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Sample records for alkyl substances pfass

  1. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Karásková, Pavlína; Venier, Marta; Melymuk, Lisa; Bečanová, Jitka; Vojta, Šimon; Prokeš, Roman; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of 20 perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in dust samples from 41 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic, and United States in the spring-summer of 2013. The most frequently detected compounds were perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had the highest concentrations of PFASs in all countries. PFOS median concentrations for the three countries were between 9.1 and 14.1ng/g, and PFOA medians ranged between 8.2 and 9.3ng/g. In general, concentrations in North America were higher than in the Czech Republic, which is consistent with usage patterns. No differences were found for perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/Es) levels due to the low number of detections. Homologue profiles suggest that the shift from longer to shorter chain PFASs is more advanced in North America than in Europe. Significant relationships were found among individual homologues and between PFAS concentrations in dust and type of floor, number of people living in the house, and building age. PMID:27295048

  2. Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

    PubMed

    Chropeňová, Mária; Karásková, Pavlína; Kallenborn, Roland; Gregušková, Eva Klemmová; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended. PMID:27457263

  3. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Mikkelsen, Bjørg; Dam, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crème fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds. PMID:23589272

  4. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between PFASs concentrations above the LOQ were detected in 48.6% of the samples, varying from PFASs were detected in the drinking water from the western part of the Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ. PMID:26366629

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and ovarian hormone concentrations in naturally cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Chen, Chongshu; Thurston, Sally W.; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Fjeldheim, Frøydis Nyborg; Frydenberg, Hanne; Lipson, Susan F.; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between environmental exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and ovarian hormone concentrations in naturally cycling women. Design Estradiol and progesterone were measured in saliva samples collected daily for a single menstrual cycle and concentrations of PFASs (including perfluoroctane sulfonate [PFOS] and perfluoroctanoic acid [PFOA]) were measured in serum samples collected during the same cycle. Setting Tromsø, Norway. Patients 178 healthy, naturally cycling women, ages 25-35. Intervention None. Main outcome measures(s) Mean follicular estradiol (cycle days −7 to −1, where 0 is the day of ovulation); mean luteal progesterone (cycle days +2 to 10). Results Among nulliparous, but not parous women, PFOS concentrations were inversely associated with estradiol (β=−0.025, 95% CI: −0.043, −0.007) and progesterone (β=−0.027, 95% CI: −0.048, −0.007). Similar, but weaker results were observed for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOSA). No associations were observed between other PFASs (including PFOA) and ovarian steroid concentrations, nor were any associations noted in parous women. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that PFOS and PFOSA may be associated with decreased production of estradiol and progesterone in reproductive age women. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which PFASs affect women's health, and underscore the importance of parity in research on PFASs and women's reproductive health. PMID:25747128

  6. Behaviour and fate of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Feisal; Peldszus, Sigrid; Anderson, William B

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) characteristics, their occurrence in surface water, and their fate in drinking water treatment processes. PFASs have been detected globally in the aquatic environment including drinking water at trace concentrations and due, in part, to their persistence in human tissue some are being investigated for regulation. They are aliphatic compounds containing saturated carbon-fluorine bonds and are resistant to chemical, physical, and biological degradation. Functional groups, carbon chain length, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are some of the important structural properties of PFASs that affect their fate during drinking water treatment. Full-scale drinking water treatment plant occurrence data indicate that PFASs, if present in raw water, are not substantially removed by most drinking water treatment processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, biofiltration, oxidation (chlorination, ozonation, AOPs), UV irradiation, and low pressure membranes. Early observations suggest that activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, and high pressure membrane filtration may be effective in controlling these contaminants. However, branched isomers and the increasingly used shorter chain PFAS replacement products may be problematic as it pertains to the accurate assessment of PFAS behaviour through drinking water treatment processes since only limited information is available for these PFASs. PMID:24216232

  7. Observation of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Greenland marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bossi, Rossana; Rigét, Frank F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2016-02-01

    The present pilot study examined emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), i.e., a suite of short chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), PFAA precursors and replacement chemicals, and legacy PFASs (long chain length PFAAs) in livers from ringed seals, polar bears and, for the first time, killer whales from East Greenland collected in 2012-2013. Among the emerging PFASs, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) and F-53B (a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid) were detected in Arctic wildlife, albeit at concentrations approximately four orders of magnitude lower compared to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). PFOS was positively correlated with F-53B, but not PFBS in all three species. A total of 17 PFASs were detected in killer whales, including in a mother-fetus pair, demonstrating maternal transfer. ∑PFAS concentrations in killer whales (269 ± 90 ng/g) were comparable to concentrations found in ringed seals (138 ± 7 ng/g), however, an order of magnitude lower compared to concentrations found in polar bear livers (2336 ± 263 ng/g). Patterns of long chain PFAAs in killer whales differed from the pattern in ringed seals and polar bears. Of the monitored PFAA precursors, only perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) was detected in all three species, and FOSA/PFOS ratios and isomer patterns indicated that killer whales have a potential lower metabolic capacity to degrade FOSA compared to polar bears and ringed seals. PMID:26610298

  8. A global survey of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils in remote and urban environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heightened attention placed on perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) over the past decades has led to their detection in many environmental and biological compartments. A detailed understanding of PFAS levels in these compartments is an important step towards ...

  9. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in home and commercially produced chicken eggs from the Netherlands and Greece.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is a major route of human exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). However, the available information on PFAS levels in food, including chicken eggs, is limited. In the present study, home produced and commercially produced eggs (organic, battery and free range eggs) were collected from the Netherlands (n = 95) and Greece (n = 76). The egg yolks were analysed for 11 PFASs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. PFAS levels in yolk were higher in home produced eggs from the Netherlands (median 3.1, range < LOQ - 31.2 ng g(-1)) and Greece (median 1.1, range < LOQ - 15.0 ng g(-1)) compared to the eggs collected from supermarkets. In these eggs, all PFAS levels were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng g(-1), except for a small amount of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 1 sample in each country (1.1 ng g(-1) and 0.9 ng g(-1) for the Netherlands and Greece respectively). PFOS was the predominant PFAS, making up on average 85% of ∑PFASs. The highest PFOS concentration was detected in a Dutch home produced egg sample (24.8 ng g(-1)). The contamination pattern was similar in both countries with the long-chain PFASs (C ≥ 8) being most frequently detected, while short-chain PFASs were rarely found. The most likely cause of the contamination of home produced eggs is ingestion of soil through pecking. Although regular consumption of home produced eggs will lead to an increased PFOS exposure, it is not expected that it will lead to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake established by EFSA. PMID:26583292

  10. Release of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) from Carpet and Clothing in Model Anaerobic Landfill Reactors.

    PubMed

    Lang, Johnsie R; Allred, B McKay; Peaslee, Graham F; Field, Jennifer A; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-17

    Discarded carpet and clothing are potential sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in landfill leachate, but little is known about their release when disposed in landfills. The concentrations of 70 PFASs in the aqueous phase of anaerobic model landfill reactors filled with carpet or clothing were monitored under biologically active and abiotic conditions. For carpet, total PFAS release was greater in live than abiotic reactors, with an average of 8.5 nmol/L and 0.62 nmol/L after 552 days, respectively. Release in live carpet reactors was primarily due to 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA - 3.9 nmol/L) and perfluorohexanoic carboxylic acid (PFHxA - 2.9 nmol/L). For clothing, release was more dependent on sample heterogeneity than the presence of biological activity, with 0.63, 21.7, 2.6, and 6.3 nmol/L for two live and two abiotic reactors after 519 days, respectively. Release in the clothing reactors was largely due to perfluorooctatonic carboxylic acid (PFOA), with low relative concentrations of measured biotransformation precursors (FTCAs). For carpet and clothing reactors, the majority of PFAS release was not measured until after day 100. Results demonstrate that carpet and clothing are likely sources of PFASs in landfill leachate. PMID:27095439

  11. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water and bottom water of the Shuangtaizi Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mihua; Ding, Guanghui; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Lie; Xue, Huanhuan; Zhang, Nannan; Li, Yang; Chen, Guanqun; Sun, Yeqing

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants. However, there is limited information on the contamination level and spatial distribution of PFASs in the Shuangtaizi Estuary, where the Shuangtaizi Hekou Nature Reserve is located. In the present study, the contamination level and spatial distribution of PFASs in surface water (approximately 0.5 m below the surface) and bottom water (about 0.5 m above the bottom) of the Shuangtaizi Estuary were investigated. The data indicated that the Shuangtaizi Estuary was commonly contaminated by PFASs. The total concentration of PFASs in surface and bottom water of the Shuangtaizi Estuary ranged from 66.2 to 185 ng L(-1) and from 44.8 to 209 ng L(-1), respectively. The predominant PFASs were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). In general, PFAS concentrations in surface water samples were lower than those in bottom water samples. The spatial distribution of PFASs in the Shuangtaizi Estuary was mainly affected by particular landform, tide and residual currents in Liaodong Bay. The total mass flux of 15 PFASs from the Shuangtaizi River to Liaodong Bay was estimated to be 352 kg year(-1), which was lower than the total flux from the Daling River and the Daliao River. As short-chain PFASs, such as PFBS and PFBA, have been the prevalent compounds in some places and are continuously produced and used, long-term monitoring and effective pollution controls are suggested. PMID:27344086

  12. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  13. Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Defluorination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances by Calcium Compounds during Waste Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-05-01

