov, R. V.; Tolstikhina, A. L.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.; Khripunov, A. K.

    2010-09-01

    Ordered protein films have been obtained by the adsorption of protein molecules on a Langmuir monolayer, which had previously formed on a silicon substrate, using the Langmuir-Blodgett and molecular self-organization methods. A mixture of cholesterol with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and a polymer—cellulose acetopivalinate—were used as immobilization materials. Protein molecules (catalase and alkaline phosphatase) immobilized on solid substrates have been investigated by atomic force micros-copy. It was shown that the developed combined technique provides a deposition of homogeneous ultrathin protein films with a high degree of filling.

  20. Monte Carlo method for studies of spin relaxation in degenerate electron gas: Application to monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Monte Carlo method allowing to account for the effect of Pauli Exclusion Principle in the case of spin polarized electron gas is demonstrated. Modeling requires calculation of electron states occupancy accounting for the direction of the spin of the scattered electron. As an example of application, calculations for the case of spin and energy relaxation of initially polarized electrons in monolayer graphene have been performed. Model includes D'yakonov-Perel' and Elliot-Yafet relaxation mechanisms. It is demonstrated that electron distribution function and energy relaxation follow the spin polarization relaxation and they are mainly governed by spin related scattering processes.

  1. Biosynthetic origin of the saw-toothed profile in delta(13)C and delta(2)H of n-alkanes and systematic isotopic differences between n-, iso- and anteiso-alkanes in leaf waxes of land plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H; Lu, Hong; Liu, Weiguo

    2010-03-01

    The n-fatty acids containing an even number of carbons (ECN-n-FAs) in higher plants are biosynthesised by repetitive addition of a two carbon unit from malonyl-ACP. The n-alkanes containing an odd number of carbon atoms (OCN-n-alkanes) are generally formed by the decarboxylation of ECN-n-FAs, but it is unknown how the less abundant even-carbon-numbered alkanes (ECN-n-alkanes) are biosynthesised in higher plants. There is a distinctive compositional pattern of incorporation of stable carbon ((13)C) and hydrogen ((2)H) isotopes in co-existing ECN- and OCN-n-alkanes in leaves of higher plants, such that the OCN n-alkanes are relatively enriched in (13)C but relatively depleted in (2)H against the ECN-n-alkanes. This is consistent with the OCN-n-fatty acids having a propionate precursor which is derived from reduction of pyruvate. A tentative pathway is presented with propionate produced by enzymatic reduction of pyruvate which is then thio-esterified with CoSH (coenzyme A thiol) in the chloroplast to form the terminal precursor molecule propionyl-CoA. This is then repetitively extended/elongated with the 2-carbon unit from malonyl-ACP to form the long chain OCN-n-fatty acids. The anteiso- and iso-alkanes in Nicotiana tabacum leaf waxes have previously been found to be systematically enriched in (13)C compared with the n-alkanes by Grice et al. (2008). This is consistent with the isotopic composition of their putative respective precursors (pyruvate as precursor for n-alkanes, valine for iso-alkanes and isoleucine for anteiso-alkanes). The current study complements that of Grice et al. (2008) and looks at the distribution of hydrogen isotopes. The n-alkanes were found to be more enriched in deuterium ((2)H) than the iso-alkanes which in turn were more enriched than the anteiso-alkanes. We propose therefore that the depletion of (2)H in the iso-alkanes, relative to the n-alkanes is the consequence of accepting highly (2)H-depleted hydrogen atoms from NADPH during their

  2. First-principles study of the contractive reconstruction of gold and silver monolayers on gold, silver and aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Noboru.

    1990-11-16

    Using first-principles calculations in conjunction with modeling techniques, the author has investigated the structures of Au and Ag monolayers on a number of metal surfaces. Au(100) has a c(26 {times} 68) surface unit cell and the reconstruction has been interpreted as the top layer transforming to a contracted hexagonal-close-packed layer, superimposed on the square lattice of the underlying substrate atoms. Similar reconstructions have been observed on the 5d fcc metals Ir and Pt, but not in the 4d Rh, Pd, and Ag. The author studied the energetics of a monolayer of Au and Ag using first-principles calculations. The author found that it is energetically favorable for both Au and Ag to transform from a square to hexagonal arrangement and to contract to a higher surface density, but Au gains substantially more energy than Ag. This is true both for a monolayer in isolation as well as on top of a jellium surface. The author also calculated the mismatch energy (energy loss when the top layer loses registry with the substrate) for Au and Ag, and found that Ag has a slightly higher mismatch energy. The first-principles results thus offer a strong indication that Au(100) can reconstruct but Ag will not. The reconstruction is further studied with a 2 dimensional Frenkel-Kontorowa model, with parameters extracted from the total energy calculations. The author found that it is indeed energetically favorable for the top layer of Au(100), but not for Ag, to transform to a hexagonal-close-packed structure and contract. 85 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Interactions of two structurally related anionic phospholipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol with phospholipase A2. Langmuir monolayer studies.

    PubMed

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Urbaś, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Anionic phospholipids cardiolipins (CL) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) dominate in the biomembranes of the majority of soil bacteria. CL to PG ratio differs between the species and is also dependent on the external conditions. CL/PG ratio is different in polluted than in unspoiled soils and it was hypothesized that it is connected with the activity of the membranelytic enzymes from the phospholipase A2 class (PLA2) as it was proved that persistent soil pollutants can activate PLA2. In our studies we applied the Langmuir monolayer technique and Brewster angle microscopy to elucidate the mechanism of the interactions of PLA2 with the model membranes formed by anionic phospholipids. It turned out that there are significant differences between CL and PG. The monolayer of PG is hydrolyzed readily and entirely, whereas for CL approximately 30% of the phospholipid molecules are hydrolyzed after which the enzyme is inhibited. The observed differences between PG and CL are strictly connected with the hydrophobicity of the generated lysolipids: lyso-PG and lyso-CL. Lyso-PG is water soluble and leaves the interface whereas lyso-CL is water-insoluble remains at the interface and modifies the monolayer properties. The second hydrolysis product - myristic acid (MA) forms crystallites of calcium myristate when generated from PG, whereas when generated from CL it is shielded by the lysolipid and does not interact with calcium. Therefore, on the basis of our study it can be concluded that the increase in CL content protects the soil bacteria from PLA2 activity and from the loss of calcium homeostasis.

  4. Effect of the molecular structure on the hierarchical self-assembly of semifluorinated alkanes at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Keller, Rabea; Jonas, Ulrich; Berger, Rüdiger; Clark, Christopher G; Klein, Christopher O; Geue, Thomas; Müllen, Klaus; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-07-19

    Semifluorinated alkanes (C(n)F(2n+1)C(m)H(2m+1)), short FnHm display local phase separation of mutually incompatible hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chain moieties, which has been utilized as a structure-forming motif in supramolecular architectures. The packing of semifluorinated alkanes, nominally based on dodecyl subunits, such as perfluoro(dodecyl)dodecane (F12H12) and perfluoro(dodecyl)eicosane (F12H20), as well as a core extended analogue, 1,4-dibromo-2-((perfluoroundecyl)methoxy)-5-(dodecyloxy)benzene) (F11H1-core-H12), was studied at the air/water interface. Langmuir monolayers were investigated by means of neutron reflectivity directly at the air/water interface and scanning force microscopy after transfer to silicon wafers. Narrowly disperse surface micelles formed in all three cases; however, they were found to bear different morphologies with respect to molecular orientation and assembly dimensionality, which gives rise to different hierarchical aggregate topologies. For F12H12, micelles of ca. 30 nm in diameter, composed of several circular or "spherical cap" substructures, were observed and a monolayer model with the fluorocarbon block oriented toward air is proposed. F12H20 molecules formed larger (ca. 50 nm diameter) hexagonally shaped surface micelles that were hexagonally, densely packed, besides more elongated but tightly interlocked wormlike structures. Conversely, F11H1-core-H12 films organized into linear rows of elongated surface micelles with comparable width, but an average length of ca. 400 nm, apparently formed by antiparallel molecular packing.

  5. Interaction of acylated and unacylated forms of E. coli alpha-hemolysin with lipid monolayers: a PM-IRRAS study.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Romina F; Daza Millone, María A; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Herlax, Vanesa S; Bakás, Laura S; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Vela, María E; Maté, Sabina M

    2017-06-24

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli produce virulence factors, such as the protein toxin alpha-hemolysin (HlyA), that enable the bacteria to colonize the host and establish an infection. HlyA is synthetized as a protoxin (ProHlyA) that is transformed into the active form in the bacterial cytosol by the covalent linkage of two fatty-acyl moieties to the polypeptide chain before the secretion of HlyA into the extracellular medium. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fatty acylation of HlyA on protein conformation and protein-membrane interactions. Polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) experiments were performed at the air-water interface, and lipid monolayers mimicking the outer leaflet of red-blood-cell membranes were used as model systems for the study of protein-membrane interaction. According to surface-pressure measurements, incorporation of the acylated protein into the lipid films was faster than that of the nonacylated form. PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the adsorption of the proteins to the lipid monolayers induced disorder in the lipid acyl chains and also changed the elastic properties of the films independently of protein acylation. No significant difference was observed between HlyA and ProHlyA in the interaction with the model lipid monolayers; but when these proteins became adsorbed on a bare air-water interface, they adopted different secondary structures. The assumption of the correct protein conformation at a hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface could constitute a critical condition for biologic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Perturbation of the pulmonary surfactant monolayer by single-walled carbon nanotubes: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Luo, Zhen; Li, Shixin; Li, Weiguo; Zhang, Xianren; Zuo, Yi Y; Huang, Fang; Yue, Tongtao

    2017-07-27

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are at present synthesized on a large scale with a variety of applications. The increasing likelihood of exposure to SWCNTs, however, puts human health at a high risk. As the front line of the innate host defense system, the pulmonary surfactant monolayer (PSM) at the air-water interface of the lungs interacts with the inhaled SWCNTs, which in turn inevitably perturb the ultrastructure of the PSM and affect its biophysical functions. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate how the diameter and length of SWCNTs critically regulate their interactions with the PSM. Compared to their diameters, the inhalation toxicity of SWCNTs was found to be largely affected by their lengths. Short SWCNTs with lengths comparable to the monolayer thickness are found to vertically insert into the PSM with no indication of translocation, possibly leading to accumulation of SWCNTs in the PSM with prolonged retention and increased inflammation potentials. The perturbation also comes from the forming water pores across the PSM. Longer SWCNTs are found to horizontally insert into the PSM during inspiration, and they can be wrapped by the PSM during deep expiration via a tube diameter-dependent self-rotation. The potential toxicity of longer SWCNTs comes from severe lipid depletion and the PSM-rigidifying effect. Our findings could help reveal the inhalation toxicity of SWCNTs, and pave the way for the safe use of SWCNTs as vehicles for pulmonary drug delivery.

  7. CO oxidation catalyzed by silicon carbide (SiC) monolayer: A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Tian, Yu; Zhao, Jingxiang; Jin, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Developing metal-free catalysts for CO oxidation has been a key scientific issue in solving the growing environmental problems caused by CO emission. In this work, the potential of the silicon carbide (SiC) monolayer as a metal-free catalyst for CO oxidation was systematically explored by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations. Our results revealed that CO oxidation reaction can easily proceed on SiC nanosheet, and a three-step mechanism was proposed: (1) the coadsorption of CO and O2 molecules, followed by (2) the formation of the first CO2 molecule, and (3) the recovery of catalyst by a second CO molecule. The last step is the rate-determining one of the whole catalytic reaction with the highest barrier of 0.65eV. Remarkably, larger curvature is found to have a negative effect on the catalytic performance of SiC nanosheet for CO oxidation. Therefore, our results suggested that flat SiC monolayer is a promising metal-free catalyst for CO oxidation.

  8. Tethered Chains in Poor Solvent Conditions: An Experimental Study Involving Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Lee, L.T.; Majewski, J.; Satija, S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-10-13

    We have employed Langmuir monolayer of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane- polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 "C to -35 `C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature (T) over this entire r~ge. However, the v~iation with T becomes weak below -20 "C. At the ]owest T, the layer thicknesses are contracted 55 % -75 `% of their values at the theta condition (T8 = 22 "C), but are still quite swollen compared to the fully collapsed, nonsolvent limit. The contraction of the layer with decreasing T is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight. These data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the air surface over the entire T range, the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing T. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. Negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayer, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a trruisition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing T was observed in the reflectivity at very low PDMS-PS coverage.

  9. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  10. Sulphur adsorption on gold monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Damanpreet; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita

    2017-05-01

    We use Density Functional Theory to study the electronic and magnetic properties of two dimensional gold monolayer and investigate the effect of adsorption of sulphur atom on it. Of all the possible adsorption sites, hollow site was found to be the most favorable one for adsorption. On-top and bridge adsorption sites are found to exhibit net magnetic moment of adsorbed gold monolayer. This feature of small but non zero magnetic moment could find applications in building small molecular magnetic devices.

  11. Infra-Red Spectra of Small Alkanes Interacting with Aluminum Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Affawn; Copeland, Christopher; Metz, Ricardo B.

    2016-06-01

    Herein we present experimentally determined infra-red spectra of entrance channel complexes of various small alkanes interacting with alkanes. The entrance channel complexes of ethane, propane and n-butane with positively charged aluminum ions were studied in the gas phase. The spectra are compared with theoretical calculations, and the structures of various products are elucidated from the spectra.

  12. A dynamic X-ray diffraction study of anaesthesia action. Changes in myelin structure and electrical activity recorded simultaneously from frog sciatic nerves treated with n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Padrón, R; Mateu, L; Requena, J

    1980-11-04

    Changes induced in the structure and electrical activity of myelin were recorded simultaneously from frog sciatic nerves treated with n-alkanes. The results suggest that the effect of n-alkanes seems to be two-fold: (a) there is an initial reversible phase, in which a significant modification of the X-ray diffraction patterns, concomitant with the continuous fall of the action potential, is observed; (b) there is a final phase which is irreversible. This occurs some time after the complete abolition of the electrical activity. At this stage, further changes of the X-ray diffraction patterns are detected, the most significant of them being in the n-pentane-treated myelin, and consist of an increase in the membrane bilayer thickness.

  13. SPALEED Studies of the Growth of Zero to Mono-layer Graphene on SiC(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupalo, M.; Hershberger, M. T.; Hattab, H.; McDougall, D. C.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Tringides, M. C.

    The growth of graphene on SiC was studied in detail with SPA LEED to understand the transition from zero to monolayer graphene with increasing temperature starting at 1200°C. Both the changing diffraction spots with annealing and their line shapes are studied in detail until a fully completed monolayer is obtained with only 6x6 spots remaining. In particular we focus on two strong features not investigated previously: (i) superstructures spots at n/13 locations present between the specular and the graphene spots. These spots are possibly related to different coincidence lattices before graphene locks into its final 6x6 orientation. (ii) The presence of a very broad background intensity covering ~60% of the BZ both around the specular and graphene spots whose origin is still unknown. Detailed studies of the dependence of this background component on energy and comparison between the graphene and specular spots suggest that the origin is not due to the standard variation with electron energy, i.e. a g(s) curve caused by the topography. Throughout the literature this broad background has been seen in graphene grown in different types of substrates. We comment on possible reasons for the origin of the background. Ames Laboratory is operated by the US-DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  14. Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation on CH Bond Acidity in Cationic Alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated large enhancements of CH bond acidities in alcohol, ether, and amine cations through infrared predissociation spectroscopy based on the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization detection. In this study, we investigate for the cationic alkanes (pentane, hexane, and heptane) with different alkyl chain lengths. The σ electrons are ejected in the ionization of alkanes, while nonbonding electrons are ejected in ionization of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Nevertheless, the acidity enhancements of CH in these cationic alkanes have also been demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. The correlations of their CH bond acidities with the alkyl chain lengths as well as the mechanisms of their acidity enhancements will be discussed by comparison of infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.

  15. Theoretical study of the activation of alkane C-H and C-C bonds by different transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Blomberg, M.R.A.; Siegbahn, P.E.M.; Nagashima, Umpei; Wennerberg, J. )

    1991-01-16

    The activation of C-H and C-C bonds by different transition metal atoms has been studied using quantum chemical methods including electron correlation. The metals studied are iron, cobalt, nickel, rhodium, and palladium. A general result for all these metals is that the barrier for C-C insertion is found to be 14-20 kcal/mol higher than the barrier for C-H insertion. This can be explained by the difference in directionality between bonds to methyl groups and to hydrogen atoms. The size of the activation barrier is similar among transition metals in the same row but is considerably lower for the second-row metals than for the first-row metals studied here. This latter result follows from the more efficient sd-hybridization obtained for second-row metals, which in turn follows from the more similar size of the nd and (n + 1)s orbitals for these atoms. The differences in the atomic spectra between first- and second-row metals also play a part in making the barrier for second-row metals lower.

  16. Electrochemical stability of self-assembled monolayers of biphenyl based thiols studied by cyclic voltammetry and second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, Ian; Buck, Manfred

    2005-04-01

    The reductive desorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ω-(4'-methyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-alkanethiols (CH 3-C 6H 4-C 6H 4-(CH 2) n-SH, BP n) on Au(1 1 1) on mica was studied in 0.5 M KOH solution as a function of the length of the aliphatic spacer chain ( n = 1-6 and 12) and for two different preparations temperatures (295 K and 343 K). Second harmonic generation (SHG) was applied in situ parallel to cyclic voltammetry (CV). Odd-even differences in the structure of the BP n monolayers are clearly reflected in the electrochemical stability, as well as by the charge and shape of the desorption peak. For n = 1-5 a single desorption peak is detected whereas multiple peaks occur for BP6 similar to hexadecane thiol which was also studied for comparison. An increased preparation temperature affects the shape and width of the desorption peak but not the position. BP1 exhibits a temperature dependence different from the other homologues. The relationship between coverage monitored by SHG and desorption charge determined from the CVs is found to be linear and surprisingly independent from the details of the SAMs. The combined SHG and CV experiments suggest that capacitive and faradaic current are always closely coupled even for BP6 and hexadecane thiol which exhibit multiple desorption peaks.

  17. Alkane biohydroxylation: Interests, constraints and future developments.

    PubMed

    Soussan, Laurence; Pen, Nakry; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Marcano, José Sanchez; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine

    2016-03-20

    Alkanes constitute one of the vastest reserves of raw materials for the production of fine chemicals. This paper focuses on recent advances in alkane biohydroxylation, i.e. the bioactivation of alkanes into their corresponding alcohols. Enzyme and whole-cell biocatalysts have been reviewed. Process considerations to implement such biocatalysts in bioreactors at large scale by coupling the bioconversion with cofactor regeneration and product removal are also discussed.

  18. Enthalpy difference between conformations of normal alkanes: Raman spectroscopy study of n-pentane and n-butane.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M

    2009-02-12

    Conformation equilibrium in normal pentane (C(5)H(12)) was studied by the low-temperature gas-phase Raman spectroscopy method. A special retroreflecting multipass cell was constructed. Gas-phase (vapor) spectra were recorded in the temperature region of -130.3 to -23.1 degrees C and in the spectral range below 500 cm(-1). The peaks of trans-trans (399.0 cm(-1)), trans-gauche (328.9 cm(-1)), and gauche(+)-gauche(+) (267.1 cm(-1)) conformers (rotamers) of n-pentane were assigned using quantum chemistry data (MP2 and B3LYP methods with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set). The contour of each line was deconvoluted using ab initio data to obtain precise total integral intensity. The intensities at different temperatures were used to evaluate the enthalpy (energy) difference between trans-gauche and trans-trans (DeltaH(tg) = 618 +/- 6 cal/mol), and gauche(+)-gauche(+) and trans-trans (DeltaH(g+g+) = 940 +/- 20 cal/mol) conformers. Normal butane (n-butane) measurements under similar experimental conditions have been taken to understand the chain length influence. The C(4)H(10) enthalpy difference value has been evaluated (DeltaH(g) = 660 +/- 22 cal/mol). The results are compared with published experimental and theoretical data. The data presented here can be used as a reference for quantum chemistry calculations of conformation equilibrium in n-butane and n-pentane.

  19. Reactivity of monolayer chemical vapor deposited graphene imperfections studied using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cen; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Parks, Joshua J; Ritzert, Nicole L; Ralph, Daniel C; Abruña, Héctor D

    2012-04-24

    Imperfections that disrupt the sp(2) conjugation of graphene can alter its electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Here we report on the examination of monolayer chemical vapor deposited graphene imperfections using scanning electrochemical microscopy in the feedback mode. It was found that the sites with a large concentration of defects are approximately 1 order of magnitude more reactive, compared to more pristine graphene surfaces, toward electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, we successfully passivated the activity of graphene defects by carefully controlling the electropolymerization conditions of o-phenylenediamine. With further electropolymerization, a thin film of the polymer was formed, and it was found to be insulating in nature toward heterogeneous electron transfer processes. The use of spatially resolved scanning electrochemical microscopy for detecting the presence and the "healing" of defects on graphene provides a strategy for in situ characterization and control of this attractive surface, enabling optimization of its properties for application in electronics, sensing, and electrocatalysis.

  20. Bandgap engineering of monolayer MoS2 under strain: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Fan, Bowen; Li, Weiyi; Wen, Luowei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Tao; Sheng, Kuang; Yin, You

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the monolayer MoS2 in terms of the strain by analyzing the structure parameters: the bandgap, the density of states (DOS) and the Milliken charges. The calculations indicate that an increasing external stain tends to depress the ripple structure with a shorter S-S interlayer spacing and to enlarge the length of the Mo-S bond. Tensile strain dramatically alteres the bandgap; however, compressive strain almost does not. The change in the bandgap is explained by an analysis of the DOS, the partial density of states (PDOS), the structure parameters and the Mulliken charge distribution. The effects of strain on the Mulliken charge and the length of the Mo-S band cause bandgap differences under tensile and compressive strain.

  1. Melting transition of near-monolayer xenon films on graphite: A computer simulation study. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Farid F.

    1984-03-01

    Xenon films of greater than one monolayer thickness are simulated using the molecular-dynamics technique. If the total substrate area and coverage are held constant, we find that the first layer of the xenon film melts in an apparent continuous manner over a small temperature interval and is consistent with two-phase, solid-liquid coexistence. The quantitative features of the correlation functions are in excellent agreement with recent x-ray experiments [P. A. Heiney et al.,

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 104 (1982)
    T. F. Rosenbaum et al.,
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1791 (1983)
    ]. If the spreading pressure and total coverage are held constant, we find that the melting transition is first order. This is in conflict with the conclusions of Heiney et al. based on constant-chemical-potential experiments but is consistent with the constant-area and -coverage simulation. A possible explanation is proposed.

  2. Domain shapes in lipid monolayers studied as polar cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, M.; Liu, F.; Ou-Yang, Z.-C.

    2010-07-01

    Both bulk and boundary orientations, and boundary shape equations for tilted lipid domain are derived in analogy with a polar cholesteric liquid crystal. It shows that in a two-dimensional (2D) system the 3D spontaneous splay and chiral elastic energies, the s0 and q0 terms of Frank energy, can be regarded as an orientation-dependent line tension, and the domain formation is the equilibrium between the line tension, the surface pressure, the orientational stress, and the dipole-dipole interaction. An obvious and analytic shape solution for pinned boundary orientation for maximum boundary tension has been found and the diverse domain shapes observed in lipid monolayers in the past two decades, such as star, boojum, cardioid, ellipse, bola, and clover-leaf shapes, are dramatically well described by the solution.

  3. Formation and dissolution processes of the 6-thioguanine (6TG) self-assembled monolayer. A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Madueño, Rafael; Pineda, Teresa; Sevilla, José Manuel; Blázquez, Manuel

    2005-02-03

    This is a report on the kinetics of the destruction and formation processes of the 6-thioguanine self-assembled monolayer (6TG SAM) on a mercury electrode from acid solutions by chronoamperometry. The destruction of the 6TG SAM that has been previously formed under open circuit potential conditions is carried out by stepping the potential from an initial value where the chemisorbed layer is stable up to potentials where the molecules are no longer chemisorbed. The destruction of the SAM has been described by a model that involves three types of contributions: (i) a Langmuir-type adsorption process, (ii) a 2D nucleation mechanism followed by a growth controlled by surface diffusion, and (iii) a 2D nucleation mechanism followed by a growth at a constant rate. The nonlinear fit of the experimental transients by using this procedure allows the quantitative determination of the individual contributions to the overall process. The kinetics of the formation process is studied under electrochemical conditions. The chronoamperometric experiment allows us to monitor the early stages of 6TG SAM formation. The implications of the physisorbed state at low potentials in the type of monolayer formation and destruction processes as well as the influence of temperature are also discussed.

  4. Tuning Optical Properties of MoS2 Bulk and Monolayer Under Compressive and Tensile Strain: A First Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafi, Fariba; Pilevar Shahri, Raheleh; Benam, Mohammad Reza; Akhtar, Arsalan

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties under compressive and tensile strain is highly important in photoelectron devices and the semiconductor industry. In this work, optical properties of bulk and monolayer MoS2 under compressive and tensile strains are investigated by means of density functional theory. The dielectric tensor is derived within the random phase approximation. Calculations indicate that unstrained two-dimensional and bulk MoS2 lead to semiconductors with the gaps of 1.64 eV and 0.84 eV, respectively, whereas the change in the value of the gap by applying tensile or compressive strain depends on the nature of strains. Dielectric function, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, energy loss and the refraction index of the strained and unstrained systems are studied for both parallel ( E||x) and perpendicular ( E||z) applied electric field polarizations, which are very sensitive to the type and amount of strains. For instance, the reflectivity of a MoS2 monolayer exposed to visible light in the E||z polarization direction, can be tuned from 4% to 10% by introducing strain. Finally, the Abbe number is calculated to characterize the dispersion of the materials under compressive and tensile strain. Bulk MoS2 for E||x shows the highest value of the Abbe number, which shrinks twenty times under the influence of compressive strain.

  5. Binding of Na+ and K+ to the Headgroup of Palmitic Acid Monolayers Studied by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zishuai; Allen, Heather C.

    2012-06-01

    Alkali cations are critical in biological systems due to their electrical interaction with cell membranes. While Na+ and K+ share similar chemical and physical properties, they can exhibit differences when interacting with biological membranes. These phenomena may be modeled using a Langmuir monolayer of surfactant on alkali chloride solutions. Vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy is an interface specific technique that is widely employed to study molecular organization at surfaces and interfaces. VSFG spectroscopy was used to probe the CO2- vibrational mode for the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA) spread on the surface of NaCl and KCl solutions in the vibrational region between 1400 and 1500 cm-1. The ability of Na+ and K+ to bind with the carboxylic headgroup of PA is revealed by observing peak positions (˜1410 cm-1 and ˜1470 cm-1) and relative intensity for the CO2- peaks. These results are compared and discussed with perspective toward elucidating interfacial PA headgroup organization. The time evolution for the PA CO2- peaks is also monitored after monolayer spreading via VSFG and these results are presented as well.

  6. Molecular dynamics and energy landscape of decanethiolates in self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sotthewes, Kai; Wu, Hairong; Kumar, Avijit; Vancso, G Julius; Schön, Peter M; Zandvliet, Harold J W

    2013-03-19

    The energetics and dynamics of the various phases of decanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) surfaces were studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. We have observed five different phases of the decanethiolate monolayer on Au(111): four ordered phases (β, δ, χ*, and φ) and one disordered phase (ε). We have determined the boundary free energies between the disordered and order phases by analyzing the thermally induced meandering of the domain boundaries. On the basis of these results, we are able to accurately predict the two-dimensional phase diagram of the decanethiolate/Au(111) system. The order-disorder phase transition of the χ* phase occurs at 295 K, followed by the order-disorder phase transition of the β phase at 325 K. Above temperatures of 325 K, only the densely packed φ and disordered ε phases remain. Our findings are in good agreement with the phase diagram of the decanethiolate/Au(111) system that was put forward by Poirier et al. [Langmuir 2001, 17 (4), 1176-1183].

  7. Adsorption of gas molecules on graphene-like InN monolayer: A first-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiang; Yang, Qun; Meng, Ruishen; Tan, Chunjian; Liang, Qiuhua; Jiang, Junke; Ye, Huaiyu; Chen, Xianping

    2017-05-01

    Using first-principles calculation within density functional theory (DFT), we study the gas (CO, NH3, H2S, NO2, NO, SO2) adsorption properties on the surface of single-layer indium nitride (InN). Four different adsorption sites (Bridge, In, N, Hollow) are chosen to explore the most sensitive adsorption site. On the basis of the adsorption energy, band gap and charge transfer, we find that the most energetic favourable site is changeable between In site and N site for different gases. Moreover, our results reveal that InN is sensitive to NH3, SO2, H2S and NO2, by a physisorption or a chemisorption nature. We also perform a perpendicular electric field to the system and find that the applied electric field has a significant effect for the adsorption process. Besides, we also observed the desorption effects on NH3 adsorbed at the hollow site of InN when the electric field applied. In addition, the optical properties of InN monolayer affected by different gases are also discussed. Most of the gas adsorptions will cause the inhibition of light adsorption while the others can reduce the work function or enhance the adsorption ability in visible region. Our theoretical results indicate that monolayer InN is a promising candidate for gas sensing applications.

  8. Tuning Optical Properties of MoS2 Bulk and Monolayer Under Compressive and Tensile Strain: A First Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafi, Fariba; Pilevar Shahri, Raheleh; Benam, Mohammad Reza; Akhtar, Arsalan

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties under compressive and tensile strain is highly important in photoelectron devices and the semiconductor industry. In this work, optical properties of bulk and monolayer MoS2 under compressive and tensile strains are investigated by means of density functional theory. The dielectric tensor is derived within the random phase approximation. Calculations indicate that unstrained two-dimensional and bulk MoS2 lead to semiconductors with the gaps of 1.64 eV and 0.84 eV, respectively, whereas the change in the value of the gap by applying tensile or compressive strain depends on the nature of strains. Dielectric function, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, energy loss and the refraction index of the strained and unstrained systems are studied for both parallel (E||x) and perpendicular (E||z) applied electric field polarizations, which are very sensitive to the type and amount of strains. For instance, the reflectivity of a MoS2 monolayer exposed to visible light in the E||z polarization direction, can be tuned from 4% to 10% by introducing strain. Finally, the Abbe number is calculated to characterize the dispersion of the materials under compressive and tensile strain. Bulk MoS2 for E||x shows the highest value of the Abbe number, which shrinks twenty times under the influence of compressive strain.

  9. Langmuir monolayers and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the study of the interactions between camptothecin drugs and biomembrane models.

