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Sample records for alkyl aryl sulfonates

  1. Safety assessment of xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Hill, Ronald; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-12-01

    Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes, were reviewed in this safety assessment. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. The panel concluded that xylene sulfonic acid and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of (Hetero)Aryl Alkyl Sulfones from (Hetero)Aryl Boronic Acids, Unactivated Alkyl Halides, and Potassium Metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Shavnya, Andre; Hesp, Kevin D; Mascitti, Vincent; Smith, Aaron C

    2015-11-01

    A palladium-catalyzed one-step synthesis of (hetero)aryl alkyl sulfones from (hetero)arylboronic acids, potassium metabisulfite, and unactivated or activated alkylhalides is described. This transformation is of broad scope, occurs under mild conditions, and employs readily available reactants. A stoichiometric experiment has led to the isolation of a catalytically active dimeric palladium sulfinate complex, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  3. Iron-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Unactivated, Secondary Alkyl Thio Ethers and Sulfones with Aryl Grignard Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Cresswell, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    The first systematic investigation of unactivated aliphatic sulfur compounds as electrophiles in transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling are described. Initial studies focused on discerning the structural and electronic features of the organosulfur substrate which enable the challenging oxidative addition to the C(sp3)–S bond. Through extensive optimization efforts, an Fe(acac)3-catalyzed cross-coupling of unactivated alkyl aryl thio ethers with aryl Grignard reagents was realized, in which a nitrogen “directing group” on the S-aryl moiety of the thio ether served a critical role in facilitating the oxidative addition step. In addition, alkyl phenyl sulfones were found to be effective electrophiles in the Fe(acac)3-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl Grignard reagents. For the latter class of electrophile, a thorough assessment of the various reaction parameters revealed a dramatic enhancement in reaction efficiency with an excess of TMEDA (8.0 equiv). The optimized reaction protocol was used to evaluate the scope of the method with respect to both the organomagnesium nucleophile and sulfone electrophile. PMID:24256193

  4. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Alkyl Sulfenate Anions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiezheng; Zhang, Mengnan; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Carol Y; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-11-01

    A unique palladium-catalyzed arylation of alkyl sulfenate anions is introduced that affords aryl alkyl sulfoxides in high yields. Due to the base sensitivity of the starting sulfoxides, sulfenate anion intermediates, and alkyl aryl sulfoxide products, the use of a mild method to generate alkyl sulfenate anions was crucial to the success of this process. Thus, a fluoride triggered elimination strategy was employed with alkyl 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl sulfoxides to liberate the requisite alkyl sulfenate anion intermediates. In the presence of palladium catalysts with bulky monodentate phosphines (SPhos and Cy-CarPhos) and aryl bromides or chlorides, alkyl sulfenate anions were readily arylated. Moreover, the thermal fragmentation and the base promoted elimination of alkyl sulfoxides was overridden. The alkyl sulfenate anion arylation exhibited excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of functional groups, such as anilines and phenols, which are also known to undergo palladium catalyzed arylation reactions.

  10. Transition-metal-free C-S bond formation: a facile access to aryl sulfones from sodium sulfinates via arynes.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Virat G; Mhaske, Santosh B

    2014-07-18

    Sulfones have been attractive targets for synthetic organic chemists owing to their immense applications in medicinal, material, and synthetic chemistry. In this context, an efficient transition-metal-free process has been demonstrated, wherein a broad range of alkyl/aryl/heteroaryl sodium sulfinates react with varyingly substituted aryne precursors (o-silyl aryl triflates) under mild reaction conditions to afford structurally diverse sulfones in good to excellent yields.

  11. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  12. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  13. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9597 Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo... substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9597 Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo... substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  20. Copper-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of nonactivated alkyl tosylates and mesylates with alkyl and aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Hui; Yang, Chu-Ting; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Xu, Ling; Cui, Mian; Lu, Xi; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao; Liu, Lei

    2014-11-17

    A copper-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reaction of nonactivated alkyl tosylates and mesylates with alkyl and aryl bromides was developed. It provides a practical method for efficient and cost-effective construction of aryl-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl CC bonds with stereocontrol from readily available substrates. When used in an intramolecular fashion, the reaction enables convenient access to various substituted carbo- or heterocycles, such as 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and benzochromene derivatives.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  5. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  6. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  7. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  8. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  9. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroarylation and Concomitant ortho-Alkylation of Aryl Iodides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chuanhu; Jin, Xiaojia; Zhou, Jianrong Steve

    2015-11-01

    Three-component couplings were achieved from common aryl halides, alkyl halides, and heteroarenes under palladium and norbornene co-catalysis. The reaction forges hindered aryl-heteroaryl bonds and introduces ortho-alkyl groups to aryl rings. Various heterocycles such as oxazoles, thiazoles and thiophenes underwent efficient coupling. The heteroarenes were deprotonated in situ by bases without the assistance of palladium catalysts.

  11. Aryl sulfonates as neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Robert; Blackwell, James M.; Younkin, Todd R.; Putna, E. Steve; Esswein, Katherine; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Callahan, Ryan; Tsubaki, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Tooru

    2009-03-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate for printing sub-32 nm hp patterns. In order for EUVL to be commercially viable at these dimensions, a continuous evolution of the photoresist material set is required to simultaneously meet the aggressive specifications for resolution, resist sensitivity, LWR, and outgassing rate. Alternative PAG designs, especially if tailored for EUVL, may aid in the formation of a material set that helps achieve these aggressive targets. We describe the preparation, characterization, and lithographic evaluation of aryl sulfonates as non-ionic or neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUVL. Full lithographic characterization is reported for our first generation resist formulation using compound H, MAP-1H-2.5. It is benchmarked against MAP-1P-5.0, which contains the well-known sulfonium PAG, triphenylsulfonium triflate (compound P). Z-factor analysis indicates nZ32 = 81.4 and 16.8 respectively, indicating that our first generation aryl sulfonate formulations require about 4.8x improvement to match the results achieved with a model onium PAG. Improving the acid generation efficiency and use of the generated byproducts is key to the continued optimization of this class of PAGs. To that end, we believe EI-MS fragmentation patterns and molecular simulations can be used to understand and optimize the nature and efficiency of electron-induced PAG fragmentation.

  12. Catalytic conjugate additions of geminal bis(sulfone)s: expanding the chemistry of sulfones as simple alkyl anion equivalents.

    PubMed

    Landa, Aitor; Puente, Angel; Santos, J Ignacio; Vera, Silvia; Oiarbide, Mikel; Palomo, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    The value of cyclic gem-bis(sulfone) 4 as a simple alkyl nucleophile equivalent in catalytic C-C bond-forming reactions is demonstrated. The 1,4-type nucleophilic additions of bis(sulfone) 4 to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones take place by assistance of catalytic guanidine base. On the other hand, pyrrolidines are able to catalyze the conjugate addition of 4 to both enones and enals, likely by means of iminium ion activation. Upon exploration of the best chiral pyrrolidine catalyst, it has been found that the addition of 4 to enals catalyzed by diphenylprolinol silyl ether 10 proceeds with very high enantioselectivity (beta-aryl-substituted enals >95% ee; beta-alkyl substituted enals up to 94% ee; ee = enantiomeric excess). Further reductive desulfonation of adducts gives rise to the corresponding beta-methyl aldehydes, as well as the derived alcohols, acetals, and methyl esters after simple (Mg, MeOH) well-established protocols. Application of the procedure to the synthesis of biologically relevant phenethyl building blocks is shown. Most interestingly, alpha-alkylation of initially obtained bis(sulfone) adducts can be done even with less reactive alkylating reagents, such as long linear-chain or branched-chain alkyl halides. Accordingly, upon the desulfonation process, a general, experimentally simple and highly enantioselective access to beta-branched aldehydes, alcohols, or esters is possible. Further exploration of the method includes the use of chiral alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes derived from citronellal as the Michael acceptor partners. In these instances, the sense of the conjugate addition of 4 is controlled by the chirality of the pyrrolidine catalyst, thus allowing for a stereochemically predictable access to 1,3-dimethyl arrays, such as those present in deoxygenated polyketide-type natural products. The intramolecular variation of this technology by using doubly unsaturated aldehyde-ester 22 illustrated the site selectivity of the procedure and its

  13. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sulfonated aromatic (generic name). 721.950 Section 721.950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sulfonated aromatic (generic name). 721.950 Section 721.950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  15. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c]M [2h2m 13c], And [2h3,, 13c] Methyl Aryl Sulfones And Sulfoxides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfones and [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfoxides, wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfone or sulfoxide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4 and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing methyl aryl sulfones and methyl aryl sulfoxides.

  16. Reaction of Lithium Diethylamide with an Alkyl Bromide and Alkyl Benzenesulfonate: Origins of Alkylation, Elimination, and Sulfonation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lekha; Ramírez, Antonio; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of NMR, kinetic, and computational methods are used to examine reactions of lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with n-dodecyl bromide and n-octyl benzenesulfonate. The alkyl bromide undergoes competitive SN2 substitution and E2 elimination in proportions independent of all concentrations except for a minor medium effect. Rate studies show that both reactions occur via trisolvated-monomer-based transition structures. The alkyl benzenesulfonate undergoes competitive SN2 substitution (minor) and N-sulfonation (major) with N-sulfonation promoted at low THF concentrations. The SN2 substitution is shown to proceed via a disolvated monomer suggested computationally to involve a cyclic transition structure. The dominant N-sulfonation follows a disolvated-dimer-based transition structure suggested computationally to be a bicyclo[3.1.1] form. The differing THF and lithium diethylamide orders for the two reactions explain the observed concentration-dependent chemoselectivities. PMID:21077695

  17. Arylative Desulfonation of Diarylmethyl Phenyl Sulfone with Arenes Catalyzed by Scandium Triflate.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Masakazu; Ariki, Zachary T; Canseco-Gonzalez, Daniel; Beattie, D Dawson; Crudden, Cathleen M

    2016-05-20

    A scandium-triflate-catalyzed arylative desulfonation of diarylmethyl phenyl sulfones with arenes and heteroarenes was established. A variety of both sulfone and arene substrates were reacted to afford symmetric and nonsymmetric triarylmethanes in good yields. Further transformations of the resulting triarylmethanes and application to the concise synthesis of a bactericidal agent analogue were also demonstrated.

  18. Arylative Desulfonation of Diarylmethyl Phenyl Sulfone with Arenes Catalyzed by Scandium Triflate.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Masakazu; Ariki, Zachary T; Canseco-Gonzalez, Daniel; Beattie, D Dawson; Crudden, Cathleen M

    2016-05-20

    A scandium-triflate-catalyzed arylative desulfonation of diarylmethyl phenyl sulfones with arenes and heteroarenes was established. A variety of both sulfone and arene substrates were reacted to afford symmetric and nonsymmetric triarylmethanes in good yields. Further transformations of the resulting triarylmethanes and application to the concise synthesis of a bactericidal agent analogue were also demonstrated. PMID:27124389

  19. Accessing 2,1-Borazaronaphthols: Self-Arylation of 1-Alkyl-2-aryl-3-bromo-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unlike their B-alkyl counterparts, brominated N-alkyl B-aryl 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes undergo a self-arylation reaction in the presence of a catalytic amount of palladium and base, in which the azaborine serves as both the electrophile and the nucleophile. The products of the self-arylation are air- and moisture-stable 2,1-borazaronaphthols, previously only observed in basic alcoholic solvents. The steric encumbrance of the azaborine appears to prevent formation of the corresponding boron acid anhydride, allowing access to a family of 2,1-borazaronaphthol derivatives. PMID:25133658

  20. Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides: highly effective insect repellents.

    PubMed

    Steltenkamp, R J; Hamilton, R L; Cooper, R A; Schal, C

    1992-03-01

    Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides with a total carbon number between 11 and 14, or within a molecular weight range between 185 and 227, were highly effective repellents of male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Comparison with known repellents showed that members of this unique family of secondary amides are among the most effective and long-lasting repellents of cockroaches examined to date. In assays with females and nymphs of the German cockroach, male American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and carpenter ant workers, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer) methyl neodecanamide, propyl neodecanamide, and methyl neotridecanamide were found highly repellent. Because of their broad spectrum of activity, longevity, and safety, these compounds, along with several other members of this family, have important applications as repellents of nuisance pests and of arthropods of public health importance. PMID:1495022

  1. Application of secondary alkyl halides to a domino aryl alkylation reaction for the synthesis of aromatic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Alena; Rackelmann, Nils; Turcotte-Savard, Marc-Olivier; Lautens, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed, norbornene-mediated ortho-alkylation reaction of aryl iodides with secondary alkyl halides is described. Intermolecular or intramolecular ortho-alkylation proceeds in a domino process with various termination steps, generating two new carbon-carbon or carbon-nitrogen bonds in one pot, to afford an array of polycyclic heterocycles. The use of enantioenriched substrates has shown that this palladium-catalyzed reaction is stereospecific, proceeding with minimal erosion of ee.

  2. Transition-metal-free direct alkylation of aryl tetrazoles via intermolecular oxidative C-N formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Kaiqiang; Chen, Qun; He, Mingyang

    2014-12-01

    A transition-metal-free synthetic approach for constructing alkylated aryl tetrazoles has been developed using n-Bu4NI as the catalyst and t-BuOOH as the oxidant. It involves the direct C-N bond formation through sp(3) C-H activation. A wide range of benzylic C-H substrates (or alkyl ethers) and aryl tetrazoles undergo this reaction smoothly to deliver the corresponding products in good yields.

  3. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  6. Activated-sludge nitrification in the presence of linear and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Baillod, C R; Boyle, W C

    1968-01-01

    The effects of biodegradable linear alkyl benzene sulfonate and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonate detergents on activated-sludge nitrification were investigated by administering a synthetic waste containing up to 23 mg of each detergent per liter to eight bench-scale, batch, activated-sludge units. It was found that both detergents tended to promote complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, whereas control units produced approximately equal amounts of nitrite and nitrate. Various hypotheses are offered to explain the phenomenon.

  7. Oil recovery method utilizing a dialkyl phenol polyethoxy alkyl sulfonate as a solubilizing co-surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, N.G.; Hughes, J.W.; Kudchadker, M.V.

    1980-09-02

    The dialkylbenzene polyethoxy alkyl sulfonate is combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant to form an effective surfactant solution that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant solution is injected into an underground petroleum reservoir in order to recover crude oil therefrom.

  8. Nickel 0-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkyl arenesulfonates with aryl Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hee; Yun, Hee-Sung; Park, Kwangyong

    2003-04-18

    The nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of neopentyl arenesulfonates with arylmagnesium bromides, involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution of alkyloxysulfonyl groups by aryl nucleophiles, take place in high yields. Optimal efficiencies are obtained by adding 3 + 2 equiv of the Grignard reagent to a mixture of dppfNiCl(2) and the sulfonate in refluxing THF. Neopentyl arenesulfonates are useful sources of the electrophilic aryl groups in these transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Aryl sulfonates are inappropriate due to their ambident reactivity under the reaction conditions. This new cross-coupling reaction can be used for the creative elimination of alkyloxysulfonyl groups from aromatic compounds and for the preparation of unsymmetric terphenyls and oligophenyls.

  9. Nickel-Catalyzed Dimerization and Alkylarylation of 1,3-Dienes with Alkyl Fluorides and Aryl Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takanori; Min, Xin; Fukuoka, Asuka; Kuniyasu, Hitoshi; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2016-04-25

    In the presence of a nickel catalyst, 1,3-butadiene undergoes selective dimerization and alkylarylation with alkyl fluorides and aryl Grignard reagents to give 1,6-octadienes with alkyl and aryl groups at the 3- and 8-positions, respectively, by the consecutive formation of three carbon-carbon bonds. The formation of an anionic nickel complex plays an important role in forming C-C bonds with alkyl fluorides. PMID:26938137

  10. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bijay

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  11. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bijay; Giri, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  12. Synthesis of 5-aryl-1,3-dimethyl-6-(alkyl- or aryl-amino) furo [2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives by reaction between isocyanides and pyridinecarbaldehydes in the presence of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Marandi, Ghasem; Hazeri, Nourallah; Habibi-Khorassani, Sayyed Mostafa; Mirzaei, Ali Akbar

    2011-02-01

    5-Aryl-6-(alkyl- or aryl-amino)-1,3-dimethylfuro [2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were obtained by in situ reaction alkyl or aryl isocyanides and pyridinecarbaldehyde derivatives in the presence of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in dichloromethane without any prior activation or modifications.

  13. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of an...

  14. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of an...

  15. DETERMINATION OF ALKYLATED & SULFONATED DIPHENYL OXIDE SULFACTANT BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the determination of the anionic surfactant Dowfax 8390 are described. Dowfax is a complex mixture of various alkylated and sulfonated diphenyl oxides. The primary component of Dowfax is monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide (MADS). This work uses ion pairing chro...

  16. Promotion of Organic Reactions by Ultrasound: Coupling of Alkyl and Aryl Halides in the Presence of Lithium Metal and Ultrasound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Timothy D.; Berry, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Experiments involving the coupling of alkyl and aryl halides in the presence of lithium metal and ultrasound are described. The experiments illustrate classical Wurtz and Fittig reactions in addition to being a convenient application of organic sonochemistry. (JN)

  17. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Liu, Baijun; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  18. Asymmetric Suzuki Cross-Couplings of Activated Secondary Alkyl Electrophiles: Arylations of Racemic α-Chloroamides

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Pamela M.; Fu, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    A nickel-catalyzed stereoconvergent method for the enantioselective Suzuki arylation of racemic α-chloroamides has been developed. This process represents the first example of an asymmetric arylation of an α-haloamide, of an enantioselective arylation of an α-chlorocarbonyl compound, and of an asymmetric Suzuki reaction with an activated alkyl electrophile or an arylboron reagent. The method is also applicable to the corresponding enantioselective cross-coupling of α-bromoamides. The coupling products can be transformed without racemization into useful enantioenriched α-arylcarboxylic acids and primary alcohols. An unprecedented (and modest) kinetic resolution of the α-chloroamide has been observed; a mechanistic study indicates that the selectivity likely reflects the discrimination by the chiral catalyst of the two enantiomeric α-chloroamides in an irreversible oxidative-addition process. PMID:20698665

  19. Anaerobic digestion of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates: biodegradation kinetics and metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    García, M T; Campos, E; Ribosa, I; Latorre, A; Sánchez-Leal, J

    2005-09-01

    In the present work the effect of the alkyl chain length and the position of the sulfophenyl substituent of the linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on their anaerobic biodegradability have been investigated. Degradation kinetics of the linear alkyl benzene sulfonates homologues, 2phiC10LAS, 2phiC12LAS and 2phiC14LAS, have been studied. It has been also investigated the effect of the isomer type on the degradation rate of the LAS molecule through the comparative study of the 2phiC10LAS and 5phiC10LAS isomers. Batch anaerobic biodegradation tests were performed using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as microorganisms source. Ultimate biodegradation was evaluated from the biogas production whereas primary biodegradation was determined by specific analysis of the surfactant. LAS homologues and isomers showed a negligible primary biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, analysis of sulfophenyl carboxilates (SPC) by LC-MS indicated a low and constant level of these LAS degradation metabolites over the test period. These data are consistent with a minimal transformation of the LAS parent molecule in the anaerobic digesters. On the other hand, the addition of the shortest alkyl chain length homologues, decyl and dodecylbenzene sulfonates, reduces the biogas production whereas the most hydrophobic homologue, the tetradecylbenzene sulfonate, enhances the biogas production. This LAS homologue seems to increase the availability of organic compounds sorbed on the anaerobic sludge promoting their biodegradation.

  20. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylselenolation of aryl and alkyl halides: the silver effect in transmetalation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaohuang; Hou, Chuanqi; Wang, Yuguang; Hor, T S Andy; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-17

    A catalytic trifluoromethylselenolation of aryl and alkyl halides by a Cu(I) catalyst has been developed. A key intermediate, [(phen)Cu(SeCF3)]2 (5) was successfully isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The important role of silver in the transmetalation process during the catalytic cycle was elucidated. A wide range of trifluoromethylselanes have been prepared from readily available starting materials from a method that tolerates various important functional groups. PMID:24372349

  1. Interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates: A molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zi-Yu; Wei, Ning; Wang, Ce; Zhou, He; Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Lu

    2015-11-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to analyze orientations of sodium branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates molecules at nonane/water interface, which is helpful to design optimal surfactant structures to achieve ultralow interfacial tension (IFT). Through the two dimensional density profiles, monolayer collapses are found when surfactant concentration continues to increase. Thus the precise scope of monolayer is certain and orientation can be analyzed. Based on the simulated results, we verdict the interfacial assignment of branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates at the oil-water interface, and discuss the effect of hydrophobic tail structure on surfactant assignment. Bigger hydrophobic size can slow the change rate of surfactant occupied area as steric hindrance, and surfactant meta hydrophobic tails have a stronger tendency to stretch to the oil phase below the collapsed concentration. Furthermore, an interfacial model with reference to collapse, increasing steric hindrance and charge repulsive force between interfacial surfactant molecules, responsible for effecting of surfactant concentration and structure has been supposed.

  2. Effect of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate in skin of fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala): observations with scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, V.; Chawla, G.; Kumar, V.; Lal, H.; Viswanathan, P.N.

    1987-04-01

    Pathomorphological changes in the skin was noticed under the scanning electron microscope in fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) exposed to 0.005 ppm (25% of the LC50) concentration to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate. The epithelial cells present in the epidermis of the skin were found to secrete more mucus with linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) than did controls. The presence or deposition of mucus on the surface of skin indicated likely molecular interaction between constituents of mucus and LAS.

  3. Effect of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate in skin of fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala): observations with scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Misra, V; Chawla, G; Kumar, V; Lal, H; Viswanathan, P N

    1987-04-01

    Pathomorphological changes in the skin was noticed under the scanning electron microscope in fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) exposed to 0.005 ppm (25% of the LC50) concentration to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate. The epithelial cells present in the epidermis of the skin were found to secrete more mucus with linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) than did controls. The presence or deposition of mucus on the surface of skin indicated likely molecular interaction between constituents of mucus and LAS.

  4. Pathomorphological changes in gills of fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) by linear alkyl benzene sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, V.; Lal, H.; Chawla, G.; Viswanathan, P.N.

    1985-12-01

    Fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) exposed to 0.005 ppm (25% of LC50) concentration to detergents (linear alkyl benzene sulfonate) showed marked behavioral changes and distorted appearance of primary and secondary lamellae along with damage to gill epithelium under scanning electron microscopy at various magnifications. Mucosal cells of gills were found to secrete mucus showing primary reactions for membrane damage leading to dysfunction in respiration and osmoregulation.

  5. Combined effects of cadmium and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate on Lemna minor L.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Chawla, G; Naqvi, S H; Viswanathan, P N

    1994-03-01

    : The effects of 0.1 ppm cadmium and 0.005% linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) on the uptake and metabolic incorporation of (14)C glycine by Lemna minor L., after 2, 24 and 48 h were studied for antagonistic/synergistic effects. Combined exposure was found to decrease the (14)C incorporation into proteins, DNA, RNA and phospholipids, to a greater extent than individual exposure. The presence of LAS increased the uptake of (109)Cd in the plants.

  6. Pathomorphological changes in gills of fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) by linear alkyl benzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Misra, V; Lal, H; Chawla, G; Viswanathan, P N

    1985-12-01

    Fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) exposed to 0.005 ppm (25% of LC50) concentration to detergents (linear alkyl benzene sulfonate) showed marked behavioral changes and distorted appearance of primary and secondary lamellae along with damage to gill epithelium under scanning electron microscopy at various magnifications. Mucosal cells of gills were found to secrete mucus showing primary reactions for membrane damage leading to dysfunction in respiration and osmoregulation.

  7. Acute toxicity to goldfish of mixtures of chloramines, copper, and linear alkylate sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.F.; McKee, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus) of mixtures of chloramines, copper, and linear alkylate sulfonate (LAS) was studied by continuous-flow toxicity tests during an exposure period of 96 hours. The individual toxicities of these three chemicals are either additive or synergistic in mixtures, depending on the rate of toxic action of the individual chemical, the toxicity ratio of the chemicals in the mixtures, and the concentration of the mixtures.

  8. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonists Containing S-aryl/alkyl Norcysteines and their Oxidized Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Manoj P.; White, Richard; Hong, Doley J.; Croston, Glenn; Conn, P. Michael; Janovick, Jo Ann; Rivier, Jean

    2008-01-01

    A series of acyline analogues incorporating l- and d- isomers of S-arylated/alkylated norcysteines [Ncy(R), where R is 2-naphthyl, methyl and isopropyl] at positions 1, 4, 7 and 10 were synthesized. Some of these analogues were mono- and di-oxidized to sulfoxides and sulfones. All of the analogues of acyline were screened for the antagonism of GnRH-induced response in a reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells expressing the human GnRH receptor. Nine of the analogues (9, 11, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, and 22) had an antagonist potency (IC50 < 2 nM) similar to that of acyline (IC50 = 0.52 nM) in this assay. Selected analogues (9, 11, 15, 16, 19 and 21) were tested in vitro for their antagonism at the rat GnRH-R in a reporter gene assay as well as in an in vivo intact male rat assay. Analogues 9 and 15 were most potent in suppressing testosterone levels. PMID:17402723

  9. Self-organization of surfactant molecules on solid surface: an STM study of sodium alkyl sulfonates [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiu-Li; Wan, Li-Jun; Yang, Zheng-Yu; Yu, Jia-Yong

    2005-02-01

    Adsorption and self-organization of sodium alkyl sulfonates (STS and SHS) on HOPG have been studied by using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both SHS and STS molecules adsorb on HOPG surface and form long-range well-ordered monolayers. The molecular rows and the axes of alkyl chain of the molecules cross each other at angles of 60° and 90° in the STS and SHS layers, respectively. Molecular details such as sulfonate functional group (head) and alkyl chain are clearly imaged. The neighboring molecules in different rows form a "head to head" configuration. Structural models for the molecular arrangement of the two adlayers are proposed.

  10. Short and Efficient Synthesis of Alkyl- and Aryl-Ortho-Hydroxy-Anilides and their Antibiotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Krauß, Jürgen; Plesch, Eva; Clausen, Sabine; Bracher, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ortho-hydroxy-anilides are part of natural products like the new antibiotics platencin (A) and platensimycin (B). An important step in the total synthesis of these antibiotics or their derivatives is the preparation of the o-hydroxy-anilide partial structure. The presented method allows the preparation of o-hydroxy-anilides and o-dihydroxy-anilides from 2-nitrophenol esters in a one-step synthesis without protecting the hydroxy group. Aryl- and alkyl-anilides were prepared following this method as simple analogues of platensimycin (A). The resulting compounds were tested in an agar diffusion assay for their antibiotic potency. PMID:25853064

  11. Sulfonyl and phosphoryl azides: going further beyond the click realm of alkyl and aryl azides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Hwan; Park, Sae Hume; Choi, Ji Ho; Chang, Sukbok

    2011-10-01

    Whereas alkyl and aryl azides readily react with terminal alkynes to afford 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles in excellent yields and selectivity in the presence of a copper catalyst, sulfonyl, phosphoryl, and certain acyl azides allow additional chemistry upon ring-opening of the corresponding copper-triazole intermediates. The amazingly versatile new chemistry stems from the high reactivity of a ring-opened ketenimine intermediate, with which a wide range of nucleophiles react to give multicomponent products. Among those nucleophiles, amines, alcohols, water, and heterocyclic compounds are especially capable of being involved in this new chemistry. PMID:21748856

  12. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  13. Mechanism and Selectivity in Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Aryl Halides with Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Soumik; Weix, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The direct cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, such as an aryl halide with an alkyl halide, offers many advantages over conventional cross-coupling methods that require a carbon nucleophile. Despite its promise as a versatile synthetic strategy, a limited understanding of the mechanism and origin of cross selectivity has hindered progress in reaction development and design. Herein, we shed light on the mechanism for the nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of aryl halides with alkyl halides and demonstrate that the selectivity arises from an unusual catalytic cycle that combines both polar and radical steps to form the new C-C bond. PMID:23952217

  14. Migratory insertion reactions of indenyliridium dialkyls and alkyl and aryl hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, T.; Bergman, R.G. |

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports the migratory insertion chemistry of indenyliridium complexes described in the companion paper. Complexes of general formula ({eta}{sup 5}-Ind)(PMe{sub 3})Ir(R)(R{prime}), where R = alkyl or aryl and R{prime} = alkyl, aryl, or hydride (4-6) react with dative ligands L such as tert-butylisocyanide and CO. These transformations lead to {eta}{sup 5} to {eta}{sup 1} isomerization of the indenyl ligand, giving octahedral iridium complexes of general formula ({eta}{sup 1}-Ind)(PMe{sub 3})(L){sub 2}Ir(R)(R{prime}) (8, 9, 11). Treatment of the methyl aryl and dimethyl {eta}{sup 1}-indenyl complexes 9a, 9d, and 9e with trimethylamine oxide removes CO, allowing the indenyl ligand to reestablish {eta}{sup 5}-coordination by inducing CO migratory insertion to give acyl complexes 10. Reaction of {eta}{sup 1}-indenyl aryl and methyl hydrides 6 (as well as the dihydride ({eta}{sup 5}-Ind)(PMe{sub 3})IrH{sub 2} (7)) with CO leads to reductive elimination of arene, methane, or H{sub 2} rather than migratory insertion, forming ({eta}{sup 1}-Ind)-(CO){sub 3}(PMe{sub 3})Ir (12) as the organometallic product. In contrast, treatment of methyl and aryl hydrides 6 with alkynes leads to the methyl vinyl complexes ({eta}{sup 5}-Ind)(PMe{sub 3})Ir(Me)(CR{double_prime}C(R{prime})(H)) (13) and reaction of 6a with ethylene gives the methyl ethyl complex ({eta}{sup 5}-Ind)(PMe{sub 3})Ir(Me)(Et) (14). Isotope labeling, stereochemical, and kinetic studies have been carried out on the insertion reaction of 6a with 3,3-dimethyl-1-butyne. The results of these experiments are most consistent with a mechanism involving initial reversible coordination of alkyne to the metal center (probably with concurrent {eta}{sup 5}-{eta}{sup 3} isomerization of the indenyl ligand) followed by irreversible migration of the metal-bound hydrogen to the tert-butyl-substituted carbon of the alkyne and then rapid recoordination of the indenyl group. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Biological properties of sodium alkyl methyl ester sulfonate/alkyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wong, S P; Lim, W H; Cheng, S F; Chuah, C H

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used as disinfectant in medical care, food industry, detergents and glue industries. This is due to a small concentration of QACs is sufficient to inhibit the growth of various bacteria strains. In this work, the inhibitive power of cationic surfactants, alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (C(n)TAB) in the presence of anionic surfactants, sodium alkyl methyl ester α-sulfonate (C(n)MES) was studied. The growth inhibition test with gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were used to determine the toxicity of single and mixed surfactants. Results from this work showed that certain mixed surfactants have lower minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) as compared to the single C(n)TAB surfactants. Besides that, it was also found that alkyl chain length and the mixing ratios of the surfactants play a significant role in determining the mixture inhibitive power.

  16. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J; Hedrick, James L; García, Jeannette M

    2016-07-12

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers.

  17. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J; Hedrick, James L; García, Jeannette M

    2016-07-12

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers. PMID:27354514

  18. Stereochemistry analysis and comparison of two C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates with their C(3)-aryl substituted analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-Yue; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Bing-Long; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jin-Song

    2016-03-01

    Two representative C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates (4a and 4b) were synthesized and their conformational features were investigated by single crystal X-ray crystallography for the first time. These stereochemistry results of 4a and 4b were compared with those obtained from the earlier research of C(3)-aryl substituted analogues (1-3).

  19. Application of a C2-symmetric copper carbenoid in the enantioselective hydrosilylation of dialkyl and aryl-alkyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Albright, Abigail; Gawley, Robert E

    2011-12-14

    We report excellent reactivity and enantioselectivity of a C(2)-symmetric copper-bound N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) in the hydrosilylation of a variety of structurally diverse ketones. This catalyst exhibits extraordinary enantioselctivity in the reduction of such challenging substrates as 2-butanone and 3-hexanone. Even at low catalyst loading (2.0 mol %), the reactions occur in under an hour at room temperature and often do not require purification beyond catalyst and solvent removal. The scope of this transformation was investigated in the reduction of 10 aryl-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl ketones. PMID:22074559

  20. Application of a C2-Symmetric Copper Carbenoid in the Enantioselective Hydrosilylation of Dialkyl and Aryl Alkyl Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Abigail; Gawley, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    We report excellent reactivity and enantioselectivity of a C2-symmetric copper-bound N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) in the hydrosilylation of a variety of structurally diverse ketones. This catalyst exhibits extraordinary enantioselctivity in the reduction of such challenging substrates as 2-butanone and 3-hexanone. Even at low catalyst loading (2.0 mol%) the reactions occur in under an hour at room temperature and often do not require purification beyond catalyst and solvent removal. The scope of this transformation was investigated in the reduction of ten aryl-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl ketones. PMID:22074559

  1. One-step formation of bifunctionnal aryl/alkyl grafted films on conducting surfaces by the reduction of diazonium salts in the presence of alkyl iodides.

    PubMed

    Hetemi, Dardan; Hazimeh, Hassan; Decorse, Philippe; Galtayries, Anouk; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Pinson, Jean; Podvorica, Fetah I

    2015-05-19

    The formation of partial perfluoroalkyl or alkyl radicals from partial perfluoroalkyl or alkyl iodides (ICH2CH2C6F13 and IC6H13) and their reaction with surfaces takes place at low driving force (∼-0.5 V/SCE) when the electrochemical reaction is performed in acetonitrile in the presence of diazonium salts (ArN2(+)), at a potential where the latter is reduced. By comparison to the direct grafting of ICH2CH2C6F13, this corresponds to a gain of ∼2.1 V in the case of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium. Such electrochemical reaction permits the modification of gold surfaces (and also carbon, iron, and copper) with mixed aryl-alkyl groups (Ar = 3-CH3-C6H4, 4-NO2-C6H4, and 4-Br-C6H4, R = C6H13 or (CH2)2-C6F13). These strongly bonded mixed layers are characterized by IRRAS, XPS, ToF-SIMS, ellipsometry, water contact angles, and cyclic voltammetry. The relative proportions of grafted aryl and alkyl groups can be varied along with the relative concentrations of diazonium and iodide components in the grafting solution. The formation of the films is assigned to the reaction of aryl and alkyl radicals on the surface and on the first grafted layer. The former is obtained from the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt; the latter results from the abstraction of an iodine atom by the aryl radical. The mechanism involved in the growth of the film provides an example of complex surface radical chemistry.

  2. Crystal structures of three N-(aryl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluoro-benzamides.

    PubMed

    Suchetan, P A; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Srivishnu, K S; Supriya, G M; Lakshmikantha, H N

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structures of three N-aryl-sulfonyl-4-fluoro-benzamides, namely 4-fluoro-N-(2-methyl-phenyl-sulfon-yl)benzamide, C14H12FNO3S, (I), N-(2-chloro-phenyl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluorobenzamide, C13H9ClFNO3S, (II), and N-(4-chloro-phenyl-sulfon-yl)-4-fluoro-benzamide monohydrate, C13H9ClFNO3S·H2O, (III), are described and compared with related structures. The asymmetric unit of (I) contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B), while that of (II) contains just one mol-ecule, and that of (III) contains a mol-ecule of water in addition to one main mol-ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 82.83 (11)° in mol-ecule A and 85.01 (10)° in mol-ecule B of (I), compared to 89.91 (10)° in (II) and 81.82 (11)° in (III). The crystal structure of (I) features strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the A and B mol-ecules, resulting in an R 4 (4)(16) tetra-meric unit. These tetra-meric units are connected into sheets in the bc plane by various C-H⋯O inter-actions, and adjacent sheets are further inter-linked via C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. The crystal structure is further stabilized by πar-yl-πar-yl and S=O⋯πar-yl inter-actions. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are connected into R 2 (2)(8) and R 2 (2)(14) dimers via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯O inter-actions, respectively; the dimers are further inter-connected via a weak C=O⋯πar-yl inter-action, leading to the formation of chains along [1-10]. In the crystal of (III), N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both the main mol-ecule and the solvent water mol-ecule results in the formation of sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are further connected by C-H⋯O inter-actions and weak C-Cl⋯πar-yl, C-F⋯πar-yl and S=O⋯πar-yl inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

  3. Engaging unactivated alkyl, alkenyl and aryl iodides in visible-light-mediated free radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, John D; D'Amato, Erica M; Narayanam, Jagan M R; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2012-10-01

    Radical reactions are a powerful class of chemical transformations. However, the formation of radical species to initiate these reactions has often required the use of stoichiometric amounts of toxic reagents, such as tributyltin hydride. Recently, the use of visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis to generate radical species has become popular, but the scope of these radical precursors has been limited. Here, we describe the identification of reaction conditions under which photocatalysts such as fac-Ir(ppy)3 can be utilized to form radicals from unactivated alkyl, alkenyl and aryl iodides. The generated radicals undergo reduction via hydrogen atom abstraction or reductive cyclization. The reaction protocol utilizes only inexpensive reagents, occurs under mild reaction conditions, and shows exceptional functional group tolerance. Reaction efficiency is maintained upon scale-up and decreased catalyst loading, and the reaction time can be significantly shortened when the reaction is performed in a flow reactor.

  4. Oxidation of aromatic lithium thiolates into sulfinate salts: an attractive entry to aryl sulfones labeled with carbon-11.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claudie; Sandrinelli, Franck; Perrio, Cécile; Perrio, Stéphane; Lasne, Marie-Claire

    2006-01-01

    [reaction: see text] Aromatic 11C-sulfones were synthesized by S alkylation of lithium arenesulfinates, which are readily available from the corresponding thiols by an oxaziridine-mediated oxidation reaction with [11C]alkyl iodides in THF/H2O (4:1) at 150 degrees C. The radiosyntheses, including purification by HPLC, were completed in an average of 35 min from the end of the bombardment with 55-76% overall radiochemical yields (decay corrected). The described procedure extends the range of accessible labeling methods.