    The mineralization of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) by calcium compounds during the waste thermal treatment was systemically studied. Different calcium compounds showed different mineralization efficiencies of PFASs during the thermal process, owing to the different reaction mechanisms. Calcium hydroxide was recommended as the most effective Ca reagent for PFAS defluorination because the carbon-fluorine bonds in PFASs can be converted to carbon-hydrogen bonds via the hydrodefluorination reaction. PFASs with different chain lengths and functional groups were further investigated for their potentially different mineralization behavior. The results showed that the chain length of PFASs had an insignificant effect on the mineralization efficiency by calcium hydroxide. The thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) also revealed that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) (with different chain lengths) had a similar thermal behavior. However, PFASs with different functional groups showed different mineralization behavior with calcium hydroxide in relation to their different thermal decomposition temperatures. Finally, the mineralization ratio of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) particles by calcium hydroxide could reach 80% or higher when the temperature was above 400 °C. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results demonstrated much reduced production of gaseous fluorocarbon fragments during PTFE decomposition when coexisting with calcium hydroxide. PMID:25850557

  14. Impacts of daily intakes on the isomeric profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhi; Zhou, Lianqiu; Du, Pin; Luo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Qiannian; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been well studied in human daily intake for assessment of potential health risks. However, little is known about the isomeric compositions of PFASs in daily intake and their impacts on isomeric profiles in humans. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of PFASs with isomeric analysis in various human exposure matrices including foodstuffs, tap water and indoor dust. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and/or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were predominant in these exposure matrices collected in Tianjin, China. In fish and meat, linear (n-) PFOA was enriched with a percentage of 92.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Although n-PFOS was higher in fish (84.8%) than in technical PFOS (ca. 70%), it was much lower in meat (63.1%) and vegetables (58.5%). Dietary intake contributed >99% of the estimated daily intake (EDI) for the general population. The isomeric profiles of PFOA and PFOS in human serum were predicted based on the EDI and a one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model. The isomeric percentage of n-PFOA in the EDI (98.6%) was similar to that in human serum (predicted: 98.2%, previously measured: 99.7%) of Tianjin residents. The results suggest direct PFOA intake plays an important role in its isomeric compositions in humans. For PFOS, the predicted n-PFOS (69.3%) was much higher than the previously measured values (59.2%) in human serum. This implies that other factors, such as indirect exposure to PFOS precursors and multiple excretion pathways, may contribute to the lower percentage of n-PFOS in humans than of technical PFOS. PMID:26826363

  15. Systematic determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in outdoor jackets.

    PubMed

    Gremmel, Christoph; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-10-01

    Sixteen outdoor jackets were purchased in 2011/12 and analyzed for 23 different perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The jackets were selected based on their origin of production, price, market, and textile, such as polyester, nylon, polyamide, and content of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes. Two robust analytical methods based on high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry, as well as two liquid extractions, were developed enabling the analysis of PFASs with widely different physico-chemical properties. The jackets were found to contain PFASs in a range between 0.03 and 719 μg/m(2). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was omnipresent (0.02-171 μg/m(2)), although at lower concentrations compared to the precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (<0.001-698 μg/m(2)). Perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their putative precursors, in particular perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, were detected much less frequently at concentrations up to 5 μg/m(2). To determine the effect of the volatility of FTOHs, four selected jackets were stored in a sealed bag in the dark at room temperature and re-analyzed after 3.5 years. Only 10%-20% of the initial concentration of 8:2-FTOH and 20%-50% of 10:2-FTOH were found, whereas the concentrations of PFOA and perfluorodecanoic acid increased significantly. This supports the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in textiles are also strongly dependent on age, and conditions of transport and storage. PMID:27376856

  16. Sorption of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on filter media: implications for phase partitioning studies.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, Bharat; Benskin, Jonathan P; Hamilton, M Coreen; Cosgrove, John R

    2015-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), are ubiquitous in the environment. Investigations into their fate and potential phase-partitioning behavior require separating solid from aqueous phases via filtration. However, sorption of aqueous-phase PFASs on filtration media may lead to underestimation of PFAS concentrations in the aqueous phase. The authors investigated the sorption of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate monoesters, polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), fluorotelomer sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide on filtration media. The effects of concentration (3 spiking levels), filter media (4 types), matrix (4 matrices), and compound structure on sorption are reported. Glass fiber filtration resulted in the least sorption, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene filters resulted in the most sorption (up to 98%). Analyte concentration had no significant effect. Sorption was generally consistent across matrix types except for samples affected by aqueous film forming foam deployment, which displayed high sorption of PFOS on nylon filters. Sorption usually increased with an increasing number of carbon or fluorine atoms and was most pronounced for PFPiAs and diPAPs (30–75% sorption). Overall, glass fiber filters are more recommended than nylon filters in environmental samples when phase separation is required. Use of filtration media for PFAS must be preceded by matrix-specific testing to account for unpredictable effects. PMID:25220773

  17. Occurrence and distribution of conventional and new classes of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Karen Y; Wang, Xin-Hong; Ya, Miaolei; Li, Yongyu; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2015-03-21

    Concentrations of 23 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including new classes of PFASs, in seawater samples were investigated for their occurrence and the interaction of the ocean currents with the distribution of PFASs in the South China Sea. This study revealed that socio-economic development was associated with the PFAS contamination in coastal regions of South China. Significant correlations between concentration of total PFASs with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and population density were found in the areas, suggesting that the influence of intense human activities in these areas may have resulted in higher PFAS contamination to the adjacent environment. Di-substituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphate (diPAP), one of the potential replacements for PFASs, was only detected in the heavily developed region, namely Pearl River Delta (PRD). Total PFAS concentrations, ranging from 195 to 4925 pg/L, were detected at 51 sampling stations of the South China Sea. The results also confirmed that PFAS contamination in the South China Sea is strongly affected by the ocean currents. In comparison to perfluoroactane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations measured nine years ago at the same locations, the concentrations in this study were found to be two times higher. This indicated that the use and production of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) has been continuing in the region. PMID:25528239

  18. Neutral and ionic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in atmospheric and dry deposition samples over a source region (Tianjin, China).

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiming; Chang, Shuai; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Zhao, Yangyang; Zhang, Yufen

    2016-05-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were detected in the atmosphere of a source region in Tianjin, China. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were the dominant neutral PFASs in the atmosphere with total concentrations of 93.6-131 pg/m(3) and 8:2 FTOH contributing the most, whereas perfluorooctane sulfonamide derivatives (PFOSAs) were two magnitudes lower or undetected. In comparison, ionic PFASs (perfluoroalkyl carboxyl acids (PFCAs)) in the atmosphere were detected at similar or even higher levels. At wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the air over influent was found with higher levels of FTOHs than over aeration tank and effluent; whereas in the air over the aeration tank, the concentrations of PFOSAs and nonvolatile ionic PFASs substantially increased, suggesting a possible direct release of ionic PFASs to the atmosphere besides the atmospheric conversion from volatile precursors. In the air phase, a low proportion (1-5%) of PFCAs was subjected to dry deposition in the source region. Interestingly, the dry-deposition-to-bulk-air ratios of PFCA analogues were the lowest at medium chain lengths (C8 and C9) and increased with either shorter or longer chain length. The extraordinary affinity of shorter-chain PFCAs (C6-C7) to particles was presumed to be due to their smaller molecular size favoring the interactions between the carboxyl head groups and specific sorption sites on particulate matter. PMID:26952273

  19. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  20. Physical and Biological Release of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) from Municipal Solid Waste in Anaerobic Model Landfill Reactors.

    PubMed

    Allred, B McKay; Lang, Johnsie R; Barlaz, Morton A; Field, Jennifer A

    2015-07-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that are treated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and related formulations are disposed of in landfills. Landfill leachate has significant concentrations of PFASs and acts as secondary point sources to surface water. This study models how PFASs enter leachate using four laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors filled with municipal solid waste (MSW) and operated over 273 days. Duplicate reactors were monitored under live and abiotic conditions to evaluate influences attributable to biological activity. The biologically active reactors simulated the methanogenic conditions that develop in all landfills, producing ∼140 mL CH4/dry g refuse. The average total PFAS leaching measured in live reactors (16.7 nmol/kg dry refuse) was greater than the average for abiotic reactors (2.83 nmol/kg dry refuse), indicating biological processes were primarily responsible for leaching. The low-level leaching in the abiotic reactors was primarily due to PFCAs ≤C8 (2.48 nmol/kg dry refuse). Concentrations of known biodegradation intermediates, including methylperfluorobutane sulfonamide acetic acid and the n:2 and n:3 fluorotelomer carboxylates, increased steadily after the onset of methanogenesis, with the 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate becoming the single most concentrated PFAS observed in live reactors (9.53 nmol/kg dry refuse). PMID:26055930

  1. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in terrestrial environments in Greenland and Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Dam, Maria; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have been measured in liver samples from terrestrial organisms from Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. Samples from ptarmigan (West Greenland), reindeer (southwest-Greenland), muskox (East Greenland), and land-locked Arctic char from southwest Greenland and the Faroe Islands were analyzed. In addition, PFASs levels in land-locked brown trout from Faroese lakes are reported. Of the 17 PFASs analyzed in the samples the following compounds were detected: PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTrA, and PFTeA. PFNA was the compound detected in most samples and in all species. However, the compound detected at highest concentration was dependent on species, with overall highest concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA being detected in trout liver from Lake á Mýranar (Faroe Islands). In muskox, the PFAS occurring at highest concentrations was PFDA, which was among the PFAS detected at lowest concentrations in freshwater fish, and was only detected in one individual ptarmigan. The concentration of PFOS, PFDoA and PFTrA in Arctic char from Greenland and Faroe Islands were similar, whereas the concentration of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA were higher in Arctic char than those from Greenland. The opposite was observed for PFTeA. The PFASs occurring at highest concentrations in trout were PFTrA and PFUnA. Arctic char from Lake á Mýranar had much lower concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA than in trout from the lakes analyzed, but a higher concentration of PFTeA than trout from the same lake. A clear pattern with odd-carbon number homologues concentrations higher than the next lower even homologue was observed in fish samples, which is consistent with the hypothesis of transport of volatile precursors to remote regions. PMID:25482975