    PubMed

    Casadó, Ana; Giuffrida, M Chiara; Sagristá, M Lluïsa; Castelli, Francesco; Pujol, Montserrat; Alsina, M Asunción; Mora, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    CPT-11 and SN-38 are camptothecins with strong antitumor activity. Nevertheless, their severe side effects and the chemical instability of their lactone ring have questioned the usual forms for its administration and have focused the current research on the development of new suitable pharmaceutical formulations. This work presents a biophysical study of the interfacial interactions of CPT-11 and SN-38 with membrane mimetic models by using monolayer techniques and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The aim is to get new insights for the understanding of the bilayer mechanics after drug incorporation and to optimize the design of drug delivery systems based on the formation of stable bilayer structures. Moreover, from our knowledge, the molecular interactions between camptothecins and phospholipids have not been investigated in detail, despite their importance in the context of drug action. The results show that neither CPT-11 nor SN-38 disturbs the structure of the complex liposome bilayers, despite their different solubility, that CPT-11, positively charged in its piperidine group, interacts electrostatically with DOPS, making stable the incorporation of a high percentage of CPT-11 into liposomes and that SN-38 establishes weak repulsive interactions with lipid molecules that modify the compressibility of the bilayer without affecting significantly neither the lipid collapse pressure nor the miscibility pattern of drug-lipid mixed monolayers. The suitability of a binary and a ternary lipid mixture for encapsulating SN-38 and CPT-11, respectively, has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. First-principles study of nanometer-sharp domain walls in ferromagnetic Fe monolayers under in-plane strain.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Okuno, J; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, T

    2012-03-07

    We investigated a nanometer-sharp magnetic domain wall (DW) structure in a free-standing Fe(110) monolayer and studied the crucial role of in-plane strain using fully unconstrained noncollinear ab initio spin-density-functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation. The DW width is calculated to be 0.86 nm. A precise vector-field description of the magnetization density revealed that a noncollinear character in the DW was spatially confined between atoms, whereas a collinear and high magnetization density was localized around each atom. In the rapid rotation of magnetic moments in the DW, we found an electron rearrangement from the d(zx) and d(x(2)-y(2)) states to the d(xy), d(yz) and d(z(2)) states due to a shift of band structures. Applied tensile and compressive in-plane strains both bring about narrower DWs in the monolayer except when the strain is small. The strain dependence of the DW width is discussed in terms of both exchange interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  11. Nanotribological properties and mechanisms of alkylthiol and biphenyl thiol self-assembled monolayers studied by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Liu, Huiwen

    2001-06-01

    Five kinds of alkylthiol and biphenyl thiol monolayers with different surface terminals, spacer chains, and head groups were prepared using a self-assembly method. The adhesion, friction, and wear properties were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that hexadecane thiol (HDT) with a-CH3 terminal exhibits the smallest adhesive force and friction force because of the terminal group with its low work of adhesion and high-compliance long carbon chain. Experimental results and a meniscus analysis indicate that the adhesive force varies linearly with work of adhesion of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A molecular spring model is presented to clarify the lubrication mechanisms of SAMs. The molecular spring constant, as well as the inter molecular forces, dictates the magnitude of the coefficients of friction of SAMs. 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl (DHBp) on Si(111), due to its rigid biphenyl spacer chains, stronger interface bonds, and a hard substrate, has the best wear resistance. For all of the SAMs, the wear depth with normal load curves show critical normal loads. Below the critical normal load, SAMs undergo orientation, while at the critical normal load SAMs undergo severe wear at the interface due to the weak interfacial bond strengths. The influence of relative humidity on adhesive and frictional forces of SAMs can be mainly understood by comparing their terminal polarization properties and work of adhesion. At higher humidity, water capillary condensation can either increase friction through increased adhesion in the contact zone or reduce friction through an enhanced water-lubricating effect.

  12. Fluorocarbon-hybrid pulmonary surfactants for replacement therapy--a Langmuir monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Lee, Sannamu; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Shibata, Osamu

    2010-12-07

    Effective additives to pulmonary surfactant (PS) preparations for therapy of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are being intensively sought. We report here the investigation of the effects of partially fluorinated amphiphiles (PFA) on the surface behavior of a model PS formulation. When small amounts of a partially fluorinated alcohol C(8)F(17)C(m)H(2m)OH (F8HmOH, m = 5 and 11) are added to the PS model preparation (a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/Hel 13-5 peptide mixture) considered here, the effectiveness of the latter in in vitro pulmonary functions is enhanced. The mechanism for the improved efficacy depends on the hydrophobic chain length of the added PFA molecules. The shorter PFA, F8H5OH, when incorporated in the monolayer of the PS model preparation, promotes a disordered liquid-expanded (LE) phase upon lateral compression (fluidization). In contrast, the addition of the longer PFA, F8H11OH, reduces the disordered LE/ordered liquid-condensed (LC) phase transition pressure and promotes the growth of ordered domains (solidification). Furthermore, compression-expansion cycles suggest that F8H5OH, when incorporated in the PS model preparation, undergoes an irreversible elimination into the subphase, whereas F8H11OH enhances the squeeze-out phenomenon of the SP-B mimicking peptide, which is important in pulmonary functions and is related to the formation of a solid-like monolayer at the surface and of a surface reservoir just below the surface. F8H11OH particularly reinforces the effectiveness of DPPC in terms of minimum reachable surface tension, and of preservation of the integrated hysteresis area between compression and expansion isotherms, the two latter parameters being generally accepted indices for assessing PS efficacy. We suggest that PFA amphiphiles may be useful potential additives for synthetic PS preparations destined for treatment of RDS in premature infants and in adults.

  13. Characteristics of lateral and hybrid heterostructures based on monolayer MoS2: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Ping; Su, Jie; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2017-02-08

    Novel MoS2/(MX2)n lateral and (MoS2)/(MX2)n-BN hybrid heterostructures have been designed on monolayer MoS2 to extend its applications. The electronic, interfacial and optical properties of the lateral and hybrid heterostructures have been investigated comparatively using first-principles calculations. It was found that the charge distributions, band gaps, band levels, electrostatic potentials, and optical absorption of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures depend greatly on the width n of MX2, irrespective of the size of the lateral heterostructures. The CBM states of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures dominated by the dz(2) orbitals are localized around MoS2, whereas the VBM states of the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures are dominated by the MX2 region. Through regulating the width n of the MX2 region in the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures, the optical absorption of the lateral heterostructures under visible light can be increased, and the CBM and VBM states of the lateral heterostructures can be located above the hydrogen reduction potential and below the water oxidation potential, respectively. The similar characteristics were observed in the MoS2/(MX2)n-BN hybrid heterostructures, indicating that BN is a good substrate for the MoS2/(MX2)n lateral heterostructures. The analysis implies that forming the lateral and hybrid heterostructures is an effective way to extend the applications of monolayer MoS2 in photocatalytic water and photovoltaic devices.

  14. Identity and mechanisms of alkane-oxidizing metalloenzymes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Keddis, Ramaydalis; Groves, John T.; Vetriani, Costantino; Austin, Rachel Narehood

    2013-01-01

    Six aerobic alkanotrophs (organism that can metabolize alkanes as their sole carbon source) isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were characterized using the radical clock substrate norcarane to determine the metalloenzyme and reaction mechanism used to oxidize alkanes. The organisms studied were Alcanivorax sp. strains EPR7 and MAR14, Marinobacter sp. strain EPR21, Nocardioides sp. strains EPR26w, EPR28w, and Parvibaculum hydrocarbonoclasticum strain EPR92. Each organism was able to grow on n-alkanes as the sole carbon source and therefore must express genes encoding an alkane-oxidizing enzyme. Results from the oxidation of the radical-clock diagnostic substrate norcarane demonstrated that five of the six organisms (EPR7, MAR14, EPR21, EPR26w, and EPR28w) used an alkane hydroxylase functionally similar to AlkB to catalyze the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes, while the sixth organism (EPR92) used an alkane-oxidizing cytochrome P450 (CYP)-like protein to catalyze the oxidation. DNA sequencing indicated that EPR7 and EPR21 possess genes encoding AlkB proteins, while sequencing results from EPR92 confirmed the presence of a gene encoding CYP-like alkane hydroxylase, consistent with the results from the norcarane experiments. PMID:23825470

  15. Enhanced production of n-alkanes in Escherichia coli by spatial organization of biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rahmana, Ziaur; Sung, Bong Hyun; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Bui, Le Minh; Lee, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Sun Chang

    2014-12-20

    Alkanes chemically mimic hydrocarbons found in petroleum, and their demand as biofuels is steadily increasing. Biologically, n-alkanes are produced from fatty acyl-ACPs by acyl-ACP reductases (AARs) and aldehyde deformylating oxygenases (ADOs). One of the major impediments in n-alkane biosynthesis is the low catalytic turnover rates of ADOs. Here, we studied n-alkane biosynthesis in Escherichia coli using a chimeric ADO-AAR fusion protein or zinc finger protein-guided ADO/AAR assembly on DNA scaffolds to control their stoichiometric ratios and spatial arrangements. Bacterial production of n-alkanes with the ADO-AAR fusion protein was increased 4.8-fold (24 mg/L) over a control strain expressing ADO and AAR separately. Optimal n-alkane biosynthesis was achieved when the ADO:AAR binding site ratio on a DNA scaffold was 3:1, yielding an 8.8-fold increase (44 mg/L) over the control strain. Our findings indicate that the spatial organization of alkane-producing enzymes is critical for efficient n-alkane biosynthesis in E. coli.

  16. Identity and mechanisms of alkane-oxidizing metalloenzymes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Keddis, Ramaydalis; Groves, John T; Vetriani, Costantino; Austin, Rachel Narehood

    2013-01-01

    Six aerobic alkanotrophs (organism that can metabolize alkanes as their sole carbon source) isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents were characterized using the radical clock substrate norcarane to determine the metalloenzyme and reaction mechanism used to oxidize alkanes. The organisms studied were Alcanivorax sp. strains EPR7 and MAR14, Marinobacter sp. strain EPR21, Nocardioides sp. strains EPR26w, EPR28w, and Parvibaculum hydrocarbonoclasticum strain EPR92. Each organism was able to grow on n-alkanes as the sole carbon source and therefore must express genes encoding an alkane-oxidizing enzyme. Results from the oxidation of the radical-clock diagnostic substrate norcarane demonstrated that five of the six organisms (EPR7, MAR14, EPR21, EPR26w, and EPR28w) used an alkane hydroxylase functionally similar to AlkB to catalyze the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes, while the sixth organism (EPR92) used an alkane-oxidizing cytochrome P450 (CYP)-like protein to catalyze the oxidation. DNA sequencing indicated that EPR7 and EPR21 possess genes encoding AlkB proteins, while sequencing results from EPR92 confirmed the presence of a gene encoding CYP-like alkane hydroxylase, consistent with the results from the norcarane experiments.

  17. Cloning and expression of three ladA-type alkane monooxygenase genes from an extremely thermophilic alkane-degrading bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23.

    PubMed

    Boonmak, Chanita; Takahashi, Yasunori; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23, is capable of degrading a broad range of alkanes (with carbon chain lengths ranging between C11 and C32) at 70 °C. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that unlike most alkane-degrading bacteria, strain B23 does not possess an alkB-type alkane monooxygenase gene. Instead, it possesses a cluster of three ladA-type genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, on its chromosome, whose protein products share significant amino acid sequence identities, 49.8, 34.4, and 22.7 %, respectively, with that of ladA alkane monooxygenase gene found on a plasmid of Geobacillus thermodetrificans NG 80-2. Each of the three genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, was heterologously expressed individually in an alkB1 deletion mutant strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens KOB2Δ1. It was found that all three genes were functional in P. fluorescens KOB2Δ1, and partially restored alkane degradation activity. In this study, we suggest that G. thermoleovorans B23 utilizes multiple LadA-type alkane monooxygenases for the degradation of a broad range of alkanes.

  18. Biochemistry of Short-Chain Alkanes (Tissue-Specific Biosynthesis of n-Heptane in Pinus jeffreyi).

    PubMed

    Savage, T. J.; Hamilton, B. S.; Croteau, R.

    1996-01-01

    Short-chain (C7-C11) alkanes accumulate as the volatile component of oleoresin (pitch) in several pine species native to western North America. To establish the tissue most amenable for use in detailed studies of short-chain alkane biosynthesis, we examined the tissue specificity of alkane accumulation and biosynthesis in Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. Short-chain alkane accumulation was highly tissue specific in both 2-year-old saplings and mature trees; heart-wood xylem accumulated alkanes up to 7.1 mg g-1 dry weight, whereas needles and other young green tissue contained oleoresin with monoterpenoid, rather than paraffinic, volatiles. These tissue-specific differences in oleoresin composition appear to be a result of tissue-specific rates of alkane and monoterpene biosynthesis; incubation of xylem tissue with [14C]sucrose resulted in accumulation of radiolabel in alkanes but not monoterpenes, whereas incubation of foliar tissue with 14CO2 resulted in the accumulation of radiolabel in monoterpenes but not alkanes. Furthermore, incubation of xylem sections with [14C]acetate resulted in incorporation of radiolabel into alkanes at rates up to 1.7 nmol h-1 g-1 fresh weight, a rate that exceeds most biosynthetic rates reported with other plant systems for the incorporation of this basic precursor into natural products. This suggests that P. jeffreyi may provide a suitable model for elucidating the enzymology and molecular biology of short-chain alkane biosynthesis.

  19. Biochemistry of Short-Chain Alkanes (Tissue-Specific Biosynthesis of n-Heptane in Pinus jeffreyi).

    PubMed Central

    Savage, T. J.; Hamilton, B. S.; Croteau, R.

    1996-01-01

    Short-chain (C7-C11) alkanes accumulate as the volatile component of oleoresin (pitch) in several pine species native to western North America. To establish the tissue most amenable for use in detailed studies of short-chain alkane biosynthesis, we examined the tissue specificity of alkane accumulation and biosynthesis in Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. Short-chain alkane accumulation was highly tissue specific in both 2-year-old saplings and mature trees; heart-wood xylem accumulated alkanes up to 7.1 mg g-1 dry weight, whereas needles and other young green tissue contained oleoresin with monoterpenoid, rather than paraffinic, volatiles. These tissue-specific differences in oleoresin composition appear to be a result of tissue-specific rates of alkane and monoterpene biosynthesis; incubation of xylem tissue with [14C]sucrose resulted in accumulation of radiolabel in alkanes but not monoterpenes, whereas incubation of foliar tissue with 14CO2 resulted in the accumulation of radiolabel in monoterpenes but not alkanes. Furthermore, incubation of xylem sections with [14C]acetate resulted in incorporation of radiolabel into alkanes at rates up to 1.7 nmol h-1 g-1 fresh weight, a rate that exceeds most biosynthetic rates reported with other plant systems for the incorporation of this basic precursor into natural products. This suggests that P. jeffreyi may provide a suitable model for elucidating the enzymology and molecular biology of short-chain alkane biosynthesis. PMID:12226177

  20. The genome sequence of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01: a blueprint for anaerobic alkane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, A V; Morris, B E L; Pereira, I A C; McInerney, M J; Austin, R N; Groves, J T; Kukor, J J; Suflita, J M; Young, L Y; Zylstra, G J; Wawrik, B

    2012-01-01

    Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01 serves as a model organism for anaerobic alkane biodegradation because of its distinctive biochemistry and metabolic versatility. The D. alkenivorans genome provides a blueprint for understanding the genetic systems involved in alkane metabolism including substrate activation, CoA ligation, carbon-skeleton rearrangement and decarboxylation. Genomic analysis suggested a route to regenerate the fumarate needed for alkane activation via methylmalonyl-CoA and predicted the capability for syntrophic alkane metabolism, which was experimentally verified. Pathways involved in the oxidation of alkanes, alcohols, organic acids and n-saturated fatty acids coupled to sulfate reduction and the ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically were predicted. A complement of genes for motility and oxygen detoxification suggests that D. alkenivorans may be physiologically adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. The D. alkenivorans genome serves as a platform for further study of anaerobic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their roles in bioremediation, energy recovery and global carbon cycling.

  1. Utilization of n-alkanes by a newly isolated strain of Acinetobacter venetianus: the role of two AlkB-type alkane hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Throne-Holst, Mimmi; Markussen, Sidsel; Winnberg, Asgeir; Ellingsen, Trond E; Kotlar, Hans-Kristian; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2006-09-01

    A bacterial strain capable of utilizing n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from decane (C10H22) to tetracontane (C40H82) as a sole carbon source was isolated using a system for screening microorganisms able to grow on paraffin (mixed long-chain n-alkanes). The isolate, identified according to its 16S rRNA sequence as Acinetobacter venetianus, was designated A. venetianus 6A2. Two DNA fragments encoding parts of AlkB-type alkane hydroxylase homologues, designated alkMa and alkMb, were polymerase chain reaction-amplified from the genome of A. venetianus 6A2. To study the roles of these two alkM paralogues in n-alkane utilization in A. venetianus 6A2, we constructed alkMa, alkMb, and alkMa/alkMb disruption mutants. Studies on the growth patterns of the disruption mutants using n-alkanes with different chain lengths as sole carbon source demonstrated central roles for the alkMa and alkMb genes in utilization of C10 to C18 n-alkanes. Comparative analysis of these patterns also suggested different substrate preferences for AlkMa and AlkMb in n-alkane utilization. Because both single and double mutants were able to grow on n-alkanes with chain lengths of C20 and longer, we concluded that yet another enzyme(s) for the utilization of these n-alkanes must exist in A. venetianus 6A2.

  2. Photoluminescence study of the substitution of Cd by Zn during the growth by atomic layer epitaxy of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Calderón, I.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the substitution of Cd atoms by Zn atoms during the growth of alternate ZnSe and CdSe compound monolayers (ML) by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) as a function of substrate temperature. Samples contained two quantum wells (QWs), each one made of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers with total thickness of 12 ML but different growth parameters. The QWs were studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the Cd content of underlying CdSe layers is affected by the exposure of the quantum well film to the Zn flux during the growth of ZnSe monolayers. The amount of Cd of the quantum well film decreases with higher exposures to the Zn flux. A brief discussion about the difficulties to grow the Zn{sub 0.5}Cd{sub 0.5}Se ordered alloy (CuAu-I type) by ALE is presented.

  3. Interfacial alkane films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, T. K.; Ouyang, Jian; Ribarsky, M. W.; Landman, Uzi

    1992-09-01

    Adsorbed n-hexadecane films of thickness ~10, 20, and 40 Å are studied at 350 K via molecular-dynamics simulations. In the thickest film periodic oscillations of the density extend ~18 Å from the solid-liquid interface, the roughness fluctuations at the liquid-vapor interface are Gaussian, and the density tail is fitted by an error function. Molecules in the first adsorbed layer lie preferentially parallel to the surface exhibiting domains of intermolecular orientational alignment. The diffusion is anisotropic with the component parallel to the surface greatly enhanced in the liquid-vapor region.

  4. Structure and shear response of lipid monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    Organic monolayers and multilayers are both scientifically fascinating and technologically promising; they are, however, both complex systems and relatively inaccessible to experimental probes. In this Progress Report, we describe our X-ray diffraction studies, which have given us substantial new information about the structures and phase transitions in monolayers on the surface of water; our use of these monolayers as a unique probe of the dynamics of wetting and spreading; and our studies of monolayer mechanical properties using a simple but effective technique available to anyone using the Wilhelmy method to measure surface tension.

  5. Al-Doped ZnO Monolayer as a Promising Transparent Electrode Material: A First-Principles Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyang; Sun, Dan; Tan, Changlong; Tian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuewu

    2017-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO has attracted much attention as a transparent electrode. The graphene-like ZnO monolayer as a two-dimensional nanostructure material shows exceptional properties compared to bulk ZnO. Here, through first-principle calculations, we found that the transparency in the visible light region of Al-doped ZnO monolayer is significantly enhanced compared to the bulk counterpart. In particular, the 12.5 at% Al-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits the highest visible transmittance of above 99%. Further, the electrical conductivity of the ZnO monolayer is enhanced as a result of Al doping, which also occurred in the bulk system. Our results suggest that Al-doped ZnO monolayer is a promising transparent conducting electrode for nanoscale optoelectronic device applications. PMID:28772721

  6. Al-Doped ZnO Monolayer as a Promising Transparent Electrode Material: A First-Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyang; Sun, Dan; Tan, Changlong; Tian, Xiaohua; Huang, Yuewu

    2017-03-29

    Al-doped ZnO has attracted much attention as a transparent electrode. The graphene-like ZnO monolayer as a two-dimensional nanostructure material shows exceptional properties compared to bulk ZnO. Here, through first-principle calculations, we found that the transparency in the visible light region of Al-doped ZnO monolayer is significantly enhanced compared to the bulk counterpart. In particular, the 12.5 at% Al-doped ZnO monolayer exhibits the highest visible transmittance of above 99%. Further, the electrical conductivity of the ZnO monolayer is enhanced as a result of Al doping, which also occurred in the bulk system. Our results suggest that Al-doped ZnO monolayer is a promising transparent conducting electrode for nanoscale optoelectronic device applications.

  7. First-principles study of B, C, N and F doped graphene-like MgO monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Huang, Min; Cheng, Wenjing; Tang, Fuling

    2016-07-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we have investigated the stable geometries, electronic and magnetic properties of the graphene-like MgO monolayer with O atom substituted by B, C, N, and F atoms. The formation energy decreases in the order of B>C>N>F, which may be influenced by the different electronegativities. The band gaps of p-type doped MgO monolayers are tunable due to the emergence of impurity states within the band gap, while F-doped MgO monolayer realizes the transition from semiconductor to metal. The results show that p-type doped MgO monolayer exhibit magnetic behaviors due to polarizations of dopants and surrounding Mg or O atoms near the dopants, while no magnetism is observed in the case of F doped MgO monolayer. These results are potentially useful for spintronic applications and the development of magnetic nanostructures.

  8. Studies on Mixed Monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Schiff-Base Complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) and Calix

    PubMed

    Pang, Shufeng; Ye, Zhifeng; Li, Chun; Liang, Yingqiu

    2001-08-15

    Mixed monolayers of Schiff-base complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) with an octadecyl hydrocarbon chain and Calix[4]arene without a long alkyl chain at an air/water interface were studied in ultrapure water at different temperatures. Interface behavior and thermodynamic estimation of the mixed monolayer indicate that a strong intermolecular interaction exists between the mixed components (Cu(SBC(18))(2) and calix[4]arene) and the two-dimensional miscibility decreases with the molar fraction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). It is noticeable that the calix[4]arene monolayer can be transferred successfully onto solid substrates due to the introduction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). FTIR transmission and UV-Vis absorption spectra of mixed LB films provide further evidence of molecular interaction between the headgroups. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Modeling Stimuli-Responsive Nanoparticle Monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we model a monolayer formed at the water-oil interface, which comprises stimuli-responsive nanoparticles. The solid core of the nanoparticle encompasses beads arranged in an fcc lattice structure and its surface is uniformly grafted with stimuli-responsive polymer chains. The surface-active nanoparticles adsorb to the interface from the suspension to minimize total energy of the system and create a monolayer covering the interface. We investigate the monolayer formation by characterizing the detailed adsorption kinetics. We explore the microstructure of the monolayer at different surface coverage, including the particle crowding and ordering, and elucidate the response of monolayer to external stimuli. The collective behavior of the particles within the monolayer is demonstrated quantitatively by vector-vector autocorrelation functions. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the interfacial behavior of stimuli-responsive nanoparticles.

  10. Alkane-Based Urethane Potting Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    New low viscosity urethanes easily mixed, molded, and outgassed. Alkane-based urethanes resist hydrolysis and oxidation and have excellent dielectric properties. Low-viscosity alkane-based urethane prepolymer prepared by one-step reaction of either isophorone diisocyanate or methyl-bis (4-cyclohexyl isocyanate) with hydrogenated, hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPBD).

  11. Comparative study of electroless copper film on different self-assembled monolayers modified ABS substrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiushuai; Fan, Ruibin; Wang, Jiaolong; Jia, Mengke; Xiong, Xuanrui; Wang, Fang

    2014-04-15

    Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111) preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  12. [Screening and studies of the specificity of antinuclear antibodies in lupus erythematosus and scleroderma sera in the tumor cell monolayer substrate].

    PubMed

    Lüthke, K; Conrad, K; Frank, K H

    1989-01-01

    The comparative study of the human tumour cell line HeLa and rat liver sections for the detection of antinuclear antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence technique demonstrates the superiority of HeLa monolayer in sensitivity and specificity. Use of monolayers is essential for the diagnosis of antinucleolar and anticentromere ANA specificities and permits differentiation between anti-Sm/RNP, anti-SS-B and anti-Scl-70. ANA profiles are evaluated in 142 sera of 72 patients with different forms of lupus erythematosus and scleroderma and in 216 sera of healthy subjects.

  13. The bending rigidity of phospholipid monolayers in presence of an antimicrobial frog peptide studied by X-ray grazing incidence diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, O.; O'Flaherty, S. M.; Saint-Martin, E.; Deutsch, G.; Sevcsik, E.; Lohner, K.

    2005-02-01

    Peptide secretion by living organisms constitutes an integral response process exploited by natural immune systems. In this work we present a model study and insight into this process reporting the thermodynamic and structural effects induced in phospholipid monolayers due to peptide insertion into the layer. Synchrotron X-ray radiation is combined with the Langmuir technique and exploited to form ‘lipid-peptide’ monolayers and probe the physical characteristics of the fundamental biological process of ‘peptide secretion’. Our experiments show that the insertion of peptides in the phospholipid layer has adverse effects on the elastic properties of the layer manifested through the bending rigidity.

  14. In Situ Atomic-Scale Studies of the Formation of Epitaxial Pt Nanocrystals on Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Sawada, Hidetaka; Chen, Qu; Han, Grace G D; Allen, Christopher; Kirkland, Angus I; Warner, Jamie H

    2017-09-26

    Pt-nanocrystal:MoS2 hybrid materials have promising catalytic properties for hydrogen evolution, and understanding their detailed structures at the atomic scale is crucial to further development. Here, we use an in situ heating holder in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope to study the formation of Pt nanocrystals directly on the surface of monolayer MoS2 from a precursor on heating to 800 °C. Isolated single Pt atoms and small nanoclusters are observed after in situ heating, with two types of preferential alignment between the Pt nanocrystals and the underlying monolayer MoS2. Strain effects and thickness variations of the ultrasmall Pt nanocrystal supported on MoS2 are studied, revealing that single atomic planes are formed from a nonlayered face-centered cubic bulk Pt configuration with a lattice expansion of 7-10% compared to that of bulk Pt. The Pt nanocrystals are surrounded by an amorphous carbon layer and in some cases have etched the local surrounding MoS2 material after heating. Electron beam irradiation also initiates Pt nanocrystal etching of the local MoS2, and we study this process in real time at atomic resolution. These results show that the presence of carbon around the Pt nanocrystals does not affect their epitaxial relationship with the MoS2 lattice. Single Pt atoms within the carbon layer are also immobilized at high temperature. These results provide important insights into the formation of Pt:MoS2 hybrid materials.

  15. Hybrid density functional study of structural and electronic properties of functionalized Tin+1Xn (X=C, N) monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu; Kent, P. R. C.

    2013-06-01

    Density functional theory simulations with conventional (PBE) and hybrid (HSE06) functionals were performed to investigate the structural and electronic properties of MXene monolayers, Tin+1Cn and Tin+1Nn (n=1-9) with surfaces terminated by O, F, H, and OH groups. We find that PBE and HSE06 give similar results. Without functional groups, MXenes have magnetically ordered ground states. All the studied materials are metallic except for Ti2CO2, which we predict to be semiconducting. The calculated density of states at the Fermi level of the thicker MXenes (n⩾5) is much higher than for thin MXenes, indicating that properties such as electronic conductivity and surface chemistry will be different. In general, the carbides and nitrides behave differently with the same functional groups.

  16. A comprehensive study of piezomagnetic response in CrPS4 monolayer: mechanical, electronic properties and magnetic ordering under strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Minwoong; Lee, Hosik; Menderes Alyörük, M.; Lee, Jinhwan; Youb Kim, Sung; Lee, Changgu; Lee, Jun Hee

    2017-10-01

    We performed first-principles calculations to investigate the magnetic, mechanical and electronic properties of the tetrachalcogenide CrPS4. Although bulk CrPS4 has been shown to exhibit a low-dimensional antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state where ferromagnetic (FM) Cr-chains are coupled antiferromagnetically, our calculations indicated that the monolayer can be transformed to an FM material by applying a uniaxial tensile strain of  ⩾4% along the FM Cr-chain direction. The AFM-to-FM transition is explained to be driven by an increase of the exchange interaction induced by a decrease in the distance between the FM Cr-chains. A huge nonlinear piezomagnetism was predicted at the strain-induced magnetic phase boundary. Our study provides insight about rational design of single-layer magnetic materials for a wide range of spintronic devices and energy applications.

  17. Functionalized carbon nitride (g-CN) monolayer as a promising energy storage material: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Hankel, M.; Amornkitbamrung, V.

    2017-10-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) sheet, functionalized with polylithiated molecules (CLi2, OLi2), has been investigated to study their structural, electronic and hydrogen (H2) storage properties by van der Waals corrected first principles calculation. A strong binding of both CLi2/OLi2 with two-sided coverage and large enough molecular distance ensures their uniform dispersion over the g-CN monolayer without forming clusters. Each Li in g-CN@2CLi2 (g-CN@2OLi2) adsorbs 3H2, due to its cationic nature through transferring a portion of its charge, resulting into a high H2 storage capacity of 10.34% (9.76%). The calculated H2 adsorption energies are well suited for practical applications.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of a Langmuir monolayer of C/sub 21/H/sub 43/OH

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, S.W.; Thomas, B.N.; Flom, E.B.; Rice, S.A.; Lin, B.; Peng, J.B.; Ketterson, J.B.; Dutta, P.

    1988-08-15

    We have studied the structure of a monolayer of C/sub 21/H/sub 43/OH on water, in the region near close packing, by grazing incidence in-plane x-ray diffraction. For all temperatures studied the isotherms in the ..pi..a plane show a kink, signaling a phase transition. Along an isotherm, and for pressures above the kink, we observe that the transverse structure factor has one peak which has constant position, width, and intensity; below the kink the diffraction peak shifts to smaller scattering vector (larger separation) and the amplitude decays as the surface pressure decreases, but the width of the peak remains constant. We rationalize these observations in terms of the influence on the transverse structure factor of gauche configurations in the amphiphile tails, with the kink representing the point at which the last of the gauche configurations is squeezed out of the chain. Along an isobar which is at higher pressure than the kink pressures of all isotherms crossed, the transverse structure factor has a single peak above a transition temperature and two peaks below that temperature; for ..pi.. = 30 dyn/cm the transition temperature is in the range 16.3monolayer.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of solubilization of immiscible solutes by a micelle: Free energy of transfer of alkanes from water to the micelle core by thermodynamic integration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Yoshii, N.; Okazaki, S.

    2010-08-01

    Free energy of transfer, ΔGw→m, from water phase to a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle core has been calculated for a series of hydrophobic solutes originally immiscible with water by thermodynamic integration method combined with molecular dynamics calculations. The calculated free energy of transfer is in good correspondence to the experiment as well as the theoretical free energy of transfer. The calculated ΔGw→m's are all negative, implying that the alkane molecules are more stable in the micelle than in the water phase. It decreases almost linearly as a function of the number of carbon atoms of the alkanes longer than methane with a decrement of 3.3 kJ mol-1 per one methylene group. The calculated free energy of transfer indicates that, for example, at the micelle concentration of 50 CMC (critical micelle concentration), about only 1 of 6 micelles or 1 of 32 000 micelles does not contain a solute methane or n-octane molecule, respectively.

  20. Shape selective properties of the Al-fumarate metal-organic framework in the adsorption and separation of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cyclo-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bozbiyik, Belgin; Lannoeye, Jeroen; De Vos, Dirk E; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M

    2016-01-28

    The primary goal of this work is to study the adsorption of a wide range of hydrocarbon adsorbates in the Al-fumarate metal-organic framework in order to identify and explore trends in adsorption behaviour that can be related to the sorbate's molecular properties and as well as the properties of this MOF. The pulse chromatographic technique was used to study the adsorption properties of C5-C8 linear, branched, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons in vapour phase at low coverage and at high temperatures (150-250 °C). Chromatograms of alkanes having the same number of carbon atoms (C5-C8) clearly show that the linear alkane is retained the longest over its branched and cyclic isomers. Moreover, xylene isomers are also clearly separated by Al-fumarate, with retention times increasing in the order: ortho-xylene < meta-xylene < para-xylene. Differences in adsorption enthalpy of more than 10 kJ mol(-1) between linear alkanes and their di/tri-branched or cyclo-alkane isomers were observed, clearly showing that steric effects imposed by the pore structure of the adsorbent cause the difference in adsorption between linear alkanes and their isomers. In conclusion, Al-fumarate behaves as a shape selective material with respect to structural isomers of linear alkanes, with properties resembling those of medium pore size zeolites.

  1. Reconstitution of Plant Alkane Biosynthesis in Yeast Demonstrates That Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 Are Core Components of a Very-Long-Chain Alkane Synthesis Complex[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum–localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs. PMID:22773744

  2. Crystallization and prevention of supercooling of microencapsulated n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-xiang; Fan, Yao-feng; Tao, Xiao-ming; Yick, Kit-lun

    2005-01-15

    Microencapsulated n-alkanes (n-octadecane, n-nonadecane, and n-eicosane) were synthesized by in situ polymerization using urea-melamine-formaldehyde polymer as shells. Microcapsules 5.0 and 10.0 wt% of 1-tetradecanol, paraffin, and 1-octadecanol were used as nucleating agents. The fabrication was characterized using Fourier transform infrared, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallization and prevention of supercooling of the microcapsules are studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The crystal system of the microencapsulated n-alkane is the same as that of the bulk. The enthalpies of the microcapsules containing 70 wt% n-alkanes are approximately 160 J/g. The melting temperature of the n-alkanes in the microcapsule is the same as that in the bulk. There are multiple peaks on the DSC cooling curves that are attributed to liquid-rotator, rotator-crystal, and liquid-crystal transitions. The DSC cooling behavior of microencapsulated n-octadecane is affected by the average diameters. The measured maximum degree of supercooling of the microencapsulated n-octadecane is approximately 26.0 degrees C at a heating and cooling rate of 10.0 degrees C/min. The degree of supercooling of microencapsulated n-octadecane is decreased by adding 10.0 wt% of 1-octadecanol as a nucleating agent.