  5. Interaction of model aryl- and alkyl-boronic acids and 1,2-diols in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Marinaro, William A; Prankerd, Richard; Kinnari, Kaisa; Stella, Valentino J

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this work was to quantitate ester formation between alkyl and aryl boronic acids and vicinal-diols or 1,2-diols in aqueous solution. As used here, 1,2-diols includes polyols with one or more 1,2-diol pairs. Multiple techniques were used including apparent pKa shifts of the boronic acids using UV spectrophotometry (for aryl acids) and titration (for aryl and alkyl acids). Isothermal microcalorimetry was also used, with all reactions being enthalpically favored. For all the acids and 1,2-diols and the conditions studied, evidence only supported 1:1 ester formation. All the esters formed were found to be significantly more acidic, as Lewis acids, by 3-3.5 pKa units than the corresponding nonesterified boronic acid. The equilibrium constants for ester formation increased with increasing number of 1,2-diol pairs but stereochemistry may also play a role as sorbitol with five possible 1,2-diol pairs and five isomers (taking into account the stereochemistry of the alcohol groups) was twice as efficient at ester formation compared with mannitol, also with five possible 1,2-diol pairs but only three isomers. Alkyl boronic acids formed esters to a greater extent than aryl acids. Although some quantitative differences were seen between the various techniques used, rank ordering of the structure/reactivity was consistent. Formulation implications of ester formation between boronic acids and 1,2-diols are discussed. PMID:25600471

  6. Interaction of model aryl- and alkyl-boronic acids and 1,2-diols in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Marinaro, William A; Prankerd, Richard; Kinnari, Kaisa; Stella, Valentino J

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this work was to quantitate ester formation between alkyl and aryl boronic acids and vicinal-diols or 1,2-diols in aqueous solution. As used here, 1,2-diols includes polyols with one or more 1,2-diol pairs. Multiple techniques were used including apparent pKa shifts of the boronic acids using UV spectrophotometry (for aryl acids) and titration (for aryl and alkyl acids). Isothermal microcalorimetry was also used, with all reactions being enthalpically favored. For all the acids and 1,2-diols and the conditions studied, evidence only supported 1:1 ester formation. All the esters formed were found to be significantly more acidic, as Lewis acids, by 3-3.5 pKa units than the corresponding nonesterified boronic acid. The equilibrium constants for ester formation increased with increasing number of 1,2-diol pairs but stereochemistry may also play a role as sorbitol with five possible 1,2-diol pairs and five isomers (taking into account the stereochemistry of the alcohol groups) was twice as efficient at ester formation compared with mannitol, also with five possible 1,2-diol pairs but only three isomers. Alkyl boronic acids formed esters to a greater extent than aryl acids. Although some quantitative differences were seen between the various techniques used, rank ordering of the structure/reactivity was consistent. Formulation implications of ester formation between boronic acids and 1,2-diols are discussed.

  7. Effect of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate on germination of spores of the aquatic fern Ceratopteris thalictroides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Devi, S. )

    1989-07-01

    Validity of fern spore germination bioassays for the effects of environmental pollution was established by many researchers. Some workers studied the phytotoxicity of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) on the spores of Diplazium esculentum and observed that LAS levels above 0.001% are toxic to fern spores. Water pollution due to synthetic detergents has been increasing continuously during the last few years due to their extensive use in domestic life, agriculture and industry. These detergents are among the most common pollutants responsible for water pollution. In view of this fact, the phytotoxicity of LAS on germination of an aquatic fern Ceratopteris thalictroides spores was studied. However, in these studies, only germination pattern was taken as index and no observations were made on the developmental stages.

  8. Genotoxic effects of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium pentachlorophenate and dichromate on Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Shen, Y

    1992-01-01

    DNA in macro- and micronuclei of Tetrahymena pyriformis treated with linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) were determined by microspectrophotometry. The effects on rate of formation of macronuclear DNA extrusion bodies were also studied. We found DNA content of micronuclei in 0.14 ppm LAS and 0.9 ppb PCP-Na was lower than in that of the control, and LAS was able to increase the formation rate of macronuclear DNA extrusion bodies (the formation rate was 54% in 11.3 ppm LAS and 25.6% in 16.7 ppm dichromate). We concluded that 0.14 ppm LAS (below the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration) was genotoxic, whereas 0.014 ppm LAS was not. Dichromate 0.05 ppm and 0.9 ppb PCP-Na, equal to and below the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration, respectively, were potentially genotoxic.

  9. L-Valine derived chiral N-sulfinamides as effective organocatalysts for the asymmetric hydrosilylation of N-alkyl and N-aryl protected ketimines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Xinjun; Zhou, Li; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-14

    L-Valine derived N-sulfinamides have been developed as efficient enantioselective Lewis basic organocatalysts for the asymmetric reduction of N-aryl and N-alkyl ketimines with trichlorosilane. Catalyst 3c afforded up to 99% yield and 96% ee in the reduction of N-alkyl ketimines and up to 98% yield and 98% ee in the reduction of N-aryl ketimines.

  10. Crystal structures of three N-(aryl­sulfon­yl)-4-fluoro­benzamides

    PubMed Central

    Suchetan, P. A.; Naveen, S.; Lokanath, N. K.; Srivishnu, K. S.; Supriya, G. M.; Lakshmikantha, H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of three N-aryl­sulfonyl-4-fluoro­benzamides, namely 4-fluoro-N-(2-methyl­phenyl­sulfon­yl)benzamide, C14H12FNO3S, (I), N-(2-chloro­phenyl­sulfon­yl)-4-fluorobenzamide, C13H9ClFNO3S, (II), and N-(4-chloro­phenyl­sulfon­yl)-4-fluoro­benzamide monohydrate, C13H9ClFNO3S·H2O, (III), are described and compared with related structures. The asymmetric unit of (I) contains two independent mol­ecules (A and B), while that of (II) contains just one mol­ecule, and that of (III) contains a mol­ecule of water in addition to one main mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 82.83 (11)° in mol­ecule A and 85.01 (10)° in mol­ecule B of (I), compared to 89.91 (10)° in (II) and 81.82 (11)° in (III). The crystal structure of (I) features strong N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the A and B mol­ecules, resulting in an R 4 4(16) tetra­meric unit. These tetra­meric units are connected into sheets in the bc plane by various C—H⋯O inter­actions, and adjacent sheets are further inter­linked via C—H⋯πar­yl inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. The crystal structure is further stabilized by πar­yl–πar­yl and S=O⋯πar­yl inter­actions. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules are connected into R 2 2(8) and R 2 2(14) dimers via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯O inter­actions, respectively; the dimers are further inter­connected via a weak C=O⋯πar­yl inter­action, leading to the formation of chains along [1-10]. In the crystal of (III), N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both the main mol­ecule and the solvent water mol­ecule results in the formation of sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are further connected by C—H⋯O inter­actions and weak C—Cl⋯πar­yl, C—F⋯πar­yl and S=O⋯πar­yl inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:27375892

  11. Highly Enantioselective Aza-Michael Reaction between Alkyl Amines and β-Trifluoromethyl β-Aryl Nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leming; Chen, Jiean; Huang, Yong

    2015-12-14

    The aza-Michael addition reaction is a vital transformation for the synthesis of functionalized chiral amines. Despite intensive research, enantioselective aza-Michael reactions with alkyl amines as the nitrogen donor have not been successful. We report the use of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as noncovalent organocatalysts to promote a highly selective aza-Michael reaction between primary alkyl amines and β-trifluoromethyl β-aryl nitroolefins. In contrast to classical conjugate-addition reactions, a strategy of HOMO-raising activation was used. Chiral trifluoromethylated amines were synthesized in high yield (up to 99 %) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98 % ee).

  12. Iron-mediated inter- and intramolecular reductive cross-coupling of unactivated alkyl chlorides with aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; Sun, Hong-Mei; Shen, Qi

    2016-03-28

    An efficient one-pot intermolecular reductive cross-coupling of unactivated primary and secondary alkyl chlorides bearing β-hydrogens with aryl bromides is described. A combination of magnesium turnings and a catalytic amount of the commercially available iron(iii) complex Fe(PPh3)2Cl3 was used, and the conditions were also successfully extended to an intramolecular reaction for the first time. Both types of cross-coupling reactions proceed under mild conditions, involving the in situ generation of aryl Grignard reagents, and show good applicability to a variety of readily available unactivated alkyl chlorides, which have previously been challenging substrates in iron-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reactions. PMID:26940697

  13. Direct, Catalytic and Regioselective Synthesis of 2-Alkyl, Aryl, and Alkenyl-Substituted N-Heterocycles from N-Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, Oleg V.; Stephens, David; Mfuh, Adelphe; Chavez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    A one-step transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-alkyl, aryl, and alkenyl-substituted N-heterocycles is described. The success of this broad-scope methodology hinges on the combination of copper catalysis and activation by lithium fluoride or magnesium chloride. The utility of this method for the late-stage modification of complex N-heterocycles is exemplified by facile syntheses of new structural analogs of several antimalarial, antimicrobial and fungicidal agents. PMID:24410049

  14. Aryl-alkyl-lysines: Membrane-Active Small Molecules Active against Murine Model of Burn Infection.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandradhish; Manjunath, Goutham B; Konai, Mohini M; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R; Ravikumar, Raju; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-02-12

    Infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens continue to be significant contributors to human morbidity. The recent advent of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) producing pathogens, against which few drugs remain active, has aggravated the problem even further. This paper shows that aryl-alkyl-lysines, membrane-active small molecules, are effective in treating infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. One of the compounds of the study was effective in killing planktonic cells as well as dispersing biofilms of Gram-negative pathogens. The compound was extremely effective in disrupting preformed biofilms and did not select resistant bacteria in multiple passages. The compound retained activity in different physiological conditions and did not induce any toxic effect in female Balb/c mice until concentrations of 17.5 mg/kg. In a murine model of Acinetobacter baumannii burn infection, the compound was able to bring the bacterial burden down significantly upon topical application for 7 days. PMID:27624962

  15. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2012-09-01

    The aryl alkyl alcohol (AAA) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. The AAA fragrances demonstrate low acute and subchronic dermal and oral toxicity. No carcinogenicity in rats or mice was observed in 2-year chronic testing of benzyl alcohol or α-methylbenzyl alcohol; the latter did induce species and gender-specific renal adenomas in male rats at the high dose. There was no to little genotoxicity, mutagenicity, or clastogenicity in the mutagenic in vitro bacterial assays, and in vitro mammalian cell assays. All in vivo micronucleus assays were negative. NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current human exposure levels. At concentrations likely to be encountered by consumers, AAA fragrance ingredients are non-irritating to the skin. The potential for eye irritation is minimal. With the exception of benzyl alcohol and to a lesser extent phenethyl and 2-phenoxyethyl AAA alcohols, human sensitization studies, diagnostic patch tests and human induction studies, indicate that AAA fragrance ingredients generally have no or low sensitization potential. Available data indicate that the potential for photosensitization is low. It is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.

  16. Nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling of perfluorobenzoates with aryl halides and sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Sardzinski, Logan W; Wertjes, William C; Schnaith, Abigail M; Kalyani, Dipannita

    2015-03-01

    A Ni-catalyzed method for the coupling of perfluorobenzoates with aryl halides and pseudohalides is described. Aryl iodides, bromides, chlorides, triflates, and tosylates participate in these transformations to afford the products in good yields. Penta-, tetra-, and trifluorinated biaryl compounds are obtained using these newly developed Ni-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions.

  17. Sulfotanone, a new alkyl sulfonic acid derivative from Streptomyces sp. IFM 11694 with TRAIL resistance-overcoming activity.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Mohamed S; Ishikawa, Naoki; Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-04-01

    One new alkyl sulfonic acid derivative, sulfotanone (1), and the known panosialin wA (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of mycelium of Streptomyces sp. 11694. The structure of the new compound (1) was established by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR measurements. Compound 1 (40 µM) in combination with TRAIL showed synergistic activity in sensitizing TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines.

  18. Pyrolysis of Aryl Sulfonate Esters in the Absence of Solvent: E1 or E2? A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John J.; Leininger, Marnie A.; Keyes, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    The aryl sulfonate ester, menthyl N-acetylsulfanilate, is synthesized from N-acetylsulfanilyl chloride and menthol in pyridine, then pyrolyzed (thermally decomposed) at reduced pressure. The volatile (elimination) products of the reaction are analyzed using gas chromatography, and the resulting product distribution is used to determine whether the…

  19. Regio- and Chemoselective Kumada-Tamao-Corriu Reaction of Aryl Alkyl Ethers Catalyzed by Chromium Under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xuefeng; Tang, Huarong; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2015-11-18

    Acting as an environmentally benign synthetic tool, the cross-coupling reactions with aryl ethers via C-O bond activation have attracted broad interest. However, the functionalizations of C-O bonds are mainly limited to nickel catalysis, and selectivity has long been a prominent challenge when several C-O bonds are present in the one molecule. We report here the first chromium-catalyzed selective cross-coupling reactions of aryl ethers with Grignard reagents by the cleavage of C-O(alkyl) bonds. Diverse transformations were achieved using simple, inexpensive chromium(II) precatalyst combining imino auxiliary at room temperature. It offers a new avenue for buildup functionalized aromatic aldehydes with high efficiency and selectivity. PMID:26469380

  20. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of liquid crystalline diketones: derivatives of 5-aryl-2-alkyl-1-cyclohexanones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasnovski, G.; Bezborodov, Vladimir; Dabrowski, Roman S.; Dziaduszek, Jerzy

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of di- and three- ring alkanoyl substitute 5-aryl- (and trans-4-aryl- cyclohexyl)-2-alkycyclohexan-1-ones are described. The compounds were prepared starting from the corresponding 3- aryl- (or trans-4-arylcyclohexyl)-6-alkylcyclohex-2-en-1- ones which were catalytically hydrogenated into saturated trans-cyclohexanones and then acylated in the usual way using a Friedel-Crafts procedure.

  1. Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Coupling of Aryl Bromides with Alkyl Bromides: Et3N as the Terminal Reductant.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhengli; Li, Wu; Lei, Aiwen

    2016-08-19

    Reductive cross-coupling has emerged as a direct method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds. Most cobalt-, nickel-, and palladium-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reactions to date are limited to stoichiometric Mn(0) or Zn(0) as the reductant. One nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling paradigm using Et3N as the terminal reductant is reported. By using this photoredox catalysis and nickel catalysis approach, a direct Csp(2)-Csp(3) reductive cross-coupling of aryl bromides with alkyl bromides is achieved under mild conditions without stoichiometric metal reductants. PMID:27472556

  2. Cu(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Indoles with 2-Aryl-N-sulfonylaziridines as Alkylating Agents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chen; Liu, Ren-Rong; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia

    2016-07-01

    A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with N-sulfonylaziridines as alkylating agents has been developed by utilizing the complex of Cu(CH3CN)4BF4/(S)-Segphos as a catalyst. A range of optically active tryptamine derivatives are obtained in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) via a kinetic resolution process. PMID:27309541

  3. Scope and Limitations of Auxiliary-Assisted, Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation and Alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Santos, Gerson Ivan Franco; Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-01-01

    The scope of palladium-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted direct arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds of amine and carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, substrate, aryl, alkyl, benzyl, or allyl halide, and inorganic base in t-amyl alcohol or water solvent at 100-140 °C. Aryl and alkyl iodides as well as benzyl and allyl bromides are competent reagents in this transformation. Picolinic acid auxiliary is used for amine γ-functionalization and 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is used for carboxylic acid β-functionalization. Some optimization of base, additives, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:24090404

  4. A p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) protection/deprotection approach toward the synthesis of 5-phenoxy-4-chloro-N-(aryl/alkyl) thiophene-2-sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alfred L; Dandepally, Srinivasa R; Kotturi, Sharadsrikar V

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of 17 phenoxy substituted 4-chloro-N-(aryl/alkyl)thiophene-2-sulfonamides using a PMB protection/deprotection strategy is described. Nucleophilic displacement of p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) protected 4,5-dichloro-N-(aryl/alkyl)-thiophene-2-sulfonamides was carried out with different phenols under mild basic conditions. Reaction times of 3-6 h and overall yields of 78-98% were achieved with the PMB group in place compared to no reaction without this protecting group. The PMB group was easily and selectively removed in 68-98% yield using TFA in DCM.

  5. A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Fryer, A D; Greim, H; Miyachi, Y; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G

    2012-09-01

    The aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid ester derivatives (AAASAE) group of fragrance ingredients was critically evaluated for safety following a complete literature search of the pertinent data. For high end users, calculated maximum skin exposures vary widely from 0.01% to 4.17%. AAASAE exhibit a common route of primary metabolism by carboxylesterases resulting in the formation of the simple acid and an aryl alkyl alcohol. They have low acute toxicity. No significant toxicity was observed in repeat-dose toxicity tests. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity of benzyl alcohol when it was administered in the feed; gavage studies resulted in pancreatic carcinogenesis due to the corn oil vehicle. The AAASAE are not mutagenic in bacterial systems or in vitro in mammalian cells, and have little to no in vivo genotoxicity. Reproductive and developmental toxicity data show no indication of adverse effects on reproductive function and NOELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current exposure levels. The AAASAE are generally not irritating or sensitizing at the current levels of exposure. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding the AAASAE at the current levels of use and exposure.

  6. The β-Silyl Effect on the Memory of Chirality in Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Using Chiral α-Aryl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Nokami, Toshiki; Yamane, Yu; Oshitani, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Jun-ka; Matsui, Shin-ichiro; Nishihara, Takashi; Uno, Hidemitsu; Hayase, Shuichi; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-19

    Iron salt-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation of chiral α-aryl alcohols with a trimethylsilyl group was found to proceed with retention of the configuration of the hydroxyl group as a leaving group. The memory of chirality of this system stems from the β-silyl effect of the trimethylsilyl group on the carbocation intermediate. PMID:26067720

  7. Chemical and microbial community analysis during aerobic biostimulation assays of non-sulfonated alkyl-benzene-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pascual, Eulàlia; Jiménez, Nuria; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, A M

    2010-10-01

    A chemical and microbial characterization of lab-scale biostimulation assays with groundwater samples taken from an industrial site in which the aquifer had been contaminated by linear non-sulfonate alkyl benzenes (LABs) was carried out for further field-scale bioremediation purposes. Two lab-scale biodegradability assays were performed, one with a previously obtained gas-oil-degrading consortium and another with the native groundwater flora. Results for the characterization of the groundwater microbial population of the site revealed the presence of an important LAB-degrading microbial population with a strong degrading capacity. Among the microorganisms identified at the site, the detection of Parvibaculum lavamentivorans, which have been described in other studies as alkyl benzene sulfonates degraders, is worth mentioning. Incubation of P. lavamentivorans DSMZ13023 with LABs as reported in this study shows for the first time the metabolic capacity of this strain to degrade such compounds. Results from the biodegradation assays in this study showed that the indigenous microbial population had a higher degrading capacity than the gas-oil-degrading consortium, indicating the strong ability of the native community to adapt to the presence of LABs. The addition of inorganic nutrients significantly improved the aerobic biodegradation rate, achieving levels of biodegradation close to 90%. The results of this study show the potential effectiveness of oxygen and nutrients as in situ biostimulation agents as well as the existence of a complex microbial community that encompasses well-known hydrocarbon- and LAS-degrading microbial populations in the aquifer studied.

  8. Synthesis of functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones via adscititious xanthate-promoted radical cyclization of allyl(alkyl/aryl)dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Simiao; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Xu, Jiaxi

    2016-01-21

    Functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones were synthesized efficiently from alkyl allyl(alkyl/aryl)-dithiocarbamates via radical cyclization with the corresponding S-alkyl O-ethyl xanthates as the adscititious radical precursors. The application of the adscititious radical precursors improves not only the yields, but also the efficiency in the radical cyclization reaction significantly. The current adscititious radical precursor method provides a new strategy for the achievement and improvement of some radical reactions which are hardly or difficultly realized by the traditional direct methods. PMID:26626401

  9. Syn-Selective Synthesis of β-Branched α-Amino Acids by Alkylation of Glycine-Derived Imines with Secondary Sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; McKenna, Grace M; Tymonko, Steven A; Ramirez, Antonio; Benkovics, Tamas; Conlon, David A; González-Bobes, Francisco

    2015-10-16

    A syn-selective synthesis of β-branched α-amino acids has been developed based on the alkylation of glycine imine esters with secondary sulfonates. The potassium counterion for the enolate, the solvent, and the leaving group on the electrophile were key levers to maximize the diasteroselectivity of the alkylation. The optimized conditions enabled a straightforward preparation of a number of β-branched α-amino acids that can be challenging to obtain.

  10. Sequential one-pot addition of excess aryl-Grignard reagents and electrophiles to O-alkyl thioformates.

    PubMed

    Murai, Toshiaki; Morikawa, Kenta; Maruyama, Toshifumi

    2013-09-23

    The sequential addition of aromatic Grignard reagents to O-alkyl thioformates proceeded to completion within 30 s to give aryl benzylic sulfanes in good yields. This reaction may begin with the nucleophilic attack of the Grignard reagent onto the carbon atom of the O-alkyl thioformates, followed by the elimination of ROMgBr to generate aromatic thioaldehydes, which then react with a second molecule of the Grignard reagent at the sulfur atom to form arylsulfanyl benzylic Grignard reagents. To confirm the generation of aromatic thioaldehydes, the reaction between O-alkyl thioformates and phenyl Grignard reagent was carried out in the presence of cyclopentadiene. As a result, hetero-Diels-Alder adducts of the thioaldehyde and the diene were formed. The treatment of a mixture of the thioformate and phenyl Grignard reagent with iodine gave 1,2-bis(phenylsulfanyl)-1,2-diphenyl ethane as a product, which indicated the formation of arylsulfanyl benzylic Grignard reagents in the reaction mixture. When electrophiles were added to the Grignard reagents that were generated in situ, four-component coupling products, that is, O-alkyl thioformates, two molecules of Grignard reagents, and electrophiles, were obtained in moderate-to-good yields. The use of silyl chloride or allylic bromides gave the adducts within 5 min, whereas the reaction with benzylic halides required more than 30 min. The addition to carbonyl compounds was complete within 1 min and the use of lithium bromide as an additive enhanced the yields of the four-component coupling products. Finally, oxiranes and imines also participated in the coupling reaction. PMID:23946145

  11. One-Pot Synthesis and Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activities of Functionalized S-Alkyl/Aryl Benzothiazole-2-carbothioate Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ajaz A; Shadab, M; Khan, Suman; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Abu T

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis of hitherto unreported S-alkyl/aryl benzothiazole-2-carbothioate is reported from thiols, oxalyl chloride, and 2-aminothiophenols using 10 mol % n-tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) as catalyst in acetonitrile through multicomponent reaction (MCR) strategy. The present protocol favored formation of benzothiazoles and thioesters via simultaneous formation of C-N and C-S bonds in good yields with a wide range of substrates. A few of the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Further, these compounds displayed no toxicity toward macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and are therefore nontoxic and effective antileishmanial leads. In silico docking studies were performed to understand the possible binding site interaction with trypanothione reductase (TryR).

  12. Occurrence and weight-of-evidence risk assessment of alkyl sulfates, alkyl ethoxysulfates, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in river water and sediments.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Dyer, Scott D; Price, Bradford B; Nielsen, Allen M; van Compernolle, Remi; Selby, Martin; Stanton, Kathleen; Evans, Alex; Ciarlo, Michael; Sedlak, Richard

    2006-09-15

    Alkyl sulfates (AS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) are all High Production Volume (HPV) and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater effluent. Due to their surfactant properties, they preferentially sorb to sediments. Hence, assessment of their levels and potential perturbations on benthos are of interest. The relative levels of AS/AES decreased with distance from the wastewater treatment plant outfall. However, this was not evident for LAS. Short chained AES and especially AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. There were no evident patterns in LAS homologue distribution. The overall mean margin of exposure (MoE) for AS/AES and LAS is approximately 40 (range: 3 to 100) suggesting no noteworthy perturbation on biota. The findings in this study are in concordance with previous preliminary hazard screening. Comparative sediment contamination analyses principally based on Chapman and Anderson [Chapman PM, Anderson, J. A decision-making framework for sediment contamination. Integr Environ Assess Mana. 2005; 1: 163-173.] and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RAPID assessment methods [USEPA. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in wadeable streams and rivers: Periphyton, benthic, macroinvertebrates, and fish. 1999. Second Edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, Washington, D.C. EPA 841-B-99-002.] did not reveal significant correlations between the surfactant concentrations and ecological status of the sampling locations. Several Lines of Evidence (LoE) of the Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) lead to the conclusion of low aquatic risk associated to the monitored compounds.

  13. [Leukoderma caused by chemicals: mechanisms underlying 4-alkyl/aryl-substituted phenols- and rhododendrol-induced melanocyte loss].

    PubMed

    Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma is a skin depigmentation disorder known to occur in manufactural workplace through contact with chemicals, such as monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) and 4-tert- butylphenol (4-TBP). In the skin depigmented -legions induced by these chemicals, the number of melanocyte was severely decreased. Anti-melanoma agent 4-cysteaminylphenol (4-SCAP) and its derivatives are also known to cause leukoderma. Evidence has accumulated supporting that typical class of chemicals causing leukoderma is "4-alkyl/aryl-substituted phenols/catechols", which are structurally similar to melanin precursor tyrosine. Tyrosinase-mediated oxidation of these chemicals yields toxic ortho-quinones which bind to cellular proteins and produce reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, this tyrosinase-dependent metabolic activation is thought to cause melanocyte-specific damage and subsequent immune reactions toward melanocytes. Recently, rhododendrol, an inhibitor of tyrosinase developed for so-called lightening/whitening cosmetics, was shown to cause leukoderma in the users. In this review, I document the causes of known chemical leukoderma and rhododendrol- induced leukoderma, focusing on their common mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss. PMID:26821466

  14. Morphology Tailoring of Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Organosilica Nanohybrids for the Synthesis of Biomass-Derived Alkyl Levulinates.

    PubMed

    An, Sai; Song, Daiyu; Lu, Bo; Yang, Xia; Guo, Yi-Hang

    2015-07-20

    Morphology evolution of sulfonic acid functionalized organosilica nanohybrids (Si(Et)Si-Pr/ArSO3 H) with a 1D tubular structure (inner diameter of ca. 5 nm), a 2D hexagonal mesostructure (pore diameter of ca. 5 nm), and a 3D hollow spherical structure (shell thickness of 2-3 nm and inner diameter of ca. 15 nm) was successfully realized through P123-templated sol-gel cocondensation strategies and fine-tuning of the acidity followed by aging or a hydrothermal treatment. The Si(Et)Si-Pr/ArSO3 H nanohybrids were applied in synthesis of alkyl levulinates from the esterification of levulinic acid and ethanolysis of furfural alcohol. Hollow spherical Si(Et)Si-Pr/ArSO3 H and hexagonal mesoporous analogues exhibited the highest and lowest catalytic activity, respectively, among three types of nanohybrids; additionally, the activity was influenced by the -SO3 H loading. The activity differences are explained in terms of different Brønsted acid and textural properties, reactant/product diffusion, and mass transfer rate, as well as accessibility of -SO3 H sites to the reactant molecules. The reusability of the nanohybrids was also evaluated.

  15. Inhibition of biogas production by alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) in a screening test for anaerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Campos, Encarna; Dalmau, Manel; Illán, Patricia; Sánchez-Leal, Joaquin

    2006-02-01

    The effect of the inoculum source on the digestion of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) under anaerobic conditions has been investigated. The potential for primary and ultimate LAS biodegradation of anaerobic sludge samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different geographical locations was studied applying a batch test system. It was found that only 4-22% of the LAS added to the batch anaerobic digesters was primarily transformed suggesting a poor primary degradation of the LAS molecule in anaerobic discontinuous systems. Regarding ultimate biodegradation, the addition of LAS to the batch anaerobic digesters caused a reduction on the extent of biogas production. Significant differences in the inhibition extent of the biogas production were observed (4-26%) depending on the sludge used as inoculum. Effect of the surfactant on the anaerobic microorganisms was correlated with its concentration in the aqueous phase. Sorption of LAS on anaerobic sludge affects its toxicity by depletion of the available fraction of the surfactant. LAS content on sludge was related to the total amount of calcium and magnesium extractable ions. The presence of divalent cations promote the association of LAS with anaerobic sludge reducing its bioavailability and the extent of its inhibitory effect on the biogas production. PMID:16453170

  16. Halo, Alkyl, Aryl, and Bis(imido) Complexes of Niobium Supported by the β-Diketiminato Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Tomson, Neil C.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of the complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2py (BDI = HC[C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2-C6H3)]2) was achieved in high yield following the treatment of Nb(NtBu)Cl3py2 with Li(BDI)(OEt2). Substitution of the chlorides for fluorides was effected by introducing 2.0 equiv of Me3SnF in toluene, providing the pyridine-coordinated difluoride complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)F2py in modest yield. The pyridine ligands from both halide compounds were removed by treatment of the pyridine adducts with B(C6F5)3, affording the Lewis base-free complexes (BDI)Nb(NtBu)X2 (X = Cl, F). Additionally, the Lewis base-free dichlorides of the tBu-imido and Ar-imido (Ar = 2,6-iPr2-C6H3) complexes were obtained following treatment of Nb(NR)Cl3(dme) (R = tBu, Ar) with Li(BDI)(OEt2). The pyridine-coordinated dichloride was alkylated and arylated to form the dimethyl complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me2 (described previously, see text) and the mono(p-tolyl) complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl(p-tol), the latter of which was methylated with MeMgBr to yield the mixed alkyl/aryl complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Me(p-tol) in good yield. A rare example of a Group 5 bis(tBu-imido) species was synthesized in good yield via treatment of (BDI)Nb(NtBu)Cl2py with 2.0 equiv of LiNHtBu to form (BDI)Nb(NtBu)2py. Exchange of the coordinated pyridine ligand for either pyridine-d5 or dmap (p-(dimethylamino)pyridine) was shown to occur through a dissociative mechanism, allowing for removal of the coordinated Lewis base by treatment with B(C6F5)3. The resulting average C2v-symmetric tetracoordinate bis(imido) complex (BDI)Nb(NtBu)2 was characterized in solution by NMR spectroscopy and observed to undergo clean thermal decomposition to yield (BDI#)Nb(NtBu)(NHtBu) (BDI# = H2C=C(NAr)CH=C(NAr)Me) over several hours at room temperature. Treatment of the four-coordinate bis(imido) with tBuNCO resulted in clean [2 + 2] cycloaddition to yield an oxaazametallacyclobutane complex, which was further observed to extrude tBuN=C=NtBu over 12 h at room temperature. The molecular structures of

  17. One-pot synthesis of ferrocenyl ketones containing biaryls and 6-aryl-2-ferrocenylquinolines via Ir/Pd-cocatalyzed α-alkylation/Suzuki reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Hao, Xin-Qi; Xiao, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yuan, Xiao-Er; Fu, Wei-Jun; Ji, Bao-Ming; Song, Mao-Ping

    2013-09-01

    An efficient PPh3-cyclometalated iridium(III) benzo[h]quinoline hydride 1/Pd(OAc)2-cocatalyzed three-component α-alkylation/Suzuki reaction has been developed. The three-component reaction of 4-bromobenzyl alcohol, acetylferrocene, and arylboronic acids gives ferrocenyl ketones containing biaryls in moderate to good yields. This method was successfully applied to a one-pot synthesis of 6-aryl-2-ferrocenyl quinolines, using (2-amino-5-bromophenyl)methanol instead of 4-bromobenzyl alcohol. PMID:23924342

  18. Terrestrial risk assessment for linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, W; Feijtel, T

    1998-03-01

    A comparison of the estimated environmental concentration and the effect concentrations (in the laboratory or field) in the receiving compartment form the basis of environmental risk assessments. This paper reviews processes that critically influence the fate of LAS in the terrestrial environment. Concentrations of LAS in sludge are quite high due to sorption to primary sludge, precipitation of Ca and Mg-salts of LAS, and lack of biodegradation under anaerobic digestion. This implies that when sludge is applied to soil e.g. as a fertilizer, considerable amounts of this important surfactant may enter the terrestrial environment. Influence of aerobic situations on LAS concentrations during sludge storage needs further research to allow incorporation into the risk assessment. Aerobic biodegradation in soil is considered the most important removal mechanism of LAS loading to the terrestrial environment through sludge-amendment. Sorption plays a role in determining the residence time of a chemical in the soil, hereby enabling more time for biodegradation to occur. In addition, sorption may affect the expression of effects of surfactants towards benthic and soil dwelling organisms and plants. Another factor that needs further attention is the form of LAS in the environment, which is not similar to the commercial material applied in detergents. The differential sorption and biodegradation of the LAS components lead to a shift in the alkyl chain length (homologue), and phenylisomer distribution towards increased hydrophobicity. Also, occurrence of Ca/Mg-salts in the environment versus the Na-salt for the commercial material critically impacts the extrapolation of effects data obtained in lab studies (mostly performed with the commercial material) to the field. The literature data were used in combination with strategies and methods provided by the European Union Technical Guidance Document in support of risk assessment of new and notified substances (1996) for the

  19. Efficient cross-coupling of aryl Grignard reagents with alkyl halides by recyclable ionic iron(III) complexes bearing a bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium cation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chong-Liang; Xie, Cun-Fei; Wu, Yu-Feng; Sun, Hong-Mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-14

    A novel bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium salt, 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)benzimidazolium chloride (H3LCl, 1), was designed and used to prepare ionic iron(III) complexes of the type [H3L][FeX4] (X = Cl, 2; X = Br, 3). Both 2 and 3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The catalytic performances of 2 and 3 in cross-coupling reactions using aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens were studied. This analysis shows that complex 2 has good potential for alkyl chloride-mediated coupling. In comparison, complex 3 showed slightly lower catalytic activity. After decanting the product contained in the ethereal layer, complex 2 could be recycled at least eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Efficient cross-coupling of aryl Grignard reagents with alkyl halides by recyclable ionic iron(III) complexes bearing a bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium cation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chong-Liang; Xie, Cun-Fei; Wu, Yu-Feng; Sun, Hong-Mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-14

    A novel bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium salt, 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)benzimidazolium chloride (H3LCl, 1), was designed and used to prepare ionic iron(III) complexes of the type [H3L][FeX4] (X = Cl, 2; X = Br, 3). Both 2 and 3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The catalytic performances of 2 and 3 in cross-coupling reactions using aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens were studied. This analysis shows that complex 2 has good potential for alkyl chloride-mediated coupling. In comparison, complex 3 showed slightly lower catalytic activity. After decanting the product contained in the ethereal layer, complex 2 could be recycled at least eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:24145602

  1. Methods and Mechanisms for Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Csp2 Halides with Alkyl Electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Cross-electrophile coupling, the cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, avoids the need for preformed carbon nucleophiles, but development of general methods has lagged behind cross-coupling and C–H functionalization. A central reason for this slow development is the challenge of selectively coupling two substrates that are alike in reactivity. This Account describes the discovery of generally cross-selective reactions of aryl halides and acyl halides with alkyl halides, the mechanistic studies that illuminated the underlying principles of these reactions, and the use of these fundamental principles in the rational design of new cross-electrophile coupling reactions. Although the coupling of two different electrophiles under reducing conditions often leads primarily to symmetric dimers, the subtle differences in reactivity of aryl halides and alkyl halides with nickel catalysts allowed for generally cross-selective coupling reactions. These conditions could also be extended to the coupling of acyl halides with alkyl halides. These reactions are exceptionally functional group tolerant and can be assembled on the benchtop. A combination of stoichiometric and catalytic studies on the mechanism of these reactions revealed an unusual radical-chain mechanism and suggests that selectivity arises from (1) the preference of nickel(0) for oxidative addition to aryl halides and acyl halides over alkyl halides and (2) the greater propensity of alkyl halides to form free radicals. Bipyridine-ligated arylnickel intermediates react with alkyl radicals to efficiently form, after reductive elimination, new C–C bonds. Finally, the resulting nickel(I) species is proposed to regenerate an alkyl radical to carry the chain. Examples of new reactions designed using these principles include carbonylative coupling of aryl halides with alkyl halides to form ketones, arylation of epoxides to form β-aryl alcohols, and coupling of benzyl sulfonate esters with aryl

  2. Methods and Mechanisms for Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Csp(2) Halides with Alkyl Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Weix, Daniel J

    2015-06-16

    Cross-electrophile coupling, the cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, avoids the need for preformed carbon nucleophiles, but development of general methods has lagged behind cross-coupling and C-H functionalization. A central reason for this slow development is the challenge of selectively coupling two substrates that are alike in reactivity. This Account describes the discovery of generally cross-selective reactions of aryl halides and acyl halides with alkyl halides, the mechanistic studies that illuminated the underlying principles of these reactions, and the use of these fundamental principles in the rational design of new cross-electrophile coupling reactions. Although the coupling of two different electrophiles under reducing conditions often leads primarily to symmetric dimers, the subtle differences in reactivity of aryl halides and alkyl halides with nickel catalysts allowed for generally cross-selective coupling reactions. These conditions could also be extended to the coupling of acyl halides with alkyl halides. These reactions are exceptionally functional group tolerant and can be assembled on the benchtop. A combination of stoichiometric and catalytic studies on the mechanism of these reactions revealed an unusual radical-chain mechanism and suggests that selectivity arises from (1) the preference of nickel(0) for oxidative addition to aryl halides and acyl halides over alkyl halides and (2) the greater propensity of alkyl halides to form free radicals. Bipyridine-ligated arylnickel intermediates react with alkyl radicals to efficiently form, after reductive elimination, new C-C bonds. Finally, the resulting nickel(I) species is proposed to regenerate an alkyl radical to carry the chain. Examples of new reactions designed using these principles include carbonylative coupling of aryl halides with alkyl halides to form ketones, arylation of epoxides to form β-aryl alcohols, and coupling of benzyl sulfonate esters with aryl halides to form

  3. General pathway for a convenient one-pot synthesis of trifluoromethyl-containing 2-amino-7-alkyl(aryl/heteroaryl)-1,8-naphthyridines and fused cycloalkane analogues.