  2. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and <1% (PFOS in adults, and PFOA in both toddlers and adults) of the overall-EDIs. In conclusion, house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the

  3. Biodegradation of fluorinated alkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic molecules entails both positive and adverse effects. Although fluorine imparts positive and unique properties such as water-and oil-repellency and chemical stability, adverse effects often pervade members of this compound class. A striking property of long perfluoroalkyl chains is their very pronounced environmental persistence. The present review is the first one designed to summarize recent accomplishments in the field of biodegradation of fluorine-containing surfactants, their metabolites, and structural analogs. The pronounced scientific and public interest in these chemicals has given impetus to undertake numerous degradation studies to assess the sources and origins of different fluorinated analog chemical known to exist in the environment. It was shown that biodegradation plays an important role in understanding how fluorinated substances reach the environment and, once they do, what their fate is. Today, PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitously detected as environmental contaminants. Their prominence as contaminants is mainly due to their extreme persistence, which is linked to their perfluoroalkyl chain length. It appears that desulfonation of a highly fluorinated surfactants can be achieved if an α-situated H atom, in relation to the sulfonate group, is present, at least under sulfur-limiting conditions. Molecules that are less heavily fluorinated can show very complex metabolic behavior, as is the case for fluorotelomer alcohols. These compounds are degraded via different but simultaneous pathways, which produce different stable metabolites, one of which is the respective perfluoroalkanoate (8:2-FTOH is transformed to PFOA). Preliminary screening tests indicate that fluorinated functional groups, such as the trifluoromethoxy group and the p-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy group, may be useful implementations in novel, environmentally benign fluorosurfactants. More specifically, trifluoromethoxy groups constitute a substitute

  4. Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Marine Mammals from the South China Sea and Their Temporal Changes 2002-2014: Concern for Alternatives of PFOS?

    PubMed

    Lam, James C W; Lyu, Jinling; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), as well as the replacement for the phase-out C8 PFSAs were determined in the liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea between 2002 and 2014. Levels of total perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in samples ranged from 136-15,300 and 30.5-2,720 ng/g dw for dolphin and porpoise, respectively. Significant increasing trends of several individual PFCAs and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were found in cetacean samples from 2002 to 2014, whereas no significant temporal trends of ∑PFASs appeared over the sampling period. This pattern may be attributed to the increasing usage of PFCAs and C4-based PFSAs following the restriction/voluntary withdrawal of the production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) related products. In addition, significantly increasing temporal shifting trends of PFOS to PFBS were observed in the dolphin liver samples. This pattern may be attributed to the substitution of PFOS by its alternative, PFBS. The highest levels of PFOS were observed in the liver samples of dolphin as compared with other marine mammal studies published since 2006, indicating high contamination of PFAS in the South China region. An assessment of relatively high concentrations of C8-based PFASs in the liver samples of cetaceans predicted that concentrations of PFOS would be expected to affect some proportion of the cetacean populations studied, based on the toxicity thresholds derived. PMID:26889942

  5. Spatial and temporal trends in perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FASA) in plasma from ringed seals sampled in the period 1990-2010 (n = 71) in Svalbard, Norway. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was dominant among the perfluoroalkyl substances. PFCAs were dominated by perfluoroundecanoate followed by perfluorononanoate. C4C8 PFCAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were detected in ≤42% of the samples. PFSA and PFCA concentrations were higher in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden, a fjord influenced by strong inflows of Atlantic Water compared to seals from fjords dominated by Arctic Water (e.g. Billefjorden). Sex, age and body condition of the seals did not influence PFAS concentrations. Due to the confounding effect of year and sampling area, temporal trends were assessed only in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden (5 years, n = 51). PFHxS and PFOS concentrations did not show significant linear trends during the whole study period, but a decrease was observed since 2004. Concentrations of all of the detected PFCAs (C9C13 PFCAs) increased until 2004 after which they have declined or stabilized. PMID:27089420

  6. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor dust and food packaging materials in Egypt: Trends in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Tamer; Hassan, Yasmeen; Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-02-01

    PFASs concentrations in dust samples collected from three microenvironments in Cairo ranged from 1.3 to 69 ng g(-1) with FTOHs being dominant. The 8:2 FTOH was detected in all samples. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs the MeFOSE was dominant while among ionic PFASs, PFOS and PFOA were most prominent. The concentrations of PFASs were among the lowest worldwide. Correlations between worldwide concentrations of PFOS + PFOA and country development indexes highlight higher usage and human exposure in more developed countries. Food packaging was analyzed for PFSAs, PFCAs and PAPs. The 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs were found to be above the MDL in 18% of the samples. PFOA was detected in 79% of the samples with median concentration of 2.40 ng g(-1). PFOS was detected in 58% of the samples with median concentration of 0.29 ng g(-1) while PFHxS and PFDS were below detection limit. Different human exposure scenarios were estimated. PMID:26517384

  7. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in halibut and shrimp from coastal areas in the far north of Norway: Small survey of important dietary foodstuffs for coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Crosse, John D; Halsall, Crispin; Evenset, Anita; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Harju, Mikael

    2016-04-15

    Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and shrimps (Pandalus borealis) are regular foodstuffs for communities in northern Norway and important species for the coastal fishing industry. This is the first study to present a comprehensive overview of the contaminant status of these species, with emphasis on unregulated perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS). The contaminant concentrations were low and within tolerable levels for human dietary exposure. Median Σpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were 4.9 and 2.5ng/g ww for halibut and unpeeled shrimps, respectively. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) - the most abundant PFASs - were 0.9 and 2.7ng/g ww in halibut and shrimp, respectively. The halibut fillets were dominated by PCBs, which contributed to 50% of the total POPs load, followed by ΣDDTs; 26% and PFASs (18%), whereas shrimps were dominated by PFASs (74%). ΣPBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) contributed to 1-4% of the total POP load. Local sources are not contributing significantly to the contaminant burden in these species. PMID:26948293

  8. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) inferred from multigenerational exposure: a case study with Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L

    2014-11-01

    A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size. PMID:25146235

  9. [Status Quo, Uncertainties and Trends Analysis of Environmental Risk Assessment for PFASs].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-wen; Li, Li; Wang, Jie; Cao, Yan; Liu, Jian-guo

    2015-08-01

    This study systematically combed the definition and change of terms, category and application of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in international academic, focusing on the environmental risk and exposure assessment of PFASs, to comprehensively analyze the current status, uncertainties and trends of PFASs' environmental risk assessment. Overall, the risk assessment of PFASs is facing a complicated situation involving complex substance pedigrees, various types, complex derivative relations, confidential business information and risk uncertainties. Although the environmental risk of long-chain PFASs has been widely recognized, the short-chain PFASs and short-chain fluorotelomers as their alternatives still have many research gaps and uncertainties in environmental hazards, environmental fate and exposure risk. The scope of risk control of PFASs in the international community is still worth discussing. Due to trade secrets and market competition, the chemical structure and risk information of PFASs' alternatives are generally lack of openness and transparency. The environmental risk of most fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives is not clear. In total, the international research on PFASs risk assessment gradually transfer from long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) represented by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to short-chain PFAAs, and then extends to other PFASs. The main problems to be solved urgently and researched continuously are: the environmental hazardous assessment indexes, such as bioaccumulation and environmental migration, optimization method, the environmental release and multimedia environmental fate of short-chain PFASs; the environmental fate of neutral PFASs and the transformation and contribution as precursors of short-chain PFASs; the risk identification and assessment of fluorinated and non-fluorinated alternatives of PFASs. PMID:26592048

  10. Selected physicochemical aspects of poly- and perfluoroalkylated substances relevant to performance, environment and sustainability-part one.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Marie Pierre; Riess, Jean G

    2015-06-01

    The elemental characteristics of the fluorine atom tell us that replacing an alkyl chain by a perfluoroalkyl or polyfluorinated chain in a molecule or polymer is consequential. A brief reminder about perfluoroalkyl chains, fluorocarbons and fluorosurfactants is provided. The outstanding, otherwise unattainable physicochemical properties and combinations thereof of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are outlined, including extreme hydrophobic and lipophobic character; thermal and chemical stability in extreme conditions; remarkable aptitude to self-assemble into sturdy thin repellent protecting films; unique spreading, dispersing, emulsifying, anti-adhesive and levelling, dielectric, piezoelectric and optical properties, leading to numerous industrial and technical uses and consumer products. It was eventually discovered, however, that PFASs with seven or more carbon-long perfluoroalkyl chains had disseminated in air, water, soil and biota worldwide, are persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative in animals and humans, raising serious health and environmental concerns. Further use of long-chain PFASs is environmentally not sustainable. Most leading manufacturers have turned to shorter four to six carbon perfluoroalkyl chain products that are not considered bioaccumulative. However, many of the key performances of PFASs decrease sharply when fluorinated chains become shorter. Fluorosurfactants become less effective and less efficient, provide lesser barrier film stability, etc. On the other hand, they remain as persistent in the environment as their longer chain homologues. Surprisingly little data (with considerable discrepancies) is accessible on the physicochemical properties of the PFASs under examination, a situation that requires consideration and rectification. Such data are needed for understanding the environmental and in vivo behaviour of PFASs. They should help determine which, for which uses, and to what extent, PFASs are environmentally