  3. Study on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on sol-gel processed hafnium oxide as dielectric layers.

    PubMed

    Ting, Guy G; Acton, Orb; Ma, Hong; Ka, Jae Won; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2009-02-17

    High dielectric constant (k) metal oxides such as hafnium oxide (HfO2) have gained significant interest due to their applications in microelectronics. In order to study and control the surface properties of hafnium oxide, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of four different long aliphatic molecules with binding groups of phosphonic acid, carboxylic acid, and catechol were formed and characterized. Surface modification was performed to improve the interface between metal oxide and top deposited materials as well as to create suitable dielectric properties, that is, leakage current and capacitance densities, which are important in organic thin film transistors. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and simple metal-HfO2-SAM-metal devices were used to characterize the surfaces before and after SAM modification on sol-gel processed hafnium oxide. The alkylphosphonic acid provided the best monolayer formation on sol-gel processed hafnium oxide to generate a well-packed, ultrathin dielectric exhibiting a low leakage current density of 2x10(-8) A/cm2 at an applied voltage of -2.0 V and high capacitance density of 0.55 microF/cm2 at 10 kHz. Dialkylcatechol showed similar characteristics and the potential for using the catechol SAMs to modify HfO2 surfaces. In addition, the integration of this alkylphosphonic acid SAM/hafnium oxide hybrid dielectric into pentacene-based thin film transistors yields low-voltage operation within 1.5 V and improved performance over bare hafnium oxide.

  4. The activation of C-H bonds in C1-C3 alkanes by zirconium(III,IV) and titanium(III,IV) hydrides immobilized on the surface of SiO2: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustynyuk, L. Yu.; Aleshkin, I. A.; Suleimanov, Yu. V.; Besedin, D. V.; Ustynyuk, Yu. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    Model reactions of the (≡Si-O-)3MIVH (1), (≡Si-O-)2MIVH2 (2), and (≡Si-O-)2MIIIH (3) hydrides, where M = Ti and Zr, immobilized on the surface of silica with methane and propane were studied by the density functional theory with the PBE functional. The reactions involved the breaking of C-H alkane bonds and the formation of the (≡Si-O-)3MR, (≡Si-O-)2M(H)R, and (≡Si-O-)2MR products (R = Me, n-Pr, and i-Pr), respectively. Reactions with the participation of 1 and 2 were found to occur as bimolecular processes without the formation of agostic-type prereaction complexes. With 3, the reaction was accompanied by the formation of stable prereaction and postreaction complexes. The conclusion was drawn that dihydrides 2 and trivalent metal hydrides 3 were much more reactive with respect to alkane C-H bonds than monohydrides 1. All the systems studied were characterized by low reaction regioselectivities.

  5. Hematite nanoparticle monolayers on mica electrokinetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2012-11-15

    Electrokinetic properties of α-Fe(2)O(3) (hematite) nanoparticle monolayers on mica were thoroughly characterized using the streaming potential method. Hematite suspensions were obtained by acidic hydrolysis of ferric chloride. The average size of particles (hydrodynamic diameter), determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and AFM, was 22 nm (pH=5.5, I=10(-2)M). The hematite monolayers on mica were produced under diffusion-controlled transport from the suspensions of various bulk concentration. The monolayer coverage, quantitatively determined by AFM and SEM, was regulated within broad limits by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time. This allowed one to uniquely express zeta potential of hematite monolayers, determined by the streaming potential measurements, in terms of the particle coverage. Such dependencies, obtained for various pH, were successfully interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional electrokinetic model. A universal calibrating graph was produced enabling one to determine hematite monolayer coverage from the measured value of the streaming potential. The influence of the ionic strength, varied between 10(-4) and 10(-2)M, on the zeta potential of hematite monolayers was also studied. Additionally, the stability of monolayers (desorption kinetics) was determined under in situ conditions using the streaming potential method. Our experimental data prove that it is feasible to produce uniform and stable hematite particle monolayers of well-controlled coverage. Such monolayers may find practical applications as universal substrates for protein immobilization (biosensors) and in electrocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of alkane chain length and counterion on the freezing transition of cationic surfactant adsorbed film at alkane mixture - water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yuhei; Sakamoto, Hiroyasu; Takiue, Takanori; Aratono, Makoto; Matsubara, Hiroki

    2015-05-21

    Penetration of alkane molecules into the adsorbed film gives rise to a surface freezing transition of cationic surfactant at the alkane-water interface. To examine the effect of the alkane chain length and counterion on the surface freezing, we employed interfacial tensiometry and ellipsometry to study the interface of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride aqueous solutions against dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, and their mixtures. Applying theoretical equations to the experimental results obtained, we found that the alkane molecules that have the same chain length as the surfactant adsorb preferentially into the surface freezing film. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the freezing transition temperature of cationic surfactant adsorbed film was independent of the kind of counterion.

  7. Crystallization features of normal alkanes in confined geometry.

    PubMed

    Su, Yunlan; Liu, Guoming; Xie, Baoquan; Fu, Dongsheng; Wang, Dujin

    2014-01-21

    How polymers crystallize can greatly affect their thermal and mechanical properties, which influence the practical applications of these materials. Polymeric materials, such as block copolymers, graft polymers, and polymer blends, have complex molecular structures. Due to the multiple hierarchical structures and different size domains in polymer systems, confined hard environments for polymer crystallization exist widely in these materials. The confined geometry is closely related to both the phase metastability and lifetime of polymer. This affects the phase miscibility, microphase separation, and crystallization behaviors and determines both the performance of polymer materials and how easily these materials can be processed. Furthermore, the size effect of metastable states needs to be clarified in polymers. However, scientists find it difficult to propose a quantitative formula to describe the transition dynamics of metastable states in these complex systems. Normal alkanes [CnH2n+2, n-alkanes], especially linear saturated hydrocarbons, can provide a well-defined model system for studying the complex crystallization behaviors of polymer materials, surfactants, and lipids. Therefore, a deeper investigation of normal alkane phase behavior in confinement will help scientists to understand the crystalline phase transition and ultimate properties of many polymeric materials, especially polyolefins. In this Account, we provide an in-depth look at the research concerning the confined crystallization behavior of n-alkanes and binary mixtures in microcapsules by our laboratory and others. Since 2006, our group has developed a technique for synthesizing nearly monodispersed n-alkane containing microcapsules with controllable size and surface porous morphology. We applied an in situ polymerization method, using melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and nonionic surfactants as emulsifiers. The solid shell of microcapsules can provide a stable three-dimensional (3-D

  8. Second-harmonic generation studies of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of indodicarbocyanine and hemicyanine dyes and stilbazium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijekoon, W. M. K.; Park, Chi-Kyun; Prasad, Paras N.

    1994-09-01

    Second harmonic generation and UV-visible spectroscopic measurements have been performed on a series of Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer of indodicarbocyanine, hemicyanine and stilbazium salts. Optical spectra of these monolayer indicate the presence of hypsochromically shifted aggregates on the silica surface. The extent of aggregation is found to be largely dependent on the nature of the counter-ion as well as on the conditions of the monolayer preparation. The SHG intensity of dye aggregates are much smaller compared to that of monomeric dye molecules. In the case of amphiphillic counter-ion containing stilbazium salt compression speed of the monolayer has very little effect on the second harmonic signal and on the absorption spectrum, presumably due to the suppression of aggregation. It seems that the contribution from nonlinear optically active amphiphillic counter-ion to the SHG intensity is not that significant.

  9. Surface vibrational structure at alkane liquid/vapor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Esenturk, Okan; Walker, Robert A

    2006-11-07

    Broadband vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) has been used to examine the surface structure of alkane liquid/vapor interfaces. The alkanes range in length from n-nonane (C(9)H(20)) to n-heptadecane (C(17)H(36)), and all liquids except heptadecane are studied at temperatures well above their bulk (and surface) freezing temperatures. Intensities of vibrational bands in the CH stretching region acquired under different polarization conditions show systematic, chain length dependent changes. Data provide clear evidence of methyl group segregation at the liquid/vapor interface, but two different models of alkane chain structure can predict chain length dependent changes in band intensities. Each model leads to a different interpretation of the extent to which different chain segments contribute to the anisotropic interfacial region. One model postulates that changes in vibrational band intensities arise solely from a reduced surface coverage of methyl groups as alkane chain length increases. The additional methylene groups at the surface must be randomly distributed and make no net contribution to the observed VSF spectra. The second model considers a simple statistical distribution of methyl and methylene groups populating a three dimensional, interfacial lattice. This statistical picture implies that the VSF signal arises from a region extending several functional groups into the bulk liquid, and that the growing fraction of methylene groups in longer chain alkanes bears responsibility for the observed spectral changes. The data and resulting interpretations provide clear benchmarks for emerging theories of molecular structure and organization at liquid surfaces, especially for liquids lacking strong polar ordering.

  10. Chain length dependence of the thermodynamic properties of linear and cyclic alkanes and polymers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dinghai; Simon, Sindee L; McKenna, Gregory B

    2005-02-22

    The specific heat capacity was measured with step-scan differential scanning calorimetry for linear alkanes from pentane (C(5)H(12)) to nonadecane (C(19)H(40)), for several cyclic alkanes, for linear and cyclic polyethylenes, and for a linear and a cyclic polystyrene. For the linear alkanes, the specific heat capacity in the equilibrium liquid state decreases as chain length increases; above a carbon number N of 10 (decane) the specific heat asymptotes to a constant value. For the cyclic alkanes, the heat capacity in the equilibrium liquid state is lower than that of the corresponding linear chains and increases with increasing chain length. At high enough molecular weights, the heat capacities of cyclic and linear molecules are expected to be equal, and this is found to be the case for the polyethylenes and polystyrenes studied. In addition, the thermal properties of the solid-liquid and the solid-solid transitions are examined for the linear and cyclic alkanes; solid-solid transitions are observed only in the odd-numbered alkanes. The thermal expansion coefficients and the specific volumes of the linear and cyclic alkanes are also calculated from literature data and compared with the trends in the specific heats.

  11. Characterization of n-alkanes in PM 2.5 of the Taipei aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Wang, Chiu-Sen

    Ambient concentrations of n-alkanes with carbon number ranging from 17 to 36 were determined for PM 2.5 samples collected in Taipei city during September 1997-February 1998. The measured concentrations of particulate n-alkanes were in the range of 69-702 ng m -3, considerably higher than the concentration levels observed in Los Angeles and Hong Kong. The concentration distributions of n-alkanes homologues obtained in this study exhibited peaks at C 19, C 24 or C 25. This suggests that fossil fuel utilization, such as vehicular exhaust and lubricant residues, was an important contributor to the Taipei aerosol. Source apportionment of PM 2.5 was conducted using carbon preference index (CPI, defined as the ratio of the total concentration of particulate n-alkanes with odd carbon number to that with even carbon number) and U : R ratio (the concentration ratio of unresolved components to resolved components obtained from chromatograms). The low CPI value (0.9-1.9) and high U : R ratio (2.6-6.4) for each sample further confirmed that fossil fuel utilization was the major source of n-alkanes in ambient PM 2.5 of Taipei city. Estimates from these results showed that 69-93% of the n-alkanes in PM 2.5 of the Taipei aerosol originated from vehicular exhaust. The higher concentration level of particulate n-alkanes in the Taipei aerosol was mainly a result of vehicular emissions.

  12. MIR and NIR group spectra of n-alkanes and 1-chloroalkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwaśniewicz, Michał; Czarnecki, Mirosław A.

    2015-05-01

    Numerous attempts were undertaken to resolve the absorption originating from different parts of alkanes. The separation of the contributions from the terminal and midchain methylene units was observed only in the spectra of solid alkanes at low temperatures. On the other hand, for liquid alkanes this effect was not reported as yet. In this study, ATR-IR, Raman and NIR spectra of eight n-alkanes and seven 1-chloroalkanes in the liquid phase were measured from 1000 to 12,000 cm-1. The spectra were analyzed by using two-dimensional (2D) correlation approach and chemometrics methods. It was shown that in 2D asynchronous contour plots, constructed from the spectra of n-alkanes and 1-chloroalkanes, the methylene band was resolved into two components. These two components were assigned to the terminal and midchain methylene groups. For the first time, the contributions from these two molecular fragments were resolved in the spectra of liquid n-alkanes and 1-chloroalkanes. MCR-ALS resolved these spectra into two components that were assigned to the ethyl and midchain methylene groups. These components represent the group spectra that can be used for assignment, spectral analysis and prediction of unknown spectra. The spectral prediction based on the group spectra provides very good results for n-alkanes, especially in the first and second overtone regions.

  13. Using the BacMam Baculovirus System to Study Expression and Function of Recombinant Efflux Drug Transporters in Polarized Epithelial Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Kapoor, Khyati; Pixley, Jessica N.; Talbert, Darrell J.; Kwit, Alexandra D.T.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily includes several membrane-bound proteins that are critical to drug pharmacokinetics and disposition. Pharmacologic evaluation of these proteins in vitro remains a challenge. In this study, human ABC transporters were expressed in polarized epithelial cell monolayers transduced using the BacMam baculovirus gene transfer system. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of BacMam baculovirus to transduce cells grown in monolayers. In a porcine kidney cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, baculoviral transduction is successful only via the apical side of a polarized monolayer. We observed that recombinant ABC transporters were expressed on the cell surface with post-translational modification. Furthermore, sodium butyrate played a critical role in recombinant protein expression, and preincubation in the presence of tunicamycin or thapsigargin enhanced protein expression. Cells overexpressing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed vectorial basolateral-to-apical transport of [3H]-paclitaxel, which could be reversed by the inhibitor tariquidar. Similarly, coexpression of human P-gp and ABCG2 in LLC-PK1 cells resulted in higher transport of mitoxantrone, which is a substrate for both transporters, than in either P-gp– or ABCG2-expressing cells alone. Taken together, our results indicate that a high level of expression of efflux transporters in a polarized cell monolayer is technically feasible with the BacMam baculovirus system PMID:26622052

  14. Sucrose esters as biocompatible surfactants for penetration enhancement: An insight into the mechanism of penetration enhancement studied using stratumcorneum model lipids and Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Todosijević, Marija N; Brezesinski, Gerald; Savić, Snežana D; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2017-03-01

    Up to now, the molecular mechanism of the penetration enhancing effect of sucrose esters (SEs) on stratumcorneum (SC) has not been explained in details. In this study, variety of surface sensitive techniques, including surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), have been used to investigate interactions between SEs and SC intercellular lipids. A monolayer of the mixture of ceramide AS C18:18, stearic acid and cholesterol in the molar ratio of 1:1:0.7 on an aqueous subphase is a good model to mimic a single layer of intercellular SC lipids. The π-A isotherms of mixed monolayers and parameters derived from the curves demonstrated the interaction between nonionic surfactants such as SEs and SC lipids. With increasing SE concentration, the resultant monolayer films became more fluid and better compressible. IRRAS measurements showed that SEs disordered the acyl chains of SC lipids, and the BAM images demonstrated the modification of the domain structures in SC monolayers. Longer chain-SE has a stronger disordering effect and is better miscible with ceramides in comparison to SE with a shorter hydrophobic part. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the disordering effect of SEs on the biomimetic SC model, pointing out that small changes in the structure of surfactant may have a strong influence on a penetration enhancement of lipophilic drugs through intercellular lipids of skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of n-alkanes on asphaltene structuring in petroleum oils.

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Christian; Viguié, Jean-Romain; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E; Rogalski, Marek

    2005-05-24

    The interactions between asphaltenes and short- to medium-chain n-alkanes were studied using titration microcalorimetry and inverse chromatography. The exothermic heat effects observed upon mixing of asphaltenes and n-alkanes were interpreted in terms of assembling of the two types of compounds into mixed structures. We show that the energy of the interactions between n-alkanes and the asphaltene hydrocarbon chains is close to the energy of the interactions between the asphaltene chains. We propose that the latter interactions are responsible for the formation of the asphaltene aggregates and are the driving force of the aggregate assembly into higher structures.

  16. [Respiratory activity of bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus TM-31 during assimilation of alkane hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, O V; Grechkina, E V; Muratova, A Iu; Turkovskaia, O V; Ignatov, V V

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory activity of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus TM-31 with resect to alkane hydrocarbons was studied. The dynamics of oxygen consumption by the cells while assimilating n-hexadecane was assayed by a modified technique using an oxygen electrode. The dependence of cell respiratory activity on the amount of n-hexadecane within the concentration range of 0.03-0.66% was determined. It was demonstrated that the cells also displayed respiratory activity towards other medium-chain n-alkanes: hexane, octane, decane, tridecane, and heptadecane. Thus, we demonstrated the possibility of determining alkanes by measuring the respiratory activities of microorganisms.

  17. Effect of nanoparticles on the RII -RI -RV rotator phase transitions of alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Prabir K.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that nanoparticles play an important role on the rotator phase transitions of n-alkanes. A phenomenological model for predicting the RII -RI -RV phase transitions in mixtures of alkanes and nanoparticles has been proposed by combining Flory-Huggins free energy of isotropic mixing and Landau free energy. The impact of nanoparticles on the RII -RI -RV phase transitions and their transition temperatures is discussed by means of phenomenological theory. The possibility of the tricritical behavior of the RI -RV phase transition in the mixtures of alkanes and nanoparticles is discussed. The theoretical predictions are in good qualitative agreement with available experimental results.

  18. Monolayer and Brewster angle microscopy studies of poly(methyl methacrylate)-monopalmitin mixed systems at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Miñones Conde, Mercedes; Trillo, J M; Conde, Olga; Miñones, Jose

    2010-03-04

    Mixed monolayers of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and monopalmitin (Mp) were used for the study of their interactions. A thorough analysis of surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherms with the Langmuir monolayer technique, complemented with Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images was performed. Mixed films show two phase transitions at a surface pressure of 14.5 mN/m and at 20-21 mN/m, respectively. Moreover, mixed monolayers show two well-defined collapses: one, corresponding to the lipid (at surface pressures of 50-51 mN/m) and the another one, ascribed to the PMMA, at surface pressure values of 57-58 mN/m. When the mean molecular areas of the mixed films (A(1,2)) were plotted versus film composition (X(1) or X(2)), positive deviations from the ideal behavior were observed at surface pressures below 15 mN/m, which were mainly attributed to a change in the conformation of the PMMA molecules at the surface. However, at higher surface pressures, the areas per monomer unit of the mixed monolayers obey the additivity rule, attributed to the fact that the film components form an immiscible system in these conditions.

  19. CYP153A6, a Soluble P450 Oxygenase Catalyzing Terminal-Alkane Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Funhoff, Enrico G.; Bauer, Ulrich; García-Rubio, Inés; Witholt, Bernard; van Beilen, Jan B.

    2006-01-01

    The first and key step in alkane metabolism is the terminal hydroxylation of alkanes to 1-alkanols, a reaction catalyzed by a family of integral-membrane diiron enzymes related to Pseudomonas putida GPo1 AlkB, by a diverse group of methane, propane, and butane monooxygenases and by some membrane-bound cytochrome P450s. Recently, a family of cytoplasmic P450 enzymes was identified in prokaryotes that allow their host to grow on aliphatic alkanes. One member of this family, CYP153A6 from Mycobacterium sp. HXN-1500, hydroxylates medium-chain-length alkanes (C6 to C11) to 1-alkanols with a maximal turnover number of 70 min−1 and has a regiospecificity of ≥95% for the terminal carbon atom position. Spectroscopic binding studies showed that C6-to-C11 aliphatic alkanes bind in the active site with Kd values varying from ∼20 nM to 3.7 μM. Longer alkanes bind more strongly than shorter alkanes, while the introduction of sterically hindering groups reduces the affinity. This suggests that the substrate-binding pocket is shaped such that linear alkanes are preferred. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of the substrate showed the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, which confirmed the binding of substrates observed in optical titrations. To rationalize the experimental observations on a molecular scale, homology modeling of CYP153A6 and docking of substrates were used to provide the first insight into structural features required for terminal alkane hydroxylation. PMID:16816194

  20. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  1. CYP153A6, a soluble P450 oxygenase catalyzing terminal-alkane hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Funhoff, Enrico G; Bauer, Ulrich; García-Rubio, Inés; Witholt, Bernard; van Beilen, Jan B

    2006-07-01

    The first and key step in alkane metabolism is the terminal hydroxylation of alkanes to 1-alkanols, a reaction catalyzed by a family of integral-membrane diiron enzymes related to Pseudomonas putida GPo1 AlkB, by a diverse group of methane, propane, and butane monooxygenases and by some membrane-bound cytochrome P450s. Recently, a family of cytoplasmic P450 enzymes was identified in prokaryotes that allow their host to grow on aliphatic alkanes. One member of this family, CYP153A6 from Mycobacterium sp. HXN-1500, hydroxylates medium-chain-length alkanes (C6 to C11) to 1-alkanols with a maximal turnover number of 70 min(-1) and has a regiospecificity of > or =95% for the terminal carbon atom position. Spectroscopic binding studies showed that C6-to-C11 aliphatic alkanes bind in the active site with Kd values varying from approximately 20 nM to 3.7 microM. Longer alkanes bind more strongly than shorter alkanes, while the introduction of sterically hindering groups reduces the affinity. This suggests that the substrate-binding pocket is shaped such that linear alkanes are preferred. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the presence of the substrate showed the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex, which confirmed the binding of substrates observed in optical titrations. To rationalize the experimental observations on a molecular scale, homology modeling of CYP153A6 and docking of substrates were used to provide the first insight into structural features required for terminal alkane hydroxylation.

  2. Multiple alkane hydroxylase systems in a marine alkane degrader, Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenli; Wang, Wanpeng; Wu, Yehui; Zhou, Zhongwen; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2011-05-01

    Alcanivorax dieselolei strain B-5 is a marine bacterium that can utilize a broad range of n-alkanes (C(5) -C(36) ) as sole carbon source. However, the mechanisms responsible for this trait remain to be established. Here we report on the characterization of four alkane hydroxylases from A. dieselolei, including two homologues of AlkB (AlkB1 and AlkB2), a CYP153 homologue (P450), as well as an AlmA-like (AlmA) alkane hydroxylase. Heterologous expression of alkB1, alkB2, p450 and almA in Pseudomonas putida GPo12 (pGEc47ΔB) or P. fluorescens KOB2Δ1 verified their functions in alkane oxidation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these genes could be induced by alkanes ranging from C(8) to C(36) . Notably, the expression of the p450 and almA genes was only upregulated in the presence of medium-chain (C(8) -C(16) ) or long-chain (C(22) -C(36) ) n-alkanes, respectively; while alkB1 and alkB2 responded to both medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C(12) -C(26) ). Moreover, branched alkanes (pristane and phytane) significantly elevated alkB1 and almA expression levels. Our findings demonstrate that the multiple alkane hydroxylase systems ensure the utilization of substrates of a broad chain length range.

  3. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  4. Electrical characterization of self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenyong

    Electrical characterization of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been performed using a nanometer-scale device structure. Temperature-variable current-voltage measurement is carried out to distinguish between different conduction mechanisms and temperature-independent transport characteristics are observed, revealing that tunneling is the dominant conduction mechanism of alkanethiols. Electronic transport through alkanethiol SAMs is further investigated with the technique of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The obtained IETS spectra exhibit characteristic vibrational signatures of the alkane molecules that are used, presenting direct evidence of the presence of molecular species in the device structure. Further investigation on the modulation broadening and thermal broadening of the spectral peaks yield intrinsic linewidths of different vibrational modes, which may give insight into molecular conformation and may prove to be a powerful tool in future molecular transport characterization.

  5. First-principles study of the sulfur K and L2,3 edges of transition metal disulfide monolayers, MS2 (M=Mo, W and Re)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Hajar; Nouri, Tahereh

    2015-09-01

    By means of the energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) analysis, the electronic structures of layered transition metal disulfides were studied. In the framework of full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, ELNES spectra of sulfur K and L2,3 edges of layered MoS2, WS2 and ReS2 have been calculated at magic angle conditions, and compared with those of bulks and the only existing experimental fine structure. Compared to the bulks, the energy differences between the main peaks in sulfur K and L2,3 edges of monolayers decrease due to the slightly larger bond lengths that it can be used as a fingerprint for monolayers. Sulfur K edges in monolayers include some main features originated from electron transition to pz (π) and px+py (σ) states and their hybridization. The overall dispersions of the sulfur L2,3 edges in all cases are similar to the D-symmetry density of states. The first two features in L2,3 edge of bulks and monolayers can be attributed to electron transition of sulfur 2p to the both unoccupied 3s-like states of sulfur and 4d states of transition metal atoms. Due to the considerable amount of s states at the energy position of a shoulder like structure in L2,3 edge of both bulks and monolayers, these structures can be assigned to the sulfur 2p electron transition to unoccupied sulfur 3s states. The other features at higher energies are due to the transition of sulfur 2p electrons to the D-symmetry states of sulfur. In addition, due to the considerable energy band gaps, it seems that the use of core-hole approximation is essential for accurate reproduction of ELNES features of transition metal disulfides.

  6. Quantum chemical analysis of thermodynamics of 2D cluster formation of alkanes at the water/vapor interface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vysotsky, Yu B; Kartashynska, E S; Belyaeva, E A; Fainerman, V B; Vollhardt, D; Miller, R

    2015-11-21

    Using the quantum chemical semi-empirical PM3 method it is shown that aliphatic alcohols favor the spontaneous clusterization of vaporous alkanes at the water surface due to the change of adsorption from the barrier to non-barrier mechanism. A theoretical model of the non-barrier mechanism for monolayer formation is developed. In the framework of this model alcohols (or any other surfactants) act as 'floats', which interact with alkane molecules of the vapor phase using their hydrophobic part, whereas the hydrophilic part is immersed into the water phase. This results in a significant increase of contact effectiveness of alkanes with the interface during the adsorption and film formation. The obtained results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data. To test the model the thermodynamic and structural parameters of formation and clusterization are calculated for vaporous alkanes C(n)H(2n+2) (n(CH3) = 6-16) at the water surface in the presence of aliphatic alcohols C(n)H(2n+1)OH (n(OH) = 8-16) at 298 K. It is shown that the values of clusterization enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs' energy per one monomer of the cluster depend on the chain lengths of corresponding alcohols and alkanes, the alcohol molar fraction in the monolayers formed, and the shift of the alkane molecules with respect to the alcohol molecules Δn. Two possible competitive structures of mixed 2D film alkane-alcohol are considered: 2D films 1 with single alcohol molecules enclosed by alkane molecules (the alcohols do not form domains) and 2D films 2 that contain alcohol domains enclosed by alkane molecules. The formation of the alkane films of the first type is nearly independent of the surfactant type present at the interface, but depends on their molar fraction in the monolayer formed and the chain length of the compounds participating in the clusterization, whereas for the formation of the films of the second type the interaction between the hydrophilic parts of the surfactant is

  7. Molecular simulation studies of nanoscale friction between phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayer surfaces: Correlation between surface hydration and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Chen, Shengfu; Hower, Jason C.; Bernards, Matthew T.; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2007-08-01

    We performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the friction between surfaces covered with two phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayers (PC-SAM) under shear. PC-SAM surfaces with a √7×√7R19° lattice structure and a parallel arrangement of the head groups were used as model zwitterionic surfaces. They provide a full representation of the zwitterionic nature of phospholipid surfaces, which are believed to play an important role in the lubrication of biological joints such as knees and hips. The surfaces were immersed in aqueous solutions and kept in contact with two regions of bulk water. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at various concentrations were employed to study the effects of the presence of ions on friction. The results show a strong relationship between surface hydration and friction. Higher ionic concentrations or ions with shorter Debye lengths cause a larger disruption to the hydration around the zwitterionic surfaces, leading to larger friction forces. In addition, the results show that under nanoscale confinement, the friction coefficients of PC-SAM surfaces in pure water are directly proportional to both shear velocity and surface separation distance. These results are comparable to previously published experimental studies.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the electron transport properties of self-assembled monolayers of bis-phenyloxazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hayn; Lee, Whasil; Klare, Jennifer E.; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.

    2004-03-01

    The self-assembly and electron transport properties of monothiol-terminated bis-phenyloxazole molecules have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The molecules were deposited on a clean Au(111) surface from solution and were studied under vacuum. In the as-deposited state, no long-range ordering was present. Upon annealing, however, an ordered monolayer was observed, characterized by well-defined columnar structures. The height of the corrugations was compatible with molecules aligned normal to the surface. This structure is attributed to the orthogonal terphenyl arms in the cruciform species study, which act to inhibit the molecules from assuming a prone position.[1] Scanning tunneling spectroscopy revealed a relatively high conductance, as expected for the conjugated electron system. Threshold features in the I-V characteristics were observed, indicative of resonant tunneling processes. The electronic properties of the molecules will be discussed in the context of the HOMO-LUMO gap deduced from complementary optical absorption data. [1] J. E. Klare et al., JACS 125, 6030 (2003).

  9. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  10. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melissa M; Hoarfrost, Adrienne L; Bose, Arpita; Joye, Samantha B; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C2), propane (C3), and butane (C4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV, Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C1-C4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C1-C4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75°C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C1-C4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C2-C4 alkanes. Maximum C1-C4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55°C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C4, C2, and C1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C2-C4alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  11. Oxidation Products of Semi-volatile Alkanes by Hydroxyl Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Worton, D. R.; Nah, T.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wilson, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Alkanes are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and are important components that influence atmospheric chemistry. Semi-volatile alkanes are partitioned between the gas- and the particle-phases and can be readily oxidized in both phases. Previous studies have demonstrated that reaction rates and the products of OH oxidation are very different for organic compounds in the gas- and particle phases. In the present study, n-octadecane (C18H38), n-eicosane (C20H42), n-docosane (C22H46), n-tricosane (C24H50), and n-pentadecylcyclohexane (C21H42) were chosen as model compounds for semi-volatile alkanes to examine their OH-initiated oxidation reactions in a flow tube reactor. OH exposure was varied in the experiments, equivalent to oxidation of up to one week in the atmosphere. Oxidation products were collected on filters and analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight electron impact ionization and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer. Most of the oxygenated higher molecular weight isomers were separated and quantified. Our results suggest that aerosol samples formed in the n-octadecane experiment were more oxidized than the other model compounds (i.e., functionalization products with three oxygen atoms per molecule compared to two oxygen atoms per molecule) at similar OH exposures and aerosol mass loadings. This is likely due to the concentration of n-octadecane in the gas phase where oxidation is more rapid. We find that the first-generation gas-phase oxidation products quickly partition to the particle phase after which higher-generation oxidation likely occurs in the particle phase. Interestingly, functionalized carbonyl isomers for the normal alkanes were only observed on the 4 carbon positions closest to the molecule end in all cases, which is in contrast to structure-reactivity relationship (SRR) predictions for gas-phase reactions. For n-octadecane, the concentrations of first-generation functionalization

  12. A theoretical study of the electrical contact between metallic and semiconducting phases in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Wendel S.; Palacios, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electrical contact between the two most common crystallographic phases of MoS2 monolayer crystals: the stable semiconducting 2H phase and the metastable metallic 1T phase. A density functional theory (DFT) study of the electronic structure of interface between the two phases shows a higher Schottky barrier for electrons than for holes for the undoped 2H phase. Charge transfer from the 1T to the 2H phase occurs, but, as expected for a one-dimensional contact, the generated dipole potential decays away from the interface and the naive Schottky-Mott band-alignment picture is recovered away from the interface. The decay length of the dipole potential turns out to be larger for the zigzag interface than for the armchair interface due to the different penetration of the edge states into the bulk. Tight-binding quantum transport calculations aided by the DFT results generically confirm a low contact resistance in the range of ≈200-400 Ωμm, as experimentally reported. Furthermore, the contact resistance is predicted to be smaller at the armchair interface for electron injection and, on the contrary, smaller for hole injection at the zigzag interface.