    PubMed

    Bonacorso, Helio G; Andrighetto, Rosália; Krüger, Nícolas; Zanatta, Nilo; Martins, Marcos A P

    2011-03-30

    A convenient and general method for the synthesis in 26-73% yields of a new series of 7-alkyl(aryl/heteroaryl)-2-amino-5-trifluoromethyl-1,8-naphthyridines from direct cyclocondensation reactions of 4-alkoxy-1,1,1-trifluoroalk-3-en-2-ones [CF₃C(O)CH=C(R¹)OR, where R¹ = H, Me, Ph, 4-MePh, 4-OMePh, 4-FPh, 4-BrPh, 4-NO₂Ph, 2-furyl, 2-thienyl and R = Me, Et] with 2,6-diaminopyridine (2,6-DAP), under mild conditions, is described. Another synthetic route also allowed the synthesis of 2-amino-5-trifluoromethyl-cycloalka[b][1,8]naphthyridines in 33-36% yields, from direct or indirect cyclo-condensation reactions of five-, six- and seven-membered 2-trifluoroacetyl-1-methoxy-cycloalkenes with 2,6-DAP.

  4. Aryl-Alkyl-Lysines: Agents That Kill Planktonic Cells, Persister Cells, Biofilms of MRSA and Protect Mice from Skin-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Chandradhish; Manjunath, Goutham B.; Konai, Mohini M.; Uppu, Divakara S. S. M.; Hoque, Jiaul; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R.; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Development of synthetic strategies to combat Staphylococcal infections, especially those caused by methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA), needs immediate attention. In this manuscript we report the ability of aryl-alkyl-lysines, simple membrane active small molecules, to treat infections caused by planktonic cells, persister cells and biofilms of MRSA. A representative compound, NCK-10, did not induce development of resistance in planktonic cells in multiple passages and retained activity in varying environments of pH and salinity. At low concentrations the compound was able to depolarize and permeabilize the membranes of S. aureus persister cells rapidly. Treatment with the compound not only eradicated pre-formed MRSA biofilms, but also brought down viable counts in bacterial biofilms. In a murine model of MRSA skin infection, the compound was more effective than fusidic acid in bringing down the bacterial burden. Overall, this class of molecules bears potential as antibacterial agents against skin-infections. PMID:26669634

  5. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of 2-(Alkyl-, Alkaryl-, Aryl-, Hetaryl-)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines

    PubMed Central

    Kovalenko, Sergiy I.; Antypenko, Lyudmyla M.; Bilyi, Andriy K.; Kholodnyak, Sergiy V.; Karpenko, Olexandr V.; Antypenko, Olexii M.; Mykhaylova, Natalya S.; Los, Tetyana I.; Kolomoets, Olexandra S.

    2013-01-01

    The combinatorial library of novel potential anticancer agents, namely, 2-(alkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetaryl-)[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines, was synthesized by the heterocyclization of the alkyl-, alkaryl-, aryl-, hetarylcarboxylic acid (3H-quinazoline-4-ylidene)hydrazides by oxidative heterocyclization of the 4-(arylidenehydrazino)quinazolines using bromine, and by the heterocyclization of N-(2-cyanophenyl)formimidic acid ethyl ester. The optimal method for synthesis of the s-triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolines appeared to be cyclocondensation of the corresponding carboxylic acid (3H-quinazoline-4-ylidene)hydrazides. The compounds’ structures were established by 1H, 13C NMR, LC- and EI-MS analysis. The in vitro screening of anticancer activity determined the most active compound to be 3,4,5-trimethoxy-N′-[quinazolin-4(3H)-ylidene]benzohydrazide (3.20) in micromolar concentrations with the GI50 level (MG_MID, GI50 is 2.29). Thus, the cancer cell lines whose growth is greatly inhibited by compound 3.20 are: non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H522, GI50=0.34), CNS (SF-295, GI50=0.95), ovarian (OVCAR-3, GI50=0.33), prostate (PC-3, GI50=0.56), and breast cancer (MCF7, GI50=0.52), leukemia (K-562, GI50=0.41; SR, GI50=0.29), and melanoma (MDA-MB-435, GI50=0.31; SK-MEL-5, GI50=0.74; UACC-62, GI50=0.32). SAR-analysis is also discussed. PMID:23833709

  6. Alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides: Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and anticancer, antibacterial, anticarbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Ozdemir, Ummuhan; İlbiz, Firdevs; Balaban Gunduzalp, Ayla; Ozbek, Neslihan; Karagoz Genç, Zuhal; Hamurcu, Fatma; Tekin, Suat

    2015-11-01

    Methane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3SO2NHNH2 (1), ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2SO2NHNH2 (2), propane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (3) and butane sulfonic acide hydrazide, CH3CH2CH2CH2SO2NHNH2 (4) have been synthesized as homologous series and characterized by using elemental analysis, spectrophotometric methods (1H-13C NMR, FT-IR, LC-MS). In order to gain insight into the structure of the compounds, we have performed computational studies by using 6-311G(d, p) functional in which B3LYP functional were implemented. The geometry of the sulfonic acide hydrazides were optimized at the DFT method with Gaussian 09 program package. A conformational analysis of compounds were performed by using NMR theoretical calculations with DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level of theory by applying the (GIAO) approach. The anticancer activities of these compounds on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus NRRL-B-3711, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using the disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that butane sulfonic acide hydrazide (4) has more activity than the others against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram negative/Gram positive bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  7. N-Alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide as dual-action vaginal microbicides with reverse transcriptase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Jangir, Santosh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Krishna, Atul; Singh, Mala; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-08-28

    The growing population and health-care burden (due to STIs and HIV) imposes a particular economic crisis over resource-poor countries. Thus a novel approach as vaginal microbicides emerges as integrated tool to control both population and anti-STIs/HIV. Our continued efforts in this field led to the synthesis of fifteen N-alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl) piperazine-1-carbothioamide (12-26) derivatives as topical vaginal microbicides which were evaluated for anti-Trichomonas, spermicidal, antifungal and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activities. All compounds were also tested for preliminary safety through cytotoxicity assays against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and the vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking studies were performed to gain an insight into the binding mode and interactions of the most promising compound 12 [oxo derivative], comprising of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory (72.30%), spermicidal (MEC 0.01%), anti-Trichomonas (MIC 46.72 μM) and antifungal (MIC 9.34-74.8 μM) activities, along with its hydroxyl (17) and O-alkylated 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy (22) derivative, with similar activities. The stability of compound 12 in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) and its preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics performed in female NZ-rabbits signifies its clinical safety in comparison to marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9. PMID:26209833

  8. Crystal structures of five 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium halide salts.

    PubMed

    Guino-O, Marites A; Talbot, Meghan O; Slitts, Michael M; Pham, Theresa N; Audi, Maya C; Janzen, Daron E

    2015-06-01

    The asymmetric units for the salts 4-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-1-isopropyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H13FN3 (+)·I(-), (1), 1-isopropyl-4-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C12H16N3 (+)·I(-), (2), 1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H14N3 (+)·I(-), (3), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C9H10N3 (+)·I(-), (4), contain one cation and one iodide ion, whereas in 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C15H14N3 (+)·Br(-)·H2O, (5), there is an additional single water mol-ecule. There is a predominant C-H⋯X(halide) inter-action for all salts, resulting in a two-dimensional extended sheet network between the triazolium cation and the halide ions. For salts with para-substitution on the aryl ring, there is an additional π-anion inter-action between a triazolium carbon and iodide displayed by the layers. For salts without the para-substitution on the aryl ring, the π-π inter-actions are between the triazolium and aryl rings. The melting points of these salts agree with the predicted substituent inductive effects.

  9. Lateral phase separation gives multiple lamellar phases in a "binary" surfactant/water system: the phase behavior of sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Richards, Claire; Tiddy, Gordon J T; Casey, Siobhan

    2007-01-16

    We have examined the structure of the lamellar phase (Lalpha) that coexists with a micellar solution (L1) for a commercial sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) mixed with water. The surfactant is a mixture containing C10-C13 alkyl chains, having all positional isomers of the benzene sulfonate group present except the 1-isomer. Unusually for ionic surfactants, the difference in compositions between the coexisting L1 and Lalpha phases is large (L1 = approximately 20 wt % LAS; Lalpha = approximately 65 wt %). The main technique employed was X-ray diffraction, supplemented by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At ambient temperatures, the lamellar phase gives a single diffraction pattern with the main reflection (d) at approximately 32.5 A, whatever the composition. However, above 40 degrees C, the diffraction peak becomes broader and moves to higher d values. At higher temperatures still, several distinct and different diffraction peaks are observed, differing in detail according to composition. The largest d values (approximately 42-4 A) are observed for the lowest LAS concentrations, while the largest number of separate reflections (five) occurs for samples with approximately 44-50% LAS, both at the highest temperatures. Although there are some differences in the data between heating and cooling cycles, the d values return to the original value at low temperature. There are no observable transitions in DSC, nor is there any heterogeneity in the lamellar phase observable by microscopy. The data clearly indicate that there is some lateral separation of the different LAS isomers within the bilayers, which results in the formation of local lamellar regions having different surfactant compositions. This lateral phase separation may arise from the presence of an (electrostatic) attractive interaction, which gives rise to an upper consolute loop within the lamellar phase region of a pure LAS isomer. Similar mechanisms may occur in biological

  10. An iron-containing ionic liquid as recyclable catalyst for aryl grignard cross-coupling of alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Bica, Katharina; Gaertner, Peter

    2006-02-16

    [reaction: see text] The ionic liquid butylmethylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate (bmim-FeCl(4)) was found to be a very effective and completely air stable catalyst for the biphasic Grignard cross-coupling with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing beta-hydrogens. After simply decanting the product in the ethereal layer, the ionic liquid catalyst was successfully recycled four times.

  11. Crystal structures of five 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium halide salts

    PubMed Central

    Guino-o, Marites A.; Talbot, Meghan O.; Slitts, Michael M.; Pham, Theresa N.; Audi, Maya C.; Janzen, Daron E.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric units for the salts 4-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-1-isopropyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H13FN3 +·I−, (1), 1-isopropyl-4-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C12H16N3 +·I−, (2), 1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H14N3 +·I−, (3), and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C9H10N3 +·I−, (4), contain one cation and one iodide ion, whereas in 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C15H14N3 +·Br−·H2O, (5), there is an additional single water mol­ecule. There is a predominant C—H⋯X(halide) inter­action for all salts, resulting in a two-dimensional extended sheet network between the triazolium cation and the halide ions. For salts with para-substitution on the aryl ring, there is an additional π–anion inter­action between a triazolium carbon and iodide displayed by the layers. For salts without the para-substitution on the aryl ring, the π–π inter­actions are between the triazolium and aryl rings. The melting points of these salts agree with the predicted substituent inductive effects. PMID:26090137

  12. Chemoselectivity in the Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Debabrata

    2011-08-01

    An orthogonal set of Cu-catalysts for the selective mono-arylation of alkyl aryl diols using aryl iodides is presented. Picolinic acid ligated copper catalyst provided phenol O-arylation only, while alkyl aryl ethers are generated by ligand-free copper catalyst in the presence of 2 equivalents NaOt-Bu. PMID:21698330

  13. 2 D - QSAR studies on CYP26A1 inhibitory activity of 1-[benzofuran-2-yl-(4-alkyl/aryl-phenyl)-methyl]- 1 H-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    The Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) study is performed over a set of 15, 4-alkyl/aryl-substituted 1- [benzofuran-2-yl-phenylmethyl]-1 H-triazoles derivatives. This study is based on the application of physicochemical parameters in QSAR. The parameters include (MR (molar refractivity), MW (molecular weight), Pc (parachor), St (surface tension), D (density), Ir (index of refraction) and log P (partition coefficient). The parameters describing physiochemical properties are used as independent variables and the biological activity (IC(50)) is considered as dependent variable in multiple regression analysis. Different models were generated with high co-efficient of determination (R(2)). The 2D-QSAR study identified compounds capable of inhibiting the metabolic breakdown of the retinoid (trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)) involved in the activation of specific nuclear Retinoic acid receptors (RARs). This study identifies R115866 as a potential inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated metabolism with increased RA levels for retinoid actions. PMID:22347780

  14. Effects of alkyl and aryl substitution on the myocardial specificity of radioiodinated phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Hay, H.G.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Several radioiodinated iodopentenyl-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides have been prepared and evaluated in rats to determine the effects of structural variations of the cations on myocardial uptake and retention. The synthesis of (E)-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides via the condensation of trisubstituted phosphine, arsine, and amine precursors, respectively, with (E)-1,5-diiodopentene is described. In some cases a second route involved condensation with (E)-1-borono-5-iodo-1-pentene followed by iodination. In the phosphonium series, the compounds triphenyl 1, dicyclohexylphenyl 5, tricyclohexyl 6, and dimethyl-n-octyl 8 were prepared. The triphenylarsonium 10 and triethylammonium 11 compounds were also prepared. The corresponding radioiodinated analogues were prepared and tissue distribution studies performed in rats. The results (percent dose/gram, 30 min) demonstrate that replacement of phosphorus with arsenic (1, 3.99%; 10, 3.17%) or the replacement of the phenyl ring with the cyclohexyl ring system (6, 2.67%) has no apparent effect on heart uptake. In the series of compounds studied, replacement of the cyclic ring system with alkyl groups, however, significantly decreased heart uptake with both the phosphorus (8, 1.95%) and nitrogen agents (11, 1.11%). Gamma camera imaging studies with (/sup 123/I)-5 and (/sup 123/I)-8 further substantiated the decreased heart uptake with alkyl substitution and the apparent hepatobiliary clearance of 8.

  15. Use of dynamic simulation to assess the behaviour of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates and their biodegradation intermediates (sulfophenylcarboxylic acids) in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Luque, E.; González-Mazo, E.; Forja, J. M.; Gómez-Parra, A.

    2009-02-01

    Dynamic laboratory simulation of processes affecting chemical species in their transit through estuaries is a very useful tool to characterize these littoral systems. To date, laboratory studies concerning biodegradation and sorption (onto suspended particulate matter) of LAS in an estuary are scarce. For this reason, a dynamic automated estuarine simulator has been employed to carry out different experiments in order to assess the biodegradability of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) and their biodegradation intermediates (sulfophenylcarboxylic acids, SPCs) using environmentally representative LAS concentrations in estuaries by a continuous injection of LAS into the system. During the experiments, a great affinity of LAS for the solid phase has been found, as well as an increased adsorption in line with increased chain length. On the other hand, the presence of SPCs with chain length between 6 and 13 carbon atoms was detected. Accumulation and persistence of medium chain length SPCs (C 6-C 8) along the experiments show that their degradation constitutes the limiting step for the process of LAS mineralization. In the final zone of the simulated estuarine system, the levels of SPCs were below the limits of detection. Thus, the disappearance of SPCs indicated that LAS biodegradation had been completed along the estuary. Similar results have been described for different Iberian littoral ecosystems. Therefore, the simulator employed in this research appears to be a useful tool to anticipate the behaviour of a xenobiotic chemical in its transit through littoral systems with different salinity gradients.

  16. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    PubMed

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production.

  17. Ionic iron(III) complexes of bis(phenol)-functionalized imidazolium cations: synthesis, structures and catalysis for aryl Grignard cross-coupling of alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hai-ning; Xing, Ya-lin; Xia, Cong-liang; Sun, Hong-mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2012-10-14

    A series of bis(phenol)-functionalized imidazolium salts, 1,3-bis(4,6-di-R(1)-2-hydroxybenzyl)-2-R(2)-4,5-di-R(3)-imidazolium chlorides H(3)L(n)Cl (R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = R(3) = H, H(3)L(1)Cl, 1; R(1) = CH(3), R(2) = R(3) = H, H(3)L(2)Cl, 2; R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = H, R(3) = Cl, H(3)L(3)Cl, 3; R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = CH(3), R(3) = H, H(3)L(4)Cl, 4), were used to produce a novel series of ionic iron(III) complexes [H(3)L(n)][FeX(4)] (n = 1, X = Cl, 5; n = 2, X = Cl, 6; n = 3, X = Cl, 7; n = 4, X = Cl, 8; n = 1, X = Br, 9; n = 3, X = Br, 10). All of the complexes were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography were also used. All of the complexes were non-hygroscopic and air-stable, with five of them existing as solids (5, 7-10) and one as an oil (6) at room temperature. A preliminary catalytic study on the cross-coupling reactions of aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens, revealed that all of the ionic iron(III) complexes exhibited good to excellent catalytic activity. Complexes 5, 6 and 8 exhibited optimal activity, whereas 7, 9 and 10 showed only moderate activity. Furthermore, by simply decanting the cross-coupling product in the ether layer, complexes 5 and 6 could be reused in at least seven successive runs without significant loss in catalytic activity.

  18. Ligand-Mediated and Copper-Catalyzed C(sp3)-H Bond Functionalization of Aryl Ketones with Sodium Sulfinates under Mild Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xing-Wang; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Yalan; Wen, Jia-Long; Wang, Yan-Jing; Li, Yi-He

    2015-01-01

    A novel and convenient copper (II) bromide and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.1]undec-7-ene (DBU) or 1,10-phenanthroline catalysis protocol for the construction of α-alkyl-β-keto sulfones via C(sp3)-H bond functionalization followed by C(sp3)-S bond formation between aryl ketones and sodium sulfinates at room temperature has been developed. This method is applicable to a wide range of aryl ketones and sodium sulfinates. The electronic effects of aryl ketones and ligands effects of the copper salts are crucial for this transformation. Typically, substituted aryl ketones with electron-withdrawing group do not need any ligand to give a good to excellent yield, while substituted aryl ketones with electron-donating group and electron-rich heteroaromatic ketones offer a good to excellent yield only under the nitrogen-based ligands. The practical value of this transformation highlights the efficient and robust one-pot synthesis of α-alkyl-β-keto sulfones. PMID:26681470

  19. Ligand-Mediated and Copper-Catalyzed C(sp3)-H Bond Functionalization of Aryl Ketones with Sodium Sulfinates under Mild Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xing-Wang; Wang, Nai-Xing; Bai, Cui-Bing; Zhang, Wei; Xing, Yalan; Wen, Jia-Long; Wang, Yan-Jing; Li, Yi-He

    2015-12-01

    A novel and convenient copper (II) bromide and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.1]undec-7-ene (DBU) or 1,10-phenanthroline catalysis protocol for the construction of α-alkyl-β-keto sulfones via C(sp3)-H bond functionalization followed by C(sp3)-S bond formation between aryl ketones and sodium sulfinates at room temperature has been developed. This method is applicable to a wide range of aryl ketones and sodium sulfinates. The electronic effects of aryl ketones and ligands effects of the copper salts are crucial for this transformation. Typically, substituted aryl ketones with electron-withdrawing group do not need any ligand to give a good to excellent yield, while substituted aryl ketones with electron-donating group and electron-rich heteroaromatic ketones offer a good to excellent yield only under the nitrogen-based ligands. The practical value of this transformation highlights the efficient and robust one-pot synthesis of α-alkyl-β-keto sulfones.

  20. Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Bowling, J W; Lee, D M; LeBlanc, E M; Kerr, K M; McAvoy, D C; Christman, S C; Davidson, D H

    2002-06-01

    An integrated model stream ecosystem fate and effect study of dodecyl linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C(12)LAS) was performed in the summer and fall of 1996. The study addressed responses of periphytic microbes, immature benthic fauna including abundance, drift, and emergence of adult insects in a 56-day exposure. Exposures ranged from 126 to 2978 microg/L and were continuously presented in a single-pass, flow-through test system. Microbial heterotrophs acclimated to C(12)LAS exposure quickly (14 days) and biodegraded C(12)LAS at all concentrations. Blue-green algae responded by increasing in abundance with increasing C(12)LAS concentration. Invertebrates responded by increased drift and reduced benthic abundances at concentrations exceeding 293 microg/L. Emergence at 927 microg/L also declined relative to the control. Adverse responses for mayflies and chironomids were indicated using univariate statistical techniques. Multivariate techniques indicated these taxa plus mollusks, aquatic worms, caddisflies, and stoneflies were impaired at some concentrations. Bioavailability of C(12)LAS was investigated in streams as a function of the total suspended solid load in the water column driven by local weather and watershed patterns. A continuous bioavailability model indicated exposure was reduced by an average of 8.5+/-8.9%. A model ecosystem no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was concluded to be 293 microg/L based on measured water column exposure and adjusted to 268 microg/L by the bioavailability model. A literature review of 13 available model ecosystem studies was conducted and NOEC conclusions were adjusted by a structure-activity relationship to a dodecyl chain length (sulfophenyl position and distribution being ignored due to lack of information in the reviewed studies). Lentic studies (n=7) were found to have higher NOECs than lotic studies (n=6) and were more variable. Mean NOECs+/-SD for all studies, lentic studies only, and lotic studies only were 3320

  1. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands. Part 1: the influence of different hydrogen bond acceptor systems on alkyl and (hetero)aryl substituents.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Munoz, Lenka; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane is a naturally occurring scaffold interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). When one nitrogen of the 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold was implemented in a carboxamide motif displaying a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) functionality, compounds with higher affinities and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) were obtained. The nature of the HBA system (carboxamide, sulfonamide, urea) had a strong impact on nAChR interaction. High affinity ligands for α4β2(∗) possessed small alkyl chains, small un-substituted hetero-aryl groups or para-substituted phenyl ring systems along with a carboxamide group. Electrophysiological responses of selected 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives to Xenopus oocytes expressing various nAChR subtypes showed diverse activation profiles. Compounds with strongest agonistic profiles were obtained with small alkyl groups whereas a shift to partial agonism/antagonism was observed for aryl substituents. PMID:24156938

  2. A Mild Synthesis of New Aryl Vinyl Ethers and Diethyl 1-[(Alkyl)(cyano)methyl]vinylphosphonates via the Substitution of a 2,3-Difunctional Allyl Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ben Kraïem, Jihène; Arfaoui, Aïcha; Amri, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of aryl vinyl ethers 3 and diethyl 3-cyano-3-alkylprop-1-en-2-ylphosphonates 4 has been prepared, respectively, from coupling reaction of diethyl 1-(bromomethyl)-2-cyanovinylphosphonate 2 with phenols and Gilman reagents. PMID:24688373

  3. Design, microwave-mediated synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 4-aryl(alkyl)amino-3-nitroquinoline and 2,4-diaryl(dialkyl)amino-3-nitroquinolines as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Monika; Rana, Anil; Alex, Jimi Marin; Negi, Arvind; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Raj

    2015-02-01

    Design, microwave-assisted synthesis of novel 4-aryl (alkyl)amino-3-nitroquinoline (1a-1l) and 2,4-diaryl (dialkyl)amino-3-nitroquinolines (2a-2k and 3a) via regioselective and complete nucleophilic substitution of 2,4-dichloro-3-nitroquinoline, respectively in water are presented. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for the first time for antiproliferative activity against EGFR overexpressing human lung (A-549 and H-460) and colon (HCT-116-wild type and HCT-116-p53 null) cancer cell lines. Some notions about structure-activity relationships (SAR) are presented. Compounds 2e, 2f, 2j and 3a overall exhibited excellent anticancer activity comparable to erlotinib which was used as a positive control. Molecular modeling studies disclosed the recognition pattern of the compounds and also supported the observed SAR. PMID:25462621

  4. Enantioselective Synthesis of Homoallylic Amines through Reactions of (Pinacolato)allylborons with Aryl-, Heteroaryl-, Alkyl- or Alkene-Substituted Aldimines Catalyzed by Chiral C1-Symmetric NHC–Cu Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2011-01-01

    A catalytic method for enantioselective synthesis of homoallylamides through Cu-catalyzed reactions of stable and easily accessible (pinacolato)allylborons with aryl-, heteroaryl-,alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted N-phosphinoylimines is disclosed. Transformations are promoted by 1–5 mol % of readily accessible NHC–Cu complexes, derived from C1-symmetric imidazolinium salts, which can be prepared in multi-gram quantities in four steps from commercially available materials. Allyl additions deliver the desired products in up to quantitative yield and 98.5:1.5 enantiomeric ratio and are amenable to gram-scale operations. A mechanistic model accounting for the observed selectivity levels and trends is proposed. PMID:21341657

  5. Synthesis of geminal difluorides by oxidative desulfurization-difluorination of alkyl aryl thioethers with halonium electrophiles in the presence of fluorinating reagents and its application for 18F-radiolabeling.

    PubMed

    Hugenberg, Verena; Wagner, Stefan; Kopka, Klaus; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael; Haufe, Günter

    2010-09-17

    Various ω-substituted 1,1-difluoroalkanes are synthesized in good yields from alkyl aryl thioethers by a new oxidative desulfurization-difluorination protocol with the reagents combination of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) as an oxidizer and pyridine·9HF (Py·9HF) as a fluoride source. The reaction proceeds via a fluoro-Pummerer-type rearrangement followed by an oxidative desulfurization-fluorination step. Starting from α-fluorinated thioethers, this reaction is promising for (18)F-labeling (τ(1/2) = 110 min) of ligands applicable for positron emission tomography (PET). Using the combination of DBH and carrier-added Py·9H[(18)F]F, an (18)F-labeled difluoride was synthesized from the corresponding α-fluoro thioether with a radiochemical yield of 9%. PMID:20738143

  6. Synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via Pd-catalyzed one-pot installation of a directing group and C(sp3)–H arylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Cao, Xiaoji; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via alkyl C–H bond arylation has been realized by means of direct one-pot reactions of acyl chlorides, aryl iodides and 8-aminoquinoline. Depending on the structure of the starting materials, both single and double β-arylated alkylamides could be accessed. PMID:27340500

  7. Synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via Pd-catalyzed one-pot installation of a directing group and C(sp(3))-H arylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Xiaoji; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via alkyl C-H bond arylation has been realized by means of direct one-pot reactions of acyl chlorides, aryl iodides and 8-aminoquinoline. Depending on the structure of the starting materials, both single and double β-arylated alkylamides could be accessed.

  8. Capillary electrochromatography with polyacrylamide monolithic stationary phases having bonded dodecyl ligands and sulfonic acid groups: evaluation of column performance with alkyl phenyl ketones and neutral moderately polar pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; El Rassi, Z

    2001-08-01

    In this report, we describe the preparation of porous polyacrylamide-based monolithic columns via vinyl polymerization. These monoliths possess in their structures bonded dodecyl ligands and sulfonic acid groups. While the sulfonic acid groups are meant to support the electroosmotic flow (EOF) necessary for moving the mobile phase through the monolithic capillary, the dodecyl ligands are introduced to provide the nonpolar sites for chromatographic retention. However, incorporating the sulfonic acid groups in the monoliths does not only support the EOF but also exhibit hydrophilic interaction with moderately polar compounds such as urea herbicides and carbamates insecticides. Consequently, mixed-mode (reversed-phase/normal phase) retention behavior is observed with neutral and moderately polar pesticides. The amount of sulfonic acid group in the monolith can be conveniently adjusted by changing the amount of vinylsulfonic acid added to the polymerization reaction. Optimum EOF velocity and adequate chromatographic retention are obtained when 15% vinylsulfonic acid is added to the reaction mixture. Under these conditions, rapid separation and high plate counts reaching greater than 400000 plates/m are readily obtained.

  9. Room Temperature, Metal-Free Arylation of Aliphatic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raju; Lindstedt, Erik; Jalalian, Nazli; Olofsson, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Diaryliodonium salts are demonstrated as efficient arylating agents of aliphatic alcohols under metal-free conditions. The reaction proceeds at room temperature within 90 min to give alkyl aryl ethers in good to excellent yields. Aryl groups with electron-withdrawing substituents are transferred most efficiently, and unsymmetric iodonium salts give chemoselective arylations. The methodology has been applied to the formal synthesis of butoxycaine. PMID:24808991

  10. Use of Trifluoromethyl Groups for Catalytic Benzylation and Alkylation with Subsequent Hydrodefluorination.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangtao; Pérez, Manuel; Caputo, Christopher B; Stephan, Douglas W

    2016-01-22

    The electrophilic organofluorophosphonium catalyst [(C6F5)3PF][B(C6F5)4] is shown to effect benzylation or alkylation by aryl and alkyl CF3 groups with subsequent hydrodefluorination, thus resulting in a net transformation of CF3 into CH2-aryl fragments. In the case of alkyl CF3 groups, Friedel-Crafts alkylation by the difluorocarbocation proceeded without cation rearrangement, in contrast to the corresponding reactions of alkyl monofluorides. PMID:26663711

  11. Rh(III)-catalyzed synthesis of sultones through C-H activation directed by a sulfonic acid group.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Wang, Mei; Li, Xingwei

    2014-09-01

    A new rhodium-catalyzed synthesis of sultones via the oxidative coupling of sulfonic acids with internal alkynes is described. The reaction proceeds via aryl C-H activation assisted by a sulfonic acid group.

  12. 1H, 13C, 195Pt and 15N NMR structural correlations in Pd(II) and Pt(II) chloride complexes with various alkyl and aryl derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Tomasz; Pazderski, Leszek; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech; Szłyk, Edward

    2011-02-01

    (1)H, (13)C, (195)Pt and (15)N NMR studies of platinide(II) (M = Pd, Pt) chloride complexes with such alkyl and aryl derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline as LL = 6,6'-dimethyl-bpy, 5,5'-dimethyl-bpy, 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-bpy, 2,9-dimethyl-phen, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-phen, 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-phen, having the general [M(LL)Cl(2)] formula were performed and the respective chemical shifts (δ(1H), δ(13C), δ(195Pt), δ(15N)) reported. (1)H high-frequency coordination shifts (Δ(coord)(1H) = δ(complex)(1H)-δ(ligand)(1H)) mostly pronounced for nitrogen-adjacent protons and methyl groups in the nearest adjacency of nitrogen, as well as (15)N low-frequency coordination shifts (Δ(coord)(15H) = δ(complex)(15H)-δ(ligand)(15H)) were discussed in relation to the molecular structures.

  13. Synthesis, central nervous system activity and structure-activity relationships of novel 1-(1-Alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted urea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Szacoń, Elżbieta; Rządkowska, Marzena; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kędzierska, Ewa; Fidecka, Sylwia; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    A series of 10 novel urea derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated for their central nervous system activity. Compounds 3a-3h were prepared in the reaction between the respective 1-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amines 1a and 1b and appropriate benzyl-, phenethyl-isocyanate or ethyl 4-isocyanatobenzoate and ethyl isocyanatoacetate 2 in dichloromethane. Derivatives 4c and 4g resulted from the conversion of 3c and 3g into the respective amides due to action of an aqueous ammonia solution. The results obtained in this study, based on literature data suggest a possible involvement of serotonin system and/or the opioid system in the effects of tested compounds, and especially in the effect of compound 3h. The best activity of compound 3h may be primarily attributed to its favourable ADMET properties, i.e., higher lipophilicity (related to lower polar surface area and greater molecular surface, volume and mass than for other compounds) and good blood-brain permeation. This compound has also the greatest polarizability and ovality. The HOMO and LUMO energies do not seem to be directly related to activity.

  14. Primary biodegradation of linear alkyltoluene and alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Satish, S

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the primary biodegradation of linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate, linear dodecyltoluene sulfonate, linear C(10-14) benzene sulfonate, linear C(10-14) toluene sulfonate, commercial samples of linear C(10-14) benzene sulfonate and branched dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DDBS) were carried out using a microbial culture developed from garden soil. Results show that linear alkyl toluene (LAT) is as degradable as linear alkylbenzene (LAB) in 7 days. However, a slower rate of degradation was noted with LAT. Various distributions of the positional isomers of the phenyl ring in the alkane chain of C(10-14) LAB showed no change in the pattern of primary biodegradation.

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives as potential dual cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Gao, Guangwei; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Yun; Zhan, Xiaoping; Liu, Zenglu; Mao, Zhenmin; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wang, Liqun

    2014-10-30

    A series of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives have been synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Some of the target compounds exhibited significant antitumor activity, including compounds 6h and 6k (against K562 cells), 6i (against HeLa cells) and 6j (against A549 cells). N-(p-methoxy-phenyl)-isoindigo (6k) exhibited a high and selective anti-proliferative activity against K562 cells (IC50 7.8 μM) and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 6k arrested the cell cycle at S phase in K562 cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin A and CDK2, which played critical roles in DNA replication and passage through G2 phase. Moreover, compound 6k down-regulated the expression of p-GSK-3β (Ser9), β-catenin and c-myc proteins, up-regulated the expression of GSK-3β, consequently, suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells. The binding mode of compound 6k with GSK-3β was simulated using molecular docking tools. All of these studies gave a better understanding to the molecular mechanisms of this class of agents and clues to develop dual CDK2/GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation inhibitors applied in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25151579

  16. Selective Pro-Apoptotic Activity of Novel 3,3′-(Aryl/Alkyl-Methylene)Bis(2-Hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-Dione) Derivatives on Human Cancer Cells via the Induction Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Krishnendu; Brahmachari, Goutam; Sil, Parames C.

    2016-01-01

    Selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells barring the normal cells is considered as an effective strategy to combat cancer. In the present study, a series of twenty-two (22) synthetic 3,3'-(aryl/alkyl-methylene)bis(2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione) bis-lawsone derivatives were assayed for their pro-apoptotic activity in six different cell lines (five cancerous and one normal) using MTT assay. Out of these 22 test compounds, 1j was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis in human glioma cells (CCF-4) among the different cell lines used in the study. The activity of this compound, 1j, was then compared to a popular anticancer drug, cisplatin, having limited usage because of its nephrotoxic nature. In this study, 1j derivative showed much less toxicity to the normal kidney cells compared to cisplatin, thus indicating the superiority of 1j as a possible anticancer agent. This compound was observed to induce apoptosis in the glioma cells by inducing the caspase dependent apoptotic pathways via ROS and downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Estimation of different oxidative stress markers also confirms the induction of oxidative stress in 1j exposed cancer cells. The toxicity of 1j compound toward cancer cells was confirmed further by different flow cytometrical analyses to estimate the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle. The sensitivity of malignant cells to apoptosis, provoked by this synthetic derivative in vitro, deserves further studies in suitable in vivo models. These studies not only identified a novel anticancer drug candidate but also help to understand the metabolism of ROS and its application in cancer treatment. PMID:27380262

  17. Antifungal, cytotoxic and SAR studies of a series of N-alkyl, N-aryl and N-alkylphenyl-1,4-pyrrolediones and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sortino, M; Garibotto, F; Cechinel Filho, V; Gupta, M; Enriz, R; Zacchino, S

    2011-05-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and SAR studies of 67 maleimides and derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. A detailed SAR study supported by theoretical calculations led us to determine that: an intact maleimido ring appears to be necessary for a strong antifungal activity, dissimilarly affected by the substituents in positions 2 and 3. The best activities were shown by 2,3-nonsubstituted followed by 2,3 dichloro- and 2-methyl-substituted maleimides. They all were fungicide rather than fungistatic enhancing the importance of their antifungal activity. 2,3-Dimethyl and 2,3-diphenyl-maleimides possessed marginal or null activity. The presence of a flexible connecting chain in N-phenylalkyl maleimides appears not to be essential for antifungal activity, although its length shows a correlation with the antifungal behavior, displaying maleimides with alkyl chains of n=3 and n=4 the best antifungal activities in most fungi. Different substituents on the benzene ring did not have a clear influence on the activity. Values of chemical potential properties as well as of energy do not sufficiently discriminate between active and inactive compounds. Nevertheless, it was found that, although logP alone is not strong enough to properly predict the antifungal activity, the comparison of its values for compounds within the same sub-type, showed an enhancement of antifungal activity along with an increment of lipophilicity. In addition, the LUMO's electronic clouds of the highly active compounds showed to be concentrated on the imido ring, indicating that their carbon atoms are potential sites for nucleophilic attack. Same results were obtained from MEPs. Most of the active compounds did not show cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines and no one possessed hemolytic activity, indicating that their activity is selective to pathogenic fungi and that they are not toxic at MIC concentrations.

  18. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems.

  19. Preparation of sulfonic-functionalized graphene oxide as ion-exchange material and its application into electrochemiluminescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guifen; Zhai, Shengyong; Zhai, Yanling; Zhang, Ke; Yue, Qiaoli; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jinsheng; Wang, Huaisheng; Liu, Jifeng; Jia, Jianbo

    2011-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) obtained from chemical oxidation of flake graphite was derivatized with sulfonic groups to form sulfonic-functionalized GO (GO-SO(3)(-)) through four sulfonation routes: through amide formation between the carboxylic group of GO and amine of sulfanilic acid (AA-GO-SO(3)(-)), aryl diazonium reaction of sulfanilic acid (AD-GO-SO(3)(-)), amide formation between the carboxylic group of GO and amine of cysteamine and oxidation by H(2)O(2) (CA-GO-SO(3)(-)), and alkyl diazonium reaction of cysteamine and oxidation by H(2)O(2) (CD-GO-SO(3)(-)). Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrospectrocopy showed that -SO(3)(-) groups were attached onto GO. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that derivatization with sulfonic groups improved thermo stability of GO. X-ray diffraction results indicated that GO-SO(3)(-) had more ordered π-π stacking structure than the original GO. GO-SO(3)(-) and cationic polyelectrote, poly (diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) (PDDA) were adsorbed at indium tin oxide (ITO) glass surface through layer-by-layer assembling to form (GO-SO(3)(-)/PDDA)(n)/ITO multilayers. After tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) dichloride (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)) was incorporated into the multilayers, the obtained Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/(GO-SO(3)(-)/PDDA)(n)/ITO electrodes can be used as electrochemiluminescence sensors for detection of organic amine with high sensitivity (limit of detection of 1 nM) and stability.