  11. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  16. Occurrence of perfluorinated alkylated substances in breast milk of French women and relation with socio-demographical and clinical parameters: results of the ELFE pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Veyrand, Bruno; Kadar, Hanane; Marchand, Philippe; Oleko, Amivi; Le Bizec, Bruno; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    A previously developed and validated methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for determine the concentration levels of 14 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in a set of 48 breast milk samples collected from French women in the frame of the ELFE pilot study. In accordance with other similar studies conducted at european and international levels, PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected and quantified in most of the analyzed samples (90%, 98% and 100%, respectively), and appeared as major contributors to the total PFAS exposure (38%, 37%, 25%, respectively), whereas the other targeted PFAS were very rarely, if not, found at the limits of detection of the method. Also in agreement with other published data, the concentration levels measured for the detected substances varied from <0.05 to 0.33μg/L for PFOS (median=0.079), from <0.05 to 0.22μg/L for PFOA (median=0.075), and from 0.04 to 0.07μg/L for PFHxS (median=0.050). On the basis of this relatively limited data set, no statistically significant relation was observed between these exposure levels and developmental outcomes, in particular the weight at birth. Similarly, no relation was observed between the measured PFAS levels and various socio-demographical parameters including the consumption of seafood, alcohol, smoking, or socio-economical level. These results suggest a need for further research and better knowledge regarding the sources, pharmacokinetics, and factors of exposure for other substances belonging to this class of emerging contaminants. PMID:23473698

  17. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  2. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  3. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively. PMID:26947748

  4. Enrichment of perfluorinated alkyl substances on polyethersulfone using 1-methylpyperidine as ion-pair reagent for the clean-up of carrot and amended soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, Ekhiñe; Zabaleta, Itsaso; Iparraguirre, Arantza; Aguirre, Josu; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Berger, Urs; Prieto, Ailette; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2015-10-01

    The development of a simple, cheap and environment friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of different perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonamide in carrot and amended soil was carried out in the present work. The method was based on focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction followed by extract clean-up through enrichment of the target compounds on a polymeric material using an ion-pair reagent and detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The following variables affecting the clean-up step were evaluated: the nature of the polymeric material (polyethersulfone, PES, versus silicone rod), the amount of the polymeric material (from 1 to 9 mg), the ion-pair reagent (1-methylpyperidine, 1-MP, versus tetrabutylammonium salts), the concentration of the ion-pair reagent (from 5 to 50 mM) and the extraction time (from 15 min to 24 h). Optimum clean-up conditions were obtained using preconcentration on 9 mg of PES polymeric material combined with 5 mM 1-MP as ion-pair reagent for 3h. The method was validated in terms of apparent recoveries in the range of 77-140% and 95-137% at the low concentration (50 ng g(-1)) and in the range of 70-136% and 79-132% at the high concentration (290 ng g(-1)) for amended soil and carrot, respectively, after correction with the corresponding labeled standards. Precision, as relative standard deviation, was within 2-23%, while method detection limits were 0.31-2.85 ng g(-1) for amended soil and 0.11-1.83 ng g(-1) for carrot. In the absence of a certified reference material for the target analytes in the matrices studied, inter-method comparison was carried out and the same samples were processed using two independent clean-up procedures, the one developed in the present work and a classical based on solid-phase extraction. Statistically comparable results were obtained according to the one

  5. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  8. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  9. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = −0.261 to −0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = −0.229 to −0.165 for T3; r = −0.293 to −0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  10. Concentration profiles and spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in an industrial center with condensed fluorochemical facilities.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guoqiang; Wei, Mingcui; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-08-15

    Jiangsu Hi-tech Fluorochemical Industry Park, China, is one of the largest fluorochemical industry centers in Asia and could be a point source of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the surrounding environment. Besides water, sediment and soil samples, tree leaves and bark were also collected to monitor airborne PFASs around the facilities. Perfluorooctanoic acid and short-chain perfluorocarboxylates including perfluorohexanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid were found predominantly in all the samples. The target ∑PFASs were distributed in the dissolved phase with a proportion of 96.5±2.9%. High concentrations of ∑PFASs (up to 12,700 ng/L in surface water) were found at sites near and within the wastewater treatment plant and the facilities. The ∑PFASs in the sediment/sludge were in the range of 3.33-324 ng/g dw. For the first time, tree samples were used for bio-monitoring airborne PFASs in the environment. The ∑PFASs in the tree leaf and bark samples were in the range of 10.0-276 and 6.76-120 ng/g dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of ∑PFASs in the tree leaves suggested that airborne PFASs could be transported from the center to the surrounding environment by prevailing wind. PMID:24867700

  11. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  12. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  17. Neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere over the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Senchao; Song, Junwei; Song, Tianli; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Guicheng; Zheng, Junyu; Mi, Wenying; Tang, Jianhui; Zou, Shichun; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Neutral Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the atmosphere were measured during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013. Four groups of PFASs, i.e., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), fluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) and fluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs), were detected in gas samples. FTOHs was the predominant PFAS group, accounting for 95.2-99.3% of total PFASsPFASs), while the other PFASs accounted for a small fraction of ΣPFASs. The concentrations of ΣPFASs ranged from 18.0 to 109.9 pg m(-3) with an average of 54.5 pg m(-3). The concentrations are comparable to those reported in other marine atmosphere. Higher concentrations of ΣPFASs were observed in the continental-influenced samples than those in other samples, pointing to the substantial contribution of anthropogenic sources. Long-range transport is suggested to be a major pathway for introducing gaseous PFASs into the atmosphere over the northern SCS. In order to further understand the fate of gaseous PFASs during transport, the atmospheric decay of neutral PFASs under the influence of reaction with OH radicals and atmospheric physical processes were estimated. Concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH and MeFBSE from selected source region to the atmosphere over the SCS after long-range transport were predicted and compared with the observed concentrations. It suggests that the reaction with OH radicals may play an important role in the atmospheric decay of PFAS during long-range transport, especially for shorted-lived species. Moreover, the influence of atmospheric physical processes on the decay of PFAS should be further considered. PMID:27112727

  18. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. PMID:24275109

  19. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    PubMed

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  20. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances to two types of minerals.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, Maja S; Josefsson, Sarah; Hughes, Arwel V; Ahrens, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated for two model soil mineral surfaces, alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2), on molecular level using neutron scattering. The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) to examine the role of hydrophobic chain length and hydrophilic functional group on their sorption behaviour. All four PFASs were found to sorb to alumina surface (positively charged) forming a hydrated layer consisting of 50% PFASs. The PFAS solubility limit, which decrease with chain length, was found to strongly influence the sorption behaviour. The sorbed PFAS layer could easily be removed by gentle rinsing with water, indicating release upon rainfall in the environment. No sorption was observed for PFOA and PFOS at silica surface (negatively charged), showing electrostatic interaction being the driving force in the sorption process. PMID:27323291

  1. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic)....

  3. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic)....

  11. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. Anthropometry in 5- to 9-Year-Old Greenlandic and Ukrainian Children in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Vrijheid, Martine; Valvi, Damaskini; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. Objective We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5–9 years of age. Methods Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002–2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010–2012) using generalized linear models. Results Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2–5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8–73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1–ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. Conclusions The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight. Citation Høyer BB, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Vrijheid M, Valvi D, Pedersen HS, Zviezdai V, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Bonde JP, Toft G. 2015. Anthropometry

  2. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Western Mediterranean Sea waters.

    PubMed

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Karásková, Pavlína; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the open Western Mediterranean Sea waters was investigated in this study for the first time. In addition to surface water samples, a deep water sample (1390 m depth) collected in the center of the western basin was analyzed. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in all samples and were the dominant PFASs found. The sum of PFAS concentrations (ΣPFASs) ranged 246-515 pg/L for surface water samples. PFASs in surface water had a relatively homogeneous distribution with levels similar to those previously measured in the Atlantic near the Strait of Gibraltar, in water masses feeding the inflow to the Mediterranean Sea. Higher concentrations of PFHxA, PFHpA and PFHxS were, however, found in the present study. Inflowing Atlantic water and river/coastal discharges are likely the major sources of PFASs to the Western Mediterranean basin. Slightly lower (factor of 2) ΣPFASs was found in the deep water sample (141 pg/L). Such a relatively high contamination of deep water is likely to be linked to recurring deep water renewal fed by downwelling events in the Gulf of Lion and/or Ligurian Sea. PMID:27314632

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl...