  13. Effects of chain rigidity on the adsorption of a polyelectrolyte chain on mixed lipid monolayer: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaozheng; Ding, Mingming; Zhang, Ran; Li, Liangyi; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia; Huang, Qingrong; Xu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-05-14

    We apply Monte Carlo simulation to explore the adsorption of a positively charged polyelectrolyte on a lipid monolayer membrane, composed of electronically neutral, monovalent anionic and mulvitalent anionic phospholipids. We systematically assess the influence of various factors, including the intrinsic rigidity of the polyelectrolyte chain, the bead charge density of the polyelectrolyte, and the ionic strength of the saline solution, on the interfacial structural properties of the polyelectrolyte/monolayer complex. The enhancement of the polyelectrolyte chain intrinsic rigidity reduces the polyelectrolyte conformational entropy loss and the energy gains in electrostatic interaction, but elevates the segregated anionic lipid demixing entropy loss. This energy-entropy competition results in a nonmonotonic dependence of the polyelectrolyte/monolayer association strength on the degree of chain rigidity. The semiflexible polyelectrolyte, i.e., the one with an intermediate degree of chain rigidity, is shown to associate onto the ternary membane below a higher critical ionic concentration. In this ionic concentration regime, the semiflexible polyelectrolyte binds onto the monolayer more firmly than the pancake-like flexible one and exhibits a stretched conformation. When the chain is very rigid, the polyelectrolyte with bead charge density Zb = +1 exhibits a larger tail and tends to dissociate from the membrane, whereas the one with Zb = +2 can still bind onto the membrane in a bridge-like conformation. Our results imply that chain intrinsic rigidity serves as an efficient molecular factor for tailoring the adsorption/desorption transition and interfacial structure of the polyelectrolyte/monolayer complex.

  14. Leaf wax n-alkane δD values reflect the evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Arndt, S. K.; Cernusak, L. A.; Hoffmann, B.; Schefuss, E.; West, J. B.; Sachse, D.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf wax n-alkanes are long-chained lipids that are vital components of plant cuticles. What makes leaf wax n-alkanes unique is that their stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) contains ecohydrological information that can persist over millions of years. With these exceptional properties, leaf wax n-alkanes and their δD values are now being celebrated as the much-needed ecohydrological proxy that could provide new ecohydrological information across spatial and temporal scales that range from leaves to biomes and from weeks to millions of years. Critical mechanisms that determine the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes are, however, not understood. The exact type of hydrological information that is recorded in the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes remains therefore unclear and prevents the robust application of this promising new proxy. In particular the influence of leaf water evaporative deuterium enrichment on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes has not been resolved. Here we present a study where we test if and to what degree leaf water evaporative enrichment influences the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes. Based on modeling exercises, experimental data and observational investigations we show that deuterium enriched leaf water has a critically important influence on the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes. This finding has important implications for the interpretation of leaf wax n-alkane δD values as it indicates that leaf wax n-alkanes δD values do not simply reflect the δD values of precipitation as has previously assumed. Instead our data show that the δD values of leaf wax n-alkanes reflect deuterium enriched leaf water and reflect therefore a plant-shaped signal such as evapotranspiration.

  15. Biosynthetic and environmental effects on the stable carbon isotopic compositions of anteiso- (3-methyl) and iso- (2-methyl) alkanes in tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Grice, Kliti; Lu, Hong; Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D

    2008-11-01

    depletion n-alkanes>iso-alkanes>anteiso-alkanes is evident from compound specific isotope data. This trend can probably be attributed to the ratio of the two different sources of carbon atoms in the final wax components. Higher water availability generally results in more depleted stable carbon isotope ratios due to maximised discrimination during carboxylation, associated with less diffusional limitation. This was confirmed in the present study by compound specific isotope analyses of iso-alkanes, anteiso-alkanes and n-alkane lipids extracted from the tobacco leaves. Likewise, light intensity has been shown to influence plant bulk delta(13)C in previous studies. The carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes in tobacco grown under low-light conditions were about 2 per thousand more depleted in (13)C than those of lipids extracted from tobacco grown under elevated light conditions. A similar order of difference is observed for the iso-alkanes and anteiso-alkanes (1.8 per thousand and 1.9 per thousand, respectively). A negligible depletion in carbon isotope ratios was observed for the iso-alkanes and anteiso-alkanes extracted from tobacco grown under elevated temperatures. These results are consistent with the work of Farquhar [Farquhar, G.D., 1980. Carbon isotope discrimination by plants: effects of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature via the ratio of intercellular and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. In: Pearman, G.I. (Ed.), Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Australian Research. Springer, Berlin, pp. 105-110] where temperature appears to have only a minor effect on plant bulk delta(13)C.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of CO collisions with CH3- and CF3-terminated self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, William A.; Morris, John R.; Troya, Diego

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of collisions of the CO molecule with organic surfaces. Experimentally, we scatter CO at 60 kJ mol-1 and 30° incident angle from regular (CH3-terminated) and ω-fluorinated (CF3-terminated) alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and measure the time-of-flight distributions at the specular angle after collision. At a theoretical level, we carry out classical-trajectory simulations of the same scattering process using CO/SAM potential-energy surfaces derived from ab initio calculations. Agreement between measured and calculated final translational energy distributions justifies use of the calculations to examine dynamical behavior of the gas/surface system not available directly from the experiment. Calculated state-to-state energy-transfer properties indicate that the collisions are notably vibrationally adiabatic. Similarly, translational energy transfer from and to CO rotation is relatively weak. These trends are examined as a function of collision energy and incident angle to provide a deeper understanding of the factors governing state-to-state energy transfer in gas/organic-surface collisions.

  17. Study of the helium cross-section of unsymmetric disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Erol; Karabuga, Semistan; Bracco, Gianangelo; Danışman, M. Fatih

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-hydroxyundecyl decyl disulfide (CH3-(CH2)9-S-S-(CH2)11-OH, HDD) and 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH3-(CH2)17-S-S-(CH2)11-OH, HOD) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). The study has been carried out by means of helium diffraction at very low film coverage. In this regime helium single molecule cross sections have been estimated in a temperature range between 100 K and 450 K. The results show a different behavior above 300 K that has been interpreted as the starting of mobility with the formation of two thiolate moieties either linked by a gold adatom or distant enough to prevent cross section overlapping. Finally, helium diffraction patterns measured at 80 K for the SAMs grown at 200 K are discussed and the results support the proposed hypothesis of molecular dissociation based on the cross section data.

  18. A scanning probe microscopy study of the physisorption and chemisorption of protein molecules onto carboxylate terminated self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N.; Davies, M. C.; Heaton, R. J.; Roberts, C. J.; Tendler, S. J. B.; Williams, P. M.

    Scanning probe microscopy offers the possibility of investigating biomolecular structure and function. However, successful imaging is technically limited by interactions between the probe and the sample. A strong attachment of the biomolecule to the substrate is often required. Here, we investigate the binding of the protein catalase to gold surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The chemical and physical adsorption of the protein molecules onto SAMs of 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA), 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and a mixture of the two acid thiols (Mixed) was investigated utilizing tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The surface concentration of catalase adsorbed on the SAMs decreased in the order: Mixed>11-MUA>3-MPA. Utilizing the terminal carboxylic acid functionalities, catalase was immobilized with a water soluble carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Immobilization resulted in increased coverage of the protein. SPR studies on silver surfaces modified by these SAMs indicate immobilization of carbodiimide and NHS decreased in the order: Mixed>11-MUA>3-MPA.

  19. Adsorption studies of alcohol molecules on monolayer MoS2 nanosheet-A first-principles insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2017-08-01

    The electronic and adsorption properties of three different alcohol molecules namely methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet is investigated using DFT method. The structural stability of MoS2 nanosheet is ascertained with formation energy. The adsorption properties of alcohol molecules on MoS2 base material is discussed in terms of average energy gap variation, Mulliken charge transfer, energy band gap and adsorption energy. The prominent adsorption sites of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet are studied in atomistic level. The projected density of states (PDOS) spectrum gives the clear insights on the electronic properties of MoS2 nanosheet. The PDOS and energy band structure confirmed the adsorption of alcohol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet. The variation in the band structure and PDOS is noticed upon adsorption of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on MoS2 nanosheet. The PDOS spectrum also reveals the variation in peak maxima owing to transfer of electron between alcohol molecules and MoS2 base material. The adsorption of 1-propanol vapor on MoS2 nanosheet is observed to be more favorable than other alcohol molecules. The findings confirm that monolayer MoS2 nanosheet can be used to detect the presence of alcohol vapors in the environment.

  20. Full membrane spanning self-assembled monolayers as model systems for UHV-based studies of cell-penetrating peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Johannes; Graham, Daniel J.; Baio, Joe E.; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Castner, David G.; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Biophysical studies of the interaction of peptides with model membranes provide a simple yet effective approach to understand the transport of peptides and peptide based drug carriers across the cell membrane. Therein, the authors discuss the use of self-assembled monolayers fabricated from the full membrane-spanning thiol (FMST) 3-((14-((4'-((5-methyl-1-phenyl-35-(phytanyl)oxy-6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,37-undecaoxa-2,3-dithiahenpentacontan-51-yl)oxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)oxy)tetradecyl)oxy)-2-(phytanyl)oxy glycerol for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) based experiments. UHV-based methods such as electron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide important information about how peptides bind and interact with membranes, especially with the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer. Moreover, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data showed that FMST forms UHV-stable and ordered films on gold. XPS and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles indicated that a proline-rich amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide, known as sweet arrow peptide is located at the outer perimeter of the model membrane.

  1. Whole-cell biocatalytic and de novo production of alkanes from free fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jee Loon; Susanto, Adelia Vicanatalita; Keasling, Jay D; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2017-01-01

    Rapid global industrialization in the past decades has led to extensive utilization of fossil fuels, which resulted in pressing environmental problems due to excessive carbon emission. This prompted increasing interest in developing advanced biofuels with higher energy density to substitute fossil fuels and bio-alkane has gained attention as an ideal drop-in fuel candidate. Production of alkanes in bacteria has been widely studied but studies on the utilization of the robust yeast host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for alkane biosynthesis have been lacking. In this proof-of-principle study, we present the unprecedented engineering of S. cerevisiae for conversion of free fatty acids to alkanes. A fatty acid α-dioxygenase from Oryza sativa (rice) was expressed in S. cerevisiae to transform C12-18 free fatty acids to C11-17 aldehydes. Co-expression of a cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase converted the aldehydes to the desired alkanes. We demonstrated the versatility of the pathway by performing whole-cell biocatalytic conversion of exogenous free fatty acid feedstocks into alkanes as well as introducing the pathway into a free fatty acid overproducer for de novo production of alkanes from simple sugar. The results from this work are anticipated to advance the development of yeast hosts for alkane production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 232-237. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Whole‐cell biocatalytic and de novo production of alkanes from free fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jee Loon; Susanto, Adelia Vicanatalita; Keasling, Jay D.; Leong, Susanna Su Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapid global industrialization in the past decades has led to extensive utilization of fossil fuels, which resulted in pressing environmental problems due to excessive carbon emission. This prompted increasing interest in developing advanced biofuels with higher energy density to substitute fossil fuels and bio‐alkane has gained attention as an ideal drop‐in fuel candidate. Production of alkanes in bacteria has been widely studied but studies on the utilization of the robust yeast host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for alkane biosynthesis have been lacking. In this proof‐of‐principle study, we present the unprecedented engineering of S. cerevisiae for conversion of free fatty acids to alkanes. A fatty acid α‐dioxygenase from Oryza sativa (rice) was expressed in S. cerevisiae to transform C12–18 free fatty acids to C11–17 aldehydes. Co‐expression of a cyanobacterial aldehyde deformylating oxygenase converted the aldehydes to the desired alkanes. We demonstrated the versatility of the pathway by performing whole‐cell biocatalytic conversion of exogenous free fatty acid feedstocks into alkanes as well as introducing the pathway into a free fatty acid overproducer for de novo production of alkanes from simple sugar. The results from this work are anticipated to advance the development of yeast hosts for alkane production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 232–237. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26717118

  3. Effect of n-alkanes on lipid bilayers depending on headgroups.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Mafumi; Endo, Asami; Nakazawa, Koyomi; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-05-01

    Phase behavior and structural properties were examined for phospholipid bilayers having different headgroups (DMPC, DMPS and DMPE) with added n-alkanes to study effect of flexible additives. Change in the temperatures of main transition of the lipid/alkane mixtures against the length of added alkanes depends largely on the headgroup. Theoretical analysis of the change of the temperature of transition indicates that the headgroup dependence is dominantly originated in the strong dependence of total enthalpy on the headgroups. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the enthalpic stabilization due to enhanced packing of acyl chains of the lipid by alkanes in the gel phase causes the headgroup-dependent change in the phase transition behavior. The enhanced packing in the gel phase also leads to easy emergence of the subgel phase with very short relaxation time at room temperature in the DMPE-based bilayers.

  4. Photocatalytic acceptorless alkane dehydrogenation: scope, mechanism, and conquering deactivation with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Julis, Jennifer; Grabow, Kathleen; Hannebauer, Bernd; Bentrup, Ursula; Adam, Martin; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Alkane dehydrogenation is of special interest for basic science but also offers interesting opportunities for industry. The existing dehydrogenation methodologies make use of heterogeneous catalysts, which suffer from harsh reaction conditions and a lack of selectivity, whereas homogeneous methodologies rely mostly on unsolicited waste generation from hydrogen acceptors. Conversely, acceptorless photochemical alkane dehydrogenation in the presence of trans-Rh(PMe3 )2 (CO)Cl can be regarded as a more benign and atom efficient alternative. However, this methodology suffers from catalyst deactivation over time. Herein, we provide a detailed investigation of the trans-Rh(PMe3 )2 (CO)Cl-photocatalyzed alkane dehydrogenation using spectroscopic and theoretical investigations. These studies inspired us to utilize CO2 to prevent catalyst deactivation, which leads eventually to improved catalyst turnover numbers in the dehydrogenation of alkanes that include liquid organic hydrogen carriers.

  5. Structural insights into diversity and n-alkane biodegradation mechanisms of alkane hydroxylases

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yurui; Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Environmental microbes utilize four degradation pathways for the oxidation of n-alkanes. Although the enzymes degrading n-alkanes in different microbes may vary, enzymes functioning in the first step in the aerobic degradation of alkanes all belong to the alkane hydroxylases. Alkane hydroxylases are a class of enzymes that insert oxygen atoms derived from molecular oxygen into different sites of the alkane terminus (or termini) depending on the type of enzymes. In this review, we summarize the different types of alkane hydroxylases, their degrading steps, and compare typical enzymes from various classes with regard to their three-dimensional structures, in order to provide insights into how the enzymes mediate their different roles in the degradation of n-alkanes and what determines their different substrate ranges. Through the above analyzes, the degrading mechanisms of enzymes can be elucidated and molecular biological methods can be utilized to expand their catalytic roles in the petrochemical industry or in bioremediation of oil-contaminated environments. PMID:23519435

  6. Evolution of an alkane-inducible biosensor for increased responsiveness to short-chain alkanes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Ben; Blazeck, John; Alper, Hal

    2012-04-15

    Synthetic alkane-inducible biosensors have applications as detectors for environmental hydrocarbon contamination and as novel inducible expression systems with low-cost inducers. Here, we have assembled and evolved an alkane-responsive biosensor with a fluorescence output signal in Escherichia coli by utilizing regulatory machinery from Pseudomonas putida's alkane metabolism. Within our system, the transcriptional regulator, AlkSp, is activated by the presence of alkanes and binds to the P(alkB) promoter, stimulating transcription of a Green Fluorescent Protein reporter. Through two successive rounds of directed evolution via error prone PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting, we isolated alkS mutants enabling up to a 5 fold increase in fluorescence output signal in response to short-chain alkanes such as hexane and pentane. Further characterization of selected mutants demonstrated altered responsiveness to a wide range of linear alkanes (pentane to dodecane). Sequence analysis highlighted the S470T mutation as a likely candidate responsible for increased effectiveness of the AlkS protein for short-chain alkanes. This work represents the first evolution of a synthetic biosensor system for alkanes.

  7. Optical second harmonic generation from Langmuir-type molecular monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovic, G.; Rasing, Th.; Shen, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    A single molecular layer is generally sufficient to produce observable optical second harmonic generation (SHG). Furthermore, the selection rules governing this process make the SHG from a single monolayer often stronger than that from the medium supporting the monolayer. We have studied SHG from various Langmuir-type monolayers (i.e., monolayers spread on a water surface) in the following contexts: Study of chemical reactions (e.g., polymerization) and two-dimensional phase transitions in molecular monolayers on water. Development of a new technique to evaluate optical nonlinear coefficients of organic molecules, and their relationship to the molecular structure.

  8. Site isolation in vanadium phosphorus oxide alkane oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M R; Ebner, J R

    1991-06-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of vanadyl pyrophosphate indicate that at least two polytypical structures exists for this active and selective alkane oxidation catalyst. The crystal structures of these materials differ with respect to the symmetry and direction of columns of vanadyl groups within the unit cell. Single crystals of vanadyl pyrophosphate have been generated at extreme temperatures not often experienced by microcrystalline catalysts. The crystallography of the system suggests that other crystalline modifications or disordered phases might also exist. Zeroth-order models of crystal surface termination of vanadyl pyrophosphate have been constructed which conceptually illustrate the ability of vanadyl pyrophosphate to accommodate varying amounts of surface phosphorus parallel to (1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (0,2,4). Pyrophosphate termination of surfaces parallel to (1,0,0) likely results in the isolation of clusters of reactive centers and limits overoxidation of the alkane substrate. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Graphic model for calculating the entropy of C11H24 alkanes with allowance for multiple non-valence interactions through three atoms along the chain of a molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilov, D. Yu.; Smolyakov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    A fourteen-constant graphic scheme is proposed for evaluating the thermodynamic properties of branched paraffin hydrocarbons. Absolute entropy S f, 298 gas of 159 alkanes, of which 157 alkanes have yet to be studied experimentally, are calculated using 105 experimental data S f, 298 K, gas for alkanes CH4-C32H66.

  10. Separating and characterizing functional alkane degraders from crude-oil-contaminated sites via magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzi; Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Hanbing; Jia, Jianli; Liu, Yueqiao; Ejenavi, Odafe; Ding, Aizhong; Sun, Yujiao; Zhang, Dayi

    Uncultivable microorganisms account for over 99% of all species on the planet, but their functions are yet not well characterized. Though many cultivable degraders for n-alkanes have been intensively investigated, the roles of functional n-alkane degraders remain hidden in the natural environment. This study introduces the novel magnetic nanoparticle-mediated isolation (MMI) technology in Nigerian soils and successfully separates functional microbes belonging to the families Oxalobacteraceae and Moraxellaceae, which are dominant and responsible for alkane metabolism in situ. The alkR-type n-alkane monooxygenase genes, instead of alkA- or alkP-type, were the key functional genes involved in the n-alkane degradation process. Further physiological investigation via a BIOLOG PM plate revealed some carbon (Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80) and nitrogen (tyramine, l-glutamine and d-aspartic acid) sources promoting microbial respiration and n-alkane degradation. With further addition of promoter carbon or nitrogen sources, the separated functional alkane degraders significantly improved n-alkane biodegradation rates. This suggests that MMI is a promising technology for separating functional microbes from complex microbiota, with deeper insight into their ecological functions and influencing factors. The technique also broadens the application of the BIOLOG PM plate for physiological research on functional yet uncultivable microorganisms.

  11. Removal of alkanes from drinking water using membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Increasingly, the public is concerned about the quality of its drinking water. The chlorinated alkanes are saturated, aliphatic, synthetic organic compounds (SOC`s). When hydrocarbon feedstocks are chlorinated, a wide variety of chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons are produced that are used as industrial solvents, degreasers and intermediaries. Because compounds such as Carbon Tetrachloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane are widely used, they often find their way into drinking water, particularly groundwaters. Surface waters are somewhat less affected bemuse of the high volatility of many chlorinated alkanes. The Drinking Water Research Division is responsible for evaluating various membrane technologies that may be feasible for meeting Maximum Contaminant Levels. Several membrane processes are under investigation to determine their effectiveness in removing SOC`s from drinking water. One study addressed the removal of a variety of alkanes from spiked groundwater by six reverse osmosis membranes: a cellulose acetate, a polyamide (hollow fiber), and four different types of thin-film composite membranes. Progressive chlorination of methanes, ethanes and propanes produces compounds that exhibit differing physicochemical properties. The differences in compound properties have an effect on the removal of these compounds by reverse osmosis membranes. For example only 25% of the methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) was removed by one thin-film composite versus 90% removal of the carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the various membranes are made of different polymeric materials and showed a wide range of removals. Generally, the thin-film composite membranes out performed the other membranes and the more highly chlorinated the compound the better the removal. Pervaporation is yet another membrane process that may prove effective in removal of alkanes and future studies will address its usefulness as a drinking water.

  12. In situ flat embedding of monolayers and cell relocation in the acrylic resin LR white for comparative light and electron microscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M; Schöfer, C; Mosgoeller, W

    1994-12-01

    A simple and reliable method has been developed for the in situ LR White embedding of cell monolayers grown on glass cover-slips. Combined with cytochemical or immunological procedures, this technique allows light and/or electron microscopy investigations of a large number of cells in the same horizontal plane within a relatively short period of time. It can be applied to cells grown on microgrid finder cover-slips which allows a distinct site of even an individual cell of a monolayer to be studied at first at the light microscope level and subsequently at the electron microscope level. Hence, it is also suitable for controlling manipulation of single cells, followed by their serial sectioning after relocation in the electron microscope.

  13. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA; Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Albuquerque, NM; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-08

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  14. Methods of making monolayers

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA; Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA; Zemanian, Thomas S [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Albuquerque, NM; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-09-15

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  15. Effect of dispersion on surface interactions of cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) substrates: a comparative first principles study.

    PubMed

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar; Mazur, Ursula; Hipps, K W

    2014-07-21

    A density functional theory study of a cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) surfaces was performed under periodic boundary conditions. Calculations with and without dispersion corrections are performed and the effect of van der Waals forces on the interface properties is analyzed. Calculations have determined that the CoOEP molecule tends to bind at the 3-fold and the 6-fold center sites on Au(111) and HOPG(0001), respectively. Geometric optimizations at the center binding sites have indicated that the porphyrin molecules (in the monolayer) lie flat on both substrates. Calculations also reveal that the CoOEP monolayer binds slightly more strongly to Au(111) than to HOPG(0001). Charge density difference plots disclose that charge is redistributed mostly around the porphyrin plane and the first layer of the substrates. Dispersion interactions cause a larger substrate to molecule charge pushback on Au(111) than on HOPG. CoOEP adsorption tends to lower the work functions of either substrate, qualitatively agreeing with the experimental photoelectron spectroscopic data. Comparison of the density of states (DOS) of the isolated CoOEP molecule with that on gold and HOPG substrates showed significant band shifts around the Fermi energy due to intermolecular orbital hybridization. Simulated STM images were plotted with the Tersoff-Hamann approach using the local density of states, which also agree with the experimental results. This study elucidates the role of dispersion for better describing porphyrin-substrate interactions. A DFT based overview of geometric, adsorption and electronic properties of a porphyrin monolayer on conductive surfaces is presented.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of corrosion passivation and nanometer-scale lithography with self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamborini, Francis Patrick

    The research in this dissertation examines the possible applications of organomercaptan self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for corrosion passivation and nanometer-scale lithography. We examined linear-chain n-alkanethiol and aromatic SAMs in these studies and used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as the main tool for surface characterization. The corrosion passivation properties of n-alkanethiol SAMs were studied on Au in aqueous CN- and Br - solutions and on underpotentially deposited Cu on Au (Au/Cu-UPD) in aqueous HClO4. All SAMs suppress corrosion and shift the potential for corrosion to more positive potentials compared to that on the unmodified metals. We found that corrosion of n-alkanethiol SAM-modified Au begins at defects in the monolayer and the surface morphology depends on the functional end group of the SAM. Corrosion on the unpassivated metal surface begins at high energy sites such as step edges and pits. The chain length and functional end group of SAMs were varied to determine which factors were most important for the best protection against corrosion. We found that corrosion passivation improves with increasing chain length and more hydrophilic functional end groups like OH and COOH protect better than hydrophobic end groups like CH3. The passivation properties of linear-chain SAMs was compared with aromatic SAMs and we found that if they are equally thick and contain the same functional end group, the aromatic SAMs are superior. One goal of this research was to improve the barrier properties of SAMs. We found that depositing a single layer of Cu onto Au before adsorbing the SAM improved its barrier properties dramatically compared to when the SAM was adsorbed directly to the Au. In summary, the corrosion-related studies in this dissertation discuss the corrosion mechanism of SAM-modified metal surfaces, the important factors that determine the passivation properties of SAMs, and a strategy for dramatically improving the barrier properties of

  17. Probing the structure of liquids with 129Xe NMR spectroscopy: n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Pedro; Bonifácio, Rui; Martins, Luís F G; Filipe, Eduardo J M

    2013-08-01

    The liquid organization of linear, branched, and cyclic alkanes was studied using atomic (129)Xe as a NMR probe. (129)Xe chemical shifts have been experimentally determined for xenon dissolved in a total of 21 alkanes. In order to allow the comparison of the different solvents at similar thermodynamic conditions, the measurements were performed over a wide range of temperatures, from the melting point of the solvent up to 350 K. The results were rationalized in terms of the density, nature, and organization of the chemical groups within xenon's coordination sphere. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations were performed using established atomistic force fields to interpret and clarify the conclusions suggested by the experimental results. The analysis is able to interpret previous results in the literature for ethane and propane at very different experimental conditions.

  18. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium kinetics of self-assembled surfactant monolayers: a vibrational sum-frequency study of dodecanoate at the fluorite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Schrödle, Simon; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2008-04-16

    The adsorption, desorption, and equilibrium monomer exchange processes of sodium dodecanoate at the fluorite(CaF 2)-water interface have been studied. For the first time, we use in situ vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) to gain insights into the mechanism and kinetics of monolayer self-assembly at the mineral-water interface. By exploiting the nonlinear optical response of the adsorbate, the temporal correlation of headgroup adsorption and alignment of the surfactant's alkyl chain was monitored. Because of the unique surface-specificity of VSFS, changes in the interfacial water structure were also tracked experimentally. The spectra clearly reveal that the structure of interfacial water molecules is severely disturbed at the start of the adsorption process. With the formation of a well-ordered adsorbate layer, it is partially reestablished; however, the molecular orientation and state of coordination is significantly altered. Even at very low surfactant concentrations, overcharging of the mineral surface (i.e., the adsorption of adsorbates past the point of electrostatic equilibrium) was observed. This points out the importance of effects other than electrostatic interactions and it is proposed that cooperative effects of both water structure and surfactant hemimicelle formation at the interface are key factors. The present study also investigates desorption kinetics of partially and fully established monolayers and a statistical model for data analysis is proposed. Additional experiments were performed in the presence of electrolytes and showed that uni- and divalent anions affect the nonequilibrium kinetics of self-assembled monolayers in strikingly different ways.

  19. A New In Vitro Model to Study Cellular Responses after Thermomechanical Damage in Monolayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hettler, Alice; Werner, Simon; Eick, Stefan; Laufer, Stefan; Weise, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although electrosurgical instruments are widely used in surgery to cut tissue layers or to achieve hemostasis by coagulation (electrocautery), only little information is available concerning the inflammatory or immune response towards the debris generated. Given the elevated local temperatures required for successful electrocautery, the remaining debris is likely to contain a plethora of compounds entirely novel to the intracorporal setting. A very common in vitro method to study cell migration after mechanical damage is the scratch assay, however, there is no established model for thermomechanical damage to characterise cellular reactions. In this study, we established a new in vitro model to investigate exposure to high temperature in a carefully controlled cell culture system. Heatable thermostat-controlled aluminium stamps were developed to induce local damage in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The thermomechanical damage invoked is reproducibly locally confined, therefore allowing studies, under the same experimental conditions, of cells affected to various degrees as well as of unaffected cells. We show that the unaffected cells surrounding the thermomechanical damage zone are able to migrate into the damaged area, resulting in a complete closure of the ‘wound’ within 48 h. Initial studies have shown that there are significant morphological and biological differences in endothelial cells after thermomechanical damage compared to the mechanical damage inflicted by using the unheated stamp as a control. Accordingly, after thermomechanical damage, cell death as well as cell protection programs were activated. Mononuclear cells adhered in the area adjacent to thermomechanical damage, but not to the zone of mechanical damage. Therefore, our model can help to understand the differences in wound healing during the early phase of regeneration after thermomechanical vs. mechanical damage. Furthermore, this model lends itself to study the

  20. A new in vitro model to study cellular responses after thermomechanical damage in monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Hettler, Alice; Werner, Simon; Eick, Stefan; Laufer, Stefan; Weise, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although electrosurgical instruments are widely used in surgery to cut tissue layers or to achieve hemostasis by coagulation (electrocautery), only little information is available concerning the inflammatory or immune response towards the debris generated. Given the elevated local temperatures required for successful electrocautery, the remaining debris is likely to contain a plethora of compounds entirely novel to the intracorporal setting. A very common in vitro method to study cell migration after mechanical damage is the scratch assay, however, there is no established model for thermomechanical damage to characterise cellular reactions. In this study, we established a new in vitro model to investigate exposure to high temperature in a carefully controlled cell culture system. Heatable thermostat-controlled aluminium stamps were developed to induce local damage in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The thermomechanical damage invoked is reproducibly locally confined, therefore allowing studies, under the same experimental conditions, of cells affected to various degrees as well as of unaffected cells. We show that the unaffected cells surrounding the thermomechanical damage zone are able to migrate into the damaged area, resulting in a complete closure of the 'wound' within 48 h. Initial studies have shown that there are significant morphological and biological differences in endothelial cells after thermomechanical damage compared to the mechanical damage inflicted by using the unheated stamp as a control. Accordingly, after thermomechanical damage, cell death as well as cell protection programs were activated. Mononuclear cells adhered in the area adjacent to thermomechanical damage, but not to the zone of mechanical damage. Therefore, our model can help to understand the differences in wound healing during the early phase of regeneration after thermomechanical vs. mechanical damage. Furthermore, this model lends itself to study the

  1. Optimized modification of gold nanoparticles with a self-assembled monolayer for suppression of nonspecific binding in DNA assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashika, Keiko; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    Homogeneous DNA assays using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) require the reduction of nonspecific binding between AuNPs to improve sensitivity in detecting the target molecule. In this study, we employed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for modifying the AuNP surface to attain both good dispersability and high hybridization efficiency. The alkanethiol SAMs enhance the repulsive interaction between AuNPs, reducing nonspecific binding and promoting the extension of surface-immobilized ssDNA into the solvent, thus enhancing the hybridization process. Introduction of oligoethylene glycol into the alkanethiol prevented nonspecific binding caused by the entanglement of alkane chains. Finally, the conditions were optimized by controlling the surface charge density through the introduction of a COOH group at the alkanethiol terminus, resulting in the complete blocking of nonspecific binding and the maintenance of high hybridization efficiency.

  2. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of organic molecules on graphitized carbon black modified with a monolayer of 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, V. Yu.; Ivanov, S. P.; Shaikhitdinova, Yu. F.; Kudasheva, F. Kh.

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics of the adsorption of alkanes, alcohols, arenes, and esters on graphitized carbon black with a deposited monolayer (0.17%) of 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil are studied by means of inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. It is established that size effects (violation of the additivity of molar changes in internal energy and the entropy of adsorption for pairs of molecules of one homologous series that differ by one methyl group) are observed when organic molecules are adsorbed on the surface of the resulting adsorbent. The size effects are similar to those observed when 1% 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil is deposited on graphitized carbon black. It is concluded that the observed violation of additivity is associated with cavities in the supramolecular structure.

  3. Dihydrogen contacts in alkanes are subtle but not faint.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Jorge; Aullón, Gabriel; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Alvarez, Santiago

    2011-04-01

    Alkane molecules are held together in the crystal state by purportedly weak homonuclear R-H···H-R dihydrogen interactions. In an apparent contradiction, the high melting points and vaporization enthalpies of polyhedranes in condensed phases require quite strong intermolecular interactions. Two questions arise: 'How strong can a weak C-H···H-C bond be?' and 'How do the size and topology of the carbon skeleton affect these bonding interactions?' A systematic computational study of intermolecular interactions in dimers of n-alkanes and polyhedranes, such as tetrahedrane, cubane, octahedrane or dodecahedrane, showed that attractive C-H···H-C interactions are stronger than usually thought. We identified factors that account for the strength of these interactions, including the tertiary nature of the carbon atoms and their low pyramidality. An alkane with a bowl shape was designed in the search for stronger dihydrogen intermolecular bonding, and a dissociation energy as high as 12 kJ mol⁻¹ is predicted by our calculations.