  20. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems. PMID:27389973

  1. Nano-CuFe2O4 as a magnetically separable and reusable catalyst for the synthesis of diaryl/aryl alkyl sulfides via cross-coupling process under ligand-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Swapna, Kokkirala; Murthy, Sabbavarapu Narayana; Jyothi, Mocharla Tarani; Nageswar, Yadavalli Venkata Durga

    2011-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for the CuFe(2)O(4) nanopowder-catalyzed aryl-sulfur bond formation between aryl halide and thiol/disulfide. A variety of aryl sulfides were synthesized in impressive yields with good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance in the presence of a catalytic amount of CuFe(2)O(4), Cs(2)CO(3) as base, in nitrogen atmosphere, under ligand-free conditions, in DMSO as solvent at 100 °C. The catalyst is air-stable, inexpensive, magnetically separable and recyclable up to four cycles. PMID:21769376

  2. Aldicarb sulfone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aldicarb sulfone ; CASRN 1646 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  3. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high throughput screening assay. 4. Structure-activity relationships of N-alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Drewe, John; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Labreque, Denis; Bubenick, Monica; Attardo, Giorgio; Denis, Real; Lamothe, Serge; Gourdeau, Henriette; Tseng, Ben; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2008-02-14

    In our continuing effort to discover and develop apoptosis inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as novel anticancer agents, we explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions. A methyl group substituted at the nitrogen in the 7-position of the pyrrole ring led to a series of potent apoptosis inducers with potency in the low nanomolar range. These compounds were also found to be low nanomolar or subnanomolar inhibitors of cell growth, and they inhibited tubulin polymerization, indicating that methylation of the 7-position nitrogen does not change the mechanism of action of these chromenes. Compound 2d was identified as a highly potent apoptosis inducer with an EC50 value of 2 nM and a highly potent inhibitor of cell growth with a GI50 value of 0.3 nM in T47D cells.

  4. Enantioselective transformation of Na2SO3 into allylic sulfonic acids under Pd catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-14

    Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic sulfonation of di-aryl-substituted allylic acetates with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) in THF-H2O at room temperature was described. This method directly provided allylic sulfonic acids in up to excellent yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:25415622

  5. Photooxidation of mixed aryl and biarylphosphines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Celaje, Jeff A; Agua, Alon; Doan, Chad; Stewart, Timothy; Bau, Robert; Selke, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Arylphosphines and dialkylbiarylphosphines react with singlet oxygen to form phosphine oxides and phosphinate esters. For mixed arylphosphines, the most electron-rich aryl group migrates to form the phosphinate, while for dialkylbiarylphosphines migration of the alkyl group occurs. Dialkylbiarylphosphines also yield arene epoxides, especially in electron-rich systems. Phosphinate ester formation is increased at high temperature, while protic solvents increase the yield of epoxide. The product distribution provides evidence for Buchwald's recent conformational model for the aerobic oxidation of dialkylbiarylphosphines.

  6. Heteroaromatic sulfonates and phosphates as electrophiles in iron-catalyzed cross-couplings.

    PubMed

    Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2009-11-01

    Employment of heteroaromatic tosylates and phosphates as suitable electrophiles in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with alkyl Grignard reagents is reported. These reactions are performed at low temperature allowing good functional group tolerance and full conversion is achieved within minutes. In addition, an aryl-aryl cross-coupling utilizing a heteroaryl sulfamate electrophile is reported.

  7. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) EXPOSURE ON LUNG MATURATION IN THE PERINATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), found widely in wildlife and humans, is environmentally and metabolically stable. Environmental PFOS may be from its use as a surfactant, hydrolysis of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, and degradation of N-alkyl-perfluorooctanesulfon...

  8. High Lipophilicty of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate and Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ping; Rodgers, Patrick J.; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on remarkably high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate. A lipophilic nature of this emerging class of organic pollutants has been hypothesized as an origin of their bioaccumulation and toxicity. Both carboxylate and sulfonate, however, are considered hydrophilic while perfluroalkyl groups are not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. Partition coefficients of homologous series of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl carboxylates between water and n-octanol were determined as a measure of their lipophilicity by ion-transfer cyclic voltammetry. Very similar lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl chains with the same length is demonstrated experimentally for the first time by fragment analysis of the partition coefficients. This finding is important for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of perfluoroalkyl compounds. Interestingly, ∼2 orders of magnitude higher lipophilicity of a perfluoroalkyl carboxylate or sulfonate in comparison to its alkyl counterpart is ascribed nearly exclusively to their oxoanion groups. The higher lipophilicity originates from a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the perfluoroalkyl group on the adjacent oxoanion group, which is weakly hydrated to decrease its hydrophilicity. In fact, the inductive effect is dramatically reduced for a fluorotelomer with an ethylene spacer between perfluorohexyl and carboxylate groups, which is only as lipophilic as its alkyl counterpart, nonanoate, and is 400 times less lipophilic than perfluorononanoate. The high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate implies that their permeation across such a thin lipophilic membrane as a bilayer lipid membrane is limited by their transfer at a membrane/water interface. The limiting permeability is lower and less dependent on their lipophilicity than the permeability controlled by their diffusion in the membrane interior as assumed in the classical solubility-diffusion model. PMID:19170492

  9. Sulfonate-cosurfactant mixtures for use in hard brines during oil recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, J. J.

    1981-05-12

    Alkyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymers, alone or in combination with ethoxylated acids and/or ethoxylated amides and, optionally, together with polyalkoxylated carboxylic acids, polyalkoxylated amides and sulfated derivatives thereof, ethoxylated alkyl phenols, ethoxylated alcohols and the corresponding sulfated derivatives, sulfated aliphatic alcohols and alkylene oxide block copolymers, are useful to stabilize sulfonate surfactants, E.G., petroleum sulfonates, E.G., for use in tertiary oil recovery.

  10. Waterflooding employing mixtures of sulfonate surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Savins, J.G.; Waite, J.M.; Burdyn, R.F.

    1980-11-04

    A new waterflooding process is described in which at least a portion of the injected fluid comprises a viscous aqueous liquid having a monovalent salt salinity within the range of 1.5 to 4.0% by wt and containing first and second sulfonate surfactants. The first surfactant is a petroleum sulfonate having a relatively broad molecular weight distribution and the second surfactant is a synthetic alkyl or alkylaryl sulfonate having a molecular weight distribution narrower than that of the first surfactant. The first and second surfactants are present in the aqueous liquid in relative amounts such that the ratio of the concentration of the first surfactant to the concentration of the second surfactant is within the range of 1:3 to 1:1. The thickened aqueous liquid containing the above described multicomponent surfactant system also contains a water-soluble C3-C6 aliphatic alcohol. 11 claims.

  11. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: The Direct Synthesis of Ketones by the Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Oxo Acids.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lingling; Lipshultz, Jeffrey M; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-06-26

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-oxo acids has been achieved by synergistic visible-light-mediated photoredox and nickel catalysis. This method offers rapid entry to aryl and alkyl ketone architectures from simple α-oxo acid precursors via an acyl radical intermediate. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the oxo acid and arene coupling partners. This mild decarboxylative arylation can also be utilized to efficiently access medicinal agents, as demonstrated by the rapid synthesis of fenofibrate.

  12. Copper-catalyzed N- and O-alkylation of amines and phenols using alkylborane reagents.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Shunsuke; Kuninobu, Yoichiro

    2013-04-01

    By the reaction of amines with alkylborane reagents in the presence of a catalytic amount of copper(II) acetate Cu(OAc)2 and di-tert-butyl peroxide, a cross-coupling reaction proceeded and alkylated amines were obtained in good to excellent yields. Phenols are also applicable for this reaction, and the corresponding alkyl aryl ethers were produced. PMID:23521042

  13. Amine synthesis via iron-catalysed reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2016-08-01

    (Hetero)Aryl amines, an important class of organic molecules in medicinal chemistry, are most commonly synthesized from anilines, which are in turn synthesized by hydrogenation of nitroarenes. Amine synthesis directly from nitroarenes is attractive due to improved step economy and functional group compatibility. Despite these potential advantages, there is yet no general method for the synthesis of (hetero)aryl amines by carbon-nitrogen cross-coupling of nitroarenes. Here we report the reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides to yield (hetero)aryl amines. A simple iron catalyst enables the coupling with numerous primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl halides. Broad scope and high functional group tolerance are demonstrated. Mechanistic study suggests that nitrosoarenes and alkyl radicals are involved as intermediates. This new C-N coupling method provides general and step-economical access to aryl amines.

  14. Amine synthesis via iron-catalysed reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2016-01-01

    (Hetero)Aryl amines, an important class of organic molecules in medicinal chemistry, are most commonly synthesized from anilines, which are in turn synthesized by hydrogenation of nitroarenes. Amine synthesis directly from nitroarenes is attractive due to improved step economy and functional group compatibility. Despite these potential advantages, there is yet no general method for the synthesis of (hetero)aryl amines by carbon–nitrogen cross-coupling of nitroarenes. Here we report the reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides to yield (hetero)aryl amines. A simple iron catalyst enables the coupling with numerous primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl halides. Broad scope and high functional group tolerance are demonstrated. Mechanistic study suggests that nitrosoarenes and alkyl radicals are involved as intermediates. This new C–N coupling method provides general and step-economical access to aryl amines. PMID:27515391

  15. Amine synthesis via iron-catalysed reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2016-01-01

    (Hetero)Aryl amines, an important class of organic molecules in medicinal chemistry, are most commonly synthesized from anilines, which are in turn synthesized by hydrogenation of nitroarenes. Amine synthesis directly from nitroarenes is attractive due to improved step economy and functional group compatibility. Despite these potential advantages, there is yet no general method for the synthesis of (hetero)aryl amines by carbon-nitrogen cross-coupling of nitroarenes. Here we report the reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides to yield (hetero)aryl amines. A simple iron catalyst enables the coupling with numerous primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl halides. Broad scope and high functional group tolerance are demonstrated. Mechanistic study suggests that nitrosoarenes and alkyl radicals are involved as intermediates. This new C-N coupling method provides general and step-economical access to aryl amines. PMID:27515391

  16. Alkylating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wessjohann, Ludger A; Keim, Jeanette; Weigel, Benjamin; Dippe, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chemospecific and regiospecific modifications of natural products by methyl, prenyl, or C-glycosyl moieties are a challenging and cumbersome task in organic synthesis. Because of the availability of an increasing number of stable and selective transferases and cofactor regeneration processes, enzyme-assisted strategies turn out to be promising alternatives to classical synthesis. Two categories of alkylating enzymes become increasingly relevant for applications: firstly prenyltransferases and terpene synthases (including terpene cyclases), which are used in the production of terpenoids such as artemisinin, or meroterpenoids like alkylated phenolics and indoles, and secondly methyltransferases, which modify flavonoids and alkaloids to yield products with a specific methylation pattern such as 7-O-methylaromadendrin and scopolamine.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Reductive N-Alkylation of Amides with N-Tosylhydrazones Derived from Ketones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Qi, Fu-Ling; Han, Fu-She; Wang, Yan-Hua

    2016-07-20

    A CuI-catalyzed reductive coupling of ketone-derived N-tosylhydrazones with amides is presented. Under the optimized conditions, an array of N-tosylhydrazones derived from aryl-alkyl and diaryl ketones could couple effectively with a wide variety of (hetero)aryl as well as aliphatic amides to afford the N-alkylated amides in high yields. The method represents the very few examples for reliably accessing secondary and tertiary amides through a reductive N-alkylation protocol. PMID:27346856

  18. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Charles Austen; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2010-11-16

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  19. Enantioselective Cross-Coupling of meso-Epoxides with Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first enantioselective cross-electrophile coupling of aryl bromides with meso-epoxides to form trans-β-arylcycloalkanols is presented. The reaction is catalyzed by a combination of (bpy)NiCl2 and a chiral titanocene under reducing conditions. Yields range from 57 to 99% with 78–95% enantiomeric excess. The 30 examples include a variety of functional groups (ether, ester, ketone, nitrile, ketal, trifluoromethyl, sulfonamide, sulfonate ester), both aryl and vinyl halides, and five- to seven-membered rings. The intermediacy of a carbon radical is strongly suggested by the conversion of cyclooctene monoxide to an aryl [3.3.0]bicyclooctanol. PMID:25716775

  20. Decarboxylative Cross-Electrophile Coupling of N-Hydroxyphthalimide Esters with Aryl Iodides.

    PubMed

    Huihui, Kierra M M; Caputo, Jill A; Melchor, Zulema; Olivares, Astrid M; Spiewak, Amanda M; Johnson, Keywan A; DiBenedetto, Tarah A; Kim, Seoyoung; Ackerman, Laura K G; Weix, Daniel J

    2016-04-20

    A new method for the decarboxylative coupling of alkyl N-hydroxyphthalimide esters (NHP esters) with aryl iodides is presented. In contrast to previous studies that form alkyl radicals from carboxylic acid derivatives, no photocatalyst, light, or arylmetal reagent is needed, only nickel and a reducing agent (Zn). Methyl, primary, and secondary alkyl groups can all be coupled in good yield (77% ave yield). One coupling with an acid chloride is also presented. Stoichiometric reactions of (dtbbpy)Ni(2-tolyl)I with an NHP ester show for the first time that arylnickel(II) complexes can directly react with NHP esters to form alkylated arenes. PMID:27029833

  1. Examination of mercaptobenzyl sulfonates as catalysts for native chemical ligation: application to the assembly of a glycosylated Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue.

    PubMed

    Cowper, Ben; Sze, Tsz Mei; Premdjee, Bhavesh; Bongat White, Aileen F; Hacking, Andrew; Macmillan, Derek

    2015-02-21

    3/4-Mercaptobenzyl sulfonates were investigated as aryl thiol catalysts for native chemical ligation (NCL). Whilst catalysing NCL processes at a similar rate to 4-mercaptophenyl acetic acid (MPAA), the increased polarity and solubility of 3-mercaptobenzyl sulfonate in particular may favour its selection as NCL catalyst in many instances. PMID:25605668

  2. Examination of mercaptobenzyl sulfonates as catalysts for native chemical ligation: application to the assembly of a glycosylated Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue.

    PubMed

    Cowper, Ben; Sze, Tsz Mei; Premdjee, Bhavesh; Bongat White, Aileen F; Hacking, Andrew; Macmillan, Derek

    2015-02-21

    3/4-Mercaptobenzyl sulfonates were investigated as aryl thiol catalysts for native chemical ligation (NCL). Whilst catalysing NCL processes at a similar rate to 4-mercaptophenyl acetic acid (MPAA), the increased polarity and solubility of 3-mercaptobenzyl sulfonate in particular may favour its selection as NCL catalyst in many instances.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Aryl Sulfides with Diborons.

    PubMed

    Bhanuchandra, M; Baralle, Alexandre; Otsuka, Shinya; Nogi, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-17

    A catalytic Miyaura-type ipso-borylation of aryl sulfides with diboron reagents has been achieved, providing arylboronate esters of synthetic use. The key conditions to transform inherently reluctant C-S bonds into C-B bonds include a palladium-NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and lithium hexamethyldisilazide. This protocol is applicable to a reasonable range of aryl alkyl sulfides. Twofold borylation was observed in the reaction of diphenyl sulfide. PMID:27267542

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Aryl Sulfides with Diborons.

    PubMed

    Bhanuchandra, M; Baralle, Alexandre; Otsuka, Shinya; Nogi, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-17

    A catalytic Miyaura-type ipso-borylation of aryl sulfides with diboron reagents has been achieved, providing arylboronate esters of synthetic use. The key conditions to transform inherently reluctant C-S bonds into C-B bonds include a palladium-NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and lithium hexamethyldisilazide. This protocol is applicable to a reasonable range of aryl alkyl sulfides. Twofold borylation was observed in the reaction of diphenyl sulfide.

  5. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld; Mazur, Tanja; Joergensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Helle D.

    2001-07-01

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) doped with large anionic detergents have high stability in aqueous systems. PPy can be reversibly oxidised and reduced electrochemically. The redox change of PPy is accompanied by a change in volume of the polymer. This is partly ascribed to take-up of ions and solvent molecules. This volume change can be used as a polymer actuator (artificial muscle) working in a narrow voltage range (less than 1 V). The properties of the PPy polymer are largely determined by the dopant ions and also by the deposition conditions and the substrate. A free-standing 10 micrometers thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p-(n-octyl)benzene sulfonate and in conductivity for p-(n-butyl)benzene sulfonate.

  6. Chiral Sulfinamide/Achiral Sulfonic Acid Co-Catalyzed Enantioselective Protonation of Enol Silanes

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Elizabeth M.; Hyde, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of chiral sulfinamides and achiral sulfonic acids as a co-catalyst system for enantioselective protonation reactions is described. Structurally simple, easily accessible sulfinamides were found to induce moderate-to-high ee's in the formation of 2-aryl-substituted cycloalkanones from the corresponding trimethylsilyl enol ethers. PMID:21786775

  7. Preparation of allenic sulfones and allenes from the selenosulfonation of acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Back, T.G.; Krishna, M.V.; Muralidharan, K.R. )

    1989-08-18

    {beta}-(phenylseleno)vinyl sulfones 2 are readily obtained from the free-radical selenosulfonation of acetylenes. Compounds 2 isomerize to allyl sulfones 4 under base-catalyzed conditions in nearly quantitative yield, with high stereoselectivity favoring the Z configuration. Allyl sulfones 4 afford generally high yields of allenic sulfones 1 when subjected to oxidation with m-chloroperbenzoic acid or tert-butyl hydroperoxide, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination. The sulfone-stabilized anion intermediates in the isomerizations of 2 to 4 can be alkylated, deuterated, or silylated in the {alpha}-position prior to oxidation, providing allenic sulfones with an additional {alpha}-substituent. In some cases, spontaneous elimination of the phenylseleno group occurred, producing the allenic sulfone without the need for an oxidation step. Desulfonylation of allyl sulfones 4f, 4c, and 25 with sodium amalgam afforded vinyl selenides that were converted to allenes in moderate to good yields by oxidation-elimination. The copper-catalyzed coupling of allyl sulfones 4 with Grignard reagents comprises an alternative route to vinyl selenide precursors of allenes. These procedures permit the synthesis of various {alpha}- and {gamma}-substituted allenic sulfones and allenes from acetylenes.

  8. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2007-11-27

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  10. Copper-catalyzed selective arylations of benzoxazoles with aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghae; Yoo, Kwangho; Kim, Se Eun; Cho, Hee Jin; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Min

    2015-04-01

    A copper-catalyzed direct ring-opening double N-arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl iodides has been developed. The present system exhibits high selectivity despite competition from C-arylation. The selectivity between ring-opening N-arylation and C-arylation was controlled by the choice of reaction vessel. The nitrile bound bis(triphenylphosphine)copper cyanide was identified as the active catalytic species for both reactions, and when combined with a nitrile-containing solvent, enhanced the reaction efficiency.

  11. Indium-catalyzed oxidative cross-dehydrogenative coupling of chromenes with 1,3-dicarbonyls and aryl rings.

    PubMed

    Li, Fanmei; Meng, Zhilin; Hua, Jing; Li, Wei; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-05-28

    An effective indium-catalyzed oxidative cross-dehydrogenative coupling of electronically varied chromenes with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and aryl rings has been established. Both the C-H alkylation and arylation proceed smoothly at room temperature to afford diverse α-substituted chromene compounds in up to 91% yields. Besides these two types of C-H components, simple ketones like cyclohexanones also prove to be well tolerated.

  12. Transition-Metal-Free Regioselective Alkylation of Pyridine N-Oxides Using 1,1-Diborylalkanes as Alkylating Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woohyun; Kim, Junghoon; Choi, Seoyoung; Cho, Seung Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Reported herein is an unprecedented base-promoted deborylative alkylation of pyridine N-oxides using 1,1-diborylalkanes as alkyl sources. The reaction proceeds efficiently for a wide range of pyridine N-oxides and 1,1-diborylalkanes with excellent regioselectivity. The utility of the developed method is demonstrated by the sequential C-H arylation and methylation of pyridine N-oxides. The reaction also can be applied for the direct introduction of a methyl group to 9-O-methylquinine N-oxide, thus it can serve as a powerful method for late-stage functionalization. PMID:27351367

  13. Branch-Selective Alkene Hydroarylation by Cooperative Destabilization: Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Crisenza, Giacomo E M; Sokolova, Olga O; Bower, John F

    2015-12-01

    An iridium(I) catalyst system, modified with the wide-bite-angle and electron-deficient bisphosphine d(F) ppb (1,4-bis(di(pentafluorophenyl)phosphino)butane) promotes highly branch-selective hydroarylation reactions between diverse acetanilides and aryl- or alkyl-substituted alkenes. This provides direct and ortho-selective access to synthetically challenging anilines, and addresses long-standing issues associated with related Friedel-Crafts alkylations. PMID:26490739

  14. Branch-Selective Alkene Hydroarylation by Cooperative Destabilization: Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Acetanilides

    PubMed Central

    Crisenza, Giacomo E M; Sokolova, Olga O; Bower, John F

    2015-01-01

    An iridium(I) catalyst system, modified with the wide-bite-angle and electron-deficient bisphosphine dFppb (1,4-bis(di(pentafluorophenyl)phosphino)butane) promotes highly branch-selective hydroarylation reactions between diverse acetanilides and aryl- or alkyl-substituted alkenes. This provides direct and ortho-selective access to synthetically challenging anilines, and addresses long-standing issues associated with related Friedel–Crafts alkylations. PMID:26490739

  15. (E)-Specific direct Julia-olefination of aryl alcohols without extra reducing agents promoted by bases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuan-Zhi; Li, Qiang-Qiang; Wang, Mei-Mei; Ning, Xiao-Shan; Kang, Yan-Biao

    2015-05-01

    An unprecedented base-promoted direct olefination of aryl alcohols with sulfones via a Julia-type reaction has been described. No extra reductants are needed for Julia reaction since alcohols work as double sources of aldehydes and the hydride. Generally high yields were given for both terminal and highly (E)-selective internal olefins.

  16. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: The Direct Synthesis of Ketones via the Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Oxo Acids**

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lingling; Lipshultz, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-oxo acids has been achieved via synergistic visible light-mediated photoredox and nickel catalyses. This method offers rapid entry to aryl and alkyl ketone architectures from simple α-oxo acid precursors via an acyl radical intermediate. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the oxo acid and arene coupling partners. This mild decarboxylative arylation can also be utilized to efficiently access medicinal agents, as demonstrated by the rapid synthesis of fenofibrate. PMID:26014029

  17. Non-aromatic A-ring replacement in the triaryl bis-sulfone CB2 receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Eric J; Zhou, Guowei; Wong, Michael K C; Tong, Ling; Shankar, Bandarpalle B; Huang, Chunli; Kelly, Joseph; Lavey, Brian J; McCombie, Stuart W; Chen, Lei; Rizvi, Razia; Dong, Youhao; Shu, Youheng; Kozlowski, Joseph A; Shih, Neng-Yang; Hipkin, R William; Gonsiorek, Waldemar; Malikzay, Asra; Lunn, Charles A; Favreau, Len; Lundell, Daniel J

    2010-01-15

    The triaryl bis-sulfone 1 was modified by converting the aryl A-ring to a piperidine ring. The piperidine ring was further elaborated to a spirocyclopropyl piperidine moiety. The effect on CB2 binding potency, rat calcium channel affinity, and CYP 2C9 inhibition is described.

  18. Selective, nickel-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of aryl ethers.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexey G; Hartwig, John F

    2011-04-22

    Selective hydrogenolysis of the aromatic carbon-oxygen (C-O) bonds in aryl ethers is an unsolved synthetic problem important for the generation of fuels and chemical feedstocks from biomass and for the liquefaction of coal. Currently, the hydrogenolysis of aromatic C-O bonds requires heterogeneous catalysts that operate at high temperature and pressure and lead to a mixture of products from competing hydrogenolysis of aliphatic C-O bonds and hydrogenation of the arene. Here, we report hydrogenolyses of aromatic C-O bonds in alkyl aryl and diaryl ethers that form exclusively arenes and alcohols. This process is catalyzed by a soluble nickel carbene complex under just 1 bar of hydrogen at temperatures of 80 to 120°C; the relative reactivity of ether substrates scale as Ar-OAr>Ar-OMe>ArCH(2)-OMe (Ar, Aryl; Me, Methyl). Hydrogenolysis of lignin model compounds highlights the potential of this approach for the conversion of refractory aryl ether biopolymers to hydrocarbons. PMID:21512027

  19. Generation of Sulfonyl Radicals from Aryldiazonium Tetrafluoroborates and Sulfur Dioxide: The Synthesis of 3-Sulfonated Coumarins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Danqing; Yu, Jiyao; Wu, Jie

    2016-09-19

    A catalyst-free approach for the generation of sulfonyl radicals from aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of DABCO⋅(SO2 )2 is realized. The combination of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, DABCO⋅(SO2 )2 , and aryl propiolates affords 3-sulfonated coumarins in good to excellent yields. This tandem reaction process involves radical addition, spirocyclization, and 1,2-migration of esters. Additionally, the in situ diazotization of a number of anilines allows the directional synthesis of desired 3-sulfonated coumarins in a one-pot, two-step process. PMID:27603499

  20. Iron-catalyzed coupling of aryl sulfamates and aryl/vinyl tosylates with aryl Grignards.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Toolika; Cook, Silas P

    2014-10-01

    The iron-catalyzed coupling of aryl sulfamates and tosylates with aryl Grignard reagents is reported for the first time. The methodology employs air-stable, low-cost FeF3·3H2O and the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr·HCl as the preligand to form a long-lived catalyst upon treatment with aryl Grignards. The reaction provides a range of cross-coupled products in good-to-excellent yields. In contrast to previous reports with aryl chlorides, these reactions proceed with low levels of Grignard homocoupling regardless of the iron source. PMID:25230097

  1. Synthesis of the Privileged 8-Arylmenthol Class by Radical Arylation of Isopulegol.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Steven W M; Martinez, Ruben M; Guevara-Zuluaga, Sebastián; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) circumvents a disfavored Friedel-Crafts reaction in the derivatization of the inexpensive monoterpene isopulegol. A variety of readily prepared aryl and heteroaryl sulfonates undergo a formal hydroarylation to form 8-arylmenthols, privileged scaffolds for asymmetric synthesis, as typified by 8-phenylmenthol. High stereoselectivity is observed in related systems. This use of HAT significantly extends the chiral pool from the inexpensive monoterpene isopulegol. PMID:27175746

  2. A reagent for the one-step preparation of potassium acyltrifluoroborates (KATs) from aryl- and heteroarylhalides.

    PubMed

    Erős, Gábor; Kushida, Yo; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-07-14

    Potassium acyltrifluoroborates (KATs) are fascinating functional groups whose further exploration is limited by poor synthetic access. Documented herein is the design and synthesis of a new reagent for their one-step preparation from aryl- and heteroarylhalides. The reagent is a stable, soluble zwitterion prepared by S-alkylation of a novel thioformamide trifluoroboronate. The KATs are prepared by adding one equivalent of nBuLi to a mixture of the aryl halide and the reagent at -78 °C. This protocol is suitable for the preparation of KATs containing pyridines, esters, nitro groups, and halides. PMID:24888578

  3. An Umpolung Approach for the Chemoselective Arylation of Selenocysteine in Unprotected Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report an umpolung strategy for the bioconjugation of selenocysteine in unprotected peptides. This mild and operationally simple approach takes advantage of the electrophilic character of an oxidized selenocysteine (Se–S bond) to react with a nucleophilic arylboronic acid to provide the arylated selenocysteine within hours. This reaction is amenable to a wide range of boronic acids with different biorelevant functional groups and is unique to selenocysteine. Experimental evidence indicates that under oxidative conditions the arylated derivatives are more stable than the corresponding alkylated selenocysteine. PMID:26225900

  4. AN EFFICIENT AQUEOUS N-HETEROCYCLIZATION OF ANILINE DERIVATIVES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF N-ARYL AZACYCLOALKANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    N-aryl azacycloalkanes, an important class of building blocks in natural product and pharmaceuticals, are synthesized via an efficient and simple eco-friendly protocol that involves double N-alkylation of aniline derivatives. The reaction is accelerated by exposure to microwaves ...

  5. Cross-Couplings Using Aryl Ethers via C-O Bond Activation Enabled by Nickel Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tobisu, Mamoru; Chatani, Naoto

    2015-06-16

    Arene synthesis has been revolutionized by the invention of catalytic cross-coupling reactions, wherein aryl halides can be coupled with organometallic and organic nucleophiles. Although the replacement of aryl halides with phenol derivatives would lead to more economical and ecological methods, success has been primarily limited to activated phenol derivatives such as triflates. Aryl ethers arguably represent one of the most ideal substrates in terms of availability, cost, safety, and atom efficiency. However, the robust nature of the C(aryl)-O bonds of aryl ethers renders it extremely difficult to use them in catalytic reactions among the phenol derivatives. In 1979, Wenkert reported a seminal work on the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl ethers with Grignard reagents. However, it was not until 2004 that the unique ability of a low-valent nickel species to activate otherwise unreactive C(aryl)-O bonds was appreciated with Dankwardt's identification of the Ni(0)/PCy3 system, which significantly expanded the efficiency of the Wenkert reaction. Application of the nickel catalyst to cross-couplings with other nucleophiles was first accomplished in 2008 by our group using organoboron reagents. Later on, several other nucleophiles, including organozinc reagents, amines, hydrosilane, and hydrogen were shown to be coupled with aryl ethers under nickel catalysis. Despite these advances, progress in this field is relatively slow because of the low reactivity of benzene derivatives (e.g., anisole) compared with polyaromatic substrates (e.g., methoxynaphthalene), particularly when less reactive and synthetically useful nucleophiles are used. The "naphthalene problem" has been overcome by the use of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands bearing bulky N-alkyl substituents, which enables a wide range of aryl ethers to be coupled with organoboron nucleophiles. Moreover, the use of N-alkyl-substituted NHC ligands allows the use of alkynylmagnesium reagents, thereby realizing

  6. Decarboxylative Alkyl-Alkyl Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Konev, Mikhail O; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2016-09-12

    Alkyl with alkyl: A significant development in alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions, namely the nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative Negishi coupling of N-hydroxyphthalimide esters, was recently reported by Baran and co-workers. This method enables the synthesis of various highly functionalized compounds, including natural product derivatives.

  7. Merging photoredox with nickel catalysis: Coupling of α-carboxyl sp3-carbons with aryl halides

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhiwei; Ahneman, Derek T.; Chu, Lingling; Terrett, Jack A.; Doyle, Abigail G.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, transition metal catalysis has enabled bond formation between aryl and olefinic (sp2) carbons in a selective and predictable manner with high functional group tolerance. Couplings involving alkyl (sp3) carbons have proven more challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the synergistic combination of photoredox catalysis and nickel catalysis provides an alternative cross-coupling paradigm, in which simple and readily available organic molecules can be systematically used as coupling partners. By using this photoredox-metal catalysis approach, we have achieved a direct decarboxylative sp3–sp2 cross-coupling of amino acids, as well as α-O– or phenyl-substituted carboxylic acids, with aryl halides. Moreover, this mode of catalysis can be applied to direct cross-coupling of Csp3–H in dimethylaniline with aryl halides via C–H functionalization. PMID:24903563

  8. Highly Enantioselective Rhodium-Catalyzed Addition of Arylboroxines to Simple Aryl Ketones: Efficient Synthesis of Escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linwei; Zhu, Jinbin; Jiao, Guangjun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Xingxin; Deng, Wei-Ping; Tang, Wenjun

    2016-03-24

    Highly enantioselective additions of arylboroxines to simple aryl ketones have been achieved for the first time with a Rh/(R,R,R,R)-WingPhos catalyst, thus providing a range of chiral diaryl alkyl carbinols with excellent ee values and yields. (R,R,R,R)-WingPhos has been proven to be crucial for the high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The method has enabled a new, concise, and enantioselective synthesis of the antidepressant drug escitalopram. PMID:26933831

  9. Tandem Esterification/1,4-Addition-Type Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of Phenols/Naphthols with Olefinic Thioazlactones: Access to Functionalized 1,2-Dihydrobenzo[f]chromen-3-ones and 3,4-Dihydrochromen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products.

  10. Tandem Esterification/1,4-Addition-Type Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of Phenols/Naphthols with Olefinic Thioazlactones: Access to Functionalized 1,2-Dihydrobenzo[f]chromen-3-ones and 3,4-Dihydrochromen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products. PMID:27310869

  11. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-07-29

    The pyridine and quinoline nuclei are privileged scaffolds that occupy a central role in many medicinally relevant compounds. Consequently, methods for their expeditious functionalization are of immediate interest. However, despite the immense importance of transition-metal catalyzed cross-coupling for the functionalization of aromatic scaffolds, general solutions for coupling 2-pyridyl organometallics with aryl halides have only recently been presented. Direct arylation at the ortho position of pyridine would constitute an even more efficient approach because it eliminates the need for the stoichiometric preparation and isolation of 2-pyridyl organometallics. Progress towards this goal has been achieved by activation of the pyridine nucleus for arylation via conversion to the corresponding pyridine N-oxide or N-iminopyridinium ylide. However, this approach necessitates two additional steps: activation of the pyridine or quinoline starting material, and then unmasking the arylated product. The use of pyridines directly would clearly represent the ideal situation both in terms of cost and simplicity. We now wish to document our efforts in this vein, culminating in an operationally simple Rh(I)-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. We recently developed an electron-rich Rh(I) system for catalytic alkylation at the ortho position of pyridines and quinolines with alkenes. Therefore, we initially focused our attention on the use of similarly electron-rich Rh(I) catalysts for the proposed direct arylation. After screening an array of electron-rich phosphine ligands and Rh(I) salts, only marginal yields (<20%) of the desired product were obtained. Much more efficient was an electron-poor Rh(I) system with [RhCl(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} as precatalyst (Table 1). For the direct arylation of picoline with 3,5-dimethyl-bromobenzene, addition of P(OiPr){sub 3} afforded a promising 40% yield of the cross coupled product 1a (entry 1). The exclusion of phosphite

  12. Selective and Serial Suzuki-Miyaura Reactions of Polychlorinated Aromatics with Alkyl Pinacol Boronic Esters.

    PubMed

    Laulhé, Sébastien; Blackburn, J Miles; Roizen, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Among cross-coupling reactions, the Suzuki-Miyaura transformation stands out because of its practical advantages, including the commercial availability and low toxicity of the required reagents, mild reaction conditions, and functional group compatibility. Nevertheless, few conditions can be used to cross-couple alkyl boronic acids or esters with aryl halides, especially 2-pyridyl halides. Herein, we describe two novel Suzuki-Miyaura protocols that enable selective conversion of polychlorinated aromatics, with a focus on reactions to convert 2,6-dichloropyridines to 2-chloro-6-alkylpyridines or 2-aryl-6-alkylpyridines.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of cyclic enaminones with aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Yun; Bi, Lei; Georg, Gunda I

    2013-06-21

    A ligand-free method for the Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of cyclic enaminones using aryl iodides was developed. This method can be applied to a wide range of cyclic enaminones and aryl iodides with excellent C5-regioselectivity. Using widely available aryl iodides, the generality of this transformation provides easy access to a variety of 3-arylpiperidine structural motifs.

  14. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  15. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  16. Dehydrozingerone based 1-acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles: Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratković, Zoran; Muškinja, Jovana; Burmudžija, Adrijana; Ranković, Branislav; Kosanić, Marijana; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Marković, Bojana Simović; Nikolić, Aleksandar; Arsenijević, Nebojša; Đorđevic, Snežana; Vukićević, Rastko D.