  4. Fluorinated alkyl substances and technical mixtures used in food paper-packaging exhibit endocrine-related activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosenmai, A K; Taxvig, C; Svingen, T; Trier, X; van Vugt-Lussenburg, B M A; Pedersen, M; Lesné, L; Jégou, B; Vinggaard, A M

    2016-07-01

    Migration of chemicals from packaging materials to foods may lead to human exposure. Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can be used in technical mixtures (TMs) for use in food packaging of paper and board, and PFAS have been detected in human serum and umbilical cord blood. The specific structures of the PFAS in TMs are often unknown, but polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) have been characterized in TMs, food packaging, and in food. PAPs can be metabolized into fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Some PFAS have endocrine activities, highlighting the need to investigate these effects. Herein, we studied the endocrine activity of less characterized PFAS, including short-chain PFCAs and FTOHs, PAPs, and TMs of unknown chemical composition. Long-chain PFCAs were also included. We applied seven assays covering effects on estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activity, as well as steroidogenesis in vitro and ex vivo. In general, PAPs, FTOHs, TMs, and long-chain PFCAs showed estrogenic activity through receptor activation and/or increasing 17β-estradiol levels. Furthermore, short- and long-chain PFCAs activated PPARα and PPARγ. Collectively, this means that (i) PAPs, FTOHs, and PFCAs exhibit endocrine activity through distinct and sometimes different mechanisms, (ii) two out of three tested TMs exhibited estrogenic activity, and (iii) short-chain FTOHs showed estrogenic activity and short-chain PFCAs generally activate both PPARα and PPARγ with similar potency and efficacy as long-chain PFCAs. In conclusion, several new and divergent toxicological targets were identified for different groups of PFAS. PMID:27152447

  5. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Johns, Lauren E.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011–2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  6. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. Nationwide Distribution of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Outdoor Dust in Mainland China From Eastern to Western Areas.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiming; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Zhao, Yangyang; Chang, Shuai; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-04-01

    From eastern to western areas, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were detected at substantial levels in the outdoor dust across mainland China. Urban samples generally showed higher levels compared with those of rural samples. Compared with neutral PFASs, ionizable PFASs (C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and C4/C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids) were more abundant, with the highest total concentration up to 1.6 × 10(2) ng/g and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being a predominant analogue. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (DiPAPs) were both detected in most samples with total concentrations of 0.12-32 and 0.030-20 ng/g, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols/sulfonamides (FOSE/As) were detected at low frequencies (<30%). In addition to partitioning to organic moiety, specific adsorption onto mineral particles can be important for PFASs to bind onto outdoor dust, especially for short-chain ionizable PFASs. The eastern plain areas were characterized by a higher contribution of long-chain ionizable PFASs; whereas the western high plateau areas were characterized by the dominating contribution of short-chain analogues. The difference suggests that the long-range atmospheric transport potential of PFASs from source regions to the inland is probably limited by the increase in altitude, and different sources from adjacent regions may influence the western border area of China. PMID:26966787

  16. Distribution and primary source analysis of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances with different chain lengths in surface and groundwater in two cities, North China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiming; Zhu, Hongkai; Li, Bing; Hu, Hongwei; Zhang, Tao; Yamazaki, Eriko; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-10-01

    Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in the hydrosphere. The knowledge on the distribution and composition patterns of PFAS analogues with different chain length significantly contribute to their source analysis. In the present study, a regional scale investigation of PFASs in surface river waters and adjacent ground waters was carried out in two cities of China with potential contamination, Tianjin and Weifang. A total of 31 water samples were collected, and 20 PFASs therein were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). The possible sources of PFASs in the aquatic environment were assessed primarily by concentration patterns as well as hierarchical cluster analysis. In all 4 rivers investigated in the two cities, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant compounds contributing over 70% of the PFASs detected. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFCA with a concentration range of 8.58-20.3ng/L in Tianjin and 6.37-25.9ng/L in Weifang, respectively. On the average, the highest concentration was observed in samples from Dagu Drainage Canal (Dagu) in Tianjin and those short-chain PFASs (C4-C6) was detected with a comparable level of the longer-chain PFASs (>C6). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in the short-chain analogues. This indicates that a remarkably increasing input of short-chain PFASs might be related to wastewater treatment plant effluent or industrial discharges, which could be possibly due to the switch of manufacturing to short-chain products. In Weifang, precipitation and subsequent surface runoff as non-point sources could be significant inputs of PFASs into surface water while groundwater was possibly subjected to severe point sources with ∑PFASs concentration up to ~100ng/L. The inconsistent distribution patterns in groundwater suggest complicated pathways of contamination. PMID:25108512

  17. 40 CFR 721.8700 - Halogenated alkyl pyridine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated alkyl pyridine. 721.8700 Section 721.8700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8700 Halogenated alkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825 Section 721.2825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825 Section 721.2825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825 Section 721.2825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852 Section 721.1852 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  4. Bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances by Chironomus plumosus larvae in water with different types of dissolved organic matters.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Xia, Xinghui; Chen, Xi; Wang, Haotian; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Husheng; Li, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effects of four types of dissolved organic matters (DOM) on the bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Chironomus plumosus larvae have been studied. The PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA). The DOM included humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), tannic acid (TA), and a protein, peptone (PEP), and their concentrations ranged from 0 to 50 mg L(-1). The results showed that, upon bioconcentration equilibrium, the body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA and PFDoA) decreased with PEP and HA concentrations while increased with FA and TA concentrations. When FA and TA concentrations increased from 0 to 50 mg L(-1), body burdens of these PFASs increased by 7.5%-148.8% and 5.7%-37.1%, respectively. However, the DOM had no significant impact on the body burdens of shorter perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOA and PFNA). All of the four types of DOM lowered not only the uptake rate constants (ku) of PFASs due to the decrease of freely dissolved PFAS concentrations, but also the elimination rate constants (ke) due to the inhibition effect of DOM on the PFAS elimination from the larvae. The reduction in the two constants varied with both DOM and PFAS types. In the presence of PEP and HA with larger molecular weights, the ku values decreased more than ke, leading to the decreased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. As for FA and TA with smaller molecular weights, the ke values decreased more than ku, resulting in increased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. This study suggests that the effects of DOM on PFAS bioconcentration depend not only on the concentration but also on the molecule weight of DOM, which should be considered in the bioavailability assessment of PFASs. PMID:26925752

  5. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  6. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  7. Characterization of two passive air samplers for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Koblizkova, Martina; Reiner, Eric J

    2013-12-17

    Two passive air sampler (PAS) media were characterized under field conditions for the measurement of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the atmosphere. The PASs, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) disks, were deployed for over one year in parallel with high volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) and low volume active air samplers (LV-AAS). Samples were analyzed for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Sampling rates and the passive sampler medium (PSM)-air partition coefficient (KPSM-A) were calculated for individual PFASs. Sampling rates were similar for PFASs present in the gas phase and particle phase, and the linear sampling rate of 4 m(-3) d(-1) is recommended for calculating effective air sample volumes in the SIP-PAS and PUF-PAS for PFASs except for the FOSAs and FOSEs in the PUF-PAS. SIP disks showed very good performance for all tested PFASs while PUF disks were suitable only for the PFSAs and their precursors. Experiments evaluating the suitability of different isotopically labeled fluorinated depuration compounds (DCs) revealed that (13)C8-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was suitable for the calculation of site-specific sampling rates. Ambient temperature was the dominant factor influencing the seasonal trend of PFASs. PMID:24219299

  8. [Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances on the Microbial Community Structure in Surface Sediments of Typical River, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-jun; Wang, Tie-yu; Peng, Xia-wei; Wang, Pei

    2015-07-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination and the bacterial community composition, surface sediment samples were collected along the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province in April and July 2014 (XQ1-XQ10), where many PFASs manufacturers were located. PFASs were quantified by HPLC/MS-MS, related environmental factors affecting the microbial community structure were measured, and the microbial community structure in surface sediments was measured by the second-generation sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq. The results not only revealed the degree of PFASs pollution in the sediments of Xiaoqing River, but also illustrated the relationship between PFASs pollution and the microbial community structure. Among the twelve kinds of PFASs detected in this study, PFOA was the predominant compound, and the highest PFOA concentrations were detected in the sample of XQ5 (April: 456. 2 ng. g-1; July: 748.7 ng . g-1) located at the downstream of Xiaoqing River with many fluoropolymer producing facilities. PFOA contamination was the main factor affecting the microbial community structure in April, accordingly community richness and evenness were significantly negatively correlated with PFOA levels. The abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increasing PFOA concentration in the sediment PFOA. This suggested that Thiobacillus was sensitive to PFOA pollution and might be the potential indicator to reveal the degree of PFOA pollution in sediment. When the concentrations of PFOA were below 100 ng . g-1, no significant effects on the microbial community structure were observed. PMID:26489317

  9. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Robert C; Franklin, James; Berger, Urs; Conder, Jason M; Cousins, Ian T; de Voogt, Pim; Jensen, Allan Astrup; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mabury, Scott A; van Leeuwen, Stefan PJ

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to provide an overview of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, and recommend clear, specific, and descriptive terminology, names, and acronyms for PFASs. The overarching objective is to unify and harmonize communication on PFASs by offering terminology for use by the global scientific, regulatory, and industrial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, substances related to the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, and substances intended as alternatives to the use of the long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids or their precursors. First, we define PFASs, classify them into various families, and recommend a pragmatic set of common names and acronyms for both the families and their individual members. Terminology related to fluorinated polymers is an important aspect of our classification. Second, we provide a brief description of the 2 main production processes, electrochemical fluorination and telomerization, used for introducing perfluoroalkyl moieties into organic compounds, and we specify the types of byproducts (isomers and homologues) likely to arise in these processes. Third, we show how the principal families of PFASs are interrelated as industrial, environmental, or metabolic precursors or transformation products of one another. We pay particular attention to those PFASs that have the potential to be converted, by abiotic or biotic environmental processes or by human metabolism, into long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic or sulfonic acids, which are currently the focus of regulatory action. The Supplemental Data lists 42 families and subfamilies of PFASs and 268 selected individual compounds, providing recommended names and acronyms, and structural formulas, as well as Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2011;7:513–541. © 2011 SETAC PMID:21793199

  10. Spatiotemporal distribution and mass loadings of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Yangtze River of China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qian-Qian

    2014-09-15

    A systematic investigation into contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in both surface water and sediments of Yangtze River was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in summer and winter of 2013. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water and sediment of Yangtze River ranged from 2.2 to 74.56 ng/L and 0.05 to 1.44 ng/g dry weights (dw), respectively. The PFAS concentrations were correlated to some selected water quality parameters such as pH, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and conductivity in water, and some sediment properties, such as total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and TN in sediment. The monitoring results for the water and sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFAS compound found both in water and sediment for the two seasons with its maximum concentration of 18.03 ng/L in water and 0.72 ng/g in sediment, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) with its maximum concentration of 41.9 ng/L in water in Wuhan, whereas the lowest concentrations of PFASs were observed at Poyang lake. The annual loadings of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFBS, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and the total PFASs in the Yangtze River were 6.8 tons, 2.2 tons, 8.2 tons, 0.88 tons, and 20.7 tons, respectively. Wuhan and Er'zhou of Hubei contributed the most amounts of PFASs into the Yangtze River. A correlation was found between some PFASs, for example PFBS and PFOS, which suggests that both of these PFASs originate from common sources in the region. PMID:24982023