  4. Crumpling deformation regimes of monolayer graphene on substrate: a molecular mechanics study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Talal; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-09-04

    Experiments and simulations demonstrating reversible and repeatable crumpling of graphene warrant a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms of graphene crumple formation, especially for design of tailored nanostructures. To systematically study the formation of crumples in graphene, we use a simple molecular dynamics model, and perform a series of simulations to characterize the finite number of deformation regimes of graphene on substrate after compression. We formulate a quantitative measure of predicting these deformations based on observed results of the simulations and distinguish graphene crumpling considered in this study from others. In our study, graphene is placed on a model substrate while controlling and varying the interfacial energy between graphene and substrate and the substrate roughness through a set of particles embedded in the substrate. We find that a critical value of interfacial adhesion energy marks a transition point that separates two deformation regimes of graphene on substrate under uniaxial compression. The interface between graphene and substrate plays a major role in the formation of crumples, and we show that the choice of substrate can help in designing desired topologies in graphene.

  5. Electrochemical and vibrational spectroscopic studies of coadsorption: Formation of mixed monolayers of methylene blue and long-chain dithioethers at sulfur-modified polycrystalline gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, B.J.; Corn, R.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Molecular conformation and order within mixed monolayers of methylene blue, sulfide, and the long-chain dithioether C{sub 14}H{sub 29}SC{sub 2}H{sub 4}SC{sub 14}H{sub 29} adsorbed onto polycrystalline evaporated gold films are studied by using electrochemical methods and ex situ vibrational spectroscopy. The methylene blue dye molecules directly chemisorb onto the sulfur-modified gold surface and do not significantly partition into the alkyl portions of the monolayer. However, upon reduction to leucomethylene blue, the dye molecules do partition into the alkyl subphase. Repeated electrochemical reduction and oxidation of the chemisorbed methylene blue result in an ordering of the adsorbed alkyl chains from a liquid-like structure to a close-packed configuration. The presence of a partial dithioether monolayer also leads to the formation of a stabilized leucomethylene blue film. The variations of the molecular structure observed in these mixed systems arise from the competing processes of chemisorption, aggregation, and hydrophobic solubilization occurring within the thin film.

  6. The effects of nonmetal dopants on the electronic, optical and chemical performances of monolayer g-C3N4 by first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Li, C.; Li, H. H.; Zhao, Y. F.; Gong, Y. Y.; Niu, L. Y.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, T.

    2017-01-01

    Doping is an effective means to alter the electronic behavior of materials by forming new chemical bond and relaxing the surrounding chemical bonds. With the aid of first-principle studies, the effects of a series of nonmetal (NM) dopants on the geometric, thermodynamic, electronic and optical performances of monolayer g-C3N4 have been investigated. Results shown that, all considered NM atoms except Br and I atoms can be introduced into the monolayer g-C3N4 on account of the thermal stability, the supercell parameter and film thickness have been altered by the newly formed Csbnd NM bonds and the relaxed chemical bonds around them, which have affected their electronic structure. The band gap values were altered less than ±0.14 eV. The optical absorption edge (and intensity) in visible light of all doped specimens red-shift 10-75 nm (and increase about 14%-71%) except for O- and S-doped specimens, and thus the NM dopants can enhance the visible-light response capability. Moreover, the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of H-, B-, O-, S-, F- and As-doped specimens have been separated adequately, it can effectively separate the photogenerated e-/h+ pairs and enhance the photocatalytic efficiency. Finally, we have confirmed six high efficiency monolayer g-C3N4 based photocatalysts by doping H, B, O, S, F and As atoms.

  7. Surface symmetry of monolayer titanium oxide on Mo(1 1 2) studied via fast atom diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, J.; Winter, H.

    2013-11-01

    In studies on titanium oxide thin films we demonstrate the potential of Fast Atom Diffraction (FAD) and triangulation methods to derive the surface unit cell with enhanced surface sensitivity. Helium atoms with energies of 1-2 keV are scattered from the surface along low indexed surface directions under grazing angles of incidence. From the observed diffraction patterns, the lateral periodicity of the surface structures is derived. For low TiOx coverages a well-ordered c(2 × 4) superstructure and for higher coverage a p(8 × 2) film is observed. Based on FAD and triangulation methods for azimuthal rotation of the target the arrangement of topmost atoms in smaller sub-unit cells is revealed.

  8. Theoretical model study of dynamic ferromagnetic susceptibility in mono-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Sivabrata Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-04-13

    We report here a microscopic theoretical study of dynamic ferromagnetic spin susceptibility of electrons for graphene systems, which deal with a tight-binding model Hamiltonian consisting of the hopping of electrons up to third-nearest-neighbors, impurity and substrate effects besides Coulomb interaction of electrons at A-and B- sub- lattices. The spin susceptibility involves four two-particle Green’s functions, which are calculated by Zubarev’s Green’s function technique. The up and down electron occupancies at A and B sub-lattices are computed numerically and self-consistently. The temperature dependent susceptibility shows a pronounced peak at Curie temperature for critical Coulomb interaction U{sub c} = 2.2t{sub 1}.

  9. A hybrid density functional study of silicon and phosphorus doped hexagonal boron nitride monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapasha, R. E.; Igumbor, E.; Chetty, N.

    2016-10-01

    We present a hybrid density functional study of silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) doped hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The local geometry, electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of Si B , Si N , P B and P N are examined using hybrid Heyd-Scuseria- Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The defect induced buckling and the local bond distances around the defect are sensitive to charge state modulation q = -2, -1, 0, +1 and +2. The +1 charge state is found to be the most energetically stable state and significantly reduces the buckling. Based on the charge state thermodynamic transition levels, we noted that the Si N , Si N and P B defects are too deep to be ionized, and can alter the optical properties of h-BN material.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of organic monolayers adsorbed on the rhodium(111) crystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Cernota, Paul Davis

    1999-08-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy studies were carried out on ordered overlayers on the (111) surface of rhodium. These adsorbates include carbon monoxide (CO), cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, para-xylene, and meta-xylene. Coadsorbate systems included: CO with ethylidyne, CO with para- and meta-xylene, and para-xylene with meta-xylene. In the case of CO, the structure of the low coverage (2x2) overlayer has been observed. The symmetry of the unit cell in this layer suggests that the CO is adsorbed in the 3-fold hollow sites. There were also two higher coverage surface structures with (√7x√7) unit cells. One of these is composed of trimers of CO and has three CO molecules in each unit cell. The other structure has an additional CO molecule, making a total of four. This extra CO sits on a top site.

  11. Changes in iso- and n-alkane distribution during biodegradation of crude oil under nitrate and sulphate reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasinger, Marion; Scherr, Kerstin E; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bräuer, Leopold; Zach, Clemens; Loibner, Andreas Paul

    2012-02-20

    Crude oil consists of a large number of hydrocarbons with different susceptibility to microbial degradation. The influence of hydrocarbon structure and molecular weight on hydrocarbon biodegradation under anaerobic conditions is not fully explored. In this study oxygen, nitrate and sulphate served as terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for the microbial degradation of a paraffin-rich crude oil in a freshly contaminated soil. During 185 days of incubation, alkanes from n-C11 to n-C39, three n- to iso-alkane ratios commonly used as weathering indicators and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were quantified and statistically analyzed. The use of different TEAs for hydrocarbon degradation resulted in dissimilar degradative patterns for n- and iso-alkanes. While n-alkane biodegradation followed well-established patterns under aerobic conditions, lower molecular weight alkanes were found to be more recalcitrant than mid- to high-molecular weight alkanes under nitrate-reducing conditions. Biodegradation with sulphate as the TEA was most pronounced for long-chain (n-C32 to n-C39) alkanes. The observation of increasing ratios of n-C17 to pristane and of n-C18 to phytane provides first evidence of the preferential degradation of branched over normal alkanes under sulphate reducing conditions. The formation of distinctly different n- and iso-alkane biodegradation fingerprints under different electron accepting conditions may be used to assess the occurrence of specific degradation processes at a contaminated site. The use of n- to iso-alkane ratios for this purpose may require adjustment if applied for anaerobic sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular simulation and macroscopic modeling of the diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water in heavy n-alkane mixtures.

    PubMed

    Makrodimitri, Zoi A; Unruh, Dominik J M; Economou, Ioannis G

    2012-03-28

    The self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (H(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and water (H(2)O) in n-alkanes was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Diffusion in a few pure n-alkanes (namely n-C(8), n-C(20), n-C(64) and n-C(96)) was examined. In addition, binary n-C(12)-n-C(96) mixtures with various compositions as well as more realistic five- and six-n-alkane component mixtures were simulated. In all cases, the TraPPE united atom force field was used for the n-alkane molecules. The force field for the mixture of n-alkanes was initially validated against experimental density values and was shown to be accurate. Moreover, macroscopic correlations for predicting diffusion coefficient of H(2), CO and H(2)O in n-alkanes and mixtures of n-alkanes were developed. The functional form of the correlation was based on the rough hard sphere theory (RHS). The correlation was applied to simulation data and an absolute average deviation (AAD) of 5.8% for pure n-alkanes and 3.4% for n-alkane mixtures was obtained. Correlation parameters vary in a systematic way with carbon number and so they can be used to provide predictions in the absence of any experimental or molecular simulation data. Finally, in order to reduce the number of adjustable parameters, for the n-alkane mixtures the "pseudo-carbon number" approach was used. This approach resulted in relatively higher deviation from MD simulation data (AAD of 18.2%); however, it provides a convenient and fast method to predict diffusion coefficients. The correlations developed here are expected to be useful for engineering calculations related to the design of the Gas-to-Liquid process.

  13. The Roles of Microbial Communities in n-Alkane Distribution of The Nanjenshan Lowland Subtropical Rainforest in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Fan, C. W.; Chao, W. C.; Yang, T. N.; Huang, C. P.; Hsu, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of total organic carbon in Nanjenshan, a lowland subtropical rainforest in southern Taiwan, revealed that the carbon storage of litter-layer was about 35% lower in ravine area than in windward and leeward areas, while the soil storage in these areas were similar. In this one year follow-up study, we aimed to investigate the kinetic changes of n-alkane (C14-C35) concentration from litter fall, litter-layer, surface soil, soil in -10 cm depth, and soil in -30 cm depth by a GC-FID method. The n-alkane distribution and n-alkane flux of these areas were also analyzed. Next generation sequencing was carried out to examine the metagenomics of uncultured microbial community in litter-layer of these areas. Our results showed that the net weight of one year-litter fall in ravine area was 30% higher than the others. The average concentration of n-alkane in leaves in ravine was 90% and 50% higher than in windward area and leeward area, respectively. Although the n-alkane flux in ravine area was twice higher than the other areas, the n-alkane concentrations in litter-layer and soils of different layers were similar among all areas, suggesting a rapid degradation of n-alkane in liter layer in ravine area. Interestingly, the character of odd over even predominance of n-alkane was gradually lost in soil layer in ravine area. Metagenomic data have showed that the structure of microbial abundance in ravine area was different from windward and leeward areas. In ravine area, the numbers in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, were higher than the other areas, while in phyla of Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes were lower. Our data provided evidence that microbial communities may not only play a role on n-alkane degradation but also change the profile in abundance of high-chain length n-alkanes.

  14. Energetics, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom in a monolayer graphene: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Raji, Abdulrafiu T.; Lombardi, Enrico B.

    2015-09-21

    We use ab initio methods to study the binding, diffusion, and magnetic properties of cobalt atom embedded in graphene vacancies. We investigate the diffusion of Co-monovacancy (Co-MV) and Co-divacancy (Co-DV) defect complexes, and determine the minimum energy path (MEP), as well as the activation energy barrier of migration. We obtained similar activation energy barriers, of ∼5.8 eV, for Co-MV and Co-DV diffusion, respectively. Our calculations also suggest that, at electron–irradiation energy of 200 keV as used in a related experiment, the maximum energy transfer to the Co atom, of approximately 9.0 eV is sufficiently high to break metal-carbon bonding. The incident electron energy is also high enough to displace graphene's carbon atoms from their lattice positions. The breaking of metal-carbon bonding and the displacement of graphene atoms may act to facilitate the migration of Co. We conclude therefore that the detrapping and diffusion of cobalt as observed experimentally is likely to be radiation-induced, similar to what has been observed for Au and Fe in electron-irradiated graphene. Furthermore, we show that Co migration in graphene is such that its magnetic moment varies along the diffusion path. The magnetic moment of Co is consistently higher in Co-DV diffusion when compared to that of Co-MV diffusion.

  15. Structure and diffusion of nanoparticle monolayers floating at liquid/vapor interfaces: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary S

    2012-06-07

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to simulate a layer of nanoparticles floating on the surface of a liquid. Both a low viscosity liquid, represented by Lennard-Jones monomers, and a high viscosity liquid, represented by linear homopolymers, are studied. The organization and diffusion of the nanoparticles are analyzed as the nanoparticle density and the contact angle between the nanoparticles and liquid are varied. When the interaction between the nanoparticles and liquid is reduced the contact angle increases and the nanoparticles ride higher on the liquid surface, which enables them to diffuse faster. In this case the short-range order is also reduced as seen in the pair correlation function. For the polymeric liquids, the out-of-layer fluctuation is suppressed and the short-range order is slightly enhanced. However, the diffusion becomes much slower and the mean square displacement even shows sub-linear time dependence at large times. The relation between diffusion coefficient and viscosity is found to deviate from that in bulk diffusion. Results are compared to simulations of the identical nanoparticles in 2-dimensions.

  16. Mechanical properties of monolayer penta-graphene and phagraphene: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Mukherjee, Sankha; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2016-09-29

    Two new graphene allotropes, penta-graphene and phagraphene, have been proposed recently with unique electronic properties, e.g. quasi-direct band gap, direction-dependent Dirac cones and tunable Fermi velocities. However, their mechanical properties have not been fully studied yet. In this work, we have performed extensive density functional theory calculations to evaluate the mechanical properties of these two materials and compared with graphene, graphane, and pentaheptite. Our simulations show that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the strain corresponding to UTS in both penta-graphene and phagraphene are smaller than that of graphene. A complete set of nonlinear anisotropic elastic constants up to the fourth order have been determined for these two allotropes using the tenets of continuum mechanics by fitting the stress-strain responses under uniaxial and biaxial tension until the point of fracture. We propose a new physical explanation for penta-graphene's negative Poisson's ratio based on the atomic de-wrinkling mechanism, driven by the local Hellman-Feynman force on each atom. Additionally, we used charge density plot and virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy images to analyze the initiation of fracture under uniaxial and biaxial tensile loading in these two materials. The charge density plots reveal that the charge density in sp(3) bonds is lower than that in the sp(2) bonds. In phagraphene, all the broken bonds were found to belong to the largest carbon ring in the structure.

  17. Structure and diffusion of nanoparticle monolayers floating at liquid/vapor interfaces: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    We used large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to simulate a layer of nanoparticles floating on the surface of a liquid. Both a low viscosity liquid, represented by Lennard-Jones monomers, and a high viscosity liquid, represented by linear homopolymers, are studied. The organization and diffusion of the nanoparticles are analyzed as the nanoparticle density and the contact angle between the nanoparticles and liquid are varied. Furthermore, when the interaction between the nanoparticles and liquid is reduced the contact angle increases and the nanoparticles ride higher on the liquid surface, which enables them to diffuse faster. In this case the short-range order is also reduced as seen in the pair correlation function. For the polymeric liquids, the out-of-layer fluctuation is suppressed and the short-range order is slightly enhanced. However, the diffusion becomes much slower and the mean square displacement even shows sub-linear time dependence at large times. The relation between diffusion coefficient and viscosity is found to deviate from that in bulk diffusion. Results are compared to simulations of the identical nanoparticles in 2-dimensions.

  18. Potential 2D thermoelectric materials ATeI (A=Sb and Bi) monolayers from a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Guo, San-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Li, Hui-Chao

    2017-08-21

    Lots of two-dimensional (2D) materials have been predicted theoretically, and further confirmed in experiment, which have wide applications in nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of ATeI (A=Sb and Bi) monolayers are systematically investigated according to semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. It is found that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) has important effects on electronic transport coefficients in p-type doping, but neglectful influences on n-type ones. The room-temperature sheet thermal conductance is 14.2 $\\mathrm{W K^{-1}}$ for SbTeI and 12.6 $\\mathrm{W K^{-1}}$ for BiTeI, which are lower than ones of most well-known 2D materials, such as transition-metal dichalcogenide, group IV-VI, group-VA and group-IV monolayers. The very low sheet thermal conductance of ATeI (A=Sb and Bi) monolayers is mainly due to small group velocities and short phonon lifetimes. The strongly polarized covalent bonds between A and Te or I atoms induce strong phonon anharmonicity, which gives rise to low lattice thermal conductivity. It is found that the high-frequency optical branches contribute significantly to the total thermal conductivity, which is obviously different from usual picture with little contribution from optical branches. According to cumulative lattice thermal conductivity with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP), it is difficulty to further reduce lattice thermal conductivity by nanostructures. Finally, possible thermoelectric figure of merit $ZT$ values of ATeI (A=Sb and Bi) monolayers are calculated. It is found that the p-type doping has more excellent thermoelectric properties than n-type doping. At room temperature, the peak $ZT$ can reach 1.11 for SbTeI and 0.87 for BiTeI, respectively. These results make us believe that ATeI (A=Sb and Bi) monolayers may be potential 2D thermoelectric materials, and can stimulate further experimental works to synthesize these monolayers. © 2017 IOP

  19. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  20. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli [El Cerrito, CA; Fabbri, Jason D [San Francisco, CA; Melosh, Nicholas A [Menlo Park, CA; Hussain, Zahid [Orinda, CA; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford, CA

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  1. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    PubMed

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n-alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  2. Orbitally driven low thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) with planar honeycomb structure: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenzhen; Qin, Guangzhao; Zuo, Xu; Xiong, Zhihua; Hu, Ming

    2017-03-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with graphene as a representative have been intensively studied for a long time. Recently, monolayer gallium nitride (ML GaN) with honeycomb structure was successfully fabricated in experiments, generating enormous research interest for its promising applications in nano- and opto-electronics. Considering all these applications are inevitably involved with thermal transport, systematic investigation of the phonon transport properties of 2D GaN is in demand. In this paper, by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations, we performed a comprehensive study of the phonon transport properties of ML GaN, with detailed comparison to bulk GaN, 2D graphene, silicene and ML BN with similar honeycomb structure. Considering the similar planar structure of ML GaN to graphene, it is quite intriguing to find that the thermal conductivity (κ) of ML GaN (14.93 W mK(-1)) is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene and is even lower than that of silicene with a buckled structure. Systematic analysis is performed based on the study of the contribution from phonon branches, comparison among the mode level phonon group velocity and lifetime, the detailed process and channels of phonon-phonon scattering, and phonon anharmonicity with potential energy well. We found that, different from graphene and ML BN, the phonon-phonon scattering selection rule in 2D GaN is slightly broken by the lowered symmetry due to the large difference in the atomic radius and mass between Ga and N atoms. Further deep insight is gained from the electronic structure. Resulting from the special sp orbital hybridization mediated by the Ga-d orbital in ML GaN, the strongly polarized Ga-N bond, localized charge density, and its inhomogeneous distribution induce large phonon anharmonicity and lead to the intrinsic low κ of ML GaN. The orbitally driven low κ of ML GaN unraveled in this work would make 2D GaN prospective for

  3. Conversion of alkanes to organoseleniums and organotelluriums

    DOEpatents

    Periana, Roy A.; Konnick, Michael M.; Hashiguchi, Brian G.

    2016-11-29

    The invention provides processes and materials for the efficient and costeffective functionalization of alkanes and heteroalkanes, comprising contacting the alkane or heteroalkane and a soft oxidizing electrophile comprising Se(VI) or Te(VI), in an acidic medium, optionally further comprising an aprotic medium, which can be carried out at a temperature of less than 300 C. Isolation of the alkylselenium or alkyltellurium intermediate allows the subsequent conversion to products not necessarily compatible with the initial reaction conditions, such as amines, stannanes, organosulfur compounds, acyls, halocarbons, and olefins.

  4. Systematic study of electronic structure and band alignment of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in Van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Gong, Cheng; Nie, Yifan; Min, Kyung-Ah; Liang, Chaoping; Oh, Young Jun; Zhang, Hengji; Wang, Weihua; Hong, Suklyun; Colombo, Luigi; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are promising low-dimensional materials which can produce diverse electronic properties and band alignment in van der Waals heterostructures. Systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed for 24 different TMD monolayers and their bilayer heterostacks. DFT calculations show that monolayer TMDs can behave as semiconducting, metallic or semimetallic depending on their structures; we also calculated the band alignment of the TMDs to predict their alignment in van der Waals heterostacks. We have applied the charge equilibration model (CEM) to obtain a quantitative formula predicting the highest occupied state of any type of bilayer TMD heterostacks (552 pairs for 24 TMDs). The CEM predicted values agree quite well with the selected DFT simulation results. The quantitative prediction of the band alignment in the TMD heterostructures can provide an insightful guidance to the development of TMD-based devices.

  5. Achieving Uniform Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Film on Silicon Wafer via Silanization Treatment: A Typical Study on WS2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Gan, Lin; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-02-01

    A silanization reaction is employed to improve the dispersion of precursors on a silicon wafer for a large-size uniform transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) film synthesis and to achieve a highly crystalline monolayer WS2 film up to 1 cm(2) . The novel strategy is also verified for the synthesis of WSe2 and MoS2 uniform films, suggesting universality for TMD film fabrication.

  6. 40 CFR 721.536 - Halogenated phenyl alkane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated phenyl alkane. 721.536... Substances § 721.536 Halogenated phenyl alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated phenyl alkane (PMN P-89-867)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10163 - Chloro fluoro alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10163 Chloro fluoro alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as chloro fluoro alkane (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.535 - Halogenated alkane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated alkane (generic). 721.535... Substances § 721.535 Halogenated alkane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as halogenated alkane (PMN P-01-433) is...

  9. Recognition tunneling measurement of the conductance of DNA bases embedded in self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Chang, Shuai; He, Jin; Zhang, Peiming; Liang, Feng; Tuchband, Michael; Li, Shengqing; Lindsay, Stuart

    2010-12-09

    The DNA bases interact strongly with gold electrodes, complicating efforts to measure the tunneling conductance through hydrogen-bonded Watson Crick base pairs. When bases are embedded in a self-assembled alkane-thiol monolayer to minimize these interactions, new features appear in the tunneling data. These new features track the predictions of density-functional calculations quite well, suggesting that they reflect tunnel conductance through hydrogen-bonded base pairs.

  10. Scanning probe microscopies for the creation and characterization of interfacial architectures: Studies of alkyl thiolate monolayers at gold

    SciTech Connect

    Green, John -Bruce

    1997-01-10

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers access to the structural and material properties of interfaces, and when combined with macroscopic characterization techniques results in a powerful interfacial development tool. However, the relative infancy of SPM techniques has dictated that initial investigations concentrate on model interfacial systems as benchmarks for testing the control and characterization capabilities of SPM. One such family of model interfacial systems results from the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl thiols to gold. This dissertation examines the application of SPM to the investigation of the interfacial properties of these alkyl thiolate monolayers. Structural investigations result in a proposed explanation for counterintuitive correlations between substrate roughness and heterogeneous electron transfer barrier properties. Frictional measurements are used for characterization of the surface free energy of a series of end-group functionalized monolayers, as well as for the material properties of monolayers composed of varying chain length alkyl thiols. Additional investigations used these characterization techniques to monitor the real-time evolution of chemical and electrochemical surface reactions. The results of these investigations demonstrates the value of SPM technology to the compositional mapping of surfaces, elucidation of interfacial defects, creation of molecularly sized chemically heterogeneous architectures, as well as to the monitoring of surface reactions. However, it is the future which will demonstrate the usefulness of SPM technology to the advancement of science and technology.

  11. Well-ordered structure of methylene blue monolayers on Au(111) surface: electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2009-02-01

    Well-ordered structure of methylene blue (MB) monolayers on Au(111) surface has been successfully obtained by controlling the substrate potential. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) examined the monolayers of MB on Au(111) in 0.1 M HClO(4) and showed long-range ordered, interweaved arrays of MB with quadratic symmetry on the substrate in the potential range of double-layer charging. High-resolution ECSTM image further revealed the details of the MB monolayers structure of c(5 x 5 radical 3)rect and the flat-lying orientation of ad-molecules. The dependence of molecular organization on the substrate potential and the formation mechanism of well-ordered structure on Au(111) surface were investigated in detail. The obtained well-ordered structure at the interface between a metal and an aqueous electrolyte might possibly be used as high-density device for signal memory and templates for the advanced nanopatterning of surfaces. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies of the interaction of gas phase nitric acid and water with a self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Moussa, S G; Stern, A C; Raff, J D; Dilbeck, C W; Tobias, D J; Finlayson-Pitts, B J

    2013-01-14

    Nitric acid in air is formed by atmospheric reactions of oxides of nitrogen and is removed primarily through deposition to surfaces, either as the gas or after conversion to particulate nitrate. Many of the surfaces and particles have organic coatings, but relatively little is known about the interaction of nitric acid with organic films. We report here studies of the interaction of gaseous HNO(3) with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed by reacting 7-octenyltrichlorosilane [H(2)C=CH(CH(2))(6)SiCl(3)] with the surface of a germanium infrared-transmitting attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal that was coated with a thin layer of silicon oxide (SiO(x)). The SAM was exposed at 298 ± 2 K to dry HNO(3) in a flow of N(2), followed by HNO(3) in humid N(2) at a controlled relative humidity (RH) between 20-90%. For comparison, similar studies were carried out using a similar crystal without the SAM coating. Changes in the surface were followed using Fourier transform infared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the case of the SAM-coated crystal, molecular HNO(3) and smaller amounts of NO(3)(-) ions were observed on the surface upon exposure to dry HNO(3). Addition of water vapor led to less molecular HNO(3) and more H(3)O(+) and NO(3)(-) complexed to water, but surprisingly, molecular HNO(3) was still evident in the spectra up to 70% RH. This suggests that part of the HNO(3) observed was initially trapped in pockets within the SAM and shielded from water vapor. After increasing the RH to 90% and then exposing the film to a flow of dry N(2), molecular nitric acid was regenerated, as expected from recombination of protons and nitrate ions as water evaporated. The nitric acid ultimately evaporated from the film. On the other hand, exposure of the SAM to HNO(3) and H(2)O simultaneously gave only hydronium and nitrate ions. Molecular dynamics simulations of defective SAMs in the presence of HNO(3) and water predict that nitric acid intercalates in defects as a complex with a

  13. Opto-electrical studies of self-assembled monolayer diodes and bulk hetero-junction organic photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndobe, Alexandre

    The present dissertation is the result of our studies of the optical and electrical properties of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) diodes and bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic(BOPV) devices. In our studies of SAM diodes, we fabricated solid-state mixtures of two different kinds of molecules; 1,4 benzene-dimethane-thiol (MeBDT) and 1-pentanethiol (PT). By varying the concentration r of MeBDT with respect to PT, we can go from a regime of isolated molecular wires (10--8 < r 10-3). For r = 0, we found that a potential barrier dominated the transport properties of the device. In the isolated molecules regime, the conductance of MeBDT dominates the transport. In this regime, because of the linearity of the conductance with respect to r, we were able to obtain a "single molecule resistance" at V = 0.1 V of RM = 6x 10--9 . In the aggregated molecules regime, an ohmic response in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics was observed for bias voltages ≤ 0.5V with the appearance of a new band in the differential conductance around V = 0 along with a new double band in the optical gap at 2.4eV resulting in yellow/red photoluminescence emission. Opto-electrical studies of BOPV devices reveal that there are very few similarities between these types of solar cells and conventional solar cells. From simulations and experiemental measurements of the I-V characteristics, we found that while the open voltage circuit (Voc) is important for engineers, it carries no intrinsic information of the device. It cannot exceed the built-in potential of the device (Vbuilt--in ). The later origin was found to be dependent on electrode work function difference for a non-Ohmic contact configuration and on the active layer's blend in an Ohmic contact configuration. In a bid to improve BOPV device performance, we added to the blend spin 1/2 radical molecules. At concentration ( ≤2%), an increase in device performance was observed. The principal cause for this increase was the increase in

  14. Hydrogen isotope alteration of normal alkanes during artificial maturation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Eley, Y.; Oakes, A.; Hren, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopes of normal alkanes provide a record of past climate, hydrocarbon source and migration, and thermal history. Numerous authors have investigated the preservation potential of organic compounds during burial diagenesis and developed a range of molecular indicators of thermal maturity. A key uncertainty in application of organic biomarkers for paleoenvironmental work is how the δD values of individual molecular compounds changes during burial heating and thermal cracking. Studies suggest that n-alkanes are unlikely to exchange hydrogen at modest temperatures (below 150°C) over geologic time, however there is still debate over the potential for alteration of primary isotopic signatures due to the combined effect of exchange and cracking of more complex molecules. We conducted a suite of heating experiments in ambient air and oxygen-free systems using pure alkane mixtures and natural soil extracts to evaluate the preservation potential of the hydrogen isotopic composition of both short (nC20) carbon chain n-alkanes. Our data show that for pure mixtures, there is a positive shift in the δD of long carbon chains during heating of up to 12‰ and a negative shift in short chains of up to 28‰. Experiments with natural sediment extracts show 2H enrichment of long carbon chains during heating in both ambient air and oxygen free systems, and at temperatures below 150°C. These changes are accompanied by shifts in the carbon preference and average chain length. Experimental data show that there is potential for 2H/1H alteration of long-carbon chain normal alkanes during shallow burial, however these changes rarely exceed 10-15‰ before compounds are degraded to quantities below useful abundances for isotope measurements. A potentially significant result is that low temperature alteration of organics within sediments can shift the average chain length, particularly in the presence of oxygen. Thus, lithology and gas permeability may play an important role in

  15. Characterization of organosulfur monolayer formation at gold electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Nina Tani

    1996-08-01

    Among the many types of organic films, covalently-attached organosulfur monolayers have attracted a great deal of attention. The authors have focused their interest on the fundamental characterization of spontaneously adsorbed organosulfur monolayers. An introductory chapter presents general aspects of monolayer preparation and characterization, followed by a few examples that illustrate the range of applications of these films. This thesis contains two papers. In the first paper, three analogous monolayer precursors are studied to determine their similarities and differences in the monolayer structure. A GC-MS analysis of products form the chemisorption process and open circuit potential measurements are used to derive possible mechanisms behind monolayer formation. The second paper focuses on monolayers formed from thioctic acid, including its characterization and application to cytochrome c electrochemistry. Although thiols and disulfides have been extensively studied as monolayer precursors, thioctic acid is particularly interesting because the disulfide functionality of this asymmetric molecule is contained in a strained five-membered ring. Given the ring strain, steric bulk and asymmetry of the molecule, the study of these monolayers lend insight into the factors important for the formation of organosulfur monolayers. This thesis concludes with a general summary and directions for future studies. 40 refs.

  16. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-01-18

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  17. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  18. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

  19. Revised charge equilibration potential for liquid alkanes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joseph E; Warren, G Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2008-07-17

    We present a revised liquid alkane force field based on the charge equilibration formalism for incorporating electrostatic nonadditive effects arising from local polarization. The model is a revision of earlier work by Patel and Brooks, specifically addressing deficiencies in the dihedral potential, electrostatic, and Lennard-Jones (van der Waals) parameters of the force field. We discuss refinement of the alkane backbone torsion potential to match high-level ab initio relative conformational energetics for pentane, hexane, and heptane. We further discuss refinement of the electrostatic and Lennard-Jones (van der Waals) parameters to reproduce the experimental polarizability, liquid density, and vaporization enthalpy of hexane. Finally, we calculate bulk liquid properties including densities, vaporization enthalpies, self-diffusion constants, isothermal compressibilities, constant pressure heat capacities, and NMR T 1 relaxation times for a series of linear alkanes ranging from hexane to pentadecane based on the current revised model. We also compute free energies of hydration for pentane, hexane, and heptane. The revised force field offers a significantly improved overall description of these properties relative to the original parametrization. The current alkane force field represents a platform for ongoing development of a CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Molecular Mechanics) polarizable force field for lipids and integral membrane proteins.