    2016-04-01

    A small series of 1-acetyl-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles (aryl = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl and 4-alkoxy-3-methoxyphenyl) was prepared, starting from 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one, dehydrozingerone, and its alkyl derivatives. Their in vitro cytotoxic activity against some cancer cell lines was tested, showing significant anticancer activity. All the new compounds were well characterized by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopy and physical data, whereas structures of two of them were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  17. Practical Ni-Catalyzed Aryl–Alkyl Cross-Coupling of Secondary Redox-Active Esters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new transformation is presented that enables chemists to couple simple alkyl carboxylic acids with aryl zinc reagents under Ni-catalysis. The success of this reaction hinges on the unique use of redox-active esters that allow one to employ such derivatives as alkyl halides surrogates. The chemistry exhibits broad substrate scope and features a high degree of practicality. The simple procedure and extremely inexpensive nature of both the substrates and pre-catalyst (NiCl2·6H2O, ca. $9.5/mol) bode well for the immediate widespread adoption of this method. PMID:26835704

  18. Abstraction of iodine from aromatic iodides by alkyl radicals: steric and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Darko; Plesnicar, Bozo

    2006-10-13

    Abstraction of the iodine atom from aryl iodides by alkyl radicals takes place in some cases very efficiently despite the unfavorable difference in bond dissociation energies of C-I bonds in alkyl and aryl iodides. The abstraction is most efficient in iodobenzenes, ortho-substituted with bulky groups. The ease of abstraction can be explained by the release of steric strain during the elimination of the iodine atom. The rate of abstraction correlates fairly well with the strain energy, calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods as a difference in the total energy of ortho and para isomers. However, besides the steric bulk, the presence of some other functional groups in an ortho substituent also influences the rate. The stabilization of the transition state, resembling a 9-I-2 iodanyl radical, by electron-withdrawing groups seems to explain a positive sign of the Hammett rho value in the radical abstraction of halogen atoms. PMID:17025291

  19. High lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate: implications for their membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ping; Rodgers, Patrick J; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2009-02-18

    Here we report on remarkably high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate. A lipophilic nature of this emerging class of organic pollutants has been hypothesized as an origin of their bioaccumulation and toxicity. Both carboxylate and sulfonate, however, are considered hydrophilic while perfluroalkyl groups are not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. Partition coefficients of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl carboxylates between water and n-octanol were determined as a measure of their lipophilicity by ion-transfer cyclic voltammetry. Very similar lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl chains with the same length is demonstrated experimentally for the first time by fragment analysis of the partition coefficients. This finding is important for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of perfluoroalkyl compounds. Interestingly, approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher lipophilicity of a perfluoroalkyl carboxylate or sulfonate in comparison to its alkyl counterpart is ascribed nearly exclusively to their oxoanion groups. The higher lipophilicity originates from a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the perfluoroalkyl group on the adjacent oxoanion group, which is weakly hydrated to decrease its hydrophilicity. In fact, the inductive effect is dramatically reduced for a fluorotelomer with an ethylene spacer between perfluorohexyl and carboxylate groups, which is only as lipophilic as its alkyl counterpart, nonanoate, and is 400 times less lipophilic than perfluorononanoate. The high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate implies that their permeation across such a thin lipophilic membrane as a bilayer lipid membrane is limited by their transfer at a membrane/water interface. The limiting permeability is lower and less dependent on their lipophilicity than the permeability controlled by their diffusion in the membrane interior as assumed in the classical solubility-diffusion model. PMID:19170492

  20. High lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate: implications for their membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ping; Rodgers, Patrick J; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2009-02-18

    Here we report on remarkably high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate. A lipophilic nature of this emerging class of organic pollutants has been hypothesized as an origin of their bioaccumulation and toxicity. Both carboxylate and sulfonate, however, are considered hydrophilic while perfluroalkyl groups are not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. Partition coefficients of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl carboxylates between water and n-octanol were determined as a measure of their lipophilicity by ion-transfer cyclic voltammetry. Very similar lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl chains with the same length is demonstrated experimentally for the first time by fragment analysis of the partition coefficients. This finding is important for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of perfluoroalkyl compounds. Interestingly, approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher lipophilicity of a perfluoroalkyl carboxylate or sulfonate in comparison to its alkyl counterpart is ascribed nearly exclusively to their oxoanion groups. The higher lipophilicity originates from a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the perfluoroalkyl group on the adjacent oxoanion group, which is weakly hydrated to decrease its hydrophilicity. In fact, the inductive effect is dramatically reduced for a fluorotelomer with an ethylene spacer between perfluorohexyl and carboxylate groups, which is only as lipophilic as its alkyl counterpart, nonanoate, and is 400 times less lipophilic than perfluorononanoate. The high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate implies that their permeation across such a thin lipophilic membrane as a bilayer lipid membrane is limited by their transfer at a membrane/water interface. The limiting permeability is lower and less dependent on their lipophilicity than the permeability controlled by their diffusion in the membrane interior as assumed in the classical solubility-diffusion model.

  1. General synthesis of 8-aryl-2-tetralones.

    PubMed

    Carreño, M Carmen; Gonzalez-López, Marcos; Latorre, Alfonso; Urbano, Antonio

    2006-06-23

    Two alternative routes are described for the synthesis of 8-aryl-2-tetralones (1). Route A starts from alpha-tetralone 3 and involves 3 or 4 steps, with the selective Na-EtOH reduction of 1-aryl-7-methoxynaphthalenes 2 being the key step. The exclusive reduction of the A ring of naphthalenes 2 occurs when the aryl group at C-1 has no substituent at the ortho positions, affording tetrahydronaphthalenes 11. Reduction of the B ring of 2 becomes the major process when the aryl fragment has two substituents at the ortho positions, affording 8-aryl-2-tetralones 1 as the major component. Route B involves 5 steps starting from 2-tetralone 5, with the key step being the Suzuki coupling with triflate 4. This approach allows the synthesis of 8-aryl-2-tetralones 1 with no substituent at the ortho positions of the aryl fragment and with naphthalene and anthracene rings at C-8.

  2. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Alkyl Nitroderivatives of Hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Elena; Palma-Valdés, Rocío; Sarriá, Beatriz; Gallardo, Irene; de la Cruz, José P; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel; Espartero, José L

    2016-01-01

    A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson's disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel compounds has been evaluated using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Oxygen Radical Scavenging Capacity (ORAC) assays compared to that of nitrohydroxytyrosol (NO₂HT) and free HT. New compounds showed variable antioxidant activity depending on the alkyl side chain length; compounds with short chains (2-4 carbon atoms) maintained or even improved the antioxidant activity compared to NO₂HT and/or HT, whereas those with longer side chains (6-8 carbon atoms) showed lower activity than NO₂HT but higher than HT. PMID:27213306

  3. Molecular engineering of porous silica using aryl templates

    DOEpatents

    Loy, D.A.; Shea, K.J.

    1994-06-14

    A process is described for manipulating the porosity of silica using a series of organic template groups covalently incorporated into the silicate matrix. The templates in the bridged polysilsesquioxanes are selectively removed from the material by oxidation with oxygen plasma or other means, leaving engineered voids or pores. The size of these pores is dependent upon the length or size of the template or spacer. The size of the templates is measured in terms of Si-Si distances which range from about 0.67 nm to 1.08 nm. Changes introduced by the loss of the templates result in a narrow range of micropores (i.e. <2 nm). Both aryl and alkyl template groups are used as spacers. Novel microporous silica materials useful as molecular sieves, desiccants, and catalyst supports are produced. 3 figs.

  4. Molecular engineering of porous silica using aryl templates

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Shea, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A process for manipulating the porosity of silica using a series of organic template groups covalently incorporated into the silicate matrix. The templates in the bridged polysilsesquioxanes are selectively removed from the material by oxidation with oxygen plasma or other means, leaving engineered voids or pores. The size of these pores is dependent upon the length or size of the template or spacer. The size of the templates is measured in terms of Si-Si distances which range from about 0.67 nm to 1.08 nm. Changes introduced by the loss of the templates result in a narrow range of micropores (i.e. <2 nm). Both aryl and alkyl template groups are used as spacers. Novel microporous silica materials useful as molecular seives, dessicants, and catalyst supports are produced.

  5. Thermal stability of sulfonated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Audibert, A.; Argillier, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    Polyacrylamides which are used in oil applications i.e. polymer flooding and water based muds, are hydrolyzed versus time and temperature. This leads to a lack of tolerance towards electrolyte contamination and to a rapid degradation inducing a loss of their properties. Modifications of polyacrylamide structure have been proposed to postpone their thermal stability to higher temperatures. Monomers such as acrylamido methylpropane sulfonate (AMPS) or sulfonated styrene/maleic anhydride can be used to prevent acrylamide comonomer from hydrolysis. The aim of this work is to study under controlled conditions, i.e. anaerobic atmosphere, neutral pH, the stability of sulfonated polymers in order to distinguish between hydrolysis and radical degradation reactions. It has been observed that up to 100 C, the AMPS group is stable and protects the acrylamide function from hydrolysis up to 80%. At higher temperature, even the hydrolysis of the AMPS group occurs, giving acrylate and {beta},{beta} dimethyl taurine, with a kinetics that depends on temperature and time. Degradation in terms of molecular weight then occurs indicating that it follows a radical decarboxylation reaction. It can be limited either by the use of free radical scavenger or when the polymer is in the presence of a mineral phase such as bentonite. These results provide valuable data for the determination of the limits of use of sulfonated copolymers and guidelines for optimizing chemical structure of sulfonated polymers used in water based formulation, in particular to enhance their thermal stability.

  6. Isotopic Measurements of Organic Sulfonates From The Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. W.; Chang, S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Organic sulfonates and phosphonates have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite for stable isotope measurements. Preliminary stable isotope measurements of individual alkyl sulfonates, R-SO3H (R=C(sub n)H(sub 2n+l)), are shown. These compounds were found in aqueous extracts of Murchison. Both groups show trends similar to other homologous series of organic compounds indigenous to Murchison. Molecular abundances decrease with increasing carbon number, and all possible isomers at each carbon number (through C-4) are present. Carbon isotope measurements of the sulfonates show a decrease in the C-13/C-12 ratio with increasing carbon number. The overall objectives of this project are to obtain dime element carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur - intramolecular isotopic analyses of individual sulfonates, and isotopic measurement of carbon and hydrogen of the phosphonates as a group. The Murchison meteorite is the best characterized carbonaceous chondrite with respect to organic chemistry. The finding of organic sulfonates and phosphonates in Murchison is of interest because they are the first well-characterized series of sulfur and phosphorus containing organic compounds found in meteorites. Also, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust particles may have been involved in chemical evolution on the early Earth. Because of the critical role of organic phosphorus and sulfur in all living systems, it is particularly interesting to see examples of abiotic syntheses of these classes of compounds. The study of the isotopic composition of the sulfonates and phosphonates can yield insight into their possible interstellar origin as well as their mechanisms of synthesis in the early solar system. Previous isotopic analyses of other classes of organic compounds indigenous to meteorites, e.g., amino acids, carboxylic acids, and hydrocarbons indicate the possibility that interstellar molecules were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies. In these compounds the ratios of heavy to

  7. Simulation and pre-feasibility analysis of the production process of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates (alpha-MES).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Daniel; Orozco, Gustavo; Rincón, Sandra; Gil, Iván

    2010-11-01

    alpha-Methyl esters sulfonates (alpha-MES) are anionic surfactants that are derived from biorenewable resources, offering interesting environmental and chemical properties for application in the detergent industry. A simulation of their production process was conducted using a commercial production process currently used for palm oil. Results, prices of raw materials were submitted to economic analysis, and final MES price was compared with available data for linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) prices. The results for substances properties and product streams obtained from simulation were reliable in agreement to real values. It was found that increasing methyl ester national price by 20%, 50% and the equivalent to linear alkyl benzene price, the final price of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates was lower than the current price of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. The capital cost and payout period for a production capacity of 49,000tons of surfactant per year were obtained. Results indicate that the process is economically feasible and can be applied to palm oil-based industries in Colombia.

  8. Simulation and pre-feasibility analysis of the production process of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates (alpha-MES).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Daniel; Orozco, Gustavo; Rincón, Sandra; Gil, Iván

    2010-11-01

    alpha-Methyl esters sulfonates (alpha-MES) are anionic surfactants that are derived from biorenewable resources, offering interesting environmental and chemical properties for application in the detergent industry. A simulation of their production process was conducted using a commercial production process currently used for palm oil. Results, prices of raw materials were submitted to economic analysis, and final MES price was compared with available data for linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) prices. The results for substances properties and product streams obtained from simulation were reliable in agreement to real values. It was found that increasing methyl ester national price by 20%, 50% and the equivalent to linear alkyl benzene price, the final price of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates was lower than the current price of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. The capital cost and payout period for a production capacity of 49,000tons of surfactant per year were obtained. Results indicate that the process is economically feasible and can be applied to palm oil-based industries in Colombia. PMID:20637602

  9. Hetero-Diels–Alder reactions of hetaryl and aryl thioketones with acetylenic dienophiles

    PubMed Central

    Grzelak, Paulina; Mikina, Maciej; Linden, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summary Selected hetaryl and aryl thioketones react with acetylenecarboxylates under thermal conditions in the presence of LiClO4 or, alternatively, under high-pressure conditions (5 kbar) at room temperature yielding thiopyran derivatives. The hetero-Diels–Alder reaction occurs in a chemo- and regioselective manner. The initially formed [4 + 2] cycloadducts rearrange via a 1,3-hydrogen shift sequence to give the final products. The latter were smoothly oxidized by treatment with mCPBA to the corresponding sulfones. PMID:26124858

  10. Photoredox α-Vinylation of α-Amino Acids and N-Aryl Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new coupling protocol has been developed that allows the union of vinyl sulfones with photoredox-generated α-amino radicals to provide allylic amines of broad diversity. Direct C–H vinylations of N-aryl tertiary amines, as well as decarboxylative vinylations of N-Boc α-amino acids, proceed in high yield and with excellent olefin geometry control. The utility of this new allyl amine forming reaction has been demonstrated via the syntheses of several natural products and a number of established pharmacophores. PMID:25026314

  11. Room-temperature chromium(II)-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridines, aryl oxazolines, and imines using arylmagnesium reagents.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Olesya M; Knochel, Paul

    2014-10-01

    We report a CrCl2-catalyzed oxidative arylation of various pyridines, aryl oxazolines, and aryl imines using aromatic Grignard reagents in the presence of 2,3-dichlorobutane (DCB). Most of the reactions proceed rapidly at 25 °C and do not require any additional ligand. Benzo[h]quinoline, 2-arylpyridine, aryl oxazoline, and imines were successfully arylated in good yields under these conditions. A TMS-substituent was used to prevent double arylation. After oxidative cross-coupling the TMS-group was further converted to a second ortho-aryl substituent. Remarkably, inexpensive aryl N-butylimine derivatives are excellent substrates for this oxidative arylation. PMID:25230000

  12. Atomistic simulation study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates at the water/air interface

    PubMed Central

    He, Xibing; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klein, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics simulations with the CHARMM atomistic force field have been used to study monolayers of a series of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) at the water/air interface. Both the numbers of carbon atoms in the LAS alkyl tail (1 to 11), and the position of attachment of the benzene ring on the alkyl chain have been varied. Totally 36 LAS homologues and isomers have been investigated. The surface tensions of the systems and the average tilt angles of the LAS molecules are found to be related to both the length and the degree of branching of the alkyl tails, whereas the solubility and mobility are mostly determined by the tail length. PMID:20614916

  13. Profiling sulfonate ester stability: identification of complementary protecting groups for sulfonates

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfonation is prized for its ability to impart water-solubility to hydrophobic molecules such as dyes. This modification is usually performed as a final step, since sulfonated molecules are poorly soluble in most organic solvents, which complicates their synthesis and purification. This work compares the intrinsic lability of different sulfonate esters, identifying new sulfonate protecting groups and mild, selective cleavage conditions. PMID:20515067

  14. Sulfone cosurfactants in enhanced oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, P. R.

    1984-12-04

    A surfactant system useful for oil recovery consisting essentially of a NaCl, a hydrocarbon sulfonate surfactant, such as a petroleum sulfonate, and a cosurfactant such as a sulfone or sulfolane derivative. In another embodiment, a C/sub 1/ to C/sub 8/ alcohol is additionally present as a cosurfactant.

  15. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl Grignard reagents and identification of selective anti-breast-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Yonova, Ivelina M; Johnson, A George; Osborne, Charlotte A; Moore, Curtis E; Morrissette, Naomi S; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2014-02-24

    Alkyl Grignard reagents that contain β-hydrogen atoms were used in a stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction to form C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bonds. Aryl Grignard reagents were also utilized to synthesize 1,1-diarylalkanes. Several compounds synthesized by this method exhibited selective inhibition of proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PMID:24478275

  16. Nucleophilic arylation with tetraarylphosphonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zuyong; Lin, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Organic phosphonium salts have served as important intermediates in synthetic chemistry. But the use of a substituent on the positive phosphorus as a nucleophile to construct C–C bond remains a significant challenge. Here we report an efficient transition-metal-free protocol for the direct nucleophilic arylation of carbonyls and imines with tetraarylphosphonium salts in the presence of caesium carbonate. The aryl nucleophile generated from phosphonium salt shows low basicity and good nucleophilicity, as evidenced by the successful conversion of enolizable aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is not particularly sensitive to water, shows wide substrate scope, and is compatible with a variety of functional groups including cyano and ester groups. Compared with the arylmetallic reagents that are usually moisture sensitive, the phosphonium salts are shelf-stable and can be easily handled. PMID:26822205

  17. Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Direct 2-Arylation of Benzoxazoles with Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides†

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient room-temperature palladium-catalyzed direct 2-arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl bromides is presented. The Pd(OAc)2/NiXantphos-based catalyst enables the introduction of various aryl and heteroaryl groups, via a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) in good to excellent yields (75–99%). PMID:25078988

  18. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone ; CASRN 98 - 57 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  19. Coarse graining of polystyrene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perahia, Dvora; Agrawal, Anupriya; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-03-01

    Capturing large length scales in soft matter while retaining atomistic properties is imperative to computational studies. Here we develop a new coarse-grained model for polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) that often serves as a model system because of its narrow molecular weight distribution and defined degree of sulfonation. Four beads are used to represent polymer where the backbone, the phenyl group, and the sulfonated group are each represented by a different bead and the fourth one represents counterion, which is sodium in our case. Initial atomistic simulations of PSS melt with sulfonation levels of 2-10%, with a dielectric constant ɛ = 1 revealed a ``locked'' phase where motion of the polymer is limited. Dielectric constant of ɛ = 5 was used to accelerate the dynamics. Bonded interactions were obtained using Boltzmann inversion on the bonded distributions extracted from atomistic simulation. Non-bonded interaction of polystyrene monomer was taken from our previous work and potential of mean force was used as the initial guess for interaction of the ionic beads. This set of potential was subsequently iterated to get a good match with radial distribution functions. This potential and its transferability across dielectric constants and temperatures will be presented. Grant DE-SC007908.

  20. Phycotoxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, G.; Viswanathan, P.N.; Devi, S.

    1988-04-01

    Dose- and time-dependent effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, a major component of synthetic detergent, to the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum, were studied under laboratory conditions. Toxicity was evident, at doses above 0.001%, from the decrease in biomass, heterocyst number, and protein content and pathomorphological alterations.

  1. Iridium-Catalyzed, Hydrosilyl-Directed Borylation of Unactivated Alkyl C-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Matthew A; Cho, Seung Hwan; Hartwig, John

    2016-01-27

    We report the iridium-catalyzed borylation of primary and secondary alkyl C-H bonds directed by a Si-H group to form alkylboronate esters site selectively. The reactions occur with high selectivity at primary C-H bonds γ to the hydrosilyl group to form primary alkyl bisboronate esters. In the absence of such primary C-H bonds, the borylation occurs selectively at a secondary C-H bond γ to the hydrosilyl group, and these reactions of secondary C-H bonds occur with high diastereoselectivity. The hydrosilyl-containing alkyl boronate esters formed by this method undergo transformations selectively at the carbon-boron or carbon-silicon bonds of these products under distinct conditions to give the products of amination, oxidation, and arylation.

  2. Gold-catalyzed intramolecular [3+2] cycloadditions of 1-aryl-1-allene-6-enes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Rupsha; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of 1-aryl-1-allen-6-enes with [PPh(3)AuCl]/AgSbF(6) (5 mol %) in CH(2)Cl(2) at 25 degrees C led to intramolecular [3+2] cycloadditions, giving cis-fused dihydrobenzo[a]fluorene products efficiently and selectively. The reactions proceeded with initial formation of trans/cis mixtures of 2-alkyl-1-isopropyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene cations B, which were convertible into the desired cis-fused cycloadducts through the combined action of a gold catalyst and a Brønsted acid. Theoretic calculation supports the participation of the trans-B cation as reaction intermediate. Although HOTf showed similar activity towards several 1-aryl-1-allen-6-enes, it lacks generality for this cycloaddition reaction.

  3. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  4. Process for sulfonation of gas oils

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R. C.

    1980-12-23

    A process for the production of oil-soluble sulfonates from a gas oil such as a vacuum gas oil. Water-soluble sulfonic acids are separated from the effluent of the sulfonation zone, and the remainder of the effluent is then passed through a saponification zone to produce oil-soluble sulfonates which are then recovered. The remaining hydrocarbons are fractionated, with the resultant heavy fraction being passed through a reforming zone to produce additional aromatics which are then recycled to the sulfonation zone.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of 1,2-trans alkyl galactofuranoside mimetics as mycobacteriostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Dureau, Rémy; Gicquel, Maxime; Artur, Isabelle; Guégan, Jean-Paul; Carboni, Bertrand; Ferrières, Vincent; Berrée, Fabienne; Legentil, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The simple octyl β-D-galactofuranoside was previously described as a good bacteriostatic agent against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a non-pathogenic model of M. tuberculosis. In order to decipher its mechanism of action, STD NMR on whole M. smegmatis cells was implemented. It outlined the crucial role of the alkyl chain and the possibility of modulation on the furanosyl entity. Then, 16 new alkyl furanosides were synthesized in order to optimize the mycobacteriostatic activity. They all present the pending alkyl chain in a 1,2-trans configuration relative to the sugar ring. Three families were studied that differ by a substituent on the primary position of the galactofuranose ring, the series or the pending alkyl chain. Four of these neofuranosides showed growth inhibition inferior to the parent octyl β-D-galactofuranoside. Double alkyl chains at C-1 and a polar substituent on the primary position of the furanoside significantly favored the activity. Finally, a mixed biantennary alkyl/aryl β-D-galactofuranoside exhibited the best growth inhibition concentration at 90 μM.

  6. Carbonylation reactions of alkyl iodides through the interplay of carbon radicals and Pd catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Shuhei; Fusano, Akira; Fukuyama, Takahide; Ryu, Ilhyong

    2014-05-20

    Numerous methods for transition metal catalyzed carbonylation reactions have been established. Examples that start from aryl, vinyl, allyl, and benzyl halides to give the corresponding carboxylic acid derivatives have all been well documented. In contrast, the corresponding alkyl halides often encounter difficulty. This is inherent to the relatively slow oxidative addition step onto the metal center and subsequent β-hydride elimination which causes isomerization of the alkyl metal species. Radical carbonylation reactions can override such problems of reactivity; however, carbonylation coupled to iodine atom transfer (atom transfer carbonylation), though useful, often suffers from a slow iodine atom transfer step that affects the outcome of the reaction. We found that atom transfer carbonylation of primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl iodides was efficiently accelerated by the addition of a palladium catalyst under light irradiation. Stereochemical studies support a mechanistic pathway based on the synergic interplay of radical and Pd-catalyzed reaction steps which ultimately lead to an acylpalladium species. The radical/Pd-combined reaction system has a wide range of applications, including the synthesis of carboxylic acid esters, lactones, amides, lactams, and unsymmetrical ketones such as alkyl alkynyl and alkyl aryl ketones. The design of unique multicomponent carbonylation reactions involving vicinal C-functionalization of alkenes, double and triple carbonylation reactions, in tandem with radical cyclization reactions, has also been achieved. Thus, the radical/Pd-combined strategy provides a solution to a longstanding problem of reactivity involving the carbonylation of alkyl halides. This novel methodology expands the breadth and utility of carbonylation chemistry over either the original radical carbonylation reactions or metal-catalyzed carbonylation reactions.

  7. Pd-mBDPP-catalyzed regioselective internal arylation of electron-rich olefins by aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shifang; Berry, Neil; Thomson, Nick; Pettman, Alan; Hyder, Zeynab; Mo, Jun; Xiao, Jianliang

    2006-09-15

    meso-2,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane (mBDPP) has proved to be an effective regiocontrolling ligand for palladium-catalyzed internal arylation by aryl bromides of electron-rich olefins in a common solvent DMSO with no need for any halide scavengers. The arylation of the benchmark electron-rich olefin butyl vinyl ether took place smoothly to afford exclusively alpha-arylated product with high isolated yields. The better performance of mBDPP, compared with that of the commonly used DPPP [1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane], highlights the important but subtle effect of ligand on the regioselectivity of the Heck arylation reactions.

  8. Visible Light Mediated Photoredox Catalytic Arylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Marzo, Leyre; Das, Amrita; Shaikh, Rizwan; König, Burkhard

    2016-08-16

    Introducing aryl- and heteroaryl moieties into molecular scaffolds are often key steps in the syntheses of natural products, drugs, or functional materials. A variety of cross-coupling methods have been well established, mainly using transition metal mediated reactions between prefunctionalized substrates and arenes or C-H arylations with functionalization in only one coupling partner. Although highly developed, one drawback of the established sp2-sp2 arylations is the required transition metal catalyst, often in combination with specific ligands and additives. Therefore, photoredox mediated arylation methods have been developed as alternative over the past decade. We begin our survey with visible light photo-Meerwein arylation reactions, which allow C-H arylation of heteroarenes, enones, alkenes, and alkynes with organic dyes, such as eosin Y, as the photocatalyst. A good number of examples from different groups illustrate the broad application of the reaction in synthetic transformations. While initially only photo-Meerwein arylation-elimination processes were reported, the reaction was later extended to photo-Meerwein arylation-addition reactions giving access to the photoinduced three component synthesis of amides and esters from alkenes, aryl diazonium salts, nitriles or formamides, respectively. Other substrates with redox-active leaving groups have been explored in photocatalyzed arylation reactions, such as diaryliodonium and triarylsulfonium salts, and arylsulfonyl chlorides. We discus some examples with their scope and limitations. The scope of arylation reagents for photoredox reactions was extended to aryl halides. The challenge here is the extremely negative reduction potential of aryl halides in the initial electron transfer step compared to, e.g., aryl diazonium or diaryliodonium salts. In order to reach reduction potentials over -2.0 V vs SCE two consecutive photoinduced electron transfer steps were used. The intermediary formed colored radical

  9. Visible Light Mediated Photoredox Catalytic Arylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Marzo, Leyre; Das, Amrita; Shaikh, Rizwan; König, Burkhard

    2016-08-16

    Introducing aryl- and heteroaryl moieties into molecular scaffolds are often key steps in the syntheses of natural products, drugs, or functional materials. A variety of cross-coupling methods have been well established, mainly using transition metal mediated reactions between prefunctionalized substrates and arenes or C-H arylations with functionalization in only one coupling partner. Although highly developed, one drawback of the established sp2-sp2 arylations is the required transition metal catalyst, often in combination with specific ligands and additives. Therefore, photoredox mediated arylation methods have been developed as alternative over the past decade. We begin our survey with visible light photo-Meerwein arylation reactions, which allow C-H arylation of heteroarenes, enones, alkenes, and alkynes with organic dyes, such as eosin Y, as the photocatalyst. A good number of examples from different groups illustrate the broad application of the reaction in synthetic transformations. While initially only photo-Meerwein arylation-elimination processes were reported, the reaction was later extended to photo-Meerwein arylation-addition reactions giving access to the photoinduced three component synthesis of amides and esters from alkenes, aryl diazonium salts, nitriles or formamides, respectively. Other substrates with redox-active leaving groups have been explored in photocatalyzed arylation reactions, such as diaryliodonium and triarylsulfonium salts, and arylsulfonyl chlorides. We discus some examples with their scope and limitations. The scope of arylation reagents for photoredox reactions was extended to aryl halides. The challenge here is the extremely negative reduction potential of aryl halides in the initial electron transfer step compared to, e.g., aryl diazonium or diaryliodonium salts. In order to reach reduction potentials over -2.0 V vs SCE two consecutive photoinduced electron transfer steps were used. The intermediary formed colored radical

  10. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of acylide derivatives bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl chain

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Ling-Xing; Sun, Ping-Hua; Guo, Bao-Qin; Xu, Xing-Jun; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Jia-Zhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Chen, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Seventeen acylides bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl alkyl-substituted side chain were synthesized, starting from clarithromycin, via several reactions including hydrolysis, acetylating, esterification, carbamylation, and Michael addition. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All these synthesized acylides were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activities against gram-positive pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), using the broth microdilution method. Results showed that compounds 10e, 10f, 10g, 10 h, 10o have good antibacterial activities. PMID:25284984

  11. Silyl Radical Activation of Alkyl Halides in Metallaphotoredox Catalysis: A Unique Pathway for Cross-Electrophile Coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Patricia; Le, Chi Chip; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-07-01

    A strategy for cross-electrophile coupling has been developed via the merger of photoredox and transition metal catalysis. In this report, we demonstrate the use of commercially available tris(trimethylsilyl)silane with metallaphotoredox catalysis to efficiently couple alkyl bromides with aryl or heteroaryl bromides in excellent yields. We hypothesize that a photocatalytically generated silyl radical species can perform halogen-atom abstraction to activate alkyl halides as nucleophilic cross-coupling partners. This protocol allows the use of mild yet robust conditions to construct Csp(3)-Csp(2) bonds generically via a unique cross-coupling pathway. PMID:27263662

  12. Benzyne arylation of oxathiane glycosyl donors.

    PubMed

    Fascione, Martin A; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The arylation of bicyclic oxathiane glycosyl donors has been achieved using benzyne generated in situ from 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT) and lead tetraacetate. Following sulfur arylation, glycosylation of acetate ions proceeded with high levels of stereoselectivity to afford α -glycosyl acetates in a 'one-pot' reaction, even in the presence of alternative acceptor alcohols.

  13. From α-arylation of olefins to acylation with aldehydes: a journey in regiocontrol of the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jiwu; Xiao, Jianliang

    2011-08-16

    solvents. Evidence shows that the concentration of the cationic Pd(II)-olefin species along the ionic pathway is increased as a result of hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen bond donor and the halide anion. More recently, we reported that cheaper and greener alcohols allow the Heck arylation of electron-rich olefins to proceed in a much faster, productive, and totally α-regioselective manner, circumventing the need for an ionic medium or hydrogen bond donor salt. In particular, aryl chlorides with diverse properties have been demonstrated to be viable substrates for the first time. Significantly, it appears that ethylene glycol facilitates both the oxidative addition of ArCl to Pd(0) and the subsequent dissociation of chloride from Pd(II). A closely related reaction, acylation of aryl halides with aldehydes, was also developed. Proceeding via the intermediacy of an electron-rich enamine, this Pd-pyrrolidine cooperative catalysis affords alkyl aryl ketones in a straightforward manner, extending the Heck reaction from olefins to aldehydes.

  14. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  15. Rearrangements of Cycloalkenyl Aryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Törincsi, Mercedesz; Nagy, Melinda; Bihari, Tamás; Stirling, András; Kolonits, Pál; Novak, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangement reactions of cycloalkenyl phenol and naphthyl ethers and the acid-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting product were investigated. Claisen rearrangement afforded 2-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. Combined Claisen and Cope rearrangement resulted in the formation of 4-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. In the case of cycloocthylphenyl ether the consecutive Claisen and Cope rearrangements were followed by an alkyl migration. The mechanism of this novel rearrangement reaction is also discussed. PMID:27104504

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Ni(II) Alkyl Complexes Supported by Pyrrole-Diphosphine Ligands.

    PubMed

    Venkanna, Gopaladasu T; Tammineni, Swetha; Arman, Hadi D; Tonzetich, Zachary J

    2013-08-26

    The organometallic Ni(II) chemistry of the pyrrole-based pincer ligands, (P2 (R)Pyr)(-) (P2 (R)Pyr = 2,5-(R2PCH2)2C4H2N, R = Ph or Cy) is reported. Reactions of Grignard reagents with [NiCl(P2 (R) Pyr)] afford a variety of alkyl and aryl complexes (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, phenyl, and allyl) that all display square planar geometries about nickel. The hydride complex, [NiH(P2 (Cy)Pyr)], can also prepared either through treatment of [NiCl(P2 (Cy)Pyr)] with LiHBEt3, or by reaction of H(P2 (R)Pyr) with [Ni(COD)2] (COD = 1,4-cyclooctadiene). Reactions of the methyl and hydride complexes with CO and CO2, respectively, evince clean migratory insertion chemistry of the Ni-C and Ni-H bonds. Both the alkyl and chloride complexes are active catalysts for the Kumada coupling of aryl chlorides and aryl or alkyl Grignard reagents at room temperature. The solid-state structures of several of the complexes are reported. PMID:24567662

  17. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    DOEpatents

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  18. The Ketene-Surrogate Coupling: Catalytic Conversion of Aryl Iodides to Aryl Ketenes via Ynol Ethers**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhan; Ready, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    tert-Butoxyacetylene is shown to undergo Sonogashira coupling with aryl iodides to yield aryl-substituted tert-butyl ynol ethers. These intermediates participate in a [1,5]-hydride shift, which results in the extrusion of isobutylene and the generation of aryl ketenes. The ketenes are trapped in situ with multiple nucleophiles or undergoelectrocyclic ring closure to yield hydroxynaphthalenes and quinolines. PMID:24975840

  19. Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with phosphine oxide moieties: a promising material for proton exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lingchao; Xiao, Guyu; Yan, Deyue

    2010-06-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with phosphine oxide moieties (sPESPO) were achieved by polycondensation of bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide with 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-difluorodiphenyl sulfone (SFDPS) and 4-fluorophenyl sulfone (FPSF). Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (sPES) were also synthesized by polymerization of 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol with SFDPS and FPSF for comparison. The comparative study demonstrates that the sPESPO ionomers exhibit strong intermolecular interactions and high oxidative stability because of the phosphine oxide groups. Furthermore, the sPESPO membrane and the sPES membrane with an equal ion exchange capacity show much different nanophase separation morphology. As a result, the former shows better properties than the latter. The sPESPO membranes exhibit excellent overall properties. For instance, the sPESPO membrane, with a disulfonation degree of 45%, exhibits high thermal and oxidative stability. Moreover, it shows a water uptake of 30.8% and a swelling ratio of 15.8% as well as a proton conductivity of 0.087 S/cm at 80 degrees C.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed one-pot three- or four-component coupling of aryl iodides, alkynes, and amines through C-N bond cleavage: efficient synthesis of indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Geng, Weizhi; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2014-02-24

    An efficient synthesis of N-substituted indole derivatives was realized by combining the Pd-catalyzed one-pot multicomponent coupling approach with cleavage of the C(sp(3))-N bonds. Three or four components of aryl iodides, alkynes, and amines were involved in this coupling process. The cyclopentadiene-phosphine ligand showed high efficiency. A variety of aryl iodides, including cyclic and acyclic tertiary amino aryl iodides, and substituted 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene derivatives could be used. Both symmetric and unsymmetric alkynes substituted with alkyl, aryl, or trimethylsilyl groups could be applied. Cyclic secondary amines such as piperidine, morpholine, 4-methylpiperidine, 1-methylpiperazine, 2-methylpiperidine, and acyclic amines including secondary and primary amines all showed good reactivity. Further application of the resulting indole derivatives was demonstrated by the synthesis of benzosilolo[2,3-b]indole.

  1. Amine Directed Pd(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation-Intramolecular Amination of N-Het(aryl)/Acyl Enaminonitriles and Enaminones: An Approach towards Multisubstituted Indoles and Heterofused Pyrroles.

    PubMed

    Yugandar, Somaraju; Konda, Saidulu; Ila, Hiriyakkanavar

    2016-03-01

    An efficient route to multisubstituted indoles has been developed through intramolecular oxidative C-H activation-amination of readily available 2-(het)aryl-3-(het)aryl/alkyl-3-(het)aryl/acylaminoacrylonitrile/enaminone precursors in the presence of either palladium acetate/cupric acetate catalytic system under oxygen atmosphere or palladium acetate/silver carbonate in the presence of pivalic acid as additive. The method is compatible with a diverse range of substituents on the aryl ring as well as at the 2- and 3-positions of the indole ring. The versatility of this method was further demonstrated by elaborating it for the synthesis of heterofused pyrroles such as thieno[2,3-b]pyrroles, thieno[3,2-b]pyrroles, pyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles, and pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines in good yields. Probable mechanisms for the formation of these indoles have been suggested. PMID:26842134

  2. N-arylated-lactam-type iminosugars as new immunosuppressive agents: discovery, optimization, and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Fu-Yu; Zhu, Jingjing; Song, Chengcheng; Xiong, De-Cai; Zhou, Yifa; Cui, Yuxin; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2014-08-01

    We have previously described the discovery of N-alkylated iminosugars that showed immunosuppressive activity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of N-arylated lactam-type iminosugar derivatives. The synthesis started from simple monosaccharides and featured a Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reaction to construct the key N-aryl connection, thereby providing a highly diverse compound library. Structure-activity relationship studies, guided by a mouse-spleen-proliferation assay, led to the identification of 'hit' compound 12 f. Subsequently, the systematic modification of compound 12 f afforded compounds 21 h, 21 k, 21 n, 21 t, and 21 x with improved activities (IC50 =12-30 μM) and low Jurkat cytotoxicities (IC50 >100 μM). These new compounds also inhibited the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4, which are hallmark cytokines of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. This work demonstrated that the N-arylated iminosugar structure represents a new scaffold with immunosuppressive activity.

  3. Reactivity and fate of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    This research is focused on secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), anionic surfactants widely used in household applications that access aquatic environments mainly via sewage discharges. We studied their sorption capacity and anaerobic degradation in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. SAS partition coefficients increased towards those homologues having longer alkyl chains (from up to 141 L kg(-1) for C14 to up to 1753 L kg(-1) for C17), which were those less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, SAS removal percentages reached up to 98% after 166 days of incubation using anoxic sediments. The degradation pathway consisted on the formation of sulfocarboxylic acids after an initial fumarate attack of the alkyl chain and successive β-oxidations. This is the first study showing that SAS can be degraded in absence of oxygen, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals.

  4. Reactivity and fate of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    This research is focused on secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), anionic surfactants widely used in household applications that access aquatic environments mainly via sewage discharges. We studied their sorption capacity and anaerobic degradation in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. SAS partition coefficients increased towards those homologues having longer alkyl chains (from up to 141 L kg(-1) for C14 to up to 1753 L kg(-1) for C17), which were those less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, SAS removal percentages reached up to 98% after 166 days of incubation using anoxic sediments. The degradation pathway consisted on the formation of sulfocarboxylic acids after an initial fumarate attack of the alkyl chain and successive β-oxidations. This is the first study showing that SAS can be degraded in absence of oxygen, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals. PMID:24631971

  5. Oil recovery method utilizing an alkylarylpoxyalkylene sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.

    1984-08-14

    An alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate alone or combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant is dissolved in water to form an effective surfactant fluid that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant fluid is injected into an underground petroleum-containing reservoir in an enhanced oil recovery process.