  11. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Milinovic, Jelena; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2016-05-01

    The sorption behaviour of three perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS)) was studied in sewage sludge samples. Sorption isotherms were obtained by varying initial concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS. The maximum values of the sorption solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd,max) varied by almost two orders of magnitude among the target PFASs: 140-281 mL g(-1) for PFOS, 30-54 mL g(-1) for PFOA and 9-18 mL g(-1) for PFBS. Freundlich and linear fittings were appropriate for describing the sorption behaviour of PFASs in the sludge samples, and the derived KF and Kd,linear parameters correlated well. The hydrophobicity of the PFASs was the key parameter that influenced their sorption in sewage sludge. Sorption parameters and log(KOW) were correlated, and for PFOS (the most hydrophobic compound), pH and Ca + Mg status of the sludge controlled the variation in the sorption parameter values. Sorption reversibility was also tested from desorption isotherms, which were also linear. Desorption parameters were systematically higher than the corresponding sorption parameters (up to sixfold higher), thus indicating a significant degree of irreversible sorption, which decreased in the sequence PFOS > PFOA > PFBS. PMID:26780052

  12. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a) Chemical... as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs P-85-932 and P-85-933) are subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  5. Molecular impacts of perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) in the liver and testis of male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in Minnesota Lakes.

    PubMed

    Collí-Dulá, Reyna Cristina; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Streets, Summer; Denslow, Nancy D; Lehr, Randy

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFASs) stem from a wide range of sources and have been detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, including the upper Midwest and the state of Minnesota in the USA. This study investigated whether fish with high body burden levels of PFASs in the Twin Cities Metro Areas showed any evidence of adverse effects at the level of the transcriptome. We hypothesized that fish with higher body burden levels of PFASs would exhibit molecular responses in the liver and testis that were suggestive of oxidative and general stress, as well as impaired reproduction. Concentrations of PFASs in largemouth bass varied significantly across the sampled lakes, with the lowest concentrations of PFASs found in fish from Steiger and Upper Prior Lakes and the highest concentrations found in fish from Calhoun and Twin Lakes. Largemouth bass with high PFAS concentrations exhibited changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, energy production, RNA processing, protein production/degradation and contaminant detoxification, all of which are consistent with biomarker responses observed in other studies with PFASs. However, given the wide range of genes that were differentially expressed across the lakes and the variability observed in the mechanisms through which biological processes were affected, it is unlikely that PFASs are the only stressors affecting largemouth bass in the Twin Cities Metro Areas lakes. Indeed, Twin Lake is affected by the Joslyn superfund site which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins. These compounds are also expected to drive the transcriptomics responses observed, but to what degree is difficult to ascertain at this time. PMID:26907229

  6. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  7. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9515 - Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane... Substances § 721.9515 Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... siloxane (PMN P-96-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9515 - Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane... Substances § 721.9515 Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... siloxane (PMN P-96-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9515 - Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane... Substances § 721.9515 Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... siloxane (PMN P-96-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9515 - Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane... Substances § 721.9515 Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... siloxane (PMN P-96-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9515 - Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane... Substances § 721.9515 Aminofunctional alkoxy alkyl siloxane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... siloxane (PMN P-96-346) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2560 - Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). 721.2560 Section 721.2560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2560 Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2560 - Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). 721.2560 Section 721.2560 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.2560 Alkylated diphenyl oxide (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Daling River with concentrated fluorine industries in China: seasonal variation, mass flow, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated concentrations and composition profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water from the Daling River in different seasons. The highest concentration of ΣPFASs (9540 ng L(-1)) and dominant homologues were found in surface water collected in summer. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs in four seasons with a total contribution of over 90%. The discharge of two fluorine chemical industry parks was predicted to be the main contamination source of PFASs in the study area. The daily and annual mass flows were calculated according to data of detected PFAS concentrations and water discharge, and the annual mass loading of PFASs into the Bohai Sea from the Daling River reached to 461 kg year(-1). Hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFASs in study area had little risk to aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, the multiple health risk would be relatively high if the water was served as drinking water in the study area. PMID:25666478

  10. Role of ingestion route in the perfluoroalkyl substance bioaccumulation by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with carbonaceous materials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yawei; Xia, Xinghui; Zhao, Xiuli; Dong, Haiyang; Zhu, Baotong; Xia, Na; Dong, Jianwei

    2016-01-25

    The role of ingestion route in the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by Chironomus plumosus larvae in sediments amended with four types of carbonaceous materials (CMs) was studied. The results showed that the body burden of PFASs decreased in the presence of CMs at mass ratios of 0.2-2%, regardless of ingestion. PFASs accumulated by the larvae with ingestion exposure were higher than those without ingestion, and the role of ingestion route was altered in the presence of CMs. The contribution of ingestion route to PFAS bioaccumulation was 2.7-31.6% without CMs, and it increased to more than 61.4% in the presence of fullerene at mass ratios of 0.2-2%. The enhancement of the ingestion route contribution caused by CMs is due to the fact that the CMs can be ingested and CM-associated PFASs can be partly desorbed in larvae. The maximum desorption efficiency of perfluorooctanoic acid was 20.8% from fullerene by the larval digestive juice. This study suggests that CM-associated PFASs could be accumulated partly by organisms, and the ecological risk of PFASs might increase in some cases with the presence of CMs. This should be considered when applying CMs in PFAS and other hydrophobic organic compound pollution remediation. PMID:26489915

  11. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by... substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10101 - Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10101 Copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...) The chemical substance identified generically as copolymer of alkyl acrylate and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of an alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  5. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence. PMID:24815900

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200 μg g(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12 cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300 g with a total of 1.7 kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS). PMID:25966923

  7. 40 CFR 721.10044 - Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and vinyl terminated polysiloxanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10044 Metal oxide, modified with alkyl... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal oxide, modified with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10044 - Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and vinyl terminated polysiloxanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10044 Metal oxide, modified with alkyl... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal oxide, modified with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10044 - Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and vinyl terminated polysiloxanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10044 Metal oxide, modified with alkyl... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal oxide, modified with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10701 - Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl amine (generic). 721.10701 Section 721.10701 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10700 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thio polyacrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thio polyacrylamide (generic). 721.10700 Section 721.10700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10699 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide (generic). 721.10699 Section 721.10699 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10696 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thiol (generic). 721.10696 Section 721.10696 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10698 - Polyfluorinated alkyl halide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl halide (generic). 721.10698 Section 721.10698 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10697 - Polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl polyamide (generic). 721.10697 Section 721.10697 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). 721.10669 Section 721.10669 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). 721.10669 Section 721.10669 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669...

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671

  2. Catalytic alkylation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, P.D.; VanPool, J.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an apparatus. It comprises alkylation reactor means for producing alkylate product; acid catalyst settler means having an upper portion, an intermediate portion and a lower portion; means for withdrawing alkylate product from the alkylation reactor means and for providing alkylate product from the alkylation reactor means to a point of introduction in the intermediate portion of the acid catalyst settler means; and means for establishing a temperature gradient in the upper the gas lines to the detector so that a flow rate of a sample gas passing through the detector is constant.

  3. A North American and global survey of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface soils: Distribution patterns and mode of occurrence

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of 32 per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils was determined at 62 locations representing all continents (North America n = 33, Europe n = 10, Asia n = 6, Africa n = 5, Australia n = 4, South America n = 3 and Antarctica n = 1) using ultra perform...

  4. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). 721.9720 Section 721.9720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers....

  11. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing,...

  12. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing,...

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances in serum from South Korean infants with congenital hypothyroidism and healthy infants--Its relationship with thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt thyroid systems, though the specific effects of PFASs are still being elucidated. Since research regarding exposure in infants is highly limited, our goal was to investigate exposure levels of PFASs in infant serum and correlate these levels with thyroid hormones (THs). This was accomplished by analyzing 16 PFASs in sera from a case group of infants with congenital hypothyroidism and a control group. Total PFAS exposure level was 2.63-44.7ng/mL in the case group and 2.44-22.4ng/mL in the control group. Concentrations of serum perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, p<0.01), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, p<0.001), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFDA, p<0.005), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA, p<0.005) were significantly higher in the case group than the control group. Levels of certain PFASs (PFOA, perfluorotridecanoic acid [PFTrDA], and perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS]) showed a moderate to weak correlation with relevant antibodies. PMID:26950028

  14. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ΣPFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749–3450 kg/year, of which about 1375–2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467–587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  15. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in wastewater: Significance of unknown precursors, manufacturing shifts, and likely AFFF impacts.