  20. Comparative Study on Electronic Structures of Sc and Ti Contacts with Monolayer and Multilayer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjun; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-06-17

    Understanding the nature of the contacts in devices based on MoS2 with metal electrodes is vital to enhancing carrier injection efficiency. In this work, geometric and electronic structures of Sc and Ti contacts with MoS2 have been comparatively studied by first-principles calculations. The analyses of geometric parameters, charge density distributions, and density of states for the Sc and Ti top contacts with monolayer MoS2 (mMoS2) indicate that the interface bonding results in the localization of 4d states of Mo atoms and the consequent metallization of mMoS2. Therefore, the Sc and Ti top contacts with mMoS2 are Ohmic, and electron injections via these contacts are efficient. Because of the formations of the metalized Sc-mMoS2 and Ti-mMoS2 complexes, in the Sc and Ti top contacts with multilayer MoS2, Schottky interfaces may be formed in two contact regions. One is in the edge contacts of the Sc-mMoS2 and Ti-mMoS2 complexes with mMoS2 in the channel region in which Schottky barrier heights of 0.11 and 0.39 eV are extracted, respectively. The other is in the top contacts of these two complexes with mMoS2 under the contacts in which Schottky barrier heights of 0.15 and 0.34 eV are obtained, respectively. Moreover, as the layer number of MoS2 increases in the top contacts, the Schottky barrier heights show decreasing trends. These trends can be understood on the basis of the changes of electron affinity of multilayer MoS2. According to the present results, the device based on MoS2 with Sc electrodes should have better electron injection efficiency and stronger back-gated manipulation of current than the one with Ti electrodes. Furthermore, the electron injection efficiency can be enhanced by using multilayer MoS2. These predictions are generally consistent with recent experimental observations and provide a delicate understanding of the contacts in these devices.

  1. Self assembled monolayers on silicon for molecular electronics.

    PubMed

    Aswal, D K; Lenfant, S; Guerin, D; Yakhmi, J V; Vuillaume, D

    2006-05-24

    We present an overview of various aspects of the self-assembly of organic monolayers on silicon substrates for molecular electronics applications. Different chemical strategies employed for grafting the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanes having different chain lengths on native oxide of Si or on bare Si have been reviewed. The utility of different characterization techniques in determination of the thickness, molecular ordering and orientation, surface coverage, growth kinetics and chemical composition of the SAMs has been discussed by choosing appropriate examples. The metal counterelectrodes are an integral part of SAMs for measuring their electrical properties as well as using them for molecular electronic devices. A brief discussion on the variety of options available for the deposition of metal counterelectrodes, that is, soft metal contacts, vapor deposition and soft lithography, has been presented. Various theoretical models, namely, tunneling (direct and Fowler-Nordheim), thermionic emission, Poole-Frenkel emission and hopping conduction, used for explaining the electronic transport in dielectric SAMs have been outlined and, some experimental data on alkane SAMs have been analyzed using these models. It has been found that short alkyl chains show excellent agreement with tunneling models; while more experimental data on long alkyl chains are required to understand their transport mechanism(s). Finally, the concepts and realization of various molecular electronic components, that is, diodes, resonant tunnel diodes, memories and transistors, based on appropriate architecture of SAMs comprising of alkyl chains (sigma- molecule) and conjugated molecules (pi-molecule) have been presented.

  2. Secondary organic aerosol formation from intermediate-volatility organic compounds: cyclic, linear, and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-21

    Intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) are an important class of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors that have not been traditionally included in chemical transport models. A challenge is that the vast majority of IVOCs cannot be speciated using traditional gas chromatography-based techniques; instead they are classified as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that is presumably made up of a complex mixture of branched and cyclic alkanes. To better understand SOA formation from IVOCs, a series of smog chamber experiments was conducted with different alkanes, including cyclic, branched, and linear compounds. The experiments focused on freshly formed SOA from hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated reactions under high-NO(x) conditions at typical atmospheric organic aerosol concentrations (C(OA)). SOA yields from cyclic alkanes were comparable to yields from linear alkanes three to four carbons larger in size. For alkanes with equivalent carbon numbers, branched alkanes had the lowest SOA mass yields, ranging between 0.05 and 0.08 at a C(OA) of 15 μg m(-3). The SOA yield of branched alkanes also depends on the methyl branch position on the carbon backbone. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data indicate that the SOA oxygen-to-carbon ratios were largely controlled by the carbon number of the precursor compound. Depending on the precursor size, the mass spectrum of SOA produced from IVOCs is similar to the semivolatile-oxygenated and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol factors derived from ambient data. Using the new yield data, we estimated SOA formation potential from diesel exhaust and predict the contribution from UCM vapors to be nearly four times larger than the contribution from single-ring aromatics and comparable to that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after several hours of oxidation at typical atmospheric conditions. Therefore, SOA from IVOCs may be an important contributor to urban OA and should be included in SOA models; the yield data

  3. The anaerobic degradation of gaseous, nonmethane alkanes — From in situ processes to microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Musat, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The short chain, gaseous alkanes ethane, propane, n- and iso-butane are released in significant amounts into the atmosphere, where they contribute to tropospheric chemistry and ozone formation. Biodegradation of gaseous alkanes by aerobic microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi isolated from terrestrial environments, has been known for several decades. The first indications for short chain alkane anaerobic degradation were provided by geochemical studies of deep-sea environments around hydrocarbon seeps, and included the uncoupling of the sulfate-reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane rates, the consumption of gaseous alkanes in anoxic sediments, or the enrichment in 13C of gases in interstitial water vs. the source gas. Microorganisms able to degrade gaseous alkanes were recently obtained from deep-sea and terrestrial sediments around hydrocarbon seeps. Up to date, only sulfate-reducing pure or enriched cultures with ethane, propane and n-butane have been reported. The only pure culture presently available, strain BuS5, is affiliated to the Desulfosarcina–Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria. Other phylotypes involved in gaseous alkane degradation have been identified based on stable-isotope labeling and whole-cell hybridization. Under anoxic conditions, propane and n-butane are activated similar to the higher alkanes, by homolytic cleavage of the C—H bond of a subterminal carbon atom, and addition of the ensuing radical to fumarate, yielding methylalkylsuccinates. An additional mechanism of activation at the terminal carbon atoms was demonstrated for propane, which could in principle be employed also for the activation of ethane. PMID:25904994

  4. Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie-Liang; JiangYang, Jing-Hong; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-13

    CYP153, one of the most common medium-chain n-alkane hydroxylases belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is widely expressed in n-alkane-degrading bacteria. CYP153 is also thought to cooperate with AlkB in degrading various n-alkanes. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of the protein remain largely unknown. In this paper, we studied CYP153 gene transcription regulation by the potential AraC family regulator (CypR) located upstream of the CYP153 gene cluster in a broad-spectrum n-alkane-degrading Gram-positive bacterium, Dietzia sp. strain DQ12-45-1b. We first identified the transcriptional start site and the promoter of the CYP153 gene cluster. Sequence alignment of upstream regions of CYP153 gene clusters revealed high conservation in the -10 and -35 regions in Actinobacteria. Further analysis of the β-galactosidase activity in the CYP153 gene promoter-lacZ fusion cell indicated that the CYP153 gene promoter was induced by n-alkanes comprised of 8 to 14 carbon atoms, but not by derived decanol and decanic acid. Moreover, we constructed a cypR mutant strain and found that the CYP153 gene promoter activities and CYP153 gene transcriptional levels in the mutant strain were depressed compared with those in the wild-type strain in the presence of n-alkanes, suggesting that CypR served as an activator for the CYP153 gene promoter. By comparing CYP153 gene arrangements in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, we found that the AraC family regulator is ubiquitously located upstream of the CYP153 gene, suggesting its universal regulatory role in CYP153 gene transcription. We further hypothesize that the observed mode of CYP153 gene regulation is shared by many Actinobacteria.

  5. Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jie-Liang; JiangYang, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    CYP153, one of the most common medium-chain n-alkane hydroxylases belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is widely expressed in n-alkane-degrading bacteria. CYP153 is also thought to cooperate with AlkB in degrading various n-alkanes. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of the protein remain largely unknown. In this paper, we studied CYP153 gene transcription regulation by the potential AraC family regulator (CypR) located upstream of the CYP153 gene cluster in a broad-spectrum n-alkane-degrading Gram-positive bacterium, Dietzia sp. strain DQ12-45-1b. We first identified the transcriptional start site and the promoter of the CYP153 gene cluster. Sequence alignment of upstream regions of CYP153 gene clusters revealed high conservation in the −10 and −35 regions in Actinobacteria. Further analysis of the β-galactosidase activity in the CYP153 gene promoter-lacZ fusion cell indicated that the CYP153 gene promoter was induced by n-alkanes comprised of 8 to 14 carbon atoms, but not by derived decanol and decanic acid. Moreover, we constructed a cypR mutant strain and found that the CYP153 gene promoter activities and CYP153 gene transcriptional levels in the mutant strain were depressed compared with those in the wild-type strain in the presence of n-alkanes, suggesting that CypR served as an activator for the CYP153 gene promoter. By comparing CYP153 gene arrangements in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, we found that the AraC family regulator is ubiquitously located upstream of the CYP153 gene, suggesting its universal regulatory role in CYP153 gene transcription. We further hypothesize that the observed mode of CYP153 gene regulation is shared by many Actinobacteria. PMID:26567302

  6. The long-chain alkane metabolism network of Alcanivorax dieselolei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2014-12-12

    Alkane-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments, but little is known about how alkane degradation is regulated. Here we investigate alkane sensing, chemotaxis, signal transduction, uptake and pathway regulation in Alcanivorax dieselolei. The outer membrane protein OmpS detects the presence of alkanes and triggers the expression of an alkane chemotaxis complex. The coupling protein CheW2 of the chemotaxis complex, which is induced only by long-chain (LC) alkanes, sends signals to trigger the expression of Cyo, which participates in modulating the expression of the negative regulator protein AlmR. This change in turn leads to the expression of ompT1 and almA, which drive the selective uptake and hydroxylation of LC alkanes, respectively. AlmA is confirmed as a hydroxylase of LC alkanes. Additional factors responsible for the metabolism of medium-chain-length alkanes are also identified, including CheW1, OmpT1 and OmpT2. These results provide new insights into alkane metabolism pathways from alkane sensing to degradation.

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R N; Prenner, E J; Kondejewski, L H; Flach, C R; Mendelsohn, R; Hodges, R S; McElhaney, R N

    1999-11-16

    We have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes as a function of temperature and of the phase state of the lipid. Since the conformation of GS does not change under the experimental conditions employed in this study, we could utilize the dependence of the frequency of the amide I band of the central beta-sheet region of this peptide on the polarity and hydrogen-bonding potential of its environment to probe GS interaction with and location in these lipid model membrane systems. We find that the GS is completely or partially excluded from the gel states of all of the lipid bilayers examined in this study but strongly partitions into lipid micelles, monolayers, or bilayers in the liquid-crystalline state. Moreover, in general, the penetration of GS into zwitterionic and uncharged lipid bilayer coincides closely with the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition of the lipid. However, GS begins to penetrate into the gel-state bilayers of anionic phospholipids prior to the actual chain-melting phase transition, while in cationic lipid bilayers, GS does not partition strongly into the liquid-crystalline bilayer until temperatures well above the chain-melting phase transition are reached. In the liquid-crystalline state, the polarity of the environment of GS indicates that this peptide is located primarily at the polar/apolar interfacial region of the bilayer near the glycerol backbone region of the lipid molecule. However, the depth of GS penetration into this interfacial region can vary somewhat depending on the structure and charge of the lipid molecule. In general, GS associates most strongly with and penetrates most deeply into more disordered bilayers with a negative surface charge, although the detailed chemical structure of the lipid molecule and physical organization of the lipid aggregate (micelle versus monolayer

  8. Improving the Dielectric Properties of Ethylene-Glycol Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be formed at the interface between solids and fluids, and are often used to modify the surface properties of the solid. One of the most widely employed SAM systems is exploiting thiol-gold chemistry, which, together with alkane-chain-based molecules, provides a reliable way of SAM formation to modify the surface properties of electrodes. Oligo ethylene-glycol (OEG) terminated alkanethiol monolayers have shown excellent antifouling properties and have been used extensively for the coating of biosensor electrodes to minimize nonspecific binding. Here, we report the investigation of the dielectric properties of COOH-capped OEG monolayers and demonstrate a strategy to improve the dielectric properties significantly by mixing the OEG SAM with small concentrations of 11-mercaptoundecanol (MUD). The monolayer properties and composition were characterized by means of impedance spectroscopy, water contact angle, ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An equivalent circuit model is proposed to interpret the EIS data and to determine the conductivity of the monolayer. We find that for increasing MUD concentrations up to about 5% the resistivity of the SAM steadily increases, which together with a considerable decrease of the phase of the impedance, demonstrates significantly improved dielectric properties of the monolayer. Such monolayers will find widespread use in applications which depend critically on good dielectric properties such as capacitive biosensor. PMID:24447311

  9. The most stable mono-layers of (111)-Pt (fcc) on Graphene: A first-principles GGA study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otalora-Acevedo, J.; Rodríguez Martínez, J. A.; Moreno-Armenta, G.; Vera, E.; Takeuchi Tan, N.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate monolayers of planes (111) of Pt in the FCC structure located on graphene. The energy of formation showed that the most stable structure is √3×√3 — Pt on 2 × 2 — graphene. This system has a mismatch in the lattice constant of 0.45. The layers are completely flat, and its band structure shows that the new structure is metallic and the Dirac's cones are displaced 0.6eV above of the Fermi level. In this work we present the dependence of the enthalpy of formation of these structures and we calculated all structural parameters of their relaxation.

  10. Molecular Arrangement in Self-Assembled Azobenzene-Containing Thiol Monolayers at the Individual Domain Level Studied through Polarized Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chaigneau, Marc; Picardi, Gennaro; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2011-01-01

    6-[4-(phenylazo)phenoxy]hexane-1-thiol self-assembled monolayers deposited on a gold surface form domain-like structures possessing a high degree of order with virtually all the molecules being identically oriented with respect to the surface plane. We show that, by using polarized near-field Raman spectroscopy, it is possible to derive the Raman scattering tensor of the ordered layer and consequently, the in-plane molecular orientation at the individual domain level. More generally, this study extends the application domain of the near-field Raman scattering selection rules from crystals to ordered organic structures. PMID:21541056

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure study of water adsorption on pyridine-terminated thiolate self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zubavichus, Yan; Zharnikov, Michael; Yang, Yongjie; Fuchs, Oliver; Umbach, Eberhard; Heske, Clemens; Ulman, Abraham; Grunze, Michael

    2004-12-07

    Adsorption of water on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-(4-mercaptophenyl)pyridine on gold at low temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum conditions is studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy. Water adsorption induces a strong modification of the chemical state of the pyridine N atoms at the SAM/ice interface, indicative for strong H bonding and partial proton transfer between water molecules and pyridine moieties. Additionally, the initial molecular orientation within the SAM is changed upon formation of an adsorbed water multilayer.

  12. Afm Study of the Evolution of Double Layer on SiO2 Surface and Self-Assembly Monolayer Induced by the Polarization with DC Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tian; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Haitao; Huang, Ningping; Xiao, Zhongdang

    AFM was used to study the evolution of double layer on SiO2 surface and self-assembly monolayer induced by the polarization with DC voltages. Approach force curves were recorded when external DC voltages were applied between solution and SiO2 or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified SiO2 surfaces in electrolyte solution. The results showed that the reversing of tip-surface interaction forces between attraction and repulsion could take place only by adjusting DC voltages. It is very useful for biotechnology because the adsorption of biomolecules could be controllable by DC voltages. A model was proposed to explain the behavior of double layer under DC voltages.

  13. Monolayer MXenes: promising half-metals and spin gapless semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guoying; Ding, Guangqian; Li, Jie; Yao, Kailun; Wu, Menghao; Qian, Meichun

    2016-04-01

    Half-metals and spin gapless semiconductors are promising candidates for spintronic applications due to the complete (100%) spin polarization of electrons around the Fermi level. Based on recent experimental and theoretical findings of graphene-like monolayer transition metal carbides and nitrides (also known as MXenes), we demonstrate using first-principles calculations that monolayers Ti2C and Ti2N exhibit nearly half-metallic ferromagnetism with the magnetic moments of 1.91 and 1.00μB per formula unit, respectively, while monolayer V2C is a metal with unstable antiferromagnetism, and monolayer V2N is a nonmagnetic metal. Interestingly, under a biaxial strain, there is a phase transition from a nearly half-metal to truly half-metal, spin gapless semiconductor, and metal for monolayer Ti2C. Monolayer Ti2N is still a nearly half-metal under a suitable biaxial strain. Large magnetic moments can be induced by the biaxial tensile and compressive strains for monolayer V2C and V2N, respectively. We also show that the structures of these four monolayer MXenes are stable according to the calculated formation energy and phonon spectrum. Our investigations suggest that, unlike monolayer graphene, monolayer MXenes Ti2C and Ti2N without vacancy, doping or external electric field exhibit intrinsic magnetism, especially the half-metallic ferromagnetism and spin gapless semiconductivity, which will stimulate further studies on possible spintronic applications for new two-dimensional materials of MXenes.

  14. Structural analysis of HS(CD(2))(12)(O-CH(2)-CH(2))(6)OCH(3) monolayers on gold by means of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. progress of the reaction with bromine.

    PubMed

    Brand, Izabella; Nullmeier, Martina; Klüner, Thorsten; Jogireddy, Rajamalleswaramma; Christoffers, Jens; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-01-05

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold was formed with specifically perdeuterated hexaethylene glycol-terminated alkanethiol HS(CD(2))(12)(O-CH(2)-CH(2))(6)OCH(3) (D-OEG). The structure of the d-alkane and the oligoethylene glycol (OEG) parts of the molecule in a SAM was studied by means of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The D-OEG monolayers are highly ordered and exist in a crystalline phase. The d-alkane chain adopts an all-trans conformation. Both, the d-alkane chain and long axis of the OEG part make an angle of 26.0 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees with respect to the surface normal, a value characteristic for the tilt of solid n-alkane thiols in the SAMs on Au. The positions of nu(as)(COC) and CH(2) wagging and rocking modes indicate a helical arrangement of the OEG chains. The D-OEG SAMs were exposed to 25 muM Br(2) in two ways: (i) by immersion into the Br(2) solution and (ii) in the galvanic cell Au|D-OEG SAM|25 muM Br(2) + 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4)|| 50 muM KBr + 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4)|Au. In the galvanic cell, the oxidant (Br(2)) is scavenged by a heterogeneous electron transfer reaction, slowing the reaction of D-OEG with Br(2). The slow progress of the reaction with Br(2) allowed us to draw conclusions about molecular rearrangements taking place during this reaction. The reaction with Br(2) starts on boundaries and/or defects present in the SAM. First, at the defect place, the alpha-C atom of the OEG chain reacts with Br(2) and the OEG part of the molecule is removed from the monolayer. In consequence an increase in disorder in the OEG part of the SAM is observed. The same mechanism of the reaction with Br(2) is applied for the d-dodecane alkanethiol part of the molecule. This reaction is slow, thus the order and the tilt of the hydrocarbon chain changes only a little during the reaction time.

  15. Adaptation of the Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 to Alkanes and Toxic Organic Compounds: a Physiological and Transcriptomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Naether, Daniela J.; Slawtschew, Slavtscho; Stasik, Sebastian; Engel, Maria; Olzog, Martin; Wick, Lukas Y.; Timmis, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    The marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis is able to degrade mixtures of n-alkanes as they occur in marine oil spills. However, investigations of growth behavior and physiology of these bacteria when cultivated with n-alkanes of different chain lengths (C6 to C30) as the substrates are still lacking. Growth rates increased with increasing alkane chain length up to a maximum between C12 and C19, with no evident difference between even- and odd-numbered chain lengths, before decreasing with chain lengths greater than C19. Surface hydrophobicity of alkane-grown cells, assessed by determination of the water contact angles, showed a similar pattern, with maximum values associated with growth rates on alkanes with chain lengths between C11 and C19 and significantly lower values for cells grown on pyruvate. A. borkumensis was found to incorporate and modify the fatty acid intermediates generated by the corresponding n-alkane degradation pathway. Cells grown on distinct n-alkanes proved that A. borkumensis is able to not only incorporate but also modify fatty acid intermediates derived from the alkane degradation pathway. Comparing cells grown on pyruvate with those cultivated on hexadecane in terms of their tolerance toward two groups of toxic organic compounds, chlorophenols and alkanols, representing intensely studied organic compounds, revealed similar tolerances toward chlorophenols, whereas the toxicities of different n-alkanols were significantly reduced when hexadecane was used as a carbon source. As one adaptive mechanism of A. borkumensis to these toxic organic solvents, the activity of cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids was proven. These findings could be verified by a detailed transcriptomic comparison between cultures grown on hexadecane and pyruvate and including solvent stress caused by the addition of 1-octanol as the most toxic intermediate of n-alkane degradation. PMID:23645199

  16. Adaptation of the hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 to alkanes and toxic organic compounds: a physiological and transcriptomic approach.

    PubMed

    Naether, Daniela J; Slawtschew, Slavtscho; Stasik, Sebastian; Engel, Maria; Olzog, Martin; Wick, Lukas Y; Timmis, Kenneth N; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2013-07-01

    The marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis is able to degrade mixtures of n-alkanes as they occur in marine oil spills. However, investigations of growth behavior and physiology of these bacteria when cultivated with n-alkanes of different chain lengths (C6 to C30) as the substrates are still lacking. Growth rates increased with increasing alkane chain length up to a maximum between C12 and C19, with no evident difference between even- and odd-numbered chain lengths, before decreasing with chain lengths greater than C19. Surface hydrophobicity of alkane-grown cells, assessed by determination of the water contact angles, showed a similar pattern, with maximum values associated with growth rates on alkanes with chain lengths between C11 and C19 and significantly lower values for cells grown on pyruvate. A. borkumensis was found to incorporate and modify the fatty acid intermediates generated by the corresponding n-alkane degradation pathway. Cells grown on distinct n-alkanes proved that A. borkumensis is able to not only incorporate but also modify fatty acid intermediates derived from the alkane degradation pathway. Comparing cells grown on pyruvate with those cultivated on hexadecane in terms of their tolerance toward two groups of toxic organic compounds, chlorophenols and alkanols, representing intensely studied organic compounds, revealed similar tolerances toward chlorophenols, whereas the toxicities of different n-alkanols were significantly reduced when hexadecane was used as a carbon source. As one adaptive mechanism of A. borkumensis to these toxic organic solvents, the activity of cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids was proven. These findings could be verified by a detailed transcriptomic comparison between cultures grown on hexadecane and pyruvate and including solvent stress caused by the addition of 1-octanol as the most toxic intermediate of n-alkane degradation.

  17. Leaf wax n-alkane distributions in and across modern plants: Implications for paleoecology and chemotaxonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Rosemary T.; McInerney, Francesca A.

    2013-09-01

    Long chain (C21 to C37) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized terrestrial plant biomarkers. Dozens of studies have examined the range and variation of n-alkane chain-length abundances in modern plants from around the world, and n-alkane distributions have been used for a variety of purposes in paleoclimatology and paleoecology as well as chemotaxonomy. However, most of the paleoecological applications of n-alkane distributions have been based on a narrow set of modern data that cannot address intra- and inter-plant variability. Here, we present the results of a study using trees from near Chicago, IL, USA, as well as a meta-analysis of published data on modern plant n-alkane distributions. First, we test the conformity of n-alkane distributions in mature leaves across the canopy of 38 individual plants from 24 species as well as across a single growing season and find no significant differences for either canopy position or time of leaf collection. Second, we compile 2093 observations from 86 sources, including the new data here, to examine the generalities of n-alkane parameters such as carbon preference index (CPI), average chain length (ACL), and chain-length ratios for different plant groups. We show that angiosperms generally produce more n-alkanes than do gymnosperms, supporting previous observations, and furthermore that CPI values show such variation in modern plants that it is prudent to discard the use of CPI as a quantitative indicator of n-alkane degradation in sediments. We also test the hypotheses that certain n-alkane chain lengths predominate in and therefore can be representative of particular plant groups, namely, C23 and C25 in Sphagnum mosses, C27 and C29 in woody plants, and C31 in graminoids (grasses). We find that chain-length distributions are highly variable within plant groups, such that chemotaxonomic distinctions between grasses and woody plants are difficult to make based on n-alkane abundances. In contrast

  18. Ubiquitous Presence and Novel Diversity of Anaerobic Alkane Degraders in Cold Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Donhauser, Johanna; Røy, Hans; Girguis, Peter R.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.

    2015-01-01

    Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil and are released to the marine environment by natural seepage and from anthropogenic sources. Due to their chemical inertness, their removal from anoxic marine sediments is primarily controlled by the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms. To facilitate comprehensive cultivation-independent surveys of the diversity and distribution of anaerobic alkane degraders, we designed novel PCR primers that cover all known diversity of the 1-methylalkyl succinate synthase gene (masD/assA), which catalyzes the initial activation of alkanes. We studied masD/assA gene diversity in pristine and seepage-impacted Danish coastal sediments, as well as in sediments and alkane-degrading enrichment cultures from the Middle Valley (MV) hydrothermal vent system in the Pacific Northwest. MasD/assA genes were ubiquitously present, and the primers captured the diversity of both known and previously undiscovered masD/assA gene diversity. Seepage sediments were dominated by a single masD/assA gene cluster, which is presumably indicative of a substrate-adapted community, while pristine sediments harbored a diverse range of masD/assA phylotypes including those present in seepage sediments. This rare biosphere of anaerobic alkane degraders will likely increase in abundance in the event of seepage or accidental oil spillage. Nanomolar concentrations of short-chain alkanes (SCA) were detected in pristine and seepage sediments. Interestingly, anaerobic alkane degraders closely related to strain BuS5, the only SCA degrader in pure culture, were found in mesophilic MV enrichments, but not in cold sediments from Danish waters. We propose that the new masD/assA gene lineages in these sediments represent novel phylotypes that are either fueled by naturally occurring low levels of SCA or that metabolize medium- to long-chain alkanes. Our study highlights that masD/assA genes are a relevant diagnostic marker to identify seepage and microseepage, e

  19. Ubiquitous Presence and Novel Diversity of Anaerobic Alkane Degraders in Cold Marine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Gittel, Antje; Donhauser, Johanna; Røy, Hans; Girguis, Peter R; Jørgensen, Bo B; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2015-01-01

    Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil and are released to the marine environment by natural seepage and from anthropogenic sources. Due to their chemical inertness, their removal from anoxic marine sediments is primarily controlled by the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms. To facilitate comprehensive cultivation-independent surveys of the diversity and distribution of anaerobic alkane degraders, we designed novel PCR primers that cover all known diversity of the 1-methylalkyl succinate synthase gene (masD/assA), which catalyzes the initial activation of alkanes. We studied masD/assA gene diversity in pristine and seepage-impacted Danish coastal sediments, as well as in sediments and alkane-degrading enrichment cultures from the Middle Valley (MV) hydrothermal vent system in the Pacific Northwest. MasD/assA genes were ubiquitously present, and the primers captured the diversity of both known and previously undiscovered masD/assA gene diversity. Seepage sediments were dominated by a single masD/assA gene cluster, which is presumably indicative of a substrate-adapted community, while pristine sediments harbored a diverse range of masD/assA phylotypes including those present in seepage sediments. This rare biosphere of anaerobic alkane degraders will likely increase in abundance in the event of seepage or accidental oil spillage. Nanomolar concentrations of short-chain alkanes (SCA) were detected in pristine and seepage sediments. Interestingly, anaerobic alkane degraders closely related to strain BuS5, the only SCA degrader in pure culture, were found in mesophilic MV enrichments, but not in cold sediments from Danish waters. We propose that the new masD/assA gene lineages in these sediments represent novel phylotypes that are either fueled by naturally occurring low levels of SCA or that metabolize medium- to long-chain alkanes. Our study highlights that masD/assA genes are a relevant diagnostic marker to identify seepage and microseepage, e

  20. Effect of Cd(2+) and Cd(2+)/auxin mixtures on lipid monolayers - Model membrane studies on the role of auxins in phytoremediation of metal ions from contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Mach, Marzena; Węder, Karolina; Pająk, Katarzyna; Wydro, Paweł

    2017-06-01

    In this work Langmuir monolayer experiments were performed to analyze the effect of Cd(2+) ions and their mixtures with synthetic auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA) on lipid films. These investigations were motivated by the fact that auxins act effectively as the agents improving the removal of metal ions from contaminated water and soil by plants (phytoextraction), and although their mechanism of action in this area is still unclear, it was suggested that it can be membrane-related. The experiments were done for one component (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine - DPPC; 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine - DOPC; 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (sodium salt) - DPPG) monolayers and mixed (DPPG/DOPC and DPPG/DPPC) films treated as model of plant leaves membranes. The monolayer properties were analyzed based on the surface pressure-area isotherms obtained during film compression, stability measurements and Brewster angle microcopy studies. The collected results together with the data presented in literature evidenced that both metal ions and auxins modify lipid system properties and by using them in a combination it is possible to weaken the influence of sole metal ions on membrane organization. This seems to be in agreement with the hypothesis that the role of plant growth regulators in increasing phytoextraction effectiveness may be membrane-related. However, further experiments are required to find possible correlations between the type and concentration of metal ion, composition of membrane or structural elements in auxin molecule and observed alterations in membrane properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on monolayer MoS2 doping at the S site via the first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Liu, Tianmo; Li, Tengfei; Hussain, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Through the first principle calculation, electronic properties of monolayer MoS2 doped with single, double, triple and tetra-atoms of P, Cl, O, Se at the surface S site are discussed. Among the substitutional dopant, our calculation results show that when P atoms are doped on a monolayer MoS2, a shift in the Fermi energy into the valence band is observed, making the system p-type. Meanwhile, band gap gradually decreases as increasing the number of P atoms. On the contrary, Cl is identified as a suitable n-type dopant. It is observed that Cl for initial three dopant behaved as magnetic and afterwards returned to non-magnetic behavior. The band gap of the Cl doped system is also dwindling gradually. Finally, O and Se doped systems have little effect on electronic properties near band gap. Such doping method at the S site, and the TDOS and PDOSs of each doping system provide a detailed of understanding toward working mechanism of the doped and the intrinsic semiconductors. This doping model opens up an avenue for further clarification in the doping systems as well as other dopant using this method.

  2. Dynamics of decanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) studied by time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hairong; Sotthewes, Kai; Kumar, Avijit; Vancso, G Julius; Schön, Peter M; Zandvliet, Harold J W

    2013-02-19

    We investigated the dynamics of decanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) surfaces using time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. The expected ordered phases (β, δ, χ*, and φ) and a disordered phase (ε) were observed. Current-time traces with the feedback loop disabled were recorded at different locations on the surface. The sulfur end group of the decanethiolate molecule exhibits a stochastic two-level switching process when the molecule is adsorbed in a (local) β phase registry. This two-level process is attributed to the diffusion of the Au-thiolate complex between two adjacent adsorption sites. The irregular current jumps in the current-time traces recorded on the tails of decanethiolate molecules in the ordered β, δ, and χ* phases are ascribed to wagging of the alkyl tails. Finally, the disordered phase is characterized by even larger current jumps, which indicates that the tail of the decanethiolate flips up occasionally and makes contact with the tip. Our experiments reveal that the massive dynamics of the self-assembled monolayer is due to diffusion of decanethiol-Au complexes, rather than the diffusion of decanethiolate molecules.

  3. A comparative study of transport properties of monolayer graphene and AlGaN-GaN heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, M. D.; Atasever, O.; Ozdemir, B.; Ozdemir, M.; Yarar, Z.