  6. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times.

  7. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  8. Evaluation of the toxicity of 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole-based biofilm inhibitors against eukaryotic cell lines, bone cells and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Hans; Dubey, Akanksha; Robijns, Stijn; Ermolat'ev, Denis; Delattin, Nicolas; Dovgan, Barbara; Girandon, Lenart; Fröhlich, Mirjam; De Brucker, Katrijn; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin; Balzarini, Jan; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have synthesized several series of compounds based on the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold, which showed a preventive activity against microbial biofilms. We here studied the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds of each series. First, the cytostatic activity was investigated against a number of tumor cell lines (L1210, CEM and HeLa). A subset of monosubstituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles showed a moderate safety window, with therapeutic indices (TIs) ranging between 3 and 20. Whereas introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain at the N1-position strongly reduced the TI, introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain or a triazole moiety at the 2N-position increased the TI up to 370. Since a promising application of preventive anti-biofilm agents is their use in anti-biofilm coatings for orthopedic implants, their effects on cell viability and functional behavior of human osteoblasts and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were tested. The 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles consistently showed the lowest toxicity and allowed survival of the bone cells for up to 4 weeks. Moreover they did not negatively affect the osteogenic differentiation potential of the bone cells. Finally, we examined the effect of the compounds on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, which confirmed the higher safety window of 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles.

  9. Evaluation of the toxicity of 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole-based biofilm inhibitors against eukaryotic cell lines, bone cells and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Hans; Dubey, Akanksha; Robijns, Stijn; Ermolat'ev, Denis; Delattin, Nicolas; Dovgan, Barbara; Girandon, Lenart; Fröhlich, Mirjam; De Brucker, Katrijn; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin; Balzarini, Jan; Van der Eycken, Erik V; Vanderleyden, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have synthesized several series of compounds based on the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold, which showed a preventive activity against microbial biofilms. We here studied the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds of each series. First, the cytostatic activity was investigated against a number of tumor cell lines (L1210, CEM and HeLa). A subset of monosubstituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles showed a moderate safety window, with therapeutic indices (TIs) ranging between 3 and 20. Whereas introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain at the N1-position strongly reduced the TI, introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain or a triazole moiety at the 2N-position increased the TI up to 370. Since a promising application of preventive anti-biofilm agents is their use in anti-biofilm coatings for orthopedic implants, their effects on cell viability and functional behavior of human osteoblasts and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were tested. The 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles consistently showed the lowest toxicity and allowed survival of the bone cells for up to 4 weeks. Moreover they did not negatively affect the osteogenic differentiation potential of the bone cells. Finally, we examined the effect of the compounds on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, which confirmed the higher safety window of 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles. PMID:25325155

  10. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride

  11. Mild copper-mediated fluorination of aryl stannanes and aryl trifluoroborates.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingda; Sanford, Melanie S

    2013-03-27

    This communication describes a mild copper-mediated fluorination of aryl stannanes and aryl trifluoroborates with N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium triflate. This protocol demonstrates broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance, and does not require the use of any noble metal additives. The reaction is proposed to proceed via an arylcopper(III) fluoride intermediate. PMID:23485148

  12. Correlating electronic structure and chemical durability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Many different proton-conducting polymeric materials have been developed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The development of perfluorosulfonic acid-based, polymer electrolyte membranes (PFSA-PEMs) was followed by aromatic hydrocarbon-based PEMs (HC-PEMs), which allow for tailored design and optimization of their molecular structures. Although many new PFSA-PEMs and HC-PEMs have shown promising proton conductivity and thermal stability, chemical degradation of these materials in an oxidizing environment remains a significant technical barrier in PEMFC development. Here, we used accelerated degradation tests and electronic structure analysis to examine the chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) copolymers, a highly thermally stable HC-PEM. HOMO levels, the presence of main chain-protecting steric groups, and HOMO-LUMO location along the main chain have significant effects on the chain scission modes and degradation rate of SPES copolymers. Rational design of HC-PEMs to suppress midpoint scission can open many opportunities in the development of highly robust polymer electrolytes for fuel cell and other energy storage applications.

  13. Nickel-Catalyzed Alkyl–Alkyl Cross-Couplings of Fluorinated Secondary Electrophiles: A General Approach to the Synthesis of Compounds that Bear a Perfluoroalkyl Substituent**

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yufan

    2015-01-01

    Fluorinated organic molecules are of interest in fields ranging from medicinal chemistry to polymer science. Herein, we describe a mild, convenient, and versatile method for the synthesis of compounds that bear a perfluoroalkyl group attached to a tertiary carbon, via an alkyl–alkyl cross-coupling. Thus, a nickel catalyst derived from commercially available components (NiCl2·glyme and a pybox ligand) achieves the coupling of a wide range of fluorinated alkyl halides with alkylzinc reagents at room temperature. A broad array of functional groups (e.g., alkyne, aryl iodide, carbamate, furan, ketone, nitrile, phosphonate, primary alkyl bromide, and primary alkyl tosylate) are compatible with the reaction conditions, and highly selective couplings can be achieved on the basis of differing levels of fluorination. A mechanistic investigation has established that the presence of TEMPO inhibits cross-coupling under these conditions and that a TEMPO–electrophile adduct can be isolated. PMID:26073669

  14. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Richard F.

    2013-06-30

    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (α-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

  15. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  16. Synthesis of trifluoromethylated isoxazoles and their elaboration through inter- and intra-molecular C-H arylation.

    PubMed

    Poh, Jian-Siang; García-Ruiz, Cristina; Zúñiga, Andrea; Meroni, Francesca; Blakemore, David C; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2016-07-01

    We report conditions for the preparation of a range of trifluoromethylated isoxazole building blocks through the cycloaddition reaction of trifluoromethyl nitrile oxide. It was found that controlling the rate (and therefore concentration) of the formation of the trifluoromethyl nitrile oxide was Critical for the preferential formation of the desired isoxazole products versus the furoxan dimer. Different conditions were optimised for both aryl- and alkyl-substituted alkynes. In addition, the reactivity at the isoxazole 4-position has been briefly explored for these building blocks. Conditions for intermolecular C-H arylation, lithiation and electrophile quench, and alkoxylation were all identified with brief substrate scoping that signifies useful tolerance to a range of functionalities. Finally, complementary processes for structural diversification through either intramolecular cyclisation or intermolecular cross-coupling were developed.

  17. One-pot, two-step, microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonaflates.

    PubMed

    Wannberg, Johan; Wallinder, Charlotta; Ünlüsoy, Meltem; Sköld, Christian; Larhed, Mats

    2013-04-19

    A convenient procedure for converting aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonafluorobutylsulfonates (ArONf) is presented. Moderate to good one-pot, two-step yields were achieved by this nonaflation and microwave-assisted, palladium-catalyzed fluorination sequence. The reductive elimination step was investigated by DFT calculations to compare fluorination with chlorination, proving a larger thermodynamic driving force for the aryl fluoride product. Finally, a key aryl fluoride intermediate for the synthesis of a potent HCV NS3 protease inhibitor was smoothly prepared with the novel protocol.

  18. Aromatic sulfide/sulfone polymer production

    SciTech Connect

    Scoggins, L.E.; Hoover, K.C.; Shang, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process for the production of aromatic sulfide/sulfone polymer. It comprises: contacting at least one lactam, at least one alkali metal hydrosulfide, water, and at least one base selected from the group consisting of alkali metal hydroxides and mixtures of alkali metal hydroxides with alkali metal carbonates under reaction conditions of time and temperature sufficient to produce a mixture containing a complex which comprises the at least one alkali metal hydrosulfide and contacting the mixture produced with a least one dihaloaromatic sulfone under polymerization conditions for a period of time sufficient to form an aromatic sulfide/sulfone polymer.

  19. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorinated alkyls in an avian model.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A; Brick-Turin, Yael; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with 5 or 10mg/kg of either compound on incubation day 0. On the day of hatching, imprinting behavior was impaired by both compounds. We then explored underlying mechanisms involving the targeting of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma) in the intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, the region most closely associated with imprinting. With PFOA exposure, cytosolic PKC concentrations were significantly elevated for all three isoforms; despite the overall increase in PKC expression, membrane-associated PKC was unaffected, indicating a defect in PKC translocation. In contrast, PFOS exposure evoked a significant decrease in cytosolic PKC, primarily for the beta and gamma isoforms, but again without a corresponding change in membrane-associated enzyme; this likely partial, compensatory increases in translocation to offset the net PKC deficiency. Our studies indicate that perfluorinated alkyls are indeed developmental neurotoxicants that affect posthatch cognitive performance but that the underlying synaptic mechanisms may differ substantially among the various members of this class of compounds, setting the stage for disparate outcomes later in life.

  20. Neurobehavioral Teratogenicity of Perfluorinated Alkyls in an Avian Model

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Brick-Turin, Yael; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with 5 or 10 mg/kg of either compound on incubation day 0. On the day of hatching, imprinting behavior was impaired by both compounds. We then explored underlying mechanisms involving the targeting of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (α, β, γ) in the intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, the region most closely associated with imprinting. With PFOA exposure, cytosolic PKC concentrations were significantly elevated for all three isoforms; despite the overall increase in PKC expression, membrane-associated PKC was unaffected, indicating a defect in PKC translocation. In contrast, PFOS exposure evoked a significant decrease in cytosolic PKC, primarily for the β and γ isoforms, but again without a corresponding change in membrane-associated enzyme; this likely partial, compensatory increases in translocation to offset the net PKC deficiency. Our studies indicate that perfluorinated alkyls are indeed developmental neurotoxicants that affect posthatch cognitive performance but that the underlying synaptic mechanisms may differ substantially among the various members of this class of compounds, setting the stage for disparate outcomes later in life. PMID:19945530

  1. The Remarkable Reactivity of Aryl Halides with Nucleophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnett, Joseph F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the reactivity of aryl halides with nucleophilic or basic reagents, including nucleophilic attacks on carbon, hydrogen, halogen, and arynes. Suggestions are made concerning revisions of the sections on aryl halide chemistry courses and the corresponding chapters in textbooks. (CC)

  2. Masked N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alkylation of Phenols with Organic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Lui, Matthew Y; Yuen, Alexander K L; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    An easily prepared masked N-heterocyclic carbene, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium-2-carboxylate (DMI-CO2 ), was investigated as a "green" and inexpensive organocatalyst for the alkylation of phenols. The process made use of various low-toxicity and renewable alkylating agents, such as dimethyl- and diethyl carbonate, in a focused microwave reactor. DMI-CO2 was found to be a very active catalyst and excellent yields of a range of aryl alkyl ethers were obtained under relatively benign conditions. The observed difference in the conversion behavior of phenol methylation, in the presence of either the carbene or 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU) catalyst, was rationalized on the basis of mechanistic investigations. The primary mode of action for the N-heterocyclic carbene is nucleophilic catalysis. Activation of the dialkyl carbonate electrophile results in concomitant evolution of an organo-soluble alkoxide, which deprotonates the phenolic starting material. In contrast, DBU is initially protonated by the phenol and thus consumed. Subsequent regeneration and participation in nucleophilic catalysis only becomes significant after some phenolate alkylation occurs. PMID:27528488

  3. Characterizing hydrocarbon sulfonates and utilization of hydrocarbon sulfonates in oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsmann, G.R.; Hedges, J.H.

    1982-05-18

    A method for determining the average equivalent weight of hydrocarbon sulfonates and the optimal salinity and unique salinity of surfactant systems containing such hydrocarbon sulfonates is based on the discovery that the average equivalent weights of hydrocarbon sulfonates vary inversely and linearly as the optimal salinities and unique salinities of surfactant systems containing such hydrocarbon sulfonates vary. Methods of preparing surfactant systems for the displacement of oil from subterranean reservoirs and for the displacement of oil from subterranean reservoirs, based on the above-mentioned relationships, are also disclosed.

  4. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E.; Park, Ho Bum; Freeman, Benny D.

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  5. Direct methanol fuel cell performance using sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T. A. , Jr.; Zelenay, P.; Hickner, M.; Wang, F.; McGrath, James E.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers are a new series of sulfonic acid containing polymers that have shown promise as fuel cell electrolytes. Here, we report on direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance of this class of polymers at sulfonation levels ranging from 40 to 60% (monomer basis). The DMFC performance of these polymers is compared to that of Nafion 117, the long standing standard in fuel cell testing. These polymers show a higher selectivity for protons over methanol for all the sulfonation levels tested, with the 40% sulfonated polymer showing 2.5 times the selectivity of Nafion. While the higher sulfonated forms (50 and 60%) did show a higher selectivity, only the lower sulfonation levels (40 and 45%) have shown improved performance in DMFC testing. The results of these experiments will be discussed in terms of the relevant test conditions, and experimentally determined membrane properties. The relevant DMFC properties of these polymers will be discussed in terms of sulfonation level and compared to those of Nafion 117.

  6. Synthesis of sulfonate analogs of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Kihira, K; Mikami, T; Ikawa, S; Okamoto, A; Yoshii, M; Miki, S; Mosbach, E H; Hoshita, T

    1992-04-01

    Sulfonate analogs of C23 and C24 bile acids were synthesized from norcholic, norchenodeoxycholic, norursodeoxycholic, nordeoxycholic, norhyodeoxycholic, cholic, deoxycholic, hyodeoxycholic, and lithocholic acids. The principal reactions used were (1) reduction of the bile acids with NaBH4 to the corresponding bile alcohols, (2) selective tosylation of the terminal hydroxyl group, (3) iodination of the tosyl esters with NaI, and (4) treatment of the iodides with Na2SO3 to form the sulfonate analogs of the bile acids. The sulfonate analogs showed polarity similar to that of taurine-conjugated bile acids on thin-layer chromatography. The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data for the sulfonate analogs were tabulated.

  7. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antitubercular Activities of Some 5H-Thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones and Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Yu; Yan, Xin-Jia; Zou, Liang-Jing; Wang, Ya-Xin; Liu, Xue-Qi

    2015-09-10

    A series of 5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones were synthesized by the cyclization reactions of S-alkylated derivatives in concentrated H₂SO₄. Upon treatment of S-alkylated derivatives at different temperatures, intramolecular cyclization to 7-(substituted phenylamino)-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ones or sulfonation of cyclized products to sulfonic acid derivatives occurred. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS studies. The compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the broth dilution assay method. Some compounds showed good antibacterial and antitubercular activities.

  8. Palladium catalyzed C3-arylation of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones.

    PubMed

    Anagnostaki, Elissavet E; Fotiadou, Anna D; Demertzidou, Vera; Zografos, Alexandros L

    2014-07-01

    The direct arylation of N-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-pyridones with aryl boronic acids has been achieved under palladium catalysis. The mild reaction conditions applied in this method and the use of a conventional catalytic system offer an attractive protocol for the efficient synthesis of a variety of 3-arylated products.

  9. Crystal structure of zwitterionic bisimidazolium sulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, Shigeo; Okuyama, Shinpei; Yokota, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Keiki; Masu, Hyuma; Azumaya, Isao

    2012-05-01

    Crystal structures of three zwitterionic bisimidazolium salts 1-3 in which imidazolium sulfonate moieties were connected with aromatic linkers, p-xylylene, 4,4'-dimethylenebiphenyl, and phenylene, respectively, were examined. The latter two were obtained as hydrates. An S-shaped molecular structure in which the sulfonate moiety was placed on the imidazolium ring was observed for 1. A helical array of hydrated water molecules was obtained for 2 while a linear array of hydrated water molecules was observed for 3.

  10. Crystal structure of phenyl 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean; Staples, Richard J.; Biros, Shannon M.; Ngassa, Felix N.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C12H7Cl3O3S, was synthesized via a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenol and 2,4,5-tri­chloro­benzene­sulfonyl chloride. The two aryl rings are oriented gauche to one another around the sulfonate S—O bond, with a C—S—O—C torsion angle of −70.68 (16)°, and the two rings are inclined to one another by 72.40 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via various C—Cl⋯π inter­actions, forming ribbons propagating along [100]. Neighboring ribbons are linked by a weak C—Cl⋯π inter­action, forming layers parallel to (010). PMID:27308043

  11. A practical new chiral controller for asymmetric Diels-Alder and alkylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Sarakinos, G; Corey, E J

    1999-12-01

    [formula: see text] The enantiomerically pure hydroxy sulfones (+)- and (-)-2 have been prepared from 1,2-epoxycyclohexane by a simple and practical procedure. The acrylate esters of these alcohols undergo BCl3-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions with a variety of dienes at -78 to -55 degrees C in CH2Cl2 or C7H8 with high dienophile face selectivity (Table 1). The chiral esters so formed are readily cleaved with recovery of the controllers (+)- or (-)-2. Esters of (+)- and (-)-2 can be converted to Z-potassium enolates and alkylated with high face selectivity. PMID:10836034

  12. Modification of epoxy-reinforced glass-cloth composites with a perfluorinated alkyl ether elastomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Chen, T. S.; Taylor, M.

    1984-01-01

    A perfluorinated alkyl ether diacyl fluoride prepolymer (molecular weight about 1500) was coreacted with Epon 828 epoxy resin and diamino diphenyl sulfone to obtain an elastomer-toughened, glass-cloth composite. Improvements in flexural toughness, impact resistance, and water resistance, without loss of strength, modulus of elasticity or a lowering of the glass-transition temperature, were realized over those of the unmodified composite. Factors concerning optimization of the process are discussed. Results suggest that a simultaneously interpenetrating polymer network may be formed which gives rise to a measured improvement in composite mechanical properties.

  13. New directing groups for metal-catalyzed asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming processes: stereoconvergent alkyl-alkyl Suzuki cross-couplings of unactivated electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Wilsily, Ashraf; Tramutola, Francesco; Owston, Nathan A; Fu, Gregory C

    2012-04-01

    The ability of two common protected forms of amines (carbamates and sulfonamides) to serve as directing groups in Ni-catalyzed Suzuki reactions has been exploited in the development of catalytic asymmetric methods for cross-coupling unactivated alkyl electrophiles. Racemic secondary bromides and chlorides undergo C-C bond formation in a stereoconvergent process in good ee at room temperature in the presence of a commercially available Ni complex and chiral ligand. Structure-enantioselectivity studies designed to elucidate the site of binding to Ni (the oxygen of the carbamate and of the sulfonamide) led to the discovery that sulfones also serve as useful directing groups for asymmetric Suzuki cross-couplings of racemic alkyl halides. To our knowledge, this investigation provides the first examples of the use of sulfonamides or sulfones as effective directing groups in metal-catalyzed asymmetric C-C bond-forming reactions. A mechanistic study established that transmetalation occurs with retention of stereochemistry and that the resulting Ni-C bond does not undergo homolysis in subsequent stages of the catalytic cycle.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  18. A new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer, with scope for sulfonation, and its catalytic potential for the efficient synthesis of biodiesel at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim

    2015-03-25

    We have designed a new hypercrosslinked supermicroporous polymer (HMP-1) with a BET surface area of 913 m(2) g(-1) by FeCl3 via a catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction between carbazole and α,α'-dibromo-p-xylene. Upon sulfonation HMP-1 yielded a very efficient solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesels via esterification/transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA)/esters at room temperature. PMID:25702885

  19. Oil compositions containing alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivatives of copolymers of an alpha olefin or an alkyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.T.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes an oil composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil selected from a crude oil or fuel oil and a minor amount of an alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivative of an alpha olefin or alkyl vinyl ether and an unsaturated alpha, beta-dicarboxylic compound copolymer having pour point depressant ;properties. The copolymer comprising the reaction product of an alpha olefin having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or mixtures of alpha olefins having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or an alkyl vinyl ether or mixture of alkyl vinyl ethers.

  20. Nickel-catalyzed three-component domino reactions of aryl Grignard reagents, alkynes, and aryl halides producing tetrasubstituted alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Zhao, Jin; Hor, T S Andy; Hayashi, Tamio

    2015-03-11

    Three-component reaction of aryl Grignard reagents, alkynes, and aryl halides in the presence of 1 mol % of NiCl2 proceeded sequentially through carbomagnesiation of the alkyne followed by cross-coupling of the resulting alkenyl Grignard reagent with aryl halide to give tetrasubstituted alkenes in high yields. PMID:25714497

  1. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amine salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amine salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  3. A new derivatization reagent for LC-MS/MS screening of potential genotoxic alkylation compounds.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, A M; Niederländer, H A G; Siebum, A H G; Vervaart, M A T; de Jong, G J

    2013-02-23

    A screening method for trace analysis of potentially genotoxic alkylating compounds has been developed using butyl 1-(pyridin-4-yl) piperidine 4-carboxylate (BPPC) as a new, selective pre-column derivatization reagent for their subsequent analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The new derivatization reagent is a modification of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP) previously used for the determination of potentially genotoxic compounds. By using the new reagent the screening potential was enhanced without compromising reactivity. Derivatization at a high pH value was carried out and the reaction time at 60°C was 24h to anticipate for alkyl chlorides showing to be less reactive. The new reagent was designed to obtain reagent related fragmentation of the whole reagent as well as a side group of the reagent. Collision energies for detection of alkylating components derivatized using the new reagent are shown to be significantly more universal than with 4-DMAP. Neutral loss scanning on the fragmentation related to the build in side group remedies shortcomings in the screening for alkyl halides observed when using 4-DMAP. The new approach allows for screening of alkyl halides and alkyl sulfonates at trace levels down to 1 mg kg(-1) and target analysis at about a factor of 10 lower without a significant effect of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) matrix. The synthesis of the reagent, investigation of reactivity, the specificity of the fragmentation of derivatives and screening conditions in MS/MS analysis are described. PMID:23245244

  4. A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein in direct alkylation repair.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Monisha, Mohan; Anindya, Roy

    2014-12-26

    Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base adducts. In this work, we provide evidence to suggest, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high-throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, we demonstrate that Tpa1 repairs both single- and double-stranded methylated DNA. Tpa1 is a member of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, and we show that mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes the Tpa1 DNA repair activity. Deletion of TPA1 along with the base excision repair pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1Δmag1Δ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. We further demonstrate that the trans-lesion synthesis DNA polymerase Polζ (REV3) plays a key role in tolerating DNA methyl-base lesions and that tpa1Δmag1revΔ3 triple mutant is extremely susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. Our results indicate a synergism between the base excision repair pathway and direct alkylation repair by Tpa1 in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that Tpa1 is a hitherto unidentified DNA repair protein in yeast and that it plays a crucial role in reverting alkylated DNA base lesions and cytotoxicity.

  5. Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1×10(-9)-1×10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

  6. Base-Free Conditions for Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Arylation To Produce Stereochemically Labile α-Aryl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaowei; Lu, Yixin; Hayashi, Tamio

    2016-06-01

    The asymmetric arylation of 2,2-dialkyl cyclopent-4-ene-1,3-diones with aryl boronic acids was found to be efficiently catalyzed by a chiral diene-rhodium μ-chloro dimer, [{RhCl((R)-diene*)}2 ], in the absence of bases in toluene/H2 O to give 2,2-dialkyl 4-aryl cyclopentane-1,3-diones in high yields with high enantioselectivity. Such compounds can not be obtained with high enantiomeric purity under the standard basic conditions used for rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation because the α-aryl ketone products undergo racemization under the basic conditions. PMID:27100902

  7. Aryl azide photochemistry in defined protein environments.

    PubMed

    Morris, Josephine L; Reddington, Samuel C; Murphy, Damien M; Jones, D Dafydd; Platts, James A; Tippmann, Eric M

    2013-02-15

    A genetically encoded precursor to an aryl nitrene, para-azidophenylalanine, was introduced site specifically into proteins to deduce if distinct environments were capable of caging a reactive organic intermediate. Following photolysis of mutant T4 lysozyme or green fluorescent proteins, EPR spectra showed, respectively, the presence of a triplet nitrene and an anilino radical.

  8. Antibacterials. Synthesis and structure-activity studies of 3-aryl-2-oxooxazolidines. 1. The "B" group.

    PubMed

    Gregory, W A; Brittelli, D R; Wang, C L; Wuonola, M A; McRipley, R J; Eustice, D C; Eberly, V S; Bartholomew, P T; Slee, A M; Forbes, M

    1989-08-01

    The synthesis and structure/activity studies of the effect of varying the "B" group in a series of oxazolidinone antibacterials (I) are described. Two synthetic routes were used: (1) alkylation of aniline with glycidol followed by dialkyl carbonate heterocyclization to afford I (A = H, B = OH), whose arene ring was further elaborated by using electrophilic aromatic substitution methodology; (2) cycloaddition of substituted aryl isocyanates with epoxides to give A and B with a variety of values. I with B = OH or Br were converted to other "B" functionalities by using SN2 methodology. Antibacterial evaluation of compounds I with A = acetyl, isopropyl, methylthio, methylsulfinyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfonamido and a variety of different "B" groups against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis concluded that the compounds with B = aminoacyl, and particularly acetamido, were the most active of those examined in each A series, possessing MICs in the range of 0.5-4 micrograms/mL for the most active compounds described.

  9. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to new synthetic sulfone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    The influence of halogenated methyl sulfones, i.e. bromodichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named halogenated methyl sulfone 1), dichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 2), and chlorodibromomethyl-4-hydrazino-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 3), on cell growth inhibition, aspartic protease gene (SAP4-6) expression, adhesion to epithelium, and filamentation was investigated. Antifungal susceptibility of the halogenated methyl sulfones was determined with the M27-A3 protocol in the range of 16-0.0313 µg/mL. Adherence to Caco-2 cells was performed in 24-well plates; relative quantification was normalized against ACT1 in cells after 18 h of growth in YEPD and on Caco-2 cells. SAP4-6 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that halogenated methyl sulfone 1 containing bromodichloromethyl or dichloromethyl function at C-4 (halogenated methyl sulfone 2) of the phenyl ring showed the best activity (100% cell inhibition at 0.5 µg/mL), while hydrazine at C-1 (halogenated methyl sulfone 3) reduced the sulfone potential (100% = 4 µg/mL). SAP4-6 were up- or down-regulated depending on the strains' genetic background and the substitutions on the phenyl ring. Halogenated methyl sulfone 2 repressed germination and affected adherence to epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). The tested halogenated methyl sulfones interfered with the adhesion of Candida albicans cells to the epithelial tissues, without affecting their viability after 90 min of incubation. The mode of action of the halogenated methyl sulfones was attributed to the reduced virulence of C. albicans. SAP5 and SAP6 contribute to halogenated methyl sulfones resistance. Thus, halogenated methyl sulfones can inhibit biofilm formation due to their interference with adherence and with the yeast-to-hyphae transition.

  10. Methods of making alkyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  11. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Structure--Activity Relationship of New 2-Aryl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolin-2-ium Salts as Antifungal Agents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhe; Zhu, Li-Fei; Yu, Xin-chi; Sun, Ma-Qiang; Miao, Fang; Zhou, Le

    2016-04-13

    Twenty-two 2-aryl-9-methyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolin-2-ium bromides along with four 9-demethylated derivatives were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. By using the mycelium growth rate method, the compounds were evaluated for antifungal activities in vitro against six plant pathogenic fungi, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) were derived. Almost all of the compounds showed obvious inhibition activity on each of the fungi at 150 μM. For all of the fungi, 10 of the compounds showed average inhibition rates of >80% at 150 μM, and most of their EC50 values were in the range of 2.0-30.0 μM. SAR analysis showed that the substitution pattern of the N-aryl ring significantly influences the activity; N9-alkylation improves the activity, whereas aromatization of ring-C reduces the activity. It was concluded that the present research provided a series of new 2-aryl-9-alkyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolin-2-iums with excellent antifungal potency and structure optimization design for the development of new carboline antifungal agents. PMID:27004437

  13. Iron-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of α-Chloroesters with Aryl Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Masayoshi; Adak, Laksmikanta; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-06-10

    The first iron-catalyzed enantioselective cross-coupling reaction between an organometallic compound and an organic electrophile is reported. Synthetically versatile racemic α-chloro- and α-bromoalkanoates were coupled with aryl Grignard reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iron salt and a chiral bisphosphine ligand, giving the products in high yields with acceptable and synthetically useful enantioselectivities (er up to 91:9). The produced α-arylalkanoates were readily converted to the corresponding α-arylalkanoic acids with high optical enrichment (er up to >99:1) via simple deprotections/recrystallizations. The results of radical probe experiments are consistent with a mechanism that involves the formation of an alkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes subsequent enantioconvergent arylation in an intermolecular manner. The developed asymmetric coupling offers not only facile and practical access to various chiral α-arylalkanoic acid derivatives, which are of significant pharmaceutical importance, but also a basis of controlling enantioselectivity in an iron-catalyzed organometallic transformation. PMID:25955413

  14. Density functional theory investigation on Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of azoles with aryl thioethers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Meng; Dang, Zhi-Min; Yu, Hai-Zhu

    2016-05-11

    In the present study, a density functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on the Pd-catalyzed coupling of azoles with aryl thioethers. Our effort is mainly put into identifying the most feasible catalytic cycle, and especially the origin of chemoselectivity for the exclusive aromatic Csp(2)-S bond activation (in the presence of an alkyl Csp(3)-S bond). The coupling mainly consists of three steps: C-S activation, NaO(t)Bu mediated C-H palladation, and reductive elimination. The Csp(2)-S activation is favored over Csp(3)-S activation, and thus di(hetero)aryls are the predicted products. This conclusion well reproduces Wang's recent experimental observations. The rate- and chemoselectivity determining steps of the C-H/Csp(2)-S activation mechanism are C-H palladation and C-S activation steps, respectively. Analyzing the origin of chemoselectivity, we found that the easiness of Pd catalyzed C-S activation is independent of the C-S bond strengths in thioether substrates. By contrast, d-π* backdonation in Csp(2)-S-Pd intermediates is the main driving force for the favorable Csp(2)-S activation (over the Csp(3)-S activation). PMID:27097907

  15. Anticonvulsant Profiles of Certain New 6-Aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro-[4.5]decane-8,10-diones and 1-Aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,5-diones

    PubMed Central

    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N.; El-Azzouny, Aida A.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Maklad, Yousreya A.; Aboutabl, Mona E.; Ragab, Fatma; El-Hamid, Walaa H. A. Abd

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and anticonvulsant potential of certain new 6-aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-8,10-diones (6a–l) and 1-aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,5-diones (6m–x) are reported. The intermediates 1-[(aryl)(cyanomethyl)amino]cycloalkanecarboxamides (3a–f) were prepared via adopting Strecker synthesis on the proper cycloalkanone followed by partial hydrolysis of the obtained nitrile functionality and subsequent N-cyanomethylation. Compounds 3a–f were subjected to complete nitrile hydrolysis to give the respective carboxylic acid derivatives 4a–f which were cyclized under mild conditions to give the spiro compounds 5a–f. Ultimately, compounds 5a–f were alkylated or aralkylated to give the target compounds 6a–i and 6m–u. On the other hand, compounds 6j–l and 6v–x were synthesized from the intermediates 5a–f through alkylation, dehydration and finally tetrazole ring formation. Anticonvulsant screening of the target compounds 6a–x revealed that compound 6g showed an ED50 of 0.0043 mmol/kg in the scPTZ screen, being about 14 and 214 fold more potent than the reference drugs, Phenobarbital (ED50 = 0.06 mmol/kg) and Ethosuximide (ED50 = 0.92 mmol/kg), respectively. Compound 6e exhibited an ED50 of 0.019 mmol/kg, being about 1.8 fold more potent than that of the reference drug, Diphenylhydantoin (ED50 = 0.034 mmol/kg) in the MES screen. Interestingly, all the test compounds 6a–x did not show any minimal motor impairment at the maximum administered dose in the neurotoxicity screen. PMID:25250910

  16. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  17. Simulation study of sulfonate cluster swelling in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2009-12-01

    We have performed simulations to study how increasing humidity affects the structure of Nafion-like ionomers under conditions of low sulfonate concentration and low humidity. At the onset of membrane hydration, the clusters split into smaller parts. These subsequently swell, but then maintain constant the number of sulfonates per cluster. We find that the distribution of water in low-sulfonate membranes depends strongly on the sulfonate concentration. For a relatively low sulfonate concentration, nearly all the side-chain terminal groups are within cluster formations, and the average water loading per cluster matches the water content of membrane. However, for a relatively higher sulfonate concentration the water-to-sulfonate ratio becomes nonuniform. The clusters become wetter, while the intercluster bridges become drier. We note the formation of unusual shells of water-rich material that surround the sulfonate clusters.

  18. Efficient adsorption of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids onto modified cellulose microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Ao, Yinyong; Wang, Shuojue; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-09-01

    A novel sulfonated cellulose microsphere adsorbent (CGS) was prepared by pre-irradiation induced emulsion grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the cellulose microsphere, followed by sulfonation. The resulting CGS exhibited superior adsorption ability toward 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([CnMIM]Cl) ionic liquids (ILs). The adsorption equilibrium could be attained rapidly within 40 min for representative 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4MIM]Cl) using CGS with different amounts of SO3H group. The adsorption behavior of CGS toward [C4MIM]Cl was well described by the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity toward [C4MIM]Cl was 1.08 mmol/g in the wide range of pH (4.8-10.1). In addition, the adsorption capacity of CGS toward [CnMIM]Cl increased with the alkyl length of cations of [CnMIM]Cl due to the hydrophobic interaction and cation exchange adsorption. Spent CGS could be easily regenerated by 0.1 mol/L HCl or NaCl. The results indicated that this new adsorbent is useful in removing ILs from wastewater.

  19. Cu sbnd Al sbnd Fe layered double hydroxides with CO32- and anionic surfactants with different alkyl chains in the interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillano, Raquel; Holgado, María Jesús; González, José Luis; Rives, Vicente

    2005-08-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), with the hydrotalcite-like structure containing Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) in the layers, and different alkyl sulfonates in the interlayer, have been prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Pure crystalline phases have been obtained in all cases. Upon heating, combustion of the organic chain takes place at lower temperature than the corresponding sodium salts.

  20. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate,...

  4. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid has the empirical formula CF3SO3H (CAS Reg. No. 1493-13-6). The catalyst...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid has the empirical formula CF3SO3H (CAS Reg. No. 1493-13-6). The catalyst...

  8. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid has the empirical formula CF3SO3H (CAS Reg. No. 1493-13-6). The catalyst...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636, June... substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject...

  10. The mechanism of 1,4 alkyl group migration in hypervalent halonium ylides: the stereochemical course.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Robert M; Tyagi, Sachin; Ivanov, Daniela; Constantinescu, Mircea

    2008-06-18

    Rhodium(II)-acetate-catalyzed decomposition of either 1,3-cyclohexanedione phenyliodonium ylide or 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione phenyliodonium ylide in the presence of alkyl halides yields the corresponding 3-alkoxy-2-halocyclohex-2-enones via a 1,4 alkyl group migration shown to be concerted and intramolecular. In the case of (S)-alpha-phenethyl chloride, the rearrangement proceeds with essentially 88.6% retention of configuration. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G level reveal an activation energy of 5.4 kcal/mol for the process. A Claisen-like rearrangement occurs in the case where allylic halides, such as dimethylallyl or methallyl chorides, are used. The mechanistic pathway proposed for these processes involves addition of the halogen atom of the alkyl or allyl halide to the rhodium carbenoid from the iodonium ylide to yield a halonium intermediate that undergoes halogen to oxygen group migration. Aryl halides, such as chloro-, bromo-, iodo-, and fluorobenzene, behave differently under the same reaction conditions, yielding the product of electrophilic aromatic substitution, namely, the 2-(4-halophenyl) 1,3-cyclohexanedione.

  11. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis.

  12. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis. PMID:23865460

  13. Ru-Catalyzed C–H Arylation of Fluoroarenes with Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although the ruthenium-catalyzed C–H arylation of arenes bearing directing groups with haloarenes is well-known, this process has never been achieved in the absence of directing groups. We report the first example of such a process and show that unexpectedly the reaction only takes place in the presence of catalytic amounts of a benzoic acid. Furthermore, contrary to other transition metals, the arylation site selectivity is governed by both electronic and steric factors. Stoichiometric and NMR mechanistic studies support a catalytic cycle that involves a well-defined η6-arene-ligand-free Ru(II) catalyst. Indeed, upon initial pivalate-assisted C–H activation, the aryl-Ru(II) intermediate generated is able to react with an aryl bromide coupling partner only in the presence of a benzoate additive. In contrast, directing-group-containing substrates (such as 2-phenylpyridine) do not require a benzoate additive. Deuterium labeling and kinetic isotope effect experiments indicate that C–H activation is both reversible and kinetically significant. Computational studies support a concerted metalation–deprotonation (CMD)-type ruthenation mode and shed light on the unusual arylation regioselectivity. PMID:26942551

  14. Aryl isomerization during aliphatic CH bond activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, L.R.; Rothwell, I.P.

    1983-03-23

    The transition-metal-stablized benzyne or o-phenylene (n/sup 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/) ligand has been shown to be both an interesting and reactive group. The ligand is normally generated in mononuclear systems by ..beta..- (ortho-) hydrogen abstraction from an aryl group, and this synthetic approach has allowed a stable example to be isolated and structurally characterized. Here the conclusive identification of a benzyne intermediate during the isomerization of a tantalum-aryl compound is reported. The reaction is interesting in that the ortho hydrogen is transferred to the carbon atom of a cyclometalated chelate, the reverse (isomerization) step thus involving the activation of an aliphatic CH bond by the intermediate benzyne.

  15. Direct intermolecular aniline ortho-arylation via benzyne intermediates.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thanh; Daugulis, Olafs

    2012-12-01

    A method for direct, transition-metal-free ortho-arylation of anilines by aryl chlorides, bromides, fluorides, and triflates has been developed. This methodology provides the most direct approach to 2-arylanilines since no protecting or directing groups on nitrogen are required. The arylation is functional-group tolerant, with alkene, ether, trifluoromethyl, dimethylamino, carbonyl, chloro, and cyano functionalities tolerated. Phenylation of enantiopure binaphthyldiamine affords a product with >99% ee.