    PubMed

    Houtz, Erika F; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, June-Soo; Sedlak, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    In late 2014, wastewater effluent samples were collected from eight treatment plants that discharge to San Francisco (SF) Bay in order to assess poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) currently released from municipal and industrial sources. In addition to direct measurement of twenty specific PFAS analytes, the total concentration of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) precursors was also indirectly measured by adapting a previously developed oxidation assay. Effluent from six municipal treatment plants contained similar amounts of total PFASs, with highest median concentrations of PFHxA (24 ng/L), followed by PFOA (23 ng/L), PFBA (19 ng/L), and PFOS (15 ng/L). Compared to SF Bay municipal wastewater samples collected in 2009, the short chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFBA and PFHxA rose significantly in concentration. Effluent samples from two treatment plants contained much higher levels of PFASs: over two samplings, wastewater from one municipal plant contained an average of 420 ng/L PFOS and wastewater from an airport industrial treatment plant contained 560 ng/L PFOS, 390 ng/L 6:2 FtS, 570 ng/L PFPeA, and 500 ng/L PFHxA. The elevated levels observed in effluent samples from these two plants are likely related to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) sources impacting their influent; PFASs attributable to both current use and discontinued AFFF formulations were observed. Indirectly measured PFAA precursor compounds accounted for 33%-63% of the total molar concentration of PFASs across all effluent samples and the PFAA precursors indicated by the oxidation assay were predominately short-chained. PFAS levels in SF Bay effluent samples reflect the manufacturing shifts towards shorter chained PFASs while also demonstrating significant impacts from localized usage of AFFF. PMID:26990839

  16. Spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface sediments of five major rivers in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Jun; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have received great attention from the public and scientific community due to their potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem and human health. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of 16 PFASs from 2 classes of PFASs-perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids-in the archived surface sediments of five major rivers (Yellow River, Hai River, Liao River, Zhujiang River, and Dongjiang River) in northern and southern China. The study was also performed during the wet and dry seasons. Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid were the most frequently detected (detection frequency = 100 and 63 %, respectively) in the sediments of the five rivers; the concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 0.99 ng/g dry weight (dw) and were lower than the limit of detection (PFASs were found at those sites located in urban areas compared with rural areas. Sediment organic content was found to be an important factor influencing the distribution of PFASs in the riverine environment. The results provided first-hand national data of PFASs in the sediments of major rivers in China. PMID:25543151

  17. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10126 Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10126 Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  9. Abuse potential and dopaminergic effect of alkyl nitrites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Hye Jin

    2016-08-26

    The abuse of alkyl nitrites is common among adolescents and young adults worldwide. However, the information regarding the effects of alkyl nitrites on the central nervous system and the associated psychological abuse potential is scarce. The abuse potential of 3 representative alkyl nitrites - isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite - was evaluated in mice using conditioned place preference tests with an unbiased method. The dopamine levels released by synaptosomes extracted from the striatal region were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with the test substances (50mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significantly increased drug-paired place preference. Moreover, greater levels of dopamine were released by striatal region synaptosomes in response to isobutyl nitrite treatment in mice. Thus, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites could lead to psychological dependence and dopaminergic effects. Furthermore, these results provide scientific evidence to support the regulation of alkyl nitrites as psychoactive substances in the future. PMID:27369324

  10. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Chang, Jen-Jen; King, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Lin, Shao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of common chemicals that ubiquitously exist in wildlife and humans. However, few studies have researched the effect of PFASs on reproductive hormones in adolescents. To provide information in this regard, we recruited 225 Taiwanese adolescents aged 13-15years from 2009 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between serum PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFTA) and reproductive hormone concentrations using a cross-sectional study design. Results showed PFOS and PFTA levels were highest among the PFASs, with a median concentrations of 29.9 (interquartile range: 13.0-43.8) ng/mL and 6.0 (0.6-25.9) ng/mL in males, and a median concentrations of 28.8 (14.8-42.6) ng/mL and 4.5 (0.3-18.4) ng/mL in females. After adjustment for confounding factors, nonsignificant associations between PFASs and reproductive hormone were found except for PFNA with ln(estradiol) (β=0.2060, 95%CI: 0.0016, 0.4105). When stratified by sex, more significant associations were found in males than in females. Among males, PFASs were negatively associated with ln(testosterone) level for PFOS (β=-0.0029, 95%CI: -0.0055, -0.0003), PFDA (β=-0.2565, 95%CI: -0.4135, -0.0994), PFHxA (β=-0.3095, 95%CI: -0.5942, -0.0248), and PFNA (β=-0.4233, 95%CI: -0.6998, -0.1467). Furthermore, male participant ln(estradiol) levels were positively associated with PFOA (β=0.0921, 95%CI: 0.0186, 0.1656), and PFHxS (β=0.0462, 95%CI: 0.0020, 0.0905). Among females, a significant relationship was found only for PFDoA with ln(testosterone) (β=-0.0119, 95%CI: -0.0227, -0.0010). In conclusion, this study showed higher levels of PFASs coincide with lower testosterone and higher estradiol levels, and more significant associations of PFASs with reproductive hormone were found in males than in females. PMID:27258660

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sulfonated aromatic (generic name). 721.950 Section 721.950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  2. QuEChERs Combined with Online Interference Trapping LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of 20 Polyfluoroalkane Substances in Dietary Milk.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yucheng; Xu, Dunming; Lu, Meiling; Zhou, Shan; Peng, Tao; Yue, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-29

    In this study, a highly sensitive and reliable method for the determination of 20 polyfluoroalkane substances (PFASs) in milk was established using the QuEChERS approach and an online interference trapping LC-MS/MS analysis. By a calibration with stable-isotope-labeled internal standards, we showed that the method displayed excellent linear dynamic ranges for 20 PFASs (correlation coefficients ≥0.997). The LOQs for the two types of PFASs, perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were 0.010 and 0.050 μg/L, respectively. At the three spiking levels, the average recoveries for PFCAs ranged from 78.5 to 111% with the RSD (n = 6) within 1.20-13.1%, and those for PFSAs ranged from 72.8 to 105% with the RSD (n = 6) within 3.53-14.9%. By the developed method, 16 PFASs were found to be positive in 46 milk samples, and the levels for the PFASs with longer chains were significantly higher than those reported from other known regions. PMID:25843108

  3. Perfluoroalkyl substances and lipid concentrations in plasma during pregnancy among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Whitworth, Kristina W.; Richardson, David B.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Haug, Line Småstuen; Eggesbø, Merete; Becher, Georg; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wilson, Ralph E.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread and persistent environmental pollutants. Previous studies, primarily among non-pregnant individuals, suggest positive associations between PFAS levels and certain blood lipids. If there is a causal link between PFAS concentrations and elevated lipids during pregnancy, this may suggest a mechanism by which PFAS exposure leads to certain adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 891 pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study in 2003–2004. Non-fasting plasma samples were obtained at mid-pregnancy and analyzed for nineteen PFASs. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in plasma. Linear regression was used to quantify associations between each PFAS exposure and each lipid outcome. A multiple PFAS model was also fitted. Results Seven PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration was associated with total cholesterol, which increased 4.2 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=0.8, 7.7) in adjusted models. Five of the seven PFASs studied were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and all seven had elevated HDL associated with the highest quartile of exposure. Perfluoroundecanoic acid showed the strongest association with HDL: HDL increased 3.7 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=2.5, 4.9). Conclusion Plasma concentrations of PFASs were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and PFOS was positively associated with total cholesterol in this sample of pregnant Norwegian women. While elevated HDL is not an adverse outcome per se, elevated total cholesterol associated with PFASs during pregnancy could be of concern if causal. PMID:24189199

  4. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in estuarine sediments of Charleston, SC.

    PubMed

    White, Natasha D; Balthis, Len; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; De Silva, Amila O; Wu, Qian; French, Katherine M; Daugomah, James; Spencer, Christine; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-07-15

    Urban areas are sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment, although little is known about specific point sources and distribution of PFASs. Sentinel species, like bottlenose dolphins, are important indicators of environmental perturbations. The high PFAS levels found in dolphins inhabiting Charleston, South Carolina prompted investigation of these chemicals in this area. This study provides further evidence on the extent of contamination and potential sources of PFASs. In this study, concentrations of 11 PFASs measured in estuarine sediments collected in 2012 from the Charleston Harbor and the Ashley and Cooper Rivers (n=36) in South Carolina revealed higher levels than those reported in any other U.S. urban areas. Detectable levels were found in all sample locations with mean total PFAS concentrations of 3.79ngg(-1) (range 0.22 to 19.2ngg(-1) d.w.). Dominant compounds were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (mean 1.52ngg(-1); range 0.09-7.37ngg(-1) d.w.), followed by perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) (mean 0.83ngg(-1); range 0.06-4.76ngg(-1) d.w.) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (mean 0.42ngg(-1); range 0.02-2.52ngg(-1) d.w.). PFOS levels in sediments at 19 of 36 sites (representing 52% of the study area) exceeded the published global median PFOS sediment concentration of 0.54ngg(-1). PMID:25828416

  5. Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Gallen, C; Drage, D; Kaserzon, S; Baduel, C; Gallen, M; Banks, A; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-07-15

    The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDDs) were studied in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Leachate was collected from 13 landfill sites and biosolids were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), across Australia. Perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (12-5700ng/L) was the most abundant investigated persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemical in leachate. With one exception, mean concentrations of PFASs were higher in leachate of operating landfills compared to closed landfills. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDDs) were detected typically at operating landfills in comparatively lower concentrations than the PFASs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (<0.4-2300ng/g) and perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS) (PFASs and HBCDDs in Australian leachate and biosolids. PMID:27016666

  6. Neutral Poly-/perfluoroalkyl Substances in Air and Snow from the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhen; Mi, Wenying; Möller, Axel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Levels of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (nPFASs) in air and snow collected from Ny-Ålesund were measured and their air-snow exchange was determined to investigate whether they could re-volatilize into the atmosphere driven by means of air-snow exchange. The total concentration of 12 neutral PFASs ranged from 6.7 to 39 pg m−3 in air and from 330 to 690 pg L−1 in snow. A significant log-linear relationship was observed between the gas/particle partition coefficient and vapor pressure of the neutral PFASs. For fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOHs) and fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), the air-snow exchange fluxes were positive, indicating net evaporative from snow into air, while net deposition into snow was observed for perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (Me/EtFOSEs) in winter and spring of 2012. The air-snow exchange was snow-phase controlled for FTOHs and FTAs, and controlled by the air-phase for FOSEs. Air-snow exchange may significantly interfere with atmospheric concentrations of neutral PFASs in the Arctic. PMID:25746440

  7. Neutral Poly-/perfluoroalkyl Substances in Air and Snow from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhen; Mi, Wenying; Möller, Axel; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    Levels of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (nPFASs) in air and snow collected from Ny-Ålesund were measured and their air-snow exchange was determined to investigate whether they could re-volatilize into the atmosphere driven by means of air-snow exchange. The total concentration of 12 neutral PFASs ranged from 6.7 to 39 pg m-3 in air and from 330 to 690 pg L-1 in snow. A significant log-linear relationship was observed between the gas/particle partition coefficient and vapor pressure of the neutral PFASs. For fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOHs) and fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), the air-snow exchange fluxes were positive, indicating net evaporative from snow into air, while net deposition into snow was observed for perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (Me/EtFOSEs) in winter and spring of 2012. The air-snow exchange was snow-phase controlled for FTOHs and FTAs, and controlled by the air-phase for FOSEs. Air-snow exchange may significantly interfere with atmospheric concentrations of neutral PFASs in the Arctic.