    2015-07-15

    The electronic transport properties of monolayer graphene are presented with an Ensemble Monte Carlo method where a rejection technique is used to account for the occupancy of the final states after scattering. Acoustic and optic phonon scatterings are considered for intrinsic graphene and in addition, ionized impurity and surface roughness scatterings are considered for the case of dirty graphene. The effect of screening is considered in the ionized impurity scattering of electrons. The time dependence of drift velocity of carriers is obtained where overshoot and undershoot effects are observed for certain values of applied field and material parameters for intrinsic graphene. The field dependence of drift velocity of carriers showed negative differential resistance and disappeared as acoustic scattering becomes dominant for intrinsic graphene. The variation of electron mobility with temperature is calculated for intrinsic (suspended) and dirty monolayer graphene sheets separately and they are compared. These are also compared with the mobility of two dimensional electrons at an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. It is observed that interface roughness may become very effective in limiting the mobility of electrons in graphene.

  4. A convenient fluorometric method to study sulfur mustard-induced apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer microplate culture.

    PubMed

    Ray, Radharaman; Hauck, Stephanie; Kramer, Rachel; Benton, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [SM; bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which causes skin blistering or vesication [(1991). Histo- and cytopathology of acute epithelial lesions. In: Papirmeister, B., Feister, A. J., Robinson, S. I., Ford, R. D., eds. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 43-78.], is a chemical warfare agent as well as a potential terrorism agent. SM-induced skin blistering is believed to be due to epidermal-dermal detachment as a result of epidermal basal cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Regarding the role of apoptosis in SM pathology in animal skin, the results obtained in several laboratories, including ours, suggest the following: 1) cell death due to SM begins via apoptosis that proceeds to necrosis via an apoptotic-necrotic continuum and 2) inhibiting apoptosis decreases SM-induced microvesication in vivo. To study the mechanisms of SM-induced apoptosis and its prevention in vitro, we have established a convenient fluorometric apoptosis assay using monolayer human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) adaptable for multiwell plates (24-, 96-, or 384-well) and high-throughput applications. This assay allows replication and multiple types of experimental manipulation in sister cultures so that the apoptotic mechanisms and the effects of test compounds can be compared statistically. SM affects diverse cellular mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial functions, energy metabolism, and death receptors, each of which can independently trigger apoptosis. However, the biochemical pathway in any of these apoptotic mechanisms is characterized by a pathway-specific sequence of caspases, among which caspase-3 is a key member. Therefore, we exposed 80-90% confluent HEK cultures to SM and monitored apoptosis by measuring the fluorescence generated due to hydrolysis of a fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (acetyl- or benzyl oxycarbonyl

  5. Toward aldehyde and alkane production by removing aldehyde reductase activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have enabled the construction of novel biological routes to valuable chemicals using suitable microbial hosts. Aldehydes serve as chemical feedstocks in the synthesis of rubbers, plastics, and other larger molecules. Microbial production of alkanes is dependent on the formation of a fatty aldehyde intermediate which is converted to an alkane by an aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO). However, microbial hosts such as Escherichia coli are plagued by many highly active endogenous aldehyde reductases (ALRs) that convert aldehydes to alcohols, which greatly complicates strain engineering for aldehyde and alkane production. It has been shown that the endogenous ALR activity outcompetes the ADO enzyme for fatty aldehyde substrate. The large degree of ALR redundancy coupled with an incomplete database of ALRs represents a significant obstacle in engineering E. coli for either aldehyde or alkane production. In this study, we identified 44 ALR candidates encoded in the E. coli genome using bioinformatics tools, and undertook a comprehensive screening by measuring the ability of these enzymes to produce isobutanol. From the pool of 44 candidates, we found five new ALRs using this screening method (YahK, DkgA, GldA, YbbO, and YghA). Combined deletions of all 13 known ALRs resulted in a 90–99% reduction in endogenous ALR activity for a wide range of aldehyde substrates (C2–C12). Elucidation of the ALRs found in E. coli could guide one in reducing competing alcohol formation during alkane or aldehyde production. PMID:25108218

  6. Whole-cell bacterial bioreporter for actively searching and sensing of alkanes and oil spills.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; He, Yi; Wang, Yun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Lin; Aries, Eric; Huang, Wei E

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 was found to tolerate seawater and have a special ability of adhering to an oil-water interface of 10-80 µm emulsified mineral and crude oil droplets. These properties make ADP1 an ideal bacterial chassis for constructing bioreporters that are able to actively search and sense oil spill in water and soils. Acinetobacter baylyi bioreporter ADPWH_alk was developed and applied to the detection of alkanes and alkenes in water, seawater and soils. Bioreporter ADPWH_alk was able to detect a broad range of alkanes and alkenes with carbon chain length from C7 to C36. So far, ADPWH_alk is the only bioreporter that is able to detect alkane with carbon chain length greater than C18. This bioreporter responded to the alkanes in about 30 min and it was independent to the cell growth phase because of two point mutations in alkM promoter recognized by alkane regulatory protein ALKR. ADPWH_alk was applied to detect mineral oil, Brent, Chestnut and Sirri crude oils in water and seawater in the range 0.1-100 mg l(-1), showing that the bioreporter oil detection was semi-quantitative. This study demonstrates that ADPWH_alk is a rapid, sensitive and semi-quantitative bioreporter that can be useful for environmental monitoring and assessment of oil spills in seawater and soils.

  7. Effects of fuel properties on the burning characteristics of collision-merged alkane/water droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.H.; Pan, K.L.; Huang, W.C.; Wen, H.C.; Yang, J.Y.; Law, C.K.

    2008-04-15

    The combustion characteristics of freely falling droplets, individually generated by the merging of colliding alkane and water droplets, were experimentally investigated. The outcome of the collision droplets was first studied and then the subsequent burning processes such as the flame appearance, ignition and burning behaviors were recorded, through either visual observation or microphotography with the aid of stroboscopic lighting. If the merged droplets were exhibited in an insertive manner, while the water droplet inserted into the alkane droplet, these yield the burning behaviors prior to the end of flame were very much similar to that of pure alkane. The burning was ended with droplet extinction for lower-C alkane, and with either droplet ''flash vaporization'' or extinction for hexadecane. And if the merged droplets were in adhesive manner, for hexadecane with large water content, they either could not be ignited for the large merged droplets, or be ignited with a much prolonged ignition delay, followed by a soot-reducing flame and an ending of droplet extinction for the small merged droplets. ''Homogeneous'' explosion was not observed in any of the tests, and ''heterogeneous'' explosion, induced by trapped air bubbles, occasionally occurred for merged droplets with C-atom in alkane is higher than dodecane. And the sudden disappearance of droplet definitely decreased the burning time and thus enhanced the burning intensity. Besides, the fuel mass consumption rates were increased, even in the cases that having droplet extinction, because of the enlargement of the surface area due to the stuffing of water droplet. (author)

  8. Whole‐cell bacterial bioreporter for actively searching and sensing of alkanes and oil spills

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dayi; He, Yi; Wang, Yun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Lin; Aries, Eric; Huang, Wei E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 was found to tolerate seawater and have a special ability of adhering to an oil–water interface of 10–80 µm emulsified mineral and crude oil droplets. These properties make ADP1 an ideal bacterial chassis for constructing bioreporters that are able to actively search and sense oil spill in water and soils. Acinetobacter baylyi bioreporter ADPWH_alk was developed and applied to the detection of alkanes and alkenes in water, seawater and soils. Bioreporter ADPWH_alk was able to detect a broad range of alkanes and alkenes with carbon chain length from C7 to C36. So far, ADPWH_alk is the only bioreporter that is able to detect alkane with carbon chain length greater than C18. This bioreporter responded to the alkanes in about 30 min and it was independent to the cell growth phase because of two point mutations in alkM promoter recognized by alkane regulatory protein ALKR. ADPWH_alk was applied to detect mineral oil, Brent, Chestnut and Sirri crude oils in water and seawater in the range 0.1–100 mg l−1, showing that the bioreporter oil detection was semi‐quantitative. This study demonstrates that ADPWH_alk is a rapid, sensitive and semi‐quantitative bioreporter that can be useful for environmental monitoring and assessment of oil spills in seawater and soils. PMID:21951420

  9. Bent alkanes in a new thiourea-containing capsule.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Ali; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

    2011-07-20

    The synthesis of a cavitand featuring thiourea hydrogen bonding sites and its dimerization in the presence of suitable guests are reported. Dimerization creates a capsule host wider than the corresponding urea or imide structures, and longer alkanes can be accommodated. Specifically, n-C(15)H(32) is encapsulated, but this guest appears folded inside as deduced from NMR studies. Apparently, the plasticity of hydrogen bonds between thiourea groups allows a stable encapsulation complex to persist in solution even though the guest is contorted.

  10. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  11. Density Functional Steric Analysis of Linear and Branched Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-11-18

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (Ee[[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (Ee[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (Eq[[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  12. Effects of odd-even side chain length of alkyl-substituted diphenylbithiophenes on first monolayer thin film packing structure.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Hylke B; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Kaushik, Ananth P; Verploegen, Eric; Burnier, Luc; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Saathoff, Jonathan D; Hong, Sanghyun; Atahan-Evrenk, Sule; Liu, Xueliang; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Toney, Michael F; Clancy, Paulette; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-07-31

    Because of their preferential two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth in thin films, 5,5'bis(4-alkylphenyl)-2,2'-bithiophenes (P2TPs) are model compounds for studying the effects of systematic chemical structure variations on thin-film structure and morphology, which in turn, impact the charge transport in organic field-effect transistors. For the first time, we observed, by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), a strong change in molecular tilt angle in a monolayer of P2TP, depending on whether the alkyl chain on the P2TP molecules was of odd or even length. The monolayers were deposited on densely packed ultrasmooth self-assembled alkane silane modified SiO2 surfaces. Our work shows that a subtle change in molecular structure can have a significant impact on the molecular packing structure in thin film, which in turn, will have a strong impact on charge transport of organic semiconductors. This was verified by quantum-chemical calculations that predict a corresponding odd-even effect in the strength of the intermolecular electronic coupling.

  13. Stable Organic Monolayers on Oxide-Free Silicon/Germanium in a Supercritical Medium: A New Route to Molecular Electronics.

    PubMed

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yeong, Sai Hooi; Troadec, Cedric; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-05-02

    Oxide-free Si and Ge surfaces have been passivated and modified with organic molecules by forming covalent bonds between the surfaces and reactive end groups of linear alkanes and aromatic species using single-step deposition in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). The process is suitable for large-scale manufacturing due to short processing times, simplicity, and high resistance to oxidation. It also allows the formation of monolayers with varying reactive terminal groups, thus enabling formation of nanostructures engineered at the molecular level. Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) spectra performed on the organic monolayer on oxide-free silicon capped by a thin gold layer reveals for the first time an increase in transmission of the ballistic current through the interface of up to three times compared to a control device, in contrast to similar studies reported in the literature suggestive of oxide-free passivation in SCCO2. The SCCO2 process combined with the preliminary BEEM results opens up new avenues for interface engineering, leading to molecular electronic devices.

  14. The Caco-2 cell monolayer: usefulness and limitations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huadong; Chow, Edwin Cy; Liu, Shanjun; Du, Yimin; Pang, K Sandy

    2008-04-01

    The Caco-2 monolayer has been used extensively for the high-throughput screening of drug permeability and identification of substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of intestinal transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Traditionally, the Caco-2 monolayer is viewed as a single barrier rather than a polarized cell monolayer consisting of metabolic enzymes that are sandwiched between two membrane barriers with distinctly different transporters. This review addressed the usefulness and limitations of the Caco-2 cell monolayer in drug discovery and mechanistic studies. This mini-review covered applications of the Caco-2 monolayer, clarified misconceptions, and critically addressed issues on data interpretation. The catenary model extends the usefulness of Caco-2 monolayer and provides proper mechanistic insight and data interpretation.

  15. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Harold H.; Chaar, Mohamed A.

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M.sub.3 (VO.sub.4).sub.2 and MV.sub.2 O.sub.6, M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  16. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  17. Surface structure of bulk 2H-MoS 2 (0001) and exfoliated suspended monolayer MoS 2 : A selected area low energy electron diffraction study

    DOE PAGES

    Dai, Zhongwei; Jin, Wencan; Grady, Maxwell; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, we used selected area low energy electron diffraction intensity-voltage (μLEED-IV) analysis to investigate the surface structure of crystalline 2H molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and mechanically exfoliated and suspended monolayer MoS2. Our results show that the surface structure of bulk 2H-MoS2 is distinct from its bulk and that it has a slightly smaller surface relaxation at 320 K than previously reported at 95 K. We concluded that suspended monolayer MoS2 shows a large interlayer relaxation compared to the MoS2 sandwich layer terminating the bulk surface. The Debye temperature of MoS2 was concluded to be about 600 K, which agrees with amore » previous theoretical study. Our work has shown that the dynamical μLEED-IV analysis performed with a low energy electron microscope (LEEM) is a powerful technique for determination of the local atomic structures of currently extensively studied two-dimensional (2-D) materials.« less

  18. Molecular organization of bacterial membrane lipids in mixed systems--A comprehensive monolayer study combined with Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction and Brewster Angle Microscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Wydro, Paweł; Flasiński, Michał; Broniatowski, Marcin

    2012-07-01

    To properly design and investigate new antibacterial drugs a detailed description of the organization of bacterial membrane is highly important. Therefore in this work we performed a comprehensive characteristic of the Langmuir monolayers composed of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) mixed in a wide range of composition and treated as an artificial cytoplasmic layer of bacterial membrane. To obtain detailed information on the properties of these films we combined the analysis of the surface pressure-area curves with the surface potential measurements, Brewster Angle Microscopy studies and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction experiments. It was found that the investigated phospholipids mix nonideally in the monolayers and that the most favorable packing of molecules occurs at their equimolar proportion. This is directly connected with the formation of hydrogen bonds between both types of molecules in the system. All the collected experimental data evidenced that dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) form highly ordered associates of fixed (DPPE:DPPG 1:1) stoichiometry. The obtained results allow one to conclude a nonuniform distribution of lipids in bacterial membranes and the existence of domains composed of the investigated phospholipids. The latter seems to be of great importance in the perspective of further studies on the mechanism of action of antibacterial agents.

  19. Surface structure of bulk 2H-MoS2(0001) and exfoliated suspended monolayer MoS2: A selected area low energy electron diffraction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhongwei; Jin, Wencan; Grady, Maxwell; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Dadap, Jerry I.; Osgood, Richard M.; Pohl, Karsten

    2017-06-01

    We have used selected area low energy electron diffraction intensity-voltage (μLEED-IV) analysis to investigate the surface structure of crystalline 2H molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and mechanically exfoliated and suspended monolayer MoS2. Our results show that the surface structure of bulk 2H-MoS2 is distinct from its bulk and that it has a slightly smaller surface relaxation at 320 K than previously reported at 95 K. We concluded that suspended monolayer MoS2 shows a large interlayer relaxation compared to the MoS2 sandwich layer terminating the bulk surface. The Debye temperature of MoS2 was concluded to be about 600 K, which agrees with a previous theoretical study. Our work has shown that the dynamical μLEED-IV analysis performed with a low energy electron microscope (LEEM) is a powerful technique for determination of the local atomic structures of currently extensively studied two-dimensional (2-D) materials.

  20. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d metal trioxide clusters-doped monolayer graphene: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Shuai, Yong; Tan, He-Ping; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations for the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer graphene doped with 3d (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Mn and Ni) metal trioxide TMO3 halogen clusters. In this paper we used two approaches for 3d metal trioxide clusters (i) TMO3 halogen cluster was embedded in monolayer graphene substituting four carbon (C) atoms (ii) three C atoms were substituted by three oxygen (O) atoms in one graphene ring and TM atom was adsorbed at the hollow site of O atoms substituted graphene ring. All the impurities were tightly bonded in the graphene ring. In first case of TMO3 doped graphene layer, the bond length between Csbnd O atom was reduced and bond length between TM-O atom was increased. In case of Cr, Fe, Co and Ni atoms substitution in between the O atoms, leads to Fermi level shifting to conduction band thereby causing the Dirac cone to move into valence band, however a band gap appears at high symmetric K-point. In case of TiO3 and VO3 substitution, system exhibits semiconductor properties. Interestingly, TiO3-substituted system shows dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior with 2.00 μB magnetic moment. On the other hand, the substitution of CoO3, CrO3, FeO3 and MnO3 induced 1.015 μB, 2.347 μB, 2.084 μB and 3.584 μB magnetic moment, respectively. In second case of O atoms doped in graphene and TM atoms adsorbed at the hollow site, the O atom bulges out of graphene plane and bond length between TM-O atom is increased. After TM atoms adsorption at the O substituted graphene ring the Fermi level (EF) shifts into conduction band. In case of Cr and Ni adsorption, system displays indirect band gap semiconductor properties with 0.0 μB magnetic moment. Co adsorption exhibits dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior producing 0.916 μB magnetic moment. Fe, Mn, Ti and V adsorption introduces band gap at high symmetric K-point also inducing 1.54 μB, 0.9909 μB, 1.912 μB, and 0.98 μB magnetic moments, respectively

  1. Swelling clad-type plastic optical fiber alkane sensor with multi-layer cladding using electrospray deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Suzuki, Yutaka; Morisawa, Masayuki

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we develop a plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor with a double-layer structure cladding consisting of a swelling polymer lower layer and a dye-doped swelling polymer upper layer. Both cladding layers swell and decrease their refractive indices when exposed to alkane vapor. Then, the structure of the POF sensor changes from leaky to waveguide mode. Therefore, the intensity of transmitted light changes remarkably, depending on the presence of alkane. The absorption of light due to the dye in the upper cladding layer increases the change in transmitted light intensity. In this study, we fabricated a POF sensor by using the electrospray deposition method and examined its response to alkane vapor. The results indicate an improvement in the sensitivity of the POF alkane sensor due to the effect of the double-clad layer.

  2. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was iden...

  3. Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Money; Prasad, Yamuna; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of hydrocarbons plays an important role in the eco-balancing of petroleum products, pesticides and other toxic products in the environment. The degradation of hydrocarbons by microbes such as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Burkhulderia, Gordonia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. has been studied intensively in the literature. The present study focused on the in silico protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase (ladA)-a protein involved in the alkane degradation pathway. We demonstrated the improvement in substrate binding energy with engineered ladA in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121. We identified an ortholog of ladA monooxygenase found in B. thailandensis MSMB121, and showed it to be an enzyme involved in an alkane degradation pathway studied extensively in Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of ladA was performed with a crystal structure (protein databank ID: 3B9N) as a template in MODELLER 9v11, and further validated using PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D and WHATIF tools. Specific amino acids were substituted in the region corresponding to amino acids 305-370 of ladA protein, resulting in an enhancement of binding energy in different alkane chain molecules as compared to wild protein structures in the docking experiments. The substrate binding energy with the protein was calculated using Vina (Implemented in VEGAZZ). Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamics of different alkane chain molecules inside the binding pockets of wild and mutated ladA. Here, we hypothesize an improvement in binding energies and accessibility of substrates towards engineered ladA enzyme, which could be further facilitated for wet laboratory-based experiments for validation of the alkane degradation pathway in this organism.

  4. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of single Co atom on MgO monolayer: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Bin; Shi, Wu-Jun; Feng, Min; Zuo, Xu

    2015-05-07

    Realizing the magnetic bit with a single atom is the ultimate goal for magnetic storage. Based on density functional theory, the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of single Co atom on MgO monolayer has been investigated. Results show that this two dimensional system possesses a large perpendicular MA, about 5.8 meV per Co atom. Besides, there exists remarkable unquenched orbital moments for different magnetization directions, which can be attributed to the reduction of coordination number in two dimensional system and is responsible for the enhanced MA. The Bloch pseudo-wavefunction and band structure of Co d-orbitals have been calculated to elucidate the origin of the perpendicular MA.

  5. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3dtransition metal monolayers on Pt(001): a density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Taivansaikhan, P; Odkhuu, D; Kwon, O R; Tsogbadrakh, N; Hong, S C

    2014-12-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of having Pt as a substrate and/or capping layer on the magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of 3d transition metal (TMs; Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) monolayers (MLs) by using a first-principles calculationl method. We found that Fe and Co MLs are ferromagnetic (FM) on a Pt(001) surface, but Mn and Cr MLs are antiferromagnetic (AFM). The magnetic moments are quite robust with additional Pt-capping. Furthermore, Pt-capping enhances the small perpendicular MCA (meV) of Fe/Pt(001) significantly to 4.44 meV. Our electronic structure analyses indicate that strong hybridization between Pt-5d and TM-3d orbitals plays a crucial role in determining magnetic ordering and MCA. For comparison we also calculated magnetism and MCA of 3d TM MLs on Ta(001) with and without Ta-capping.

  6. Packing density and structure effects on energy-transfer dynamics in argon collisions with organic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, B. Scott; Morris, John R.

    2005-06-01

    A combined experimental and molecular-dynamics simulation study has been used to investigate energy-transfer dynamics of argon atoms when they collide with n-alkanethiols adsorbed to gold and silver substrates. These surfaces provide the opportunity to explore how surface structure and packing density of alkane chains affect energy transfer in gas-surface collisions while maintaining the chemical nature of the surface. The chains pack standing up with 12° and 30° tilt angles relative to the surface normal and number densities of 18.9 and 21.5Å2/molecule on the silver and gold substrates, respectively. For 7-kJ/mol argon scattering, the two surfaces behave equivalently, fully thermalizing all impinging argon atoms. In contrast, these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are not equally efficient at absorbing the excess translational energy from high-energy, 35 and 80kJ/mol, argon collisions. When high-energy argon atoms are scattered from a SAM on silver, the fraction of atoms that reach thermal equilibrium with the surface and the average energy transferred to the surface are lower than for analogous SAMs on gold. In the case of argon atoms with 80kJ/mol of translational energy scattering from long-chain SAMs, 60% and 45% of the atoms detected have reached thermal equilibrium with the monolayers on gold and silver surfaces, respectively. The differences in the scattering characteristics are attributed to excitation efficiencies of different types of surface modes. The high packing density of alkyl chains on silver restricts certain low-energy degrees of freedom from absorbing energy as efficiently as the lower-density monolayers. In addition, molecular-dynamics simulations reveal that the extent to which argon penetrates into the monolayer is related to packing density. For argon atoms with 80-kJ/mol incident energy, we find 16% and 7% of the atoms penetrate below the terminal methyl groups of C10 SAMs on gold and silver, respectively.

  7. In Situ STM and Vibrational Study of Nanometer-Scale Reorganization of a Phospholipid Monolayer Accompanied by Potential-Driven Headgroup Digestion.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Yamada, Taro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kawai, Maki

    2017-08-11

    In situ dynamic observation of model biological cell membranes, formed on a water/gold substrate interface, has been performed by the combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection infrared absorption vibrational spectroscopy. Monolayers of 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) were formed on alkanethiol-modified gold surfaces in a buffer solution, and the microscopic phase transitions driven by electrochemical potential control were observed more in detail than our previous study on the same system [Electrochem. Commun. 2007, 9, 645-650]. This time the transitions were associated with the chemistry of DHPC by the aid of vibrational spectroscopy and the utilization of deuterium-labeled DHPC molecules. A negative potential shift solidifies the fluidic lipid layers into static striped or grainy features without notable chemical reactions. The first positive potential shift over the virginal DHPC monolayer breaks DHPC into choline and the corresponding phosphatidic acid (DHPA). This is the first case of a phospholipid electrochemical reaction microscopically detected at the solid surface.

  8. What makes the Tc of monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3 so high: a sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Wang, Fa; Yao, Hong; Lee, Dung-Hai

    Monolayer FeSe films grown on SrTiO3 (STO) substrate show superconducting gap-opening temperatures ([Formula: see text]) which are almost an order of magnitude higher than those of the bulk FeSe and are highest among all known Fe-based superconductors. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy observed "replica bands" suggesting the importance of the interaction between FeSe electrons and STO phonons. These facts rejuvenated the quest for [Formula: see text] enhancement mechanisms in iron-based, especially iron-chalcogenide, superconductors. Here, we perform the first numerically-exact sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo simulations to iron-based superconductors. We (1) study the electronic pairing mechanism intrinsic to heavily electron doped FeSe films, and (2) examine the effects of electron-phonon interaction between FeSe and STO as well as nematic fluctuations on [Formula: see text]. Armed with these results, we return to the question "what makes the [Formula: see text] of monolayer FeSe on SrTiO3 so high?" in the conclusion and discussions.

  9. Microphase separation in mixed monolayers of DPPG with a double hydrophilic block copolymer at the air-water interface: a BAM, LSCFM, and AFM study.

    PubMed

    Romão, Rute I S; Ferreira, Quirina; Morgado, Jorge; Martinho, José M G; Gonçalves da Silva, Amélia M P S

    2010-11-16

    Phase separation and interactions in mixed monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) with the rhodamine B end-labeled double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC), poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-block-poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (RhB-PDMA(207)-b-PDEA(177)), was studied at the air-water interface. Surface pressure versus area isotherms indicate that both components behave almost independently. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images show a random distribution of liquid condensed (LC) domains of DPPG in an apparent homogeneous matrix of DHBC, excluding the macroscopic phase separation. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) of the rhodamine dye at the end of the PDMA chain showed how the DHBC is distributed in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) mixed monolayers. The high spatial resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with the LCSFM images indicates that DHBC incorporates in the expanded phase of DPPG to form mixed domains, being excluded from the condensed regions. Upon compression, nanosized LC domains of DPPG nucleate inside the mixed domains corralled in the nanopatterning of pure DHBC. The negatively charged polar group of DPPG inhibits rhodamine aggregation, while the long polymer chains promote the formation of corralled nanodomains of DPPG in two dimensions.

  10. Studies of metal ion binding by apo-metallothioneins attached onto preformed self-assembled monolayers using a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yintang; Xu, Maotian; Wang, Yanju; Toledo, Freddy; Zhou, Feimeng

    2007-01-01

    The use of a flow-injection surface plasmon resonance (FI-SPR) spectrometer equipped with a bicell detector or a position-sensitive device for determining coordination of heavy metal ions (Cd2+ and Hg2+) by surface-confined apo-metallothionein (apo-MT) molecules is described. To facilitate the formation of a compact MT adsorbate layer with a uniform surface orientation, MT molecules were attached onto a preformed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The method resorts to the generation of apo-MT at the surface by treating the MT-covered sensor chip with glycine–HCl and the measurement of the apo-MT conformation changes upon metal ion incorporation. Domain-specific metal ion binding processes by the apo-MT molecules were observed. Competitive replacement of one metal ion by another can be monitored in real time by FI-SPR. The tandem use of an immobilization scheme for forming a sub-monolayer of MT molecules at the sensor surface and the highly sensitive FI-SPR instrument affords a low concentration detection level. The detection level for Cd2+ (0.1 μM or 15 ppb) compares favorably with similar studies and the methodology complements to other well-established sensitive analytical techniques. The extent of metal incorporation by apo-MT molecules was also determined. PMID:18493298

  11. Temperature-Dependent Change of Packing Structure of Condensed-Phase in a Micro-Phase Separated Langmuir Monolayer Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    Packing structure of condensed-phase in a binary mixed Langmuir monolayer of behenic acid (C22) and perfluoro-2,5,8-trimethyl-3,6,9-trioxadodecanoic acid (PFPE) on a cadmium acetate aqueous solution was studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) as a function of the subphase temperature. The measurements were made during temperature scan at a fixed molecular area to explain the morphological change of the condensed-phase domains due to a thermal treatment reported previously [1]. Analysis of GIXD data implies that the condensed-phase domains are composed of only the C22 molecules perpendicularly oriented and very closely packed in a centered rectangular unit cell with orthorhombic distortion at low temperatures. As the temperature increases the area occupied by molecule increases, and above 25 °C the lattice becomes disordered, which would allow morphological transformation of the condensed-phase domains. The process of packing structure change is almost reversible except for non-equilibrium phases observed for the monolayer spread at a low temperature, 5.5 °C.

  12. Are additive effects of dietary surfactants on intestinal tight junction integrity an overlooked human health risk? - A mixture study on Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Anders; Igra, Annachiara Malin; Sand, Salomon; Ilbäck, Nils Gunnar; Hellenäs, Karl Erik; Rosén, Johan; Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte

    2017-08-01

    Surfactants may cause dysfunction of intestinal tight junctions (TJs), which is a common feature of intestinal autoimmune diseases. Effects of dietary surfactants on TJ integrity, measured as trans-epithelial resistance (TEER), were studied in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Cytotoxicity was assessed as apical LDH leakage. Monolayers were apically exposed for 60 min to the dietary surfactants solanine and chaconine (SC, potato glycoalkaloids, 0-0.25 mM), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, industrial contaminant, 0-0.8 mM), and sucrose monolaurate (SML, food emulsifier E 473, 0-2.0 mM) separately and as a mixture. Dose-response modelling of TEER EC50 showed that SC were 2.7- and 12-fold more potent than PFOS and SML, respectively. The mixture was composed of 1 molar unit SC, 2.7 units PFOS and 12 units SML ("SC TEER equivalent" proportions 1:1:1). Mixture exposure (0-0.05 mM SC equivalents) dose-response modelling suggested additive action on TJ integrity. Increasing SC and SML concentrations caused increased LDH leakage, but PFOS decreased LDH leakage at intermediate exposure concentrations. In the mixture PFOS appeared to protect from extensive SC- and SML-induced LDH leakage. Complex mixtures of surfactants in food may act additively on intestinal TJ integrity, which should be considered in risk assessment of emulsifier authorisation for use in food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Savinase proteolysis of insulin Langmuir monolayers studied by surface pressure and surface potential measurements accompanied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging.

    PubMed

    Balashev, K; Ivanova, Tz; Mircheva, K; Panaiotov, I

    2011-08-15

    The mechanism of the enzymatic action of Savinase on an insulin substrate organized in a monolayer at the air-water interface was studied. We followed two steps experimental approach classical surface pressure and surface potential measurements in combination with atomic force microscopy imaging. Utilizing the barostat surface balance, the hydrolysis kinetic was followed by measuring simultaneously the decrease in the surface area and the change of the surface potential versus time. The decrease in the surface area is a result of the random scission of the peptide bonds of polypeptide chain, progressively appearance of amino acid residues, and their solubilization in the aqueous subphase. The interpretation of the surface potential data was based on the contribution of the dipole moments of the intact and broken peptide groups which remain at the interface during the proteolysis. An appropriate kinetic model for the Savinase action was applied, and the global kinetic constant was obtained. The application of the AFM revealed the state of the insulin monolayers before and after the Savinase action. The comparison of the topography of the films and the roughness analysis showed that insulin Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films transferred before the enzyme action were flat, while at the end of hydrolysis, roughness of films has increased and the appearance of 3D structures was observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of α-Heteroatoms on the Formation of Alkene-Derived Monolayers on H-Si(111): A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Gangarapu, Satesh; Pujari, Sidharam P; Alon, Hadas; Rijksen, Bart; Sukenik, Chaim N; Zuilhof, Han

    2015-08-04

    We investigate herein whether the reactivity and surface coverage of 1-alkenes toward hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces [H-Si(111)] can be improved by introducing heteroatoms such as oxygen and sulfur at the α-position next to the alkene functional group. To this end, the reactivity of 1-pentene, 1-pentyne, vinyl ethyl ether, and vinyl ethyl sulfide toward H-Si(111) and the surface coverage of the resulting monolayers were studied and compared. All modified surfaces were characterized by static water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared absorption reflection spectroscopy (IRRAS). Quantum chemical calculations were performed to calculate the activation barriers and driving forces for monolayer formation at the M11-L/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Both experiments and theory indicate that the presence of α-heteroatoms next to the alkene function improved both the reactivity and surface coverage on H-terminated Si(111) surfaces.