  16. Direct Intermolecular Aniline ortho-Arylation via Benzyne Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thanh

    2012-01-01

    A method for direct, transition-metal-free ortho-arylation of anilines by aryl chlorides, bromides, fluorides, and triflates has been developed. This methodology provides the most direct approach to 2-arylanilines since no protecting or directing groups on nitrogen are required. The arylation is functional-group tolerant, with alkene, ether, trifluoromethyl, dimethylamino, carbonyl, chloro, and cyano functionalities tolerated. Phenylation of enantiopure binaphthyldiamine affords a product with >99% ee. PMID:23148679

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) depletion in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is used as a surfactant in several manufactured consumer products but is also a breakdown product from other chemical surfactants. As a result of its extensive use, PFOS is ubiquitous in the environment and is often detected in biosoli...

  18. Phase Behavior of Symmetric Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Moon Jeong; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2008-08-21

    Phase behavior of poly(styrenesulfonate-methylbutylene) (PSS-PMB) block copolymers was studied by varying molecular weight, sulfonation level, and temperature. Molecular weights of the copolymers range from 2.9 to 117 kg/mol. Ordered lamellar, gyroid, hexagonally perforated lamellae, and hexagonally packed cylinder phases were observed in spite of the fact that the copolymers are nearly symmetric with PSS volume fractions between 0.45 and 0.50. The wide variety of morphologies seen in our copolymers is inconsistent with current theories on block copolymer phase behavior such as self-consistent field theory. Low molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (<6.2 kg/mol) show order-order and order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. In contrast, the phase behavior of high molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (>7.7 kg/mol) is independent of temperature. Due to the large value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, x, between the sulfonated and non-sulfonated blocks, PSS-PMB copolymers with PSS and PMB molecular weights of 1.8 and 1.4 kg/mol, respectively, show the presence of an ordered gyroid phase with a 2.5 nm diameter PSS network. A variety of methods are used to estimate x between PSS and PMB chains as a function of sulfonation level. Some aspects of the observed phase behavior of PSS-PMB copolymers can be rationalized using x.

  19. Sulfonated Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Meek, Kelly M; Elabd, Yossef A

    2016-07-01

    The successful synthesis of a new diblock copolymer, referred to as sulfonated polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymer, poly(SS-Li-b-AEBIm-TFSI), is reported, which contains both sulfonated blocks (sulfonated styrene: SS) and PIL blocks (1-[(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium: AEBIm) with both mobile cations (lithium: Li(+) ) and mobile anions (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide: TFSI(-) ). Synthesis consists of polymerization via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer, followed by post-functionalization reactions to covalently attach the imidazolium cations and sulfonic acid anions to their respective blocks, followed by ion exchange metathesis resulting in mobile Li(+) cations and mobile TFSI(-) anions. Solid-state films containing 1 m Li-TFSI salt dissolved in ionic liquid result in an ion conductivity of >1.5 mS cm(-1) at 70 °C, where small-angle X-ray scattering data indicate a weakly ordered microphase-separated morphology. These results demonstrate a new ion-conducting block copolymer containing both mobile cations and mobile anions. PMID:27125600

  20. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  1. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  2. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600...

  3. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  4. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    PubMed Central

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  10. Functionalization of immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) with lipid vinyl sulfones and their application in immunological techniques and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; González-González, Gloria; Morales-Sanfrutos, Julia; Megía-Fernández, Alicia; Santoyo-González, Francisco; Osuna, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOM)-type nanocapsules have been functionalized with lipid vinyl sulfones that anchor to them via the hydrophobic zone of their structure and can be charged with pharmacologically active molecules or macromolecules. These functionalized nanocapsules can incorporate protein A and bind to G immunoglobulins (IgGs) to make vehicles directed at the surface antigens of infectious agents, tumor cells, or receptor cells and deliver the encapsulated molecules in a highly specific way. They may be of particular use in pharmacological treatments with highly toxic molecules that should not be used in solution whenever it can be avoided. When bound to antibodies they can be used in biological processes that require the delivery or presentation of macromolecules to certain specific cells, in immunization processes for instance, or in diagnostic immunological techniques, as they are able to transport both the secondary antibodies and the reaction labels. Methods and results We describe the preparation of ISCOMs, the binding to the ISCOMS of newly synthesized compounds composed of chain alkyl vinyl sulfone, and the subsequent binding of the vinyl-sulfone compounds to IgGs. Within this context, a compound deriving from cholesterol functionalized with vinyl sulfone and used together with cholesterol in varying proportions has been linked to the structure of the ISCOMs and bound to protein A–IgG. This functionalization in no way altered the form or structure of the ISCOMs and allowed the nanocapsules carrying the specific IgGs to bind to forms of Trypanosoma cruzi against which antibodies had been developed. The fact that functionalized ISCOMs containing antibodies could deliver actinomycin D directly to the parasite meant that the effective dose of the antibiotic could be reduced very significantly. Conclusion We have developed ISCOM-type nanocapsules functionalized with lipid vinyl sulfone capable of anchoring to the surface of functional

  11. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  16. Formation of 2,4,5-triaryl-4,5-dihydro-1 H-imidazoles, ( 1), from aryl aldehydes. Crystal structures of cis-( 1: aryl = pyridin-2-yl), { trans-[( 1: aryl = pyridin-2-yl)H] +[OAc] -·3H 2O}, { cis-[ 1: aryl = thien-2-yl]·0.5H 2O} and trans-( 1: aryl = thien-2-yl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Howie, R. Alan; Schripsema, Jan; Skakle, Janet M. S.; Wardell, James L.

    2007-06-01

    The preparations of cis-2,4,5-triaryl-4,5-dihydro-1 H-imidazoles, (aryl = thien-2-yl or pyridin-2-yl) from aryl aldehydes, ammonium chloride and triethylamine in methanol, and their conversions to the trans-isomers are reported. Crystal structures of cis-( 1: aryl = pyridin-2-yl), cis-[ 1: aryl = thien-2-yl·0.5H 2O], trans-( 1: aryl = thien-2-yl), and trans-{[( 1: aryl = pyridin-2-yl)H] +[OAc] -·3H 2O}, have been determined and compared with related structures.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Zinc-Amide-Mediated C-H Arylation of Fluoroarenes and Heteroarenes with Aryl Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shinya; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-10-12

    C-H arylation of polyfluoroarenes and heteroarenes with aryl sulfides proceeds smoothly with the aid of a palladium-N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst. A bulky zinc amide, TMPZnCl⋅LiCl, plays a key role as an effective base to generate the corresponding arylzinc species in situ. This arylation protocol is practically much easier to perform than our previous method, which necessitates preparation of the arylzinc reagents in advance from the corresponding aryl halides. Aryl sulfides that are prepared through sulfur-specific reactions, such as SN Ar sulfanylation and extended Pummerer reactions, undergo this direct arylation, offering interesting transformations that are otherwise difficult to achieve with conventional halogen-based organic synthesis. PMID:26235212

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Zinc-Amide-Mediated C-H Arylation of Fluoroarenes and Heteroarenes with Aryl Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shinya; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2015-10-12

    C-H arylation of polyfluoroarenes and heteroarenes with aryl sulfides proceeds smoothly with the aid of a palladium-N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst. A bulky zinc amide, TMPZnCl⋅LiCl, plays a key role as an effective base to generate the corresponding arylzinc species in situ. This arylation protocol is practically much easier to perform than our previous method, which necessitates preparation of the arylzinc reagents in advance from the corresponding aryl halides. Aryl sulfides that are prepared through sulfur-specific reactions, such as SN Ar sulfanylation and extended Pummerer reactions, undergo this direct arylation, offering interesting transformations that are otherwise difficult to achieve with conventional halogen-based organic synthesis.

  19. 2-Aryl-2-nitroacetates as Central Precursors to Aryl Nitromethanes, α-Ketoesters, and α-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Nitroarylacetates are useful small molecular building blocks that act as precursors to α-ketoesters and aryl nitromethanes as well as α-amino acids. Methods were developed that produce each of these compound types in good yields. Two different conditions for decarboxylation are discussed for substrates with neutral and electron-poor aryl groups versus electron-rich aryl groups. For formation of the α-ketoesters, new mild conditions for the Nef disproportionation were identified. PMID:23245626

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Benzylic Arylation of Pyridylmethyl Silyl Ethers: One-Pot Synthesis of Aryl(pyridyl)methanols.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Alexandra R; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridylmethyl silyl ethers with aryl bromides is described. A Pd(OAc)2/NIXANTPHOS-based catalyst provides aryl(pyridyl)methyl alcohol derivatives in good to excellent yields (33 examples, 57-100% yield). This protocol is compatible with different silyl ether protecting groups, affording either the protected or the free alcohols in an effective one-pot process. The scalability of the reaction is demonstrated. PMID:27004592

  1. Catalytic Asymmetric Arylation of α-Aryl-α-diazoacetates with Aniline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Li, Mao-Lin; Zuo, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Shou-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2015-07-15

    The asymmetric arylation of diazo compounds with aniline derivatives cooperatively catalyzed by an achiral dirhodium complex and a chiral spiro phosphoric acid is reported. The reaction provides a new method for the facile synthesis of α-diarylacetates, versatile building blocks with a diaryl tertiary chiral center, in good yields (up to 95%) with high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the arylation reaction proceeds via a stepwise process, in which the enantioselectivity is controlled by a chiral spiro phosphoric acid-promoted proton shift in a zwitterionic intermediate. This work represents the first asymmetric intermolecular C(sp(2))-H bond insertion reaction with arenes.

  2. General and mild Ni(0)-catalyzed α-arylation of ketones using aryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salas, José A; Marelli, Enrico; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    A general methodology for the α-arylation of ketones using a nickel catalyst has been developed. The new well-defined [Ni(IPr*)(cin)Cl] (1 c) pre-catalyst showed great efficiency for this transformation, allowing the coupling of a wide range of ketones, including acetophenone derivatives, with various functionalised aryl chlorides. This cinnamyl-based Ni-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex has demonstrated a different behaviour to previously reported NHC-Ni catalysts. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest a Ni(0)/Ni(II) catalytic cycle to be at play.

  3. Solid-phase organic synthesis of polyisoprenoid alcohols with traceless sulfone linker.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Chen-Yu; Guo, Chih-Wei; Wang, Yen-Chih; Fang, Jim-Min; Cheng, Wei-Chieh

    2008-09-19

    Solid-phase organic synthesis of polyprenols with a traceless sulfone linker is described. The polymer-bound benezenesulfinate is first linked with the "tail" building blocks of isoprenyl chlorides via S-alkylation. With use of dimsyl anion as an appropriate base, the polymer-bound alpha-sulfonyl carbanion is generated and coupled with other "body" building blocks in an efficient manner. After repeated processes and a global palladium-catalyzed desulfonation with LiEt 3BH as the reducing agent, the desired polyprenols with various chain lengths and geometrical configurations are obtained in 32-59% overall yields. The solid-phase synthesis offers the advantage in facile isolation of polyprenols without tedious operation or time-consuming purification.

  4. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    PubMed

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  5. Total synthesis of hibispeptin A via Pd-catalyzed C(sp3)-H arylation with sterically hindered aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Zhang, Shu-Yu; Nack, William A; Pearson, Ryan; Rabb-Lynch, Javon; Chen, Gong

    2014-12-19

    To access the key Ile-Hpa pseudodipeptide motif in hibispeptins, a series of bidentate carboxamide-based auxiliary groups have been explored to facilitate the palladium-catalyzed arylation of unactivated γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of Ile precursor with aryl iodides. A new pyridylmethylamine-based auxiliary group PR is introduced, which permits the use of more sterically hindered ortho-substituted aryl iodide substrates and can be removed under mild conditions. Pd-catalyzed PR-directed γ-C(sp(3))-H arylation enabled the first total synthesis of hibispeptin A.

  6. Mechanistic insights into nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decades the transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides has significantly progressed. Within the context of alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling, first row transition metals spanning from iron, over cobalt, nickel, to copper have been successfully applied to catalyze this difficult reaction. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still in its infancy. Herein we outline our latest mechanistic studies that explain the efficiency of nickel, in particular nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

  7. Nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes via heck reactions and radical conjugate addition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qun; Zang, Zhenhua; Chen, Yang; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui

    2013-05-01

    Cross-coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes leading to Heck-type and addition products is summarized. The development of Heck reaction with aliphatic halides although has made significant progress in the past decade and particularly recently, it was much less explored in comparison with the aryl halides. The use of Ni- and Co-catalyzed protocols allowed efficient Heck coupling of activated and unactivated alkenes with 1°, 2° and 3° alkyl halides. In addition, radical conjugate addition to activated alkenes has become a well-established method that has led to efficient construction of many natural products. The utilization of Ni- and Co-catalyzed strategies would avoid toxic tin reagents, and therefore worth exploring. The recent development of Ni- and Co-catalyzed addition of alkyl halides to alkenes displays much improved reactivity and functional group tolerance. In this mini-review, we also attempt to overview the mechanisms that are proposed in the reactions, aiming at providing insight into the nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes.

  8. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  9. Occupational asthma due to alkyl cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, T. )

    1990-08-01

    A case of bronchial asthma induced by occupational exposure to alkyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive, occurred in an assembly operation. Provocative exposure testing induced immediate and delayed asthmatic responses. Alkyl cyanoacrylate seemed to act as an allergen or as an irritant, resulting in the development of asthma.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721.9892 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9892 Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical...

  11. C-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Obora, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The development of practical, efficient, and atom-economical methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds remains a topic of considerable interest in current synthetic organic chemistry. In this review, we have summarized selected topics from the recent literature with particular emphasis on C-alkylation processes involving hydrogen transfer using alcohols as alkylation reagents. This review includes selected highlights concerning recent progress towards the modification of catalytic systems for the α-alkylation of ketones, nitriles, and esters. Furthermore, we have devoted a significant portion of this review to the methylation of ketones, alcohols, and indoles using methanol. Lastly, we have also documented recent advances in β-alkylation methods involving the dimerization of alcohols (Guerbet reaction), as well as new developments in C-alkylation methods based on sp (3) C-H activation. PMID:27573136

  12. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 1. Cyanide cations in the spectra of N- alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl- α-amino acids and their methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Todua, Nino G; Tretyakov, Kirill V; Mikaia, Anzor I

    2015-01-01

    The central mission for the development of the National Institute of Standards and Technology/National Institutes of Health/Environmental Protection Agency Mass Spectral Library is the acquisition of reference gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data for important compounds and their chemical modification products. The addition of reliable reference data of various derivatives of amino acids to The Library, and the study of their behavior under electron ionization conditions may be useful for their identification, structure elucidation and a better understanding of the data obtained when the same derivatives are subjected to other ionization methods. N-Alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl derivatives of amino acids readily produce previously unreported alkylnitrilium cations of composition [HC≡N-alkyl](+). Homologous [HC≡N-aryl](+) cations are typical for corresponding N-aryl analogs. The formation of other ions characteristic for these derivatives involves oxygen rearrangement giving rise to ions [C(n)F(2n+1)-C≡N(+)C(n)H(2n+1)] and [CnF(2n+1)-C≡N(+)-aryl]. The introduction of an N-benzyl substituent in a molecule favors a process producing benzylidene iminium cations. L-Threonine and L-cysteine derivatives exhibit more fragmentation pathways not typical for other α-amino acids; additionally, the N(ω)- amino group in L-lysine directs the dissociation process and provides structural information on the substitution at the amino functions in the molecule.

  13. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 1. Cyanide cations in the spectra of N-alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl-α-amino acids and their methyl esters

    PubMed Central

    Todua, Nino G.; Tretyakov, Kirill V.; Mikaia, Anzor I.

    2016-01-01

    The central mission for the development of the National Institute of Standards and Technology/National Institutes of Health/Environmental Protection Agency Mass Spectral Library is the acquisition of reference gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data for important compounds and their chemical modification products. The addition of reliable reference data of various derivatives of amino acids to The Library, and the study of their behavior under electron ionization conditions may be useful for their identification, structure elucidation, and a better understanding of the data obtained when the same derivatives are subjected to other ionization methods. N-Alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl derivatives of amino acids readily produce previously unreported alkylnitrilium cations of composition [HC≡N-alkyl]+. Homologous [HC≡N-aryl]+ cations are typical for corresponding N-aryl analogs. The formation of other ions characteristic for these derivatives involves oxygen rearrangement giving rise to ions [CnF2n+1–C≡N+–CnH2n+1] and [CnF2n+1–C≡N+-aryl]. The introduction of an N-benzyl substituent in a molecule favors a process producing benzylidene iminium cations. l-Threonine and l-cysteine derivatives exhibit more fragmentation pathways not typical for other α-amino acids; additionally, the Nω-amino group in l-lysine directs the dissociation process and provides structural information on the substitution at the amino functions in the molecule. PMID:26307698

  14. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of some 1-aryl/aralkyl piperazine derivatives with xanthine moiety at N4

    PubMed Central

    Andonova, Lily; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Georgieva, Maya; Zlatkov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Piperazine nucleus is one of the most important heterocyclic systems exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities. Thus, in the current study six new aryl/aralkyl substituted piperazine derivatives, containing methylxanthine moiety were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR and 1H NMR analysis. All compounds were in vitro screened for their activity as antioxidants using DPPH (2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo thiazine-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) methods. The antioxidant activity of the studied compounds against lipid peroxidation was also measured. The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by compound 3c. It is obvious that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the structure is essential for the antioxidant properties and should be taken into consideration in further design of structures with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:26019603

  15. Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate as lubricant antiwear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yan; Dyck, Jeffrey; Graham, Todd; Luo, Huimin; Leonard, Donovan N.; Qu, Jun

    2014-10-20

    Oil-soluble phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been reported as potential ashless lubricant additives. This study is to expand the IL chemistry envelope and to achieve fundamental correlations between the ion structures and ILs’ physiochemical and tribological properties. Here we present eight ILs containing two different phosphonium cations and seven different anions from three groups: organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate. The oil solubility of ILs seems largely governed by the IL molecule size and structure complexity. When used as oil additives, the ranking of effectiveness in wear protection for the anions are: organophosphate > carboxylate > sulfonate. All selected ILs outperformedmore » a commercial ashless anti-wear additive. Surface characterization from the top and the cross-section revealed the nanostructures and compositions of the tribo-films formed by the ILs. Some fundamental insights were achieved: branched and long alkyls improve the IL’s oil solubility, anions of a phosphonium-phosphate IL contribute most phosphorus in the tribofilm, and carboxylate anions, though free of P, S, N, or halogen, can promote the formation of an anti-wear tribofilm.« less

  16. Syntheses of biodiesel precursors: sulfonic acid catalysts for condensation of biomass-derived platform molecules.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R; Bell, Alexis T

    2014-04-01

    Synthesis of transportation fuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive solution to the green alternative-energy problem. The production of biodiesel, in particular, involves the process of upgrading biomass-derived small molecules to diesel precursors containing a specific carbon range (C11 -C23). Herein, a carbon-upgrading process utilizing an acid-catalyzed condensation of furanic platform molecules from biomass is described. Various types of sulfonic acid catalysts have been evaluated for this process, including biphasic and solid supported catalysts. A silica-bound alkyl sulfonic acid catalyst has been developed for promoting carbon-carbon bond formation of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds with 2-methylfuran. This hydrophobic solid acid catalyst exhibits activity and selectivity that are comparable to those of a soluble acid catalyst. The catalyst can be readily recovered and recycled, possesses appreciable hydrolytic stability in the presence of water, and retains its acidity over multiple reaction cycles. Application of this catalyst to biomass-derived platform molecules led to the synthesis of a variety of furanic compounds, which are potential biodiesel precursors.

  17. Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate as lubricant antiwear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Dyck, Jeffrey; Graham, Todd; Luo, Huimin; Leonard, Donovan N.; Qu, Jun

    2014-10-20

    Oil-soluble phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been reported as potential ashless lubricant additives. This study is to expand the IL chemistry envelope and to achieve fundamental correlations between the ion structures and ILs’ physiochemical and tribological properties. Here we present eight ILs containing two different phosphonium cations and seven different anions from three groups: organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate. The oil solubility of ILs seems largely governed by the IL molecule size and structure complexity. When used as oil additives, the ranking of effectiveness in wear protection for the anions are: organophosphate > carboxylate > sulfonate. All selected ILs outperformed a commercial ashless anti-wear additive. Surface characterization from the top and the cross-section revealed the nanostructures and compositions of the tribo-films formed by the ILs. Some fundamental insights were achieved: branched and long alkyls improve the IL’s oil solubility, anions of a phosphonium-phosphate IL contribute most phosphorus in the tribofilm, and carboxylate anions, though free of P, S, N, or halogen, can promote the formation of an anti-wear tribofilm.

  18. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  19. C-8 Modifications of 3-alkyl-1,8-dibenzylxanthines as Inhibitors of Human Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

    SciTech Connect

    Pietranico,S.; Foley, L.; Huby, N.; Yun, W.; Dunten, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Wang, P.; Toth, K.; Ramsey, G.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    New modifications on the C-8 4-aminobenzyl unit of the previously reported 3-alkyl-1,8-dibenzylxanthine inhibitors of cPEPCK are presented. The most active compound reported here is the 5-chloro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-sulfonic acid amide derivative 2 with an IC{sub 50} of 0.29 {+-} 0.08 {mu}M. An X-ray analysis of a heteroaromatic sulfonamide is presented showing a new {pi}-{pi} interaction.

  20. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, L.S.; Lu, J.Y.L.; Alworth, W.L.

    1986-05-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, /sup 3/H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne.

  1. Morphologies in Sulfonated Styrenic Pentablock Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hong; Bramson, Matt; Winey, Karen I.

    2010-03-01

    Membranes of pentablock and triblock copolymers consisting of poly(tert-butyl styrene) (TBS), hydrogenated polyisoprene (HI), and partially sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-styrene sulfonate) (SS) were studied using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TBS-HI-SS-HI-TBS pentablock and TBS-HI-SS triblock copolymer membranes exhibit anisotropic microphase separated morphologies. Because the pentablock and triblock copolymers can be expected to have complex morphologies, thermal annealing was conducted to promote well-defined morphologies. The annealed membranes exhibit stronger peaks and more high order reflections in SAXS patterns, as well as better defined microstructures in the TEM. Electron microcopy studies with various staining protocols are underway to establish the morphology of the pentablock copolymer membranes including the size and shape of the three microdomains (TBS, HI and SS). We gratefully acknowledge Kraton Polymers, Inc. for materials.

  2. Sorption of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate by montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by soils and sediments is an important process that may affect their fate, transport, toxicity and their application in remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption of a widely used anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), by montmorillonite. It was observed that: (i) SDBS was sorbed significantly by montmorillonite saturated with Ca(2+), but little by Na-saturated montmorillonite; (ii) the amount of SDBS sorbed by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was enhanced by NaCl; and (iii) no significant intercalation of SDBS into Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These results indicate that the removal of SDBS by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was primarily attributed to the precipitation between DBS(-) and Ca(2+) in solution which was released from montmorillonite via cation exchange. These results will help us to understand the sorption behavior and environmental effects of anionic surfactants. PMID:16759775

  3. Sorption of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate by montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by soils and sediments is an important process that may affect their fate, transport, toxicity and their application in remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption of a widely used anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), by montmorillonite. It was observed that: (i) SDBS was sorbed significantly by montmorillonite saturated with Ca(2+), but little by Na-saturated montmorillonite; (ii) the amount of SDBS sorbed by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was enhanced by NaCl; and (iii) no significant intercalation of SDBS into Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These results indicate that the removal of SDBS by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was primarily attributed to the precipitation between DBS(-) and Ca(2+) in solution which was released from montmorillonite via cation exchange. These results will help us to understand the sorption behavior and environmental effects of anionic surfactants.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  9. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  12. Phase behavior of simple salt tolerant sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, Y.; Fortney, L.N.; Lalanne-Cassou, C.; Schechter, R.S.; Wade, W.H.; Yiv, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Alkane and /alpha/-olefin sulfonates can be utilized to produce optimal microemulsion formulations which have very high salinity (including divalent ion) tolerance while maintaining large solubilization parameters and low interfacial tensions. Such molecules require elevated temperatures or higher alcohol concentrations to suppress liquid crystal formulation. As found for other species, solubilization is inversely related to width of the three phase regime, and interfacial tension and solubilization are strongly coupled. 18 refs.

  13. Phase behavior of simple salt tolerant sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, Y.; Fortney, L.N.; Lalanne-Cassou, C.; Schechter, R.S.; Wade, W.H.; Yiv, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Alkane and ..cap alpha..-olefin sulfonates can be utilized to produce optimal microemulsion formulations which have very high salinity (including divalent ion) tolerance while maintaining large solubilization parameters and low interfacial tensions. Such molecules require elevated temperatures or higher alcohol concentrations to suppress liquid crystal formation. As found for other species, solubilization is inversely related to width of the three phase regime, and interfacial tension and solubilization are strongly coupled.

  14. Novel Haloperoxidase from the Agaric Basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita Oxidizes Aryl Alcohols and Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, René; Nüske, Jörg; Scheibner, Katrin; Spantzel, Jörg; Hofrichter, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Agrocybe aegerita, a bark mulch- and wood-colonizing basidiomycete, was found to produce a peroxidase (AaP) that oxidizes aryl alcohols, such as veratryl and benzyl alcohols, into the corresponding aldehydes and then into benzoic acids. The enzyme also catalyzed the oxidation of typical peroxidase substrates, such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) or 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). A. aegerita peroxidase production depended on the concentration of organic nitrogen in the medium, and highest enzyme levels were detected in the presence of soybean meal. Two fractions of the enzyme, AaP I and AaP II, which had identical molecular masses (46 kDa) and isoelectric points of 4.6 to 5.4 and 4.9 to 5.6, respectively (corresponding to six different isoforms), were identified after several steps of purification, including anion- and cation-exchange chromatography. The optimum pH for the oxidation of aryl alcohols was found to be around 7, and the enzyme required relatively high concentrations of H2O2 (2 mM) for optimum activity. The apparent Km values for ABTS, DMP, benzyl alcohol, veratryl alcohol, and H2O2 were 37, 298, 1,001, 2,367 and 1,313 μM, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the main AaP II spots blotted after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were almost identical and exhibited almost no homology to the sequences of other peroxidases from basidiomycetes, but they shared the first three amino acids, as well as two additional amino acids, with the heme chloroperoxidase (CPO) from the ascomycete Caldariomyces fumago. This finding is consistent with the fact that AaP halogenates monochlorodimedone, the specific substrate of CPO. The existence of haloperoxidases in basidiomycetous fungi may be of general significance for the natural formation of chlorinated organic compounds in forest soils. PMID:15294788

  15. Biodegradation kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in sludge-amended agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ward, T E; Larson, R J

    1989-02-01

    The kinetics of ultimate biodegradation (mineralization to CO2) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were studied in sludge-amended agricultural soils for a series of pure chain length LAS homologs containing 10 to 14 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain. Degradation rates were measured by following the production of 14CO2 from uniformly 14C-ring-labeled material. In general, degradation of LAS was rapid in soil over a broad concentration range (0.1 to 10 times the expected environmental concentration) and demonstrated little variation among different homologs. Half-lives for mineralization of the benzene ring ranged from 18 to 26 days and were not significantly different for any homolog over the range of alkyl chain lengths tested. Half-lives measured for LAS degradation in these studies were comparable to values reported in the literature and also to values obtained for naturally occurring materials (stearic acid, cellulose) typically present in soil environments. On the basis of the results of the present studies and those of other investigators, it is concluded that soil environments exposed to LAS in sewage sludges contain microbial communities which can actively metabolize this material. Rates of biodegradation of the benzene ring, the final step in the LAS biodegradation pathway prior to complete mineralization, are also sufficient to prevent LAS from accumulating in soil environments.

  16. K2CO3-promoted formation of aryl esters from primary aryl amides by the acyl-acyl exchange process.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yongjun; Qu, Xingyu

    2016-04-28

    A new acyl-acyl exchange reaction has been developed for the formation of aryl esters from primary aryl amides. The reaction could occur under mild reaction conditions with catalytic quantities of K2CO3, and could afford moderate to good yields of the desired products. PMID:27035611

  17. Synthesis, molecular structure and spectroscopic studies of some new quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives; an account on the N- versus S-Alkylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagar, Mohamed; Soliman, Saied M.; Ibid, Farahate; El Ashry, El Sayed H.

    2016-03-01

    A new series of N- and S-alkylated products of 3-aryl-1H,3H-quinazolin-2,4-dione and 3-aryl-2-mercapto-3H-quinazolin-4-one, respectively, were prepared in good yields via efficient nucleophilic substitution reaction of the SH and NH substrates with methyl iodide, ethyl bromoacetate, allyl bromide, propagyl bromide, 2-bromoethanol, 1,3-dibromopropane or phenacyl bromide in DMF as a solvent and anhydrous potassium carbonate. The quinazolin-2,4-dione favored the N-alkylation while the 2-mercapto-3H-quinazolin-4-one goes via the S-alkylation. DFT reactivity studies showed that the former have the N-site with higher nucleophilicity compared to the O-site. In contrast, the S-site is the more nucleophilic centre than the N-atom of the latter. The structures of the synthesized products have been established on the basis of their melting point (m.p), IR and 1HNMR data. The molecular structures of the products were calculated using the DFT B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The electronic and spectroscopic properties (Uv-Vis and NMR spectra) were calculated using the same level of theory. The chemical reactivity descriptors that could help to understand the biological activity of the products are also predicted.

  18. Regioselectivity of Birch reductive alkylation of biaryls.

    PubMed

    Lebeuf, Raphaël; Robert, Frédéric; Landais, Yannick

    2005-10-13

    [reaction: see text] The regioselectivity of the Birch reductive alkylation of polysubstituted biaryls has been investigated. Results indicate that regioselectivity is affected by the electronic nature of substituents on both aromatic rings. The electron-rich 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl moiety is selectively reduced and then alkylated, while phenols and aniline are not dearomatized under these conditions. Biaryls possessing a phenol moiety are alkylated on the second ring, providing that the acidic proton has been removed prior to the Li/NH3 reduction.

  19. Electrodeposition and characterisation of polypyrroles containing sulfonated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Carol; Wallace, Gordon G; Officer, David L

    2007-10-01

    Using facile diazonium chemistry, sulfonate groups have been covalently attached to single wall carbon nanotubes. The resulting sulfonated tubes form a stable aqueous dispersion in the presence of pyrrole monomer. Subsequent electropolymerisation results in a conductive, electroactive polypyrrole doped with sulfonated tubes being formed at unusually low potentials. The potential of this material as a host matrix for biomolecules has been demonstrated by entrapping horse-radish peroxidase directly in the polypyrrole during composite formation.

  20. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  1. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may be safely used as a component of articles..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers...

  2. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  3. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  4. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  5. Cross-coupling reaction of alkyl halides with grignard reagents catalyzed by Ni, Pd, or Cu complexes with pi-carbon ligand(s).

    PubMed

    Terao, Jun; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2008-11-18

    Transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of organic halides and pseudo-halides containing a C-X bond (X = I, Br, Cl, OTf, OTs, etc.) with organometallic reagents are among the most important transformations for carbon-carbon bond formation between a variety of sp, sp(2), and sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In particular, researchers have widely employed Ni- and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling to synthesize complex organic structures from readily available components. The catalytic cycle of this process comprises oxidative addition, transmetalation, and reductive elimination steps. In these reactions, various organometallic reagents could bear a variety of R groups (alkyl, vinyl, aryl, or allyl), but the coupling partner has been primarily limited to sp and sp(2) carbon compounds: alkynes, alkenes, and arenes. With alkyl coupling partners, these reactions typically run into two problems within the catalytic cycle. First, oxidative addition of alkyl halides to a metal catalyst is generally less efficient than that of aryl or alkenyl compounds. Second, the alkylmetal intermediates formed tend to undergo intramolecular beta-hydrogen elimination. In this Account, we describe our efforts to overcome these problems for Ni and Pd chemistry. We have developed new catalytic systems that do not involve M(0) species but proceed via an anionic complex as the key intermediate. For example, we developed a unique cross-coupling reaction of alkyl halides with organomagnesium or organozinc reagents catalyzed by using a 1,3-butadiene as the additive. This reaction follows a new catalytic pathway: the Ni or Pd catalyst reacts first with R-MgX to form an anionic complex, which then reacts with alkyl halides. Bis-dienes were also effective additives for the Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of organozinc reagents with alkyl halides. This catalytic system tolerates a wide variety of functional groups, including nitriles, ketones, amides, and esters. In addition, we have extended

  6. Preparation of vinylogous 2-sulfonylindolines by the palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of o-iodoanilines with dienyl sulfones and their further transformation to indoles and carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Back, T G; Bethell, R J; Parvez, M; Taylor, J A

    2001-12-14

    The palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of o-iodoanilines with dienyl sulfones provides a convenient route to vinylogous 2-sulfonylindolines 3. The reaction proceeds in DMF/water in the presence of potassium carbonate and catalytic palladium(II) acetate and is compatible with both electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents in the para position of the aniline, and with an alkyl substituent at C-2 of the dienyl sulfone. The indolines underwent oxidation with DDQ to afford the corresponding indoles 4. The latter were then employed as dienes in Diels-Alder reactions with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD), methyl propiolate, or methyl acrylate. In the case of the latter two dienophiles, the cycloadditions were highly regioselective, affording the corresponding 1,3-products (with respect to the relative positions of the sulfone and ester groups), exclusively. The cycloadducts from acetylenic dienophiles were converted to the corresponding carbazoles by elimination of the sulfone moiety with DBU, and that from methyl acrylate was subjected to reductive desulfonylation and oxidation to the corresponding carbazole with DDQ. The method thus provides access to carbazoles with various substituents at the 3-, 4-, and 6-positions. PMID:11735543

  7. A mechanistic study explaining the synergistic viscosity increase obtained from polyethylene oxide (PEO) and {beta}-naphthalene sulfonate (BNS) in shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelmann, J.; Plank, J.

    2012-11-15

    In shotcrete, a combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and {beta}-naphthalene sulfonate (BNS) is commonly applied to reduce rebound. Here, the mechanism for the synergistic viscosity increase resulting from this admixture combination was investigated via x-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It was found that the electron-rich aromatic rings present in BNS donate electrons to the alkyl protons of PEO and thus increase the electron density there. This rare interaction is known as CH-{pi} interaction and leads to the formation of a supramolecular structure whereby PEO chains bind weakly to BNS molecules. Through this mechanism a polymer network exhibiting exceptionally high molecular weight and thus viscosity is formed. Among polycondensates, sulfanilic acid-phenol-formaldehyde (SPF) provides even higher synergy with PEO than BNS while melamine (PMS), acetone (AFS) or polycarboxylate (PCE) based superplasticizers do not work at all. Effectiveness of lignosulfonates is dependent on their degree of sulfonation.

  8. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  9. Methoxy-Directed Aryl-to-Aryl 1,3-Rhodium Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jun-Feng; Ugrinov, Angel; Pillai, Anthony F. X.; Sun, Zhong-Ming; Zhao, Pinjing

    2015-01-01

    Through-space metal/hydrogen shift is an important strategy for transition metal-catalyzed C-H bond activation. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of a Rh(I) 2,6-dimethoxybenzoate complex that underwent stoichiometric rearrangement via a highly unusual 1,3- rhodium migration. This aryl-to-aryl 1,3-Rh/H shift was also demonstrated in a Rh(I)-catalyzed decarboxylative conjugate addition to form a C-C bond at a meta position instead of the ipso-carboxyl position. A deuterium-labeling study under the conditions of Rh(I)-catalyzed protodecarboxylation revealed the involvement of an ortho-methoxy group in a multi-step pathway of consecutive sp3 and sp2 C-H bond activations. PMID:24171626

  10. Development of a Method for the N-Arylation of Amino Acid Esters with Aryl Triflates.

    PubMed

    King, Sandra M; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-08-19

    A general method for the N-arylation of amino acid esters with aryl triflates is described. Both α- and β-amino acid esters, including methyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl esters, are viable substrates. Reaction optimization was carried out by design of experiment (DOE) analysis using JMP software. The mild reaction conditions, which use t-BuBrettPhos Pd G3 or G4 precatalyst, result in minimal racemization of the amino acid ester. This method is the first synthetic application of the t-BuBrettPhos Pd G4 precatalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the observed erosion in enantiomeric excess is due to racemization of the amino acid ester starting material and not of the product. PMID:27498618

  11. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed.

  12. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:27573267

  13. Acid-mediated formation of trifluoromethyl sulfonates from sulfonic acids and a hypervalent iodine trifluoromethylating agent.

    PubMed

    Koller, Raffael; Huchet, Quentin; Battaglia, Philip; Welch, Jan M; Togni, Antonio

    2009-10-28

    A variety of sulfonic acids have been trifluoromethylated using 1-trifluoromethyl-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1H)-one under mild conditions in good to excellent yields. Initial mechanistic investigations of this reaction show a clean second-order kinetics and only very weak substrate electronic effects.

  14. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-02-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  15. Physiological, numerical and molecular characterization of alkyl ether-utilizing rhodococci.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2007-06-01

    Twenty-seven Gram-positive strains were characterized physiologically and numerically and classified them into four groups according to their specific activities for utilization of linear alkyl ethers (AEs), cyclic AEs, monoalkoxybenzenes and 1,4-diethoxybenzene. The comparative analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed that they belonged to the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia. Alkyl ether-utilizing rhodococci appeared to involve various and diverse cytochromes P450 of the families CYP116 (25 positive strains from 27), CYP153 (5/27), CYP249 (1/27) and a new family P450RR1 (27/27). The presence of P450RR1 was strongly related to the specific activity for utilization of 2-methoxyphenol and 2-ethoxyphenol. In addition, 26 of 27 strains contained multiple alkB genes coding for probable non-haem iron containing alkane monooxygenases and hydroxylases. Similar DNA fragments coding for a tetrahydrofuran monooxygenase A subunit (ThmA) were found in all cyclic AE-utilizing strains and nearly identical DNA fragments coding for likely orthologues of a propane monooxygenase A subunit (PrmA) in all linear AE-utilizing strains. The substrate availability in the degradation of aryl AEs, cyclic AEs and linear AEs agreed with the molecular probing of the respective genes encoding cytochrome P450RR1, ThmA and PrmA.