  15. [Studies on the biosynthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone in monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells (I) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Okano, K; Nakai, R; Goto, H; Yoshikawa, M

    1976-11-20

    We have developed a preparation of monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells in order to elucidate the control mechanism of the biosynthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) at cellular level. Dispersion of parathyroid cells was performed by stirring minced bovine parathyroid tissues in Hanks' BSS containing 0.3 yields to 0.5 percent collagenase at 37 degrees C for 60 min. Dispersed cells were cultured at 37 degrees C in MEM-Hanks' BSS containing 10 percent fetal calf serum and 15 mM HEPES. On the 5th day of the culture, the medium was replaced with 1 percent BSA-MEM-Hanks-HEPES buffer, and the cells were incubated with 3H-leucine or in the media containing various concentrations of calcium, magnesium, PGE1, PGE2 or DBcAMP. At the end of incubation, the cells were detouched and homogenized in 8M urea, 0.2 N HCL and 0.01 M cysteine solution. The isolation of proparathyroid hormone (ProPTH) and PTH was performed through the preparation of TCA-powder followed by CMC column chromatography. PTH in the incubation medium was determined by radioimmunoassay. It was demonstrated that the monolayer cultures of bovine parathyroid cells were synthesizing ProPTH and converting it to PTH. The cultures exhibited linear secretion rates of PTH into the medium. The secretion of PTH was markedly increased by PGE1, PGE2 or DBcAMP in the range of 10(-7) yields to 10(-5)M in the former and 10(-5) yields to 10(-3)M in the latter, while calcium or magnesium changed secretion rate in the range of 0.3 yields to 4.4 mM.

  16. Mie potentials for phase equilibria calculations: application to alkanes and perfluoroalkanes.

    PubMed

    Potoff, Jeffrey J; Bernard-Brunel, Damien A

    2009-11-05

    Transferable united-atom force fields, based on n - 6 Lennard-Jones potentials, are presented for normal alkanes and perfluorocarbons. It is shown that by varying the repulsive exponent the range of the potential can be altered, leading to improved predictions of vapor pressures while also reproducing saturated liquid densities to high accuracy. Histogram-reweighting Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble are used to determine the vapor liquid coexistence curves, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization, and critical points for normal alkanes methane through tetradecane, and perfluorocarbons perfluoromethane through perfluorooctane. For all molecules studied, saturated liquid densities are reproduced to within 1% of experiment. Vapor pressures for normal alkanes and perfluorocarbons were predicted to within 3% and 6% of experiment, respectively. Calculations performed for binary mixture vapor-liquid equilibria for propane + pentane show excellent agreement with experiment, while slight deviations are observed for the ethane + perfluoroethane mixture.

  17. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant–water environment at leaf flush

    PubMed Central

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season. PMID:23359675

  18. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant-water environment at leaf flush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-02-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season.

  19. Phase-Specific Diffusivity of DPPG Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Joel; Thapa, Prem; Flanders, Bret

    2004-03-01

    The primary role of lung surfactant is to reduce the alveolar surface tension during exhalation in a reversible manner. Failure to do so results in respiratory distress syndrome. Model lung surfactants provide simplified systems for studying the mechanisms that underlie this essential role of alveolar surfactant. Dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) monolayers exhibit reversible folding when compressed to a critical surface tension. This process may exemplify how the compression-expansion cycle attains reversibility and, thus, requires penetrating study. The buckling theory for reversible collapse provides a promising though untested description of this process, but poor knowledge of domain boundary widths in DPPG monolayers impedes the evaluation of this theory as a model for the observed behavior. In turn, the measurement of the domain boundary widths requires knowledge of the phase-specific viscosities of the monolayer. In this study, multi-particle tracking has been used to determine the phase-specific diffusion coefficients of polystyrene spheres embedded in DPPG monolayers. By invoking a Stokes-Einstein relationship that is appropriate for spheres diffusing in a viscous surfactant, the phase specific viscosities of the monolayers have been estimated. The rationale for this work is that this knowledge will promote the quantitative evaluation of buckling as a model for reversible folding and, thus, promote growth in understanding of the folding mechanism in model lung surfactants.

  20. N-Alkane oxidation enzymes of a pseudomonad.

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, V R; Traxler, R W; Sobek, J M

    1977-01-01

    A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent n-alkane dehydrogenase and an NAD phosphate (reduced form)-dependent alkane hydroxylase have been purified from cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain 196Aa grown anaerobically on n-alkane. The n-alkane dehydrogenase (fraction R-3), obtained as a single peak from Bio-Gel P-60, showed an overall 135-fold purification and was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography to convert n-decane to 1-decene. The alkene hydroxylase activity in the S-3 fraction, purified 167 times from diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, was shown by the same methodology to convert decene to decanol. Commercial ferredoxin has been shown to increase the alkane dehydrogenase activity. An NAD-, flavine adenine dinucleotide-, and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was demonstrated in the R-3 fraction. A mechanism for the anaerobic conversion of n-alkane to fatty acid has been proposed. PMID:869535

  1. Revisiting Mt. Kilimanjaro: Do n-alkane biomarkers in soils reflect the δ2H isotopic composition of precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, M.; Zech, R.; Rozanski, K.; Hemp, A.; Gleixner, G.; Zech, W.

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade compound-specific deuterium (δ2H) analysis of plant leaf wax-derived n-alkanes has become a promising and popular tool in paleoclimate research. This is based on the widely accepted assumption that n-alkanes in soils and sediments generally reflect δ2H of precipitation (δ2Hprec). Recently, several authors suggested that δ2H of n-alkanes (δ2H,sub>n-alkanes) can also be used as proxy in paleoaltimetry studies. Here we present results from a δ2H transect study (~1500 to 4000 m a.s.l.) carried out on precipitation and soil samples taken from the humid southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Contrary to earlier suggestions, a distinct altitude effect in δ2Hprec is present above ~2000 m a.s.l., i.e. δ2Hprec values become more negative with increasing altitude. The compound-specific δ2H values of nC27 and nC29 do not confirm this altitudinal trend, but rather become more positive both in the O-layers (organic layers) and the Ah-horizons (mineral topsoils). Although our δ2Hn-alkane results are in agreement with previously published results from the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro (Peterse et al., 2009, BG, 6, 2799-2807), a major re-interpretation is required given that the δ2Hn-alkane results do not reflect the δ2Hprec results. The theoretical framework for this re-interpretation is based on the evaporative isotopic enrichment of leaf water associated with transpiration process. Modelling results show that relative humidity, decreasing considerably along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro (from 78% at ~ 2000 m a.s.l. to 51% at 4000 m a.s.l.), strongly controls δ2Hleaf water. The modelled δ2H leaf water enrichment along the altitudinal transect matches well the measured 2H leaf water enrichment as assessed by using the δ2Hprec and δ2Hn-alkane results and biosynthetic fractionation during n-alkane biosynthesis in leaves. Given that our results clearly demonstrate that n-alkanes in soils do not simply reflect δ2Hprec but rather δ2

  2. A search for microorganisms producing medium-chain alkanes from aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masakazu; Kambe, Hiromi; Kishino, Shigenobu; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ogawa, Jun

    2017-08-28

    Microorganisms with medium-chain alkane-producing activity are promising for the bio-production of drop-in fuel. In this study, we screened for microorganisms producing tridecane from tetradecanal. The activity of aldehyde decarbonylation was found in a wide range of microbes. In particular, the genus Klebsiella in the Enterobacteriaceae family was found to have a high ability to produce alkanes from aldehydes via enzyme catalyzed reaction. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal non-oxidative aromatization of light alkanes catalyzed by gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Mu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Wenbo; Kong, Xianghua; Fan, Shizhao; Mi, Zetian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2014-12-15

    The thermal catalytic activity of GaN in non-oxidative alkane dehydroaromatization has been discovered for the first time. The origin of the catalytic activity was studied experimentally and theoretically. Commercially available GaN powders with a wurtzite crystal structure showed superior stability and reactivity for converting light alkanes, including methane, propane, n-butane, n-hexane and cyclohexane into benzene at an elevated temperature with high selectivity. The catalyst is highly robust and can be used repeatedly without noticeable deactivation.

  4. Length-dependent nucleation mechanisms rule the vaporization of n-alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2008-12-01

    The liquid → vapor transition of a series of n-alkanes is explored by means of molecular dynamics simulations. From the comparison of the vaporization of methane, pentane and decane we elaborate the dependence of the nucleation mechanisms on the chain length. While the boiling of methane may be characterized as 'ideal' vapor bubble nucleation and growth, our studies related to pentane and decane reveal an increasing importance of liquid droplets acting as intermediates of the vaporization process. With increasing chain length the investigated n-alkanes were found to avoid the formation of large liquid-vapor interfaces by following a different nucleation mechanism.

  5. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Melissa M.; Hoarfrost, Adrienne L.; Bose, Arpita; Joye, Samantha B.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C2), propane (C3), and butane (C4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV, Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C1–C4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C1–C4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75°C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C1–C4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C2–C4 alkanes. Maximum C1–C4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55°C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C4, C2, and C1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C2–C4alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C1 derived from these hydrothermal systems. PMID:23717305

  6. n-Alkane biosynthetic hydrogen isotope fractionation is not constant throughout the growing season in the riparian tree Salix viminalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberry, Sarah L.; Kahmen, Ansgar; Dennis, Paul; Grant, Alastair

    2015-09-01

    Compound-specific δ2H values of leaf wax n-alkanes have emerged as a potentially powerful paleohydrological proxy. Research suggests terrestrial plant n-alkane δ2H values are strongly correlated with meteoric water δ2H values, and may provide information on temperature, relative humidity, evaporation, and precipitation. This is based upon several assumptions, including that biosynthetic fractionation of n-alkanes during synthesis is constant within a single species. Here we present a multi-isotope study of the n-alkanes of riparian Salix viminalis growing in Norwich, UK. We measured n-alkane δ2H, leaf water δ2H, xylem water δ2H, and bulk foliar δ13C and evaluated the variability of n-alkane δ2H values and net biosynthetic fractionation (εlw-wax) over a whole growing season. S. viminalis n-alkane δ2H values decreased by 40‰ between the start of the growing season in April and the time when they stabilized in July. Variation in leaf and xylem water δ2H did not explain this variability. εlw-wax varied from -116‰ during leaf expansion in April to -156‰ during the stable phase. This suggests that differential biosynthetic fractionation was responsible for the strong seasonal trends in S. viminalis n-alkane δ2H values. We suggest that variability in εlw-wax is driven by seasonal differences in the carbohydrate source and thus the NADPH used in n-alkane biosynthesis, with stored carbohydrates utilized during spring and recent occurring growing season assimilates used later in the season. This is further supported by bulk foliar δ13C values, which are 13C-enriched during the period of leaf flush, relative to the end of the growing season. Our results challenge the assumption that biosynthetic fractionation is constant for a given species, and suggest that 2H-enriched stored assimilates are an important source for n-alkane biosynthesis early in the growing season. These findings have implications for the interpretation of sedimentary n-alkanes and call

  7. Phase Equilibria of Water/CO2 and Water/n-Alkane Mixtures from Polarizable Models.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Economou, Ioannis G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2017-02-16

    Phase equilibria of water/CO2 and water/n-alkane mixtures over a range of temperatures and pressures were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble. Three sets of Drude-type polarizable models for water, namely the BK3, GCP, and HBP models, were combined with a polarizable Gaussian charge CO2 (PGC) model to represent the water/CO2 mixture. The HBP water model describes hydrogen bonds between water and CO2 explicitly. All models underestimate CO2 solubility in water if standard combining rules are used for the dispersion interactions between water and CO2. With the dispersion parameters optimized to phase compositions, the BK3 and GCP models were able to represent the CO2 solubility in water, however, the water composition in CO2-rich phase is systematically underestimated. Accurate representation of compositions for both water- and CO2-rich phases cannot be achieved even after optimizing the cross interaction parameters. By contrast, accurate compositions for both water- and CO2-rich phases were obtained with hydrogen bonding parameters determined from the second virial coefficient for water/CO2. Phase equilibria of water/n-alkane mixtures were also studied using the HBP water and an exponenial-6 united-atom n-alkanes model. The dispersion interactions between water and n-alkanes were optimized to Henry's constants of methane and ethane in water. The HBP water and united-atom n-alkane models underestimate water content in the n-alkane-rich phase; this underestimation is likely due to the neglect of electrostatic and induction energies in the united-atom model.

  8. Molecular simulation of diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and water in heavy n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Makrodimitri, Zoi A; Unruh, Dominik J M; Economou, Ioannis G

    2011-02-17

    The self-diffusion and mutual diffusion coefficients of hydrogen (H(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and water (H(2)O) in n-alkanes were studied by molecular dynamics simulation. n-Alkane molecules were modeled based on the TraPPE united atom force field. NPT molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for n-C(12) to n-C(96) at different temperature and pressure values to validate the accuracy of the force field. In all cases, good agreement was obtained between literature experimental data and model predictions for the density and structure properties of the n-alkanes. Subsequently, the self-diffusion coefficient of the three light components in the various n-alkanes was calculated at different temperatures. Model predictions were in very good agreement with limited experimental data. Furthermore, the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of H(2) and CO in two n-alkanes, namely n-C(12) and n-C(28), were calculated based on long MD NVT simulations for different solute concentrations in the n-alkanes. Finally, the Fick diffusion coefficient of the components was calculated as a product of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient and a thermodynamic factor. The latter was estimated from the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT). The Fick diffusion coefficient was found to be higher than the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient for H(2) and CO in n-C(28). The empirical Darken equation was used to estimate the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient, and calculations were found to be in good agreement with simulation results.

  9. Regioselective functionalization of alkanes by sequential dehydrogenation-hydrozirconation.

    PubMed

    Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Ureshino, Tomonari; Yamamoto, Shun-ichi; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2010-08-07

    We have succeeded in formal regioselective functionalization of alkanes by iridium-catalyzed dehydrogenation, hydrozirconation of the resulting alkenes, and electrophilic reaction of the generated alkylzirconium intermediate.

  10. Expanding the alkane oxygenase toolbox: new enzymes and applications.

    PubMed

    van Beilen, Jan B; Funhoff, Enrico G

    2005-06-01

    As highly reduced hydrocarbons are abundant in the environment, enzymes that catalyze the terminal or subterminal oxygenation of alkanes are relatively easy to find. A number of these enzymes have been biochemically characterized in detail, because the potential of alkane hydroxylases to catalyze high added-value reactions is widely recognized. Nevertheless, the industrial application of these enzymes is restricted owing to the complex biochemistry, challenging process requirements, and the limited number of cloned and expressed enzymes. Rational and evolutionary engineering approaches have started to yield more robust and versatile enzyme systems, broadening the alkane oxygenase portfolio. In addition, metagenomic approaches provide access to many novel alkane oxygenase sequences.

  11. Anaerobic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes coupled to methane production in oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Semple, Kathleen; Foght, Julia M

    2011-07-01

    Extraction of bitumen from mined oil sands ores produces enormous volumes of tailings that are stored in settling basins (current inventory ≥ 840 million m(3)). Our previous studies revealed that certain hydrocarbons (short-chain n-alkanes [C(6)-C(10)] and monoaromatics [toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene]) in residual naphtha entrained in the tailings are biodegraded to CH(4) by a consortium of microorganisms. Here we show that higher molecular weight n-alkanes (C(14), C(16), and C(18)) are also degraded under methanogenic conditions in oil sands tailings, albeit after a lengthy lag (~180 d) before the onset of methanogenesis. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the longer-chain n-alkanes each added at ~400 mg L(-1) were completely degraded by the resident microorganisms within ~440 d at ~20 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of clone libraries implied that the predominant pathway of longer-chain n-alkane metabolism in tailings is through syntrophic oxidation of n-alkanes coupled with CO(2) reduction to CH(4). These studies demonstrating methanogenic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes by microbes native to oil sands tailings may be important for effective management of tailings and greenhouse gas emissions from tailings ponds.

  12. Nanoparticle interaction with model lung surfactant monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Saleem, Mohammed; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important functions of the lung surfactant monolayer is to form the first line of defence against inhaled aerosols such as nanoparticles (NPs), which remains largely unexplored. We report here, for the first time, the interaction of polyorganosiloxane NPs (AmorSil20: 22 nm in diameter) with lipid monolayers characteristic of alveolar surfactant. To enable a better understanding, the current knowledge about an established model surface film that mimics the surface properties of the lung is reviewed and major results originating from our group are summarized. The pure lipid components dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol have been used to study the biophysical behaviour of their monolayer films spread at the air–water interface in the presence of NPs. Film balance measurements combined with video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy have been used to investigate the formation of domain structures and the changes in the surface pattern induced by NPs. We are able to show that NPs are incorporated into lipid monolayers with a clear preference for defect structures at the fluid–crystalline interface leading to a considerable monolayer expansion and fluidization. NPs remain at the air–water interface probably by coating themselves with lipids in a self-assembly process, thereby exhibiting hydrophobic surface properties. We also show that the domain structure in lipid layers containing surfactant protein C, which is potentially responsible for the proper functioning of surfactant material, is considerably affected by NPs. PMID:19846443

  13. Citrate-reduced silver hydrosol modified with omega-mercaptoalkanoic acids self-assembled monolayers as a substrate for surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. A study with cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Alois; van der Sneppen, Lineke; Gooijer, Cees; van der Zwan, Gert

    2004-07-06

    A new citrate-reduced silver hydrosol coated with omega-mercaptoalkanoic acids (mercaptopropionic and mercaptoundecanoic acids) self-assembled monolayers was prepared and characterized with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The structure and the quality of the coating monolayers are discussed and compared to similar coated and uncoated silver hydrosols previously developed. As an application, the new hydrosol was used as a biocompatible and efficient metal substrate for a surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) study of cytochrome c. The high-quality SERRS spectra reported of cytochrome c (obtained using only 1 microL of a micromolar cytochrome solution) are discussed and compared with data available from literature studies.

  14. Two-laser mass spectrometry of thiolate, disulfide, and sulfide self-assembled monolayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor, J. L.; Lykke, K. R.; Chemistry; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1998-03-31

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates, disulfides (RSSR+), and sulfides were studied on Au by N2 laser desorption followed by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) (118-nm) photoionization of secondary neutrals in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Dimers (RSSR+) dominated the photoionization mass spectrum from all chain lengths of alkanethiolates and disulfides studied. Nonmethyl-terminated alkanethiolates with X = (OH and COOH) were detected as dimers without loss of the terminal group. Phenyl-SAMs with X = (H, OH, OCH3, Cl, and NO2) were detected as both monomers and dimers. Thiocholesterol SAMs were detected solely as monomers. The data suggest that dimerization occurs as a result of the recombination of surface thiolates during desorption. The alkane sulfides were detected intact, but with additional monomer and dimer species present in the spectra. The appearance of dimers is not a strong function of adsorbate structure or ordering and therefore cannot be taken as evidence for or against the recently proposed model of thiolate dimers on Au surfaces. Two receptor adsorbates, resorcin[4]arene tetrasulfide and {beta}-cyclodextrin sulfide were examined by two-laser mass spectrometry (L2MS), but only the former gave identifiable high mass peaks. Mixed thiolate and disulfide monolayers generated both pure and mixed dimers, providing information on nearest neighbor interactions. The mixed disulfide results indicate there is a common adsorption state for thiolates and disulfides. The laser desorption and VUV photoionization cross sections for these various organosulfur SAMs were found to be similar. L2MS with VUV photoionization was nonselective in its detection of these organosulfur species and produced mass spectra with little fragmentation.

  15. Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticles as a Stationary Phase for Open Tubular Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Gwen M.; Nelson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2003-09-01

    The use of a thin film of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles (MPNs) as a stationary phase for gas chromatography (GC) is reported. Dodecanethiol-protected gold nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Deposition of a MPN film was successfully completed within a 2 m, 530 {micro}m (i.d.) deactivated silica capillary using gravity to force a plug of solution containing the MPN material through the capillary for deposition. The presence of a thin MPN film on the GC capillary inside wall was confirmed with SEM analysis with an average film thickness of 60.7 nm measured. The retention behavior of the dodecanethiol MPN stationary phase was studied using four different classes of compounds (alkanes, alcohols, aromatics and ketones) and their retention orders were compared to a commercially available column (AT-1, 100 nm phase thickness). The separation of an eight-component mixture was performed using both isothermal and temperature programming separation methods with the novel dodecanethiol MPN phase. The isothermal separation was then objectively compared to the commercial AT-1 stationary phase column using the same experimental parameters. The commercial column had an efficiency, N, of 6200 (k{prime} = 0.33) while the dodecanethiol MPN stationary phase had an efficiency, N, of 5700 (k{prime} = 0.21) for the same analyte, octane. The reduced plate height, h, for this same analyte was found to be less than 1 at the optimum linear flow velocity. Based upon the efficiencies and reduced plate height studies as a function of linear flow velocity, we conclude that the MPN stationary phase operated at nearly the optimum possible performance level. The robustness of the MPN phase is also discussed with consistent performance observed over several months. Overall, the use of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles as gas chromatographic stationary phase materials appears promising.

  16. Spontaneously adsorbed monolayer films: Fabrication, characterization, and application of monolayers of alkanethiol and sulfur-bearing cyclodestrin derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chinkap, Chung.

    1991-03-12

    Monolayers of n-alkanethiols (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n}SH, n=1--17) and sulfur-bearing cyclodextrin derivatives spontaneously adsorbed on Ag and Au have been studied with a variety of surface characterization methods, such as infrared inflection spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, electro-chemistry, optical ellipsometry, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Long chain n-alkanethiols monolayers on Ag and Au are insulating to electron transfer and have contact angles indicative of well-ordered hydrocarbon terminated structures. Infrared and contact angle data indicate a different orientation of the methyl group with respect to the surface for chains with odd and even numbers of methylene groups. Compared to monolayers on Au, the alkanethiol monolayers on Ag are oriented more towards the surface normal. The observed odd-even effect methyl group orientation for these monolayers on Ag is offset by a methylene group from that on Au. The relationships between the structure and packing of the monolayers on Ag and Au and the composition, roughness, and crystallinity of the substrate are also discussed. Monolayers of sulfur-bearing cyclodextrin derivatives on Au and Ag are fabricated by spontaneous adsorption and characterized by the above techniques. Size-selectively and molecular recognition of the {alpha}- and {beta}- cyclodextrin cavity are shown with our monolayers. Because of molecular recognition, p-nitrophenol is retained preferrentially by the cyclodextrin monolayers over o-nitrophenol. 146 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Two Cell Circuits of Oriented Adult Hippocampal Neurons on Self-Assembled Monolayers for Use in the Study of Neuronal Communication in a Defined System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the directed formation of small circuits of electrically active, synaptically connected neurons derived from the hippocampus of adult rats through the use of engineered chemically modified culture surfaces that orient the polarity of the neuronal processes. Although synaptogenesis, synaptic communication, synaptic plasticity, and brain disease pathophysiology can be studied using brain slice or dissociated embryonic neuronal culture systems, the complex elements found in neuronal synapses makes specific studies difficult in these random cultures. The study of synaptic transmission in mature adult neurons and factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, in brain slices, or in vivo. However, engineered neuronal networks would allow these studies to be performed instead on simple functional neuronal circuits derived from adult brain tissue. Photolithographic patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create the two-cell “bidirectional polarity” circuit patterns. This pattern consisted of a cell permissive SAM, N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine (DETA), and was composed of two 25 μm somal adhesion sites connected with 5 μm lines acting as surface cues for guided axonal and dendritic regeneration. Surrounding the DETA pattern was a background of a non-cell-permissive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM. Adult hippocampal neurons were first cultured on coverslips coated with DETA monolayers and were later passaged onto the PEG-DETA bidirectional polarity patterns in serum-free medium. These neurons followed surface cues, attaching and regenerating only along the DETA substrate to form small engineered neuronal circuits. These circuits were stable for more than 21 days in vitro (DIV), during which synaptic connectivity was evaluated using basic electrophysiological methods. PMID:23611164

  18. Two cell circuits of oriented adult hippocampal neurons on self-assembled monolayers for use in the study of neuronal communication in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darin; Stancescu, Maria; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2013-08-21

    In this study, we demonstrate the directed formation of small circuits of electrically active, synaptically connected neurons derived from the hippocampus of adult rats through the use of engineered chemically modified culture surfaces that orient the polarity of the neuronal processes. Although synaptogenesis, synaptic communication, synaptic plasticity, and brain disease pathophysiology can be studied using brain slice or dissociated embryonic neuronal culture systems, the complex elements found in neuronal synapses makes specific studies difficult in these random cultures. The study of synaptic transmission in mature adult neurons and factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, in brain slices, or in vivo. However, engineered neuronal networks would allow these studies to be performed instead on simple functional neuronal circuits derived from adult brain tissue. Photolithographic patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create the two-cell "bidirectional polarity" circuit patterns. This pattern consisted of a cell permissive SAM, N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine (DETA), and was composed of two 25 μm somal adhesion sites connected with 5 μm lines acting as surface cues for guided axonal and dendritic regeneration. Surrounding the DETA pattern was a background of a non-cell-permissive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM. Adult hippocampal neurons were first cultured on coverslips coated with DETA monolayers and were later passaged onto the PEG-DETA bidirectional polarity patterns in serum-free medium. These neurons followed surface cues, attaching and regenerating only along the DETA substrate to form small engineered neuronal circuits. These circuits were stable for more than 21 days in vitro (DIV), during which synaptic connectivity was evaluated using basic electrophysiological methods.

  19. Alkane distribution and carbon isotope composition in fossil leaves: An interpretation of plant physiology in the geologic past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, H. V.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The relative chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of n-alkanes extracted from sedimentary rocks are important geochemical tools for investigating past terrestrial ecosystems. Alkanes preserved in ancient sediments are assumed to be contemporaneous, derived from the same ecosystem, and integrated from the biomass present on the landscape at the time of deposition. Further, there is an underlying assumption that ancient plants exhibited the same metabolic and physiological responses to climate conditions that are observed for modern plants. Interpretations of alkane abundances and isotopic signatures are complicated by the strong influence of phylogenetic affiliation and ecological factors, such as canopy structure. A better understanding of how ecosystem and taxa influence alkane properties, including homologue abundance patterns and leaf-lipid carbon isotope fractionation would help strengthen paleoecological interpretations based on these widely employed plant biomarkers. In this study, we analyze the alkane chain-length distribution and carbon-isotope composition of phytoleim and alkanes (d13Cleaf and d13Clipid) extracted from a selection of Cretaceous and Paleocene fossil leaves from the Guaduas and Cerrejon Formations of Colombia. These data were compared with data for the same families in a modern analogue biome. Photosynthetic and biosynthetic fractionation (∆leaf and elipid) values determined from the fossil material indicate carbon metabolism patterns were similar to modern plants. Fossil data were incorporated in a biomass-weighted mixing model to represent the expected lipid complement of sediment arising from this ecosystem and compared with alkane measurements from the rock matrix. Modeled and observed isotopic and abundance patterns match well for alkane homologs most abundant in plants (i.e., n-C27 to n-C33). The model illustrates the importance of understanding biases in litter flux and taphonomic pressures inherent in the

  20. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  1. Hydrocarbons disposition, lipid content, and fatty acid composition in trout after long-term dietary exposure to n-alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cravedi, J.P.; Tulliez, J.E.

    1983-12-01

    Uptake, distribution, and storage of n-alkanes was studied in rainbow trout receiving a diet containing 1% normal paraffins in the C/sub 13/-C/sub 22/ range. After 3 months, the concentration of hydrocarbons deposited in the whole body reached a steady equilibrium value in the range 700-900 ppm. The most pronounced deposition occurred in the adipose tissue. The n-alkane pattern in the whole body exhibited a profile different from that of the alkane mixture ingested. The alkanes around C/sub 20/ were not retained to any great extent, but as the chain length decreased, the relative amount stored increased. In the liver a marked predominance of even-carbon chain length was observed while in whole fish and in other organs such a phenomenon did not occur. After 5 months, total lipids in the carcass were significantly lower in the test group than in the control group. At the end of the accumulation period, a significant enhancement in the proportion of odd- and even-chain saturated fatty acids from C/sub 14:0/ to C/sub 18:0/ was noted in carcasses of hydrocarbon-fed fish. Myristic, pentadecanoic, and heptadecanoic acids were also significantly more abundant in the liver and adipose tissue of contaminated fish. This increase is attributed to the terminal oxidation of the predominant n-alkanes in the diet into the corresponding fatty acids. During the depuration period, one-half of the trout in each group were fed a hydrocarbon-free diet, while the others were starved. After 2 months, both starved and fed trout had lost approximately 50% of the amount of total n-alkanes stored. The n-alkanes longer than C/sub 16/ were well retained, while short-chain alkane concentration decreased rapidly. 41 references.

  2. Geologic seepage of methane and light alkanes in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doezema, L. A.; Chang, K.; Baril, R.; Nwachuku, I.; Contreras, P.; Marquez, A.; Howard, D.

    2013-12-01

    Natural geologic seepage of methane from underground oil and natural gas reservoirs has been suggested to be an underreported part of the global methane budget. Other light alkanes are also given off in combination with the methane seepage, making it possible that geologic seepage is also a potentially significant global source of these light alkanes. This study reports C1-C5 findings from geologic seepage made in the Los Angeles region. Microseepage, invisible escape of gases, was measured primarily at Kenneth Hahn Regional Park, while macroseepage, the visible release of gases, was measured at the La Brea Tar Pits. Samples were collected using stainless steel canisters and flux chambers and were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID). Average microseepage flux rates of 0.95 μg m-2 h-1 for ethane and 0.51 μg m-2 h-1 were found for propane, while average macroseepage rates for methane, ethane, and propane were 664, 19.8, and 18.1 mg m-2 h-1 respectively. Relationships between microseepage flux rate and location of underground oil and natural deposit and earthquake fault lines are presented. Additionally, the relative importance of findings in context with global budgets and local air quality is discussed.

  3. A martensitic-like transition in a normal alkane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Jeffrey; Nene, Shailesh; Karhu, Eric; Flemming, Roberta

    2009-03-01

    The normal alkanes, CnH2n+2, with a structure consisting of a single chain, are the simplest hydrocarbons. These are an interesting class of material, both in terms of their intrinsic properties and the fact that many biological molecules contain hydrocarbon domains. Normal alkanes exhibit an unusual phase diagram with several solid phases, some of which---the ``rotator phases''---are characterized by positional order without long-range orientational order. We have found a striking pattern of twinned, striped domains that occurs in thin layers the monoclinic rotator RV phase of tricosane (C23H48). We have studied this structure, and its transitions to other phases, by X-ray diffraction, as well as by optical and atomic-force microscopy. Intriguingly, transitions between the RV phase and the RI orthorhombic phase lying at higher temperatures appear to be diffusionless, and preserve molecular-scale features even after multiple transitions between the phases. These properties are reminiscent of martensitic transformations, which are better-known in metal alloys, but occur here at convenient temperatures and with slow kinetics.

  4. Primary products and mechanistic considerations in alkane metathesis.

    PubMed

    Basset, Jean Marie; Copéret, Christophe; Lefort, Laurent; Maunders, Barry M; Maury, Olivier; Le Roux, Erwan; Saggio, Guillaume; Soignier, Sophie; Soulivong, Daravong; Sunley, Glenn J; Taoufik, Mostafa; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean

    2005-06-22

    Alkane metathesis, a reaction catalyzed by the silica-supported tantalum hydride [(SiO)2Ta-H], 1, which transforms acyclic alkanes into their higher and lower homologues, was reported in 1997. New studies conducted in a continuous flow reactor in the case of propane indicate that, by varying the contact time, hydrogen and olefins are primary products. This crucial observation, as well as the known properties of tantalum alkyls to perform alpha-H or beta-H eliminations, supports the proposition of a new mechanism involving metallacyclobutane intermediates just like in olefin metathesis. The observed selectivities for linear and branched Cn+1 and Cn+2 products as well as the linear/branched ratio can be well-explained on the basis of the minimization of steric interactions between 1,2- or 1,3-substituents in the various tantallacyclobutane intermediates or during their formation. Hydrogen plays a specific role in the cleavage of metal alkyls to complete the catalytic cycle.

  5. Study on the reversible changes of the surface properties of an L-cysteine self-assembled monolayer on gold as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Filimon, Andrei-Daniel; Jacob, Peter; Hergenröder, Roland; Jürgensen, Astrid

    2012-06-12

    A stimuli-response biological surface of L-cysteine was prepared on a polycrystalline gold surface from aqueous solution. The effect of the pH value of the rinsing solution on the surface composition was studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino, carboxyl, and thiol functional groups of these self-assembled monolayers indicate that L-cysteine molecules exist in the neutral and zwitterionic forms and that they are sensitive to the pH of the rinsing solution. In addition, the wetting properties of the functionalized surface were studied by contact angle (CA) analysis: they were also dependent on the pH of the rinsing solution. Furthermore, it was shown that this functionalization process was reversible.

  6. Transcriptional response of Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans AK-01 to growth on alkanes: insights from RT-qPCR and microarray analyses.