  16. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. PMID:26117498

  17. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-driven signals inhibit collagen synthesis in the gut.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Ivan; Zorzi, Francesca; Marafini, Irene; Di Fusco, Davide; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Caruso, Roberta; Izzo, Roberta; Franzè, Eleonora; Colantoni, Alfredo; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Fibrostrictures (FS) are a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Pathogenesis of FS is not fully understood, but activation of fibroblasts and excessive collagen deposition are crucial in the development of FS. Here, we investigated the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in intestinal fibrosis. AhR RNA and protein expression were evaluated in intestinal fibroblasts of CD patients and controls. CD fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-β1 or TNF-α in the presence or absence of the AhR activator Ficz, an AhR antagonist CH223191, or a specific AhR-silencing RNA. In CD fibroblasts, TGF-β1 and TNF-α increased Col1A1, Col3A1 and α-SMA transcripts and collagen secretion and this effect was reduced by Ficz and upregulated by CH22319. TGF-β1 or TNF-α induced activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinases was decreased by Ficz and increased by CH223191. The inhibitory effect of Ficz on Map kinase activation and collagen induction was abolished by AhR silencing. To assess the role of AhR in vivo, mice with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid induced colonic fibrosis were given Ficz or CH223191. Mice given either Ficz or CH223191 produced less or more collagen respectively as compared with control mice. Our results indicate that AhR is a negative regulator of profibrotic signals in the gut. PMID:26786786

  19. The copper-catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of alkylboron reagents: disproportionation of anionic (alkyl)(alkoxy)borates to anionic dialkylborates prior to transmetalation.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Prakash; Thapa, Surendra; Dickie, Diane A; Giri, Ramesh

    2016-09-25

    We report the first example of Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of alkylboron reagents with aryl and heteroaryl iodides that affords products in good to excellent yields. Preliminary mechanistic studies with alkylborates indicate that the anionic (alkoxy)(alkyl)borates, generated from alkyllithium and alkoxyboron reagents, undergo disproportionation to anionic dialkylborates and that both anionic alkylborates are active for transmetalation to a Cu(I)-catalyst. Results from a radical clock experiment and the Hammett plot imply that the reaction likely proceeds via a non-radical pathway. PMID:27540605

  20. From ketones to esters by a Cu-catalyzed highly selective C(CO)-C(alkyl) bond cleavage: aerobic oxidation and oxygenation with air.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xinyao; Zou, Miancheng; Song, Song; Tang, Conghui; Yuan, Yizhi; Jiao, Ning

    2014-10-22

    The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. (18)O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process. PMID:25251943

  1. Preparation of 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines from 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines and activated acetylenes by conjugate addition and copper-catalyzed intramolecular arylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Back, Thomas G

    2014-11-21

    The conjugate addition of N-formyl derivatives of 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines to acetylenes activated by sulfone, ester, or ketone groups, followed by intramolecular arylation, affords variously substituted 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines. The method employs DMF-water as the solvent and copper(II) acetate as the catalyst for the cyclization step. Neither added ligands nor the exclusion of oxygen is necessary. The process therefore provides a simple, convenient, and inexpensive route to this biologically interesting class of products. PMID:25333726

  2. Acylmethyl(aryl)tellurium(IV,II) derivatives: intramolecular secondary bonding and steric rigidity.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ashok K S; Singh, Puspendra; Srivastava, Ramesh C; Duthie, Andrew; Voda, Andreea

    2008-08-14

    Electrophilic substitution of acylmethanes (methyl ketones), RCOCH3 (R = i-Pr, 1; Et, 2; Me, 3) with aryltellurium trichlorides, ArTeCl3 (Ar = 1-C10H7, Np, A; 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, Mes, B; 4-MeOC6H4, Anisyl, C) under mild conditions affords the corresponding acylmethyl(aryl)tellurium dichlorides (RCOCH2)ArTeCl2. Reduction of the dichlorides, gives tellurides, (i-PrCOCH2)ArTe, 1A-1C, which give the corresponding dihalides, (i-PrCOCH2)ArTeX2 (X = Cl, 1Aa-1Ca; Br, 1Ab-1Cb; I, 1Ac-1Cc) when reacted in situ with SO2Cl2, Br2 or I2. The unsymmetric tellurides are labile towards disproportionation and attempts to obtain them lead to the isolation of Ar2Te2 except in the case of (i-PrCOCH2)MesTe (1B), which represents an interesting example of a kinetically stable aryl(alkyl)telluride. All the dihalomesityltellurium(IV) derivatives show separate 1H and 13C NMR signals for the ortho methyls irrespective of the sizes of R and X ligands. The telluride, 1B with free rotation about Te-C(mesityl) bond shows, like the unsymmetric diorganotellurium(IV) dihalides, only one 125Te NMR signal. The 1,4-chelating behavior of the acyl ligand among diorganotellurium(IV) compounds is inferred from the X-ray diffraction data for 1Aa, 1Ac, 1Ba, 1Bb, 1cA and 1Cc which are indicative of the presence of intramolecular Te...O secondary bonding interactions (SBIs) at least in the solid state. As a consequence, steric repulsion in case of the mesityltellurium(IV) derivatives, 1Ba and 1Bb, reaches the threshold so as to cause loss of two-fold rotational symmetry of the mesityl group about the Te-C(mesityl) bond axis. Intermolecular C-HO...O H-bonding interactions appears to stabilize such an orientation of the aryl ligand at least in the solid state. PMID:18648706

  3. Aryl organophosphate flame retardants induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis: by disturbing expression of the transcriptional regulators.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongkun; Wang, Guowei; Gao, Shixiang; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), the use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) increases, and they are detected in multi-environment media at higher frequency and concentrations. However, the toxicity data of OPFRs, especially those on developmental toxicology are quite limited, which prevents an accurate evaluation of their environmental and health risk. Because a previous study reported that two aryl-OPFRs induced cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis, we designed experiments to compare the heart developmental toxicity of a series of aryl-OPFRs with alkyl-OPFRs and explored possible internal mechanism. First, acute toxicity of 9 frequently used OPFRs were studied with zebrafish embryos (2-96 hpf). By comparing the LC50 and EC50 (pericardium edema) data, two aryl-OPFRs, triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP) showed greater heart developmental toxicity than the others. It was also found that the acute toxicity of OPFRs varied mainly depending on their hydrophobicity. Further study on the cardiotoxicity of TPhP and CDP showed that the cardiac looping progress can be impeded by 0.10mg/L TPhP or CDP exposure. Bradycardia and reduction of myocardium were also observed in 0.50 and 1.0mg/L TPhP groups and 0.10, 0.50, and 1.0mg/L CDP groups. 0-48 hpf is the vulnerable window of zebrafish cardiogenesis that can be easily affected by TPhP and CDP. RT-qPCR measurement on the expressions of key transcriptional regulators in cardiogenesis showed that BMP4, NKX2-5, and TBX5 were significantly inhibited at the exposure points of 12 hpf and 24 hpf which may be the internal factors related to the heart developmental toxicity. As zebrafish is a good model organism for human health study, the present results call for a greater attention to the health risk of fetus in pregnant women exposed to such OPFRs. PMID:25661707

  4. Acylmethyl(aryl)tellurium(IV,II) derivatives: intramolecular secondary bonding and steric rigidity.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ashok K S; Singh, Puspendra; Srivastava, Ramesh C; Duthie, Andrew; Voda, Andreea

    2008-08-14

    Electrophilic substitution of acylmethanes (methyl ketones), RCOCH3 (R = i-Pr, 1; Et, 2; Me, 3) with aryltellurium trichlorides, ArTeCl3 (Ar = 1-C10H7, Np, A; 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, Mes, B; 4-MeOC6H4, Anisyl, C) under mild conditions affords the corresponding acylmethyl(aryl)tellurium dichlorides (RCOCH2)ArTeCl2. Reduction of the dichlorides, gives tellurides, (i-PrCOCH2)ArTe, 1A-1C, which give the corresponding dihalides, (i-PrCOCH2)ArTeX2 (X = Cl, 1Aa-1Ca; Br, 1Ab-1Cb; I, 1Ac-1Cc) when reacted in situ with SO2Cl2, Br2 or I2. The unsymmetric tellurides are labile towards disproportionation and attempts to obtain them lead to the isolation of Ar2Te2 except in the case of (i-PrCOCH2)MesTe (1B), which represents an interesting example of a kinetically stable aryl(alkyl)telluride. All the dihalomesityltellurium(IV) derivatives show separate 1H and 13C NMR signals for the ortho methyls irrespective of the sizes of R and X ligands. The telluride, 1B with free rotation about Te-C(mesityl) bond shows, like the unsymmetric diorganotellurium(IV) dihalides, only one 125Te NMR signal. The 1,4-chelating behavior of the acyl ligand among diorganotellurium(IV) compounds is inferred from the X-ray diffraction data for 1Aa, 1Ac, 1Ba, 1Bb, 1cA and 1Cc which are indicative of the presence of intramolecular Te...O secondary bonding interactions (SBIs) at least in the solid state. As a consequence, steric repulsion in case of the mesityltellurium(IV) derivatives, 1Ba and 1Bb, reaches the threshold so as to cause loss of two-fold rotational symmetry of the mesityl group about the Te-C(mesityl) bond axis. Intermolecular C-HO...O H-bonding interactions appears to stabilize such an orientation of the aryl ligand at least in the solid state.

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Linking environment to immunity.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Mucosal and barrier tissues are unique in that they mediate crosstalk between the host and the surrounding environment, which contains many potentially harmful factors. Therefore, it is critical that cell types present at barrier and mucosal surfaces are equipped with mechanisms to sense changes in the environment and to calibrate their responses accordingly. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor well known to generate biological responses to environmental pollutants, such as benzo{a}pyrene and halogenated dioxins. Surprisingly, in the last few years a large body of evidence has shown that AHR is also involved in maintaining homeostasis or in triggering pathology by modulating the biological responses of critical cell types at the barrier and mucosal interfaces. Here, we will review progresses in this field and discuss how targeting AHR activation may impact disease.

  6. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: linking environment to immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal and barrier tissues are unique in that they mediate crosstalk between the host and the surrounding environment, which contains many potentially harmful factors. Therefore, it is critical that cell types present at barrier and mucosal surfaces are equipped with mechanisms to sense changes in the environment and to calibrate their responses accordingly. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor well known to generate biological responses to environmental pollutants, such as benzo{a}pyrene and halogenated dioxins. Surprisingly, in the last few years a large body of evidence has shown that AHR is also involved in maintaining homeostasis or in triggering pathology by modulating the biological responses of critical cell types at the barrier and mucosal interfaces. Here, we will review progresses in this field and discuss how targeting AHR activation may impact disease. PMID:26561251

  7. Identification of aryl isoprenoids in source rocks and crude oils: Biological markers for the green sulphur bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Powell, T. G.

    1987-03-01

    A series of C 13 to C 31 aryl isoprenoids (1-alkyl,2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes) have been identified in reef-hosted oils and their source rocks from the Middle and Upper Silurian of the Michigan Basin and Middle Devonian of the Alberta Basin, Canada. Their structure has been confirmed by unambiguous synthesis of the C 14 member of the series. Their structure and isotopic composition indicate that they are derived from isorenieratene from the Chlorobiaceae family of sulphur bacteria. These results are consistent with geological and geochemical studies that show that the source rocks were deposited under metahaline to hypersaline sulphate and sulphide rich water columns. The distribution of other biomarkers in these oils and source rocks indicates that a diverse biota contributed organic matter to the source environment. In conjunction with the aryl isoprenoids, they show that there is a remarkable similarity in composition between the two sets of oils and source rocks despite their great temporal and geographic separation. This reflects the similarity of their environments and emphasizes the importance of sedimentary facies in controlling the composition of organic matter in source rocks and their derived oils.

  8. Multimetallic Catalysis Enabled Cross-Coupling of Aryl Bromides with Aryl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Laura K.G.; Lovell, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed strategies for the formation of new C-C bonds have revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules.1–3 In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation4 of two distinct catalysts – multimetallic catalysis – can be employed instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis,5 including the Wacker oxidation of olefins6–8 and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides.9–10 However, the application of this strategy, even in recently developed methods11, has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing an oxidative addition.12 In this manuscript, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two d10 metal catalysts, (bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium, enables a general cross-Ullman reaction.13–15 Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple C–H bonds that is required for many C–H activation methods.16–17 The selectivity does not require an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal activity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (dppp)Pd reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bpy)Ni reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5% cross product in isolation, together they are able to achieve up to 94% yield. Our results reveal a new, general method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a new mechanism for selective transmetalation between two catalysts. We anticipate that this reaction will simplify the synthesis of

  9. Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-02-01

    A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction. PMID:11820896

  10. Synthesis of basic and overbasic sulfonate detergent additives

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El Naga, H.H.; Abd El-Azim, W.M.; Bendary, S.A.; Awad, N.G.

    1993-12-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene, which accumulates as a by-product from linear alkylbenzene synthesis, is evaluated as a starting material for preparation of basic and over basic sulfonate detergent additives. Chemical structure analysis showed that this by-product contains several components in different proportions. Most of these components, as traced via mass spectrometry, showed the presence of paraffinic side chains within the carbon range C{sub 11}--C{sub 22}. Accordingly, sulfonation conditions for it were adjusted to optimize the reaction yield and sulfonic quality. Neutralization of the sulfonic acid was carried out by adding CaO in the presence of methanol as a promoter. Preparation of over basic sulfonate was run via a carbonation process at 55--60 C. Evaluations of synthesized basic calcium sulfonate in comparison to a commercial additive is supported by its efficiency as a detergent additive. The synthesized product has a higher total base number and Ca content than those for the commercial one. On the other hand, evaluation of the synthesized overbasic calcium sulfonate compared with overbasic commercial additives with medium and high alkalinity indicated that the synthesized product can be classified as overbasic calcium sulfonate with medium alkalinity, good dispersive power, and detergent efficiency.

  11. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2210 Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. Ethylene polymer, chlorosulfonated...

  12. Sulfonated Nanoplates in Proton Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.F.; Ni’mah, H.; Yu-Cheng Shen, Y.-C.; Kuo, P.-L.

    2011-09-29

    Surface-functionalized nanoplates are synthesized by anchoring sulfonic acid containing siloxanes on zirconium phosphate, and in turn blended with Nafion to fabricate proton conducting membranes. The effects of these sulfonated nanoplates on proton conduction, hydro-characteristics and fuel cell performance are reported.

  13. Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-02-01

    A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction.

  14. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT.
    C. Lau and J.M. Rogers, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent compound used ...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  17. Alkyl rearrangement processes in organozirconium complexes. Observation of internal alkyl complexes during hydrozirconation

    SciTech Connect

    Chirik, P.J.; Day, M.W.; Labinger, J.A.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1999-11-10

    Isotopically labeled alkyl zirconocene complexes of the form (CpR{sub n}){sub 2}Zr(CH{sub 2}CDR{sub 2}{prime})(X) (CpR{sub n} = alkyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl; R{prime} = H, alkyl group; X = H, D, Me) undergo isomerization of the alkyl ligand as well as exchange with free olefin in solution under ambient conditions. Increasing the substitution on the Cp ring results in slower isomerization reactions, but these steric effects are small. In contrast, changing X has a very large effect on the rate of isomerization. Pure {sigma}-bonding ligands such as methyl and hydride promote rapid isomerization, whereas {pi}-donor ligands inhibit {beta}-H elimination and hence alkyl isomerization. For ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Zr(R)(Cl), internal alkyl complexes have been observed for the first time. The rate of isomerization depends on the length of the alkyl group: longer alkyl chains (heptyl, hexyl) isomerize faster than shorter chains (butyl). The transient intermediate species have been identified by a combination of isotopic labeling and {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 13}C NMR experiments. The solid-state structure of the zirconocene cyclopentyl chloride complex, Cp{sub 2}Zr(cyclo-C{sub 5}H{sub 9})(Cl), has been determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Synthesis of α-Arylphosphonates Using Copper-Catalyzed α-Arylation and Deacylative α-Arylation of β-Ketophosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Laxmidhar; Regati, Sridhar; Zhao, Cong-Gui

    2011-01-01

    Efficient methods for the direct arylation and deacylative arylation of β-ketophosphonates with iodoarenes in presence of a copper(I) or a copper(II) salt as the catalysts were developed. The corresponding α-arylphosphonates were obtained in high yields. A tentative mechanism for the deacylative arylation reaction was proposed on the basis of the experimental data. PMID:22505878

  19. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Anders S; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-04-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12 LAS), which show that C12 LAS was biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Sorption of C12 LAS on sewage sludge was described with a Freundlich isotherm. The C12 LAS sorption was determined with different concentrations of total solids (TS). In the semi-continuously stirred tank reactor, 18% of the added C12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation.

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Aryl Iodides with Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Tran-Vu, Hung; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-10-01

    A method for carboxylation of aryl iodides with carbon dioxide has been developed. The reaction employs low loadings of copper iodide/TMEDA or DMEDA catalyst, 1 atm of CO2, DMSO or DMA solvent, and proceeds at 25-70 °C. Good functional group tolerance is observed, with ester, bromide, chloride, fluoride, ether, hydroxy, amino, and ketone functionalities tolerated. Additionally, hindered aryl iodides such as iodomesitylene can also be carboxylated. PMID:24288654

  1. Subcellular localization of chicken kidney aryl acylamidase activity.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, J J; Still, C C

    1980-02-15

    The intracellular localization of aryl acylamidase (aryl-acylamide amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.13) in chicken kidney was investigated. By separation on density gradients of the silica sol Ludox AM, the enzyme was localized in the mitochondrial fraction. This mitochondrial fraction was shown to be substantially free of lysosomal contamination. Subfractionation of the purified mitochondria indicates that the enzyme is located on the outer membrane, can be solubilized, and may be a suitable marker enzyme for kidney mitochondria. PMID:6246888

  2. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to a library of tetraphenylenes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chendan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Di; Sun, Wei-Yin; Shi, Zhuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Aryl-aryl bond formation constitutes one of the most important subjects in organic synthesis. The recent developments in direct arylation reactions forming aryl-aryl bond have emerged as very attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions. Here, we describe a general palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to build a library of tetraphenylenes. This transformation represents one of the very few examples of C-H activation process that involves simultaneous formation of two aryl-aryl bonds. Oxygen plays a vital role by ensuring high reactivity, with air as the promoter furnished the best results. We anticipate this ligand-free and aerobic catalytic system will simplify the synthesis of tetraphenylenes as many of the reported methods involve use of preformed organometallic reagents and will lead to the discovery of highly efficient new direct arylation process. PMID:27629701

  3. The influence of poly(ethylene glycol) on the micelle formation of alkyl maltosides used in membrane protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Müh, Frank; DiFiore, Dörte; Zouni, Athina

    2015-05-01

    With the aim of better understanding the phase behavior of alkyl maltosides (n-alkyl-β-d-maltosides, CnG2) under the conditions of membrane protein crystallization, we studied the influence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 2000, a commonly used precipitating agent, on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the alkyl maltosides by systematic variation of the number n of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (n = 10, 11, and 12) and the concentration of PEG2000 (χ) in a buffer suitable for the crystallization of cyanobacterial photosystem II. CMC measurements were based on established fluorescence techniques using pyrene and 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS). We found an increase of the CMC with increasing PEG concentration according to ln(CMC/CMC0) = kPχ, where CMC0 is the CMC in the absence of PEG and kP is a constant that we termed the "polymer constant". In parallel, we measured the influence of PEG2000 on the surface tension of detergent-free buffer solutions. At PEG concentrations χ > 1% w/v, the surface pressure πs(χ) = γ(0) - γ(χ) was found to depend linearly on the PEG concentration according to πs(χ) = κχ + πs(0), where γ(0) is the surface tension in the absence of PEG. Based on a molecular thermodynamic modeling, CMC shifts and surface pressure due to PEG are related, and it is shown that kP = κc(n) + η, where c(n) is a detergent-specific constant depending inter alia on the alkyl chain length n and η is a correction for molarity. Thus, knowledge of the surface pressure in the absence of a detergent allows for the prediction of the CMC shift. The PEG effect on the CMC is discussed concerning its molecular origin and its implications for membrane protein solubilization and crystallization.

  4. Chitin nanowhisker-supported sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) proton exchange for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Zhuang, Xupin; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Bowen; Kang, Weimin; Cai, Zhanjun; Li, Mengqin

    2016-04-20

    To balance the relationship among proton conductivity and mechanic strength of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES) membrane, chitin nanowhisker-supported nanocomposite membranes were prepared by incorporating whiskers into SPES. The as-prepared chitin whiskers were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation of α-chitin from crab shells. The structure and properties of the composite membranes were examined as proton exchange membrane (PEM). Results showed that chitin nanowhiskers were dispersed incompactly in the SPES matrix. Thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake and proton conductivity of the nanocomposite films were improved from those of the pure SPES film with increasing whisker content, which ascribed to strong interactions between whiskers and between SPES molecules and chitin whiskers via hydrogen bonding. These indicated that composition of filler and matrix got good properties and whisker-supported membranes are promising materials for PEM.

  5. Cycling performance and efficiency of sulfonated poly(sulfone) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soowhan; Yan, Jingling; Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-11-30

    As an alternative to the expensive Nafion® ion exchange membrane, an inexpensive commercially-available Radel® polymer was sulfonated, fabricated into a thin membrane, and evaluated for its performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The sulfonated Radel (S-Radel) membrane showed almost an order of magnitude lower permeability of V (IV) ions (2.07×10-7 cm2/min), compared to Nafion 117 (1.29×10-6 cm2/min), resulting in better coulombic efficiency (~98% vs. 95% at 50 mA/cm2) and lower capacity loss per cycle. Even though the S-Radel membrane had slightly higher membrane resistance, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the S-Radel membrane was comparable to that of Nafion due to its better coulombic efficiency. The S-Radel membrane exhibited good performance up to 40 cycles, but a decay in performance at later cycles was observed.

  6. Comparison of Diffusion Coefficients of Aryl Carbonyls and Aryl Alcohols in Hydroxylic Solvents. Evidence that the Diffusion of Ketyl Radicals in Hydrogen-Bonding Solvents is Not Anomalous?

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, S Thomas ); Camaioni, Donald M. ); Kandanarachchi, Pramod H.; Franz, James A. )

    2000-12-01

    The diffusion coefficients of a benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl alcohol and the corresponding aryl carbonyls (benzaldehyde, acetophenone and benzophenone) were measured by Taylor's dispersion method in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The experimental values are compared to published transient grating measurements of the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals (benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl-ketyl radical). In general, the diffusion coefficient of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals are equivalent within experimental error. This work shows that the diffusion of ketyl radicals is not anomalously slow and that aryl alcohols are significantly better models than the corresponding aryl ketones for analyzing the diffusion of aryl ketyl radicals in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. Empirical estimates of the diffusion coefficients of aryl alcohols using the Spernol-Wirtz and Wilke-Chang modifications to the Stokes-Einstein diffusion equation do not adequately account for the interactions between the aryl ketyl radicals or aryl alcohols with the hydroxylic solvents ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The excellent agreement between the experimental diffusion coefficients of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding ketyl radicals show that the transient grating method can provide accurate estimates for the diffusion coefficients of transient species. This is especially important when a stable model is not available, for example the pyranyl radical.

  7. Generation of a structurally diverse library through alkylation and ring closure reactions using 3-dimethylamino-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-one hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    3-Dimethylamino-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-one hydrochloride (2), a ketonic Mannich base derived from 2-acetylthiophene, was used as a starting material in different types of alkylation and ring closure reactions with a view to generate a structurally diverse library of compounds. Compound 2 reacts with S-alkylated dithiocarbamic acid salts and aryl mercaptans to produce dithiocarbamates and thioethers, respectively. The dimethylamino moiety in compound 2 was exchanged with various aliphatic secondary and aromatic primary and secondary amines, whereas monocyclic NH-azoles such as pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole were N-alkylated by compound 2. Ketones, pyrrole and indoles have been the substrates subjected to C-alkylation reactions by compound 2. Ring closure reactions of compound 2 with a suitable bifunctional nucleophile yielded pyrazolines, pyridines, 2,3-dihydro-1,5-1H-benzodiazepines, 2,3-dihydro-1,5-1H-benzothiazepine, pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole and 4-hydroxypiperidine derivatives.

  8. Generation of a structurally diverse library through alkylation and ring closure reactions using 3-dimethylamino-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-one hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    3-Dimethylamino-1-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-one hydrochloride (2), a ketonic Mannich base derived from 2-acetylthiophene, was used as a starting material in different types of alkylation and ring closure reactions with a view to generate a structurally diverse library of compounds. Compound 2 reacts with S-alkylated dithiocarbamic acid salts and aryl mercaptans to produce dithiocarbamates and thioethers, respectively. The dimethylamino moiety in compound 2 was exchanged with various aliphatic secondary and aromatic primary and secondary amines, whereas monocyclic NH-azoles such as pyrazole, imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole were N-alkylated by compound 2. Ketones, pyrrole and indoles have been the substrates subjected to C-alkylation reactions by compound 2. Ring closure reactions of compound 2 with a suitable bifunctional nucleophile yielded pyrazolines, pyridines, 2,3-dihydro-1,5-1H-benzodiazepines, 2,3-dihydro-1,5-1H-benzothiazepine, pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole and 4-hydroxypiperidine derivatives. PMID:23841334

  9. Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soowhan; Tighe, Timothy B.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Yan, Jingling; Zhang, Jianlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A.

    2011-10-01

    A sulfonated poly(sulfone) (S-Radel{reg_sign}) membrane with high proton conductivity and low vanadium ion diffusion showed high initial performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) but suffered damage during charge/discharge cycling. The S-Radel membrane had different degradation behaviors in flow cell cycling and ex-situ vanadium ion immersion tests. The S-Radel membrane immersed in V5+ solution cracked into small pieces, but in the VRFB cell, the membrane underwent internal delamination preferentially on the side of the membrane that faced the positive electrode. A vanadium-rich interface was observed near the membrane surface that experienced delamination and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the surfaces of the membrane indicated a slightly depressed 1026 cm-1 band corresponding to the sulfonate SO2 stretch for the degraded surface. Even though the S-Radel membrane underwent severe mechanical damage during the flow cell cycling, significant chemical degradation was not obvious from the spectroscopic analyses. For the VRFB containing an S-Radel membrane, an increase in membrane resistance caused an abnormal voltage depression during the discharge cycle. The reversible increase in membrane resistance and severe mechanical degradation of the membrane during cycling may be attributed repeated formation and dissolution of particles inside the membrane. The mechanical stresses imposed by the particles coupled with a small amount of chemical degradation of the polymer by V5+, are likely degradation mechanisms of the S-Radel membrane in VRFBs under high state-of-charge conditions.

  10. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of antitubercular activity of fluorinated 5-aryl-4-(hetero)aryl substituted pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Verbitskiy, Egor V; Baskakova, Svetlana A; Kravchenko, Marionella A; Skornyakov, Sergey N; Rusinov, Gennady L; Chupakhin, Oleg N; Charushin, Valery N

    2016-08-15

    Various 5-(fluoroaryl)-4-(hetero)aryl substituted pyrimidines have been synthesized based on the Suzuki cross-coupling and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of hydrogen (SN(H)) reactions starting from commercially available 5-bromopyrimidine and their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has been explored. The outcome of the study disclose that, some of the compounds have showed promising activity in micromolar concentration against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium terrae, and multidrug-resistant strains isolated from tuberculosis patients in Ural region (Russia). The data concerning the 'structure-activity' relationship for fluorinated compounds have been discussed. PMID:27338658

  12. Proposal for halogen atom transfer mechanism for Ullmann O-arylation of phenols with aryl halides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songlin; Zhu, Zhenzhong; Ding, Yuqiang

    2012-12-01

    A systematic theoretical study on reaction mechanisms for copper(I)-catalyzed C-O coupling of phenols with aryl bromides is reported herein. Through evaluation of the relative concentrations of possible copper species in reaction solution and reactivity study of these copper species with aryl halides in the context of several commonly proposed mechanisms for copper(I)-catalyzed Ullmann reactions, we propose that the active copper catalyst should be a neutral (L)Cu(I)-OAr (L denotes an ancillary ligand; OAr denotes an aryloxide ligand) species in nonpolar solvent and Cu(OAr)(2)(-) anion in highly polar solvent. In the reaction solution, these two kinds of copper species should be in equilibrium, the direction of which is highly dependent on the polarity of the solvent. For both kinds of copper species, a halogen atom transfer mechanism is favored where an initial halogen atom transfer from phenyl bromide to the Cu(I) center occurs, resulting in the formation of Cu(II)(OAr)(Br) and a phenyl radical. Subsequent rapid attack of this phenyl radical to the aryloxide ligand bound to copper(II) would yield the coupling product and Cu(I)(Br) species, which can be readily converted to the active Cu(I)-OAr species in the presence of phenols and base. Other mechanisms such as oxidative addition, single electron transfer and σ-bond metathesis mechanisms all possess activation barriers which are too high, rendering them kinetically unfavorable. Electronic effects on phenol rings reveal that electron-donating substituents accelerate the coupling of (phen)Cu(I)(OAr) with aryl halides whereas electron-withdrawing substituents lead to much higher activation barriers, which is consistent with experimental findings and thus lends further support for such a halogen atom transfer mechanism. In view of the widely accepted oxidative addition/reductive elimination mechanism for analogous copper(I)-catalyzed coupling of N-nucleophiles with aryl halides, our results here highlight that the

  13. Neutron powder diffraction study of perdeuterodimethyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Ibberson, R M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of perdeuterodimethyl sulfone, (CD(3))(2)SO(2) or C(2)D(6)O(2)S, has been refined at 4.5 K against high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data. The structure determined previously by Sands [Z. Kristallogr. (1963), 119, 245-251] at ambient temperature is shown to remain down to liquid helium temperature, and at 4.5 K the S-C and S-O bond distances are 1.441 (2) and 1.760 (2) A, respectively. The molecules are distorted tetrahedra with C(2v) point symmetry (crystallographic symmetry m2m for S and m for C, O and one D atom) and are linked through a network of weak hydrogen bonds in the C-centred orthorhombic structure.

  14. Reclamation of waste polystyrene by sulfonation

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Yasuhito; Kuromiya, Miyuki; Noguchi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Haruo

    1999-06-08

    Waste polystyrene containing additives was converted into a polymeric flocculant by a chemical modification. Specifically, waste polystyrene and waste high-impact polystyrene (HI-PS) containing rubber components or a coloring agent were sulfonated to produce a water-soluble polymer whose molecular weight ranged from 400,000 to 700,000. The polymer provides superior purification of the supernatant after flocculating a kaolin suspension than a conventional polymeric flocculant such as a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (hereafter abbreviate PAA). Moreover, using the polymer and a PAA together provides a higher sedimentation rate and a purer supernatant in the treatment of actual wastewater than using each one separately. A new reclamation technology to convert waste plastic into a functional polymer is reported.

  15. Sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids in aqueous solutions: Interfacial and micellar properties.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Basheva, Elka S; Ivanova, Veronika I; Petkov, Jordan T

    2015-11-01

    The interest to sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids (SME) has been growing during the last decade, because these surfactants are considered as an environmentally friendly and renewable alternative of the linear alkyl-benzene sulfonates (LAS). Here, we present a quantitative study on the properties of aqueous SME solutions, and especially on their surface tension isotherms, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and its dependence on the concentration of added NaCl. It is demonstrated that the CMC of an ionic surfactant determined by electrical conductivity is insensitive to the presence of a small nonionic admixture, so that the CMC values determined by conductivity represent the CMC of the pure surfactant. Using SME as an example, we have demonstrated the application of a new and powerful method for determining the physicochemical parameters of the pure ionic surfactant by theoretical data analysis ("computer purification") if the used surfactant sample contains nonionic admixtures, which are present as a rule. This method involves fits of the experimental data for surface tension and conductivity by a physicochemical model based on a system of mass-balance, chemical-equilibrium and electric-double-layer equations, which allows us to determine the adsorption and micellization parameters of C12-, C14-, C16- and C18-SME, as well the fraction of nonionic admixtures (if any). Having determined these parameters, we can further predict the interfacial and micellization properties of the surfactant solutions, such as surface tension, adsorption, degree of counterion binding, and surface electric potential at every surfactant, salt and co-surfactant concentrations.

  16. Sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids in aqueous solutions: Interfacial and micellar properties.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Basheva, Elka S; Ivanova, Veronika I; Petkov, Jordan T

    2015-11-01

    The interest to sulfonated methyl esters of fatty acids (SME) has been growing during the last decade, because these surfactants are considered as an environmentally friendly and renewable alternative of the linear alkyl-benzene sulfonates (LAS). Here, we present a quantitative study on the properties of aqueous SME solutions, and especially on their surface tension isotherms, critical micelle concentration (CMC) and its dependence on the concentration of added NaCl. It is demonstrated that the CMC of an ionic surfactant determined by electrical conductivity is insensitive to the presence of a small nonionic admixture, so that the CMC values determined by conductivity represent the CMC of the pure surfactant. Using SME as an example, we have demonstrated the application of a new and powerful method for determining the physicochemical parameters of the pure ionic surfactant by theoretical data analysis ("computer purification") if the used surfactant sample contains nonionic admixtures, which are present as a rule. This method involves fits of the experimental data for surface tension and conductivity by a physicochemical model based on a system of mass-balance, chemical-equilibrium and electric-double-layer equations, which allows us to determine the adsorption and micellization parameters of C12-, C14-, C16- and C18-SME, as well the fraction of nonionic admixtures (if any). Having determined these parameters, we can further predict the interfacial and micellization properties of the surfactant solutions, such as surface tension, adsorption, degree of counterion binding, and surface electric potential at every surfactant, salt and co-surfactant concentrations. PMID:26196714

  17. Measured and predicted affinities of binding and relative potencies to activate the AhR of PAHs and their alkylated analogues.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Shin, Woong-Hee; Hong, Seongjin; Kang, Habyeong; Jung, Dawoon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Seok, Chaok; Giesy, John P; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms are important components of crude oil. Both groups of PAHs have been reported to cause dioxin-like responses, mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thus, characterization of binding affinity to the AhR of unsubstituted or alkylated PAHs is important to understand the toxicological consequences of oil contamination on ecosystems. We investigated the potencies of major PAHs of crude oil, e.g., chrysene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene, and their alkylated forms (n=17) to upregulate expression of AhR-mediated processes by use of the H4IIE-luc transactivation bioassay. In addition, molecular descriptors of different AhR activation potencies among PAHs were investigated by use of computational molecular docking models. Based on responses of the H4IIE-luc in vitro assay, it was shown that potencies of PAHs were determined by alkylation in addition to the number and conformation of rings. Potencies of AhR-mediated processes were generally greater when a chrysene group was substituted, especially in 1-methyl-chrysene. Significant negative correlations were observed between the in vitro dioxin-like potency measured in H4IIE-luc cells and the binding distance estimated from the in silico modeling. The difference in relative potency for AhR activation observed among PAHs and their alkylated forms could be explained by differences among binding distances in the ligand binding domain of the AhR caused by alkylation. The docking model developed in the present study may have utility in predicting risks of environmental contaminants of which toxicities are mediated by AhR binding.

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed, Ring-Forming Aromatic C–H Alkylations with Unactivated Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Alexander R. O.; Bohan, Patrick T.; Alexanian, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic C–H alkylation using unactivated alkyl halides and a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is described. This ring-forming process is successful with a variety of unactivated primary and secondary alkyl halides, including those with β-hydrogens. In contrast to standard polar or radical cyclizations of aromatic systems, electronic activation of the substrate is not required. The mild, catalytic reaction conditions are highly functional group tolerant and facilitate access to a diverse range of synthetically and medicinally important carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. PMID:25746442

  19. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  20. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  1. Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Nan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, Deen

    2011-01-01

    Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

  2. Direct synthesis of unprotected 4-aryl phenylalanines via the Suzuki reaction under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yong; He, Wei

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] 4-Aryl phenylalanines were prepared as free amino acids from the Suzuki coupling of 4-borono phenylalanine with aryl halides in high yields within 5-10 min under microwave irradiation.

  3. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  4. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8700 - Halogenated alkyl pyridine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated alkyl pyridine. 721.8700... Substances § 721.8700 Halogenated alkyl pyridine. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18... identified generically as halogenated alkyl pyridine (PMN P-83-237) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). Link to an amendment... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.550 - Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. 721.550... Substances § 721.550 Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl alkenoate, azobis- (PMN P-88-2470)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.550 - Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. 721.550... Substances § 721.550 Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl alkenoate, azobis- (PMN P-88-2470)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.648 - Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.648 Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (PMN P-00-0816) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  4. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6490 - Alkyl phenyl polyetheramines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phenyl polyetheramines. 721.6490... Substances § 721.6490 Alkyl phenyl polyetheramines. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phenyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ether (PMN P-13-78) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10385 - Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10385 Phenoxy alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phenoxy alkyl ether (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10697 - Polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10697 Polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance... polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide (PMN P-11-487) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3740 - Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide... Substances § 721.3740 Bisalkylated fatty alkyl amine oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisalkylated fatty alkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.647 - Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). 721... Substances § 721.647 Alkoxylated alkyl amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkoxylated alkyl amine...