  8. Positive associations of serum perfluoroalkyl substances with uric acid and hyperuricemia in children from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G; Huang, Jin; Ward, Patrick; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Yu; Yuan, Ping; Li, Meng; Bai, Zhipeng; Paul, Gunther; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Chen, Wen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Dong, Guang-Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the risk of hyperuricemia in relation to Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in children from Taiwan, 225 Taiwanese children aged 12-15 years were recruited from 2009 to 2010. Linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the influence of PFASs on serum uric acid levels. Findings revealed that eight of ten PFASs analyses were detected in >94% of the participants' serum samples. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA) was positively associated with serum uric acid levels (β = 0.1463, p < 0.05). Of all the PFASs analyses, only PFOA showed a significant effect on elevated levels of hyperuricemia (aOR = 2.16, 95%CI: 1.29-3.61). When stratified by gender, the association between serum PFOA and uric acid levels was only evident among boys (aOR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.37-5.56). In conclusion, PFOA was found to be associated with elevated serum levels of uric acid in Taiwanese children, especially boys. Further research is needed to elucidate these links. PMID:26970855

  9. 40 CFR 721.3025 - Fatty acids C12-18, C18 unsaturated, C12-18 alkyl esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., C12-18 alkyl esters (generic). 721.3025 Section 721.3025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... alkyl esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids C12-18, C18 unsaturated, C12-18 alkyl esters...

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA

  11. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas P; Barceló, Damià

    2012-08-01

    Water has been identified as one of the main routes of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This work assessed the presence of 21 PFASs along the whole water cycle using a new fast and cost effective analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated for different types of matrices (ultrapure water, tap water and treated wastewater). The quality parameters for the 21 selected compounds presented good limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranging, in general, from 0.83-10 ng/L to 2.8-50 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to assess the occurrence of PFASs in 148 water samples of different steps along the whole water cycle, including: mineral bottled water, tap water, river water and treated effluent wastewater, from Germany to Spain. In addition, in order to prove the good performance of the online analytical method, the analysis of PFASs was carried out in parallel using a method based on offline anionic solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-MS/MS. Consistent results were obtained using both approaches. The more frequently found compounds were perfluoroalkyl acids, such as the perfluorobutanoic acid which was in the 54% of the tap water samples investigated with concentrations in the range between 2.4 and 27 ng/L, the perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.23-53 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (0.16-35 ng/L), and the sulphonate perfluorooctanesulfonate (0.04-258 ng/L) which was the second more frequent compound and also the compound found in with the higher concentration. It should be remarked that the 88% of the samples analyzed presented at least one of the compounds at quantifiable concentrations. In addition, PFASs including short chain compounds were proved to be prevalent in drinking water, and the 50% of the drinking water samples showed quantifiable concentrations of PFASs. It should be said that the great majority of

  12. 40 CFR 721.10044 - Metal oxide, modified with alkyl and vinyl terminated polysiloxanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10044 Metal oxide, modified with alkyl... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as metal oxide, modified with...

  13. Isomer-Specific Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Blood.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hangbiao; Zhang, Yifeng; Jiang, Weiwei; Zhu, Lingyan; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-07-19

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-precursors are routinely measured in human plasma and serum, but their relative abundance in the blood cell fraction has not been carefully examined, particularly at the isomer-specific level. Human plasma and whole blood were collected and partitioning behaviors of PFASs and their isomers between plasma and blood cells were investigated. In human samples, mass fraction in plasma (Fp) for PFASs increased among perfluoroalkyl carboxylates as the carbon chain length increased from C6 (mean 0.24) to C11 (0.87), indicating preference for the plasma fraction with increasing chain length. However, among perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, PFHxS (mean 0.87) had a slightly higher Fp than PFOS (0.85). In vitro assays with spiked Sprague-Dawley rat blood were also conducted, and the results showed that PFOS-precursors had lower Fp values than perfluoroalkyl acids, with perfluoroctanesulfonamide having the lowest Fp (mean 0.24). Consistently, linear isomers of PFOS and PFOS-precursors had lower mean Fp than their corresponding total branched isomers. Multiplying by a factor of 2 is not a reasonable method to convert from whole blood to plasma PFAS concentrations, and current ratios could be used as more accurate conversion factors. PMID:27295125

  14. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  15. Delivery of unprecedented amounts of perfluoroalkyl substances towards the deep-sea.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Canals, Miquel; Barceló, Damià; Puig, Pere; Calafat, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    The finding of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in particles sinking to the deep northwestern Mediterranean Sea confirms the role of the latter as ballast for the transfer of pollutants to the deep sea. The transfer of particulate matter down to the deep is enhanced during atmosphere-driven, high-energy physical oceanographic processes like dense shelf water cascading (DSWC), which is caused by winter surface heat losses and evaporation. Here we present data from samples collected during winter 2012, when dense shelf water formation and subsequent cascading triggered the flushing of large amounts of PFASs through a submarine canyon to depths in excess of 1000 m. The finding of quantifiable concentrations of long-chain PFOA, PFOS and PFNA substances and significantly high concentrations of the short-chain substances PFHxA and PFBA indicates that these compounds, sorbed onto particulate matter, are quickly and directly transferred to the ocean's interior, thus highlighting the role of DSWC in removing those pollutants from the coastal ocean. Eventually, uncertainties about our results arising from the limited number of samples available are counterbalanced by their intrinsic value as intense DSWC events, like the one in 2012, occur only every 5-7 years in the study area, which seriously restricts sampling opportunities. Our results add PFASs to the list of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be conveyed to the deep marine environment. PMID:25918891

  16. 40 CFR 721.10349 - 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-[4-[(alkyl)amino]phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenediamine, Nâ²-(alkyl)-N- phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic). 721.10349 Section 721.10349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10349 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10349 - 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-[4-[(alkyl)amino]phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenediamine, Nâ²-(alkyl)-N- phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic). 721.10349 Section 721.10349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10349 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10349 - 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-[4-[(alkyl)amino]phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,4-Benzenediamine, Nâ²-(alkyl)-N- phenyl]-N-phenyl- (generic). 721.10349 Section 721.10349 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10349 1,4-Benzenediamine, N′-(alkyl)-N-...

  19. Bioaccumulation of emerging organic compounds (perfluoroalkyl substances and halogenated flame retardants) by earthworm in biosolid amended soils.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Irene; de la Torre, Adrián; Sanz, Paloma; Pro, Javier; Carbonell, Gregoria; Martínez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, the bioaccumulation behavior of 49 target emerging organic compounds (20 perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs, and 29 halogenated flame retardants, HFRs) was studied in soil invertebrates (Eisenia andrei). Multi species soil systems (MS·3) were used to assess the fate and the effects associated with the application of four biosolids in agricultural soil on terrestrial soil organisms. Biosolid amendment increased concentrations 1.5-14-fold for PFASs, 1.1-2.4-fold for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs, and 1.1-3.6-fold for chlorinated flame retardants, CFRs. Perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS, (25%) and BDE-209 (60%) were the predominant PFAS and HFR compounds, respectively, in biosolids-amended soils. Total concentrations (ng/g dry weight) in earthworms from biosolid-amended soils ranged from 9.9 to 101 for PFASs, from 45 to 76 for PBDEs and 0.3-32 for CFRs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated to evaluate the degree of exposure of pollutants in earthworms. The mean BAF ranged from 2.2 to 198 for PFASs, 0.6-17 for PBDEs and 0.5-20 for CFRs. The relationship of PFAS and PBDE BAFs in earthworms and their log Kow were compared: PFAS BAFs increased while PBDE BAFs declined with increasing log Kow values. The effect of the aging (21 days) on the bioavailability of the pollutants in amended soils was also assessed: the residence time affected differently to the compounds studied. PMID:27174781

  20. Emission, Dynamics and Transport of Perfluoroalkyl Substances from Land to Ocean by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Gamo, Toshitaka; Ge, Hui; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Water samples collected along the Japanese coast and in the open Pacific Ocean in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were analyzed for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to evaluate the effect of Great East Japan Earthquake (EQ 3.11), which occurred on March 11, 2011, on the dispersion of chemical pollutants. Ultratrace analysis of PFASs in water, a super computer simulation, and an inventory analysis from industrial records revealed the sources and dynamics of PFASs during the EQ 3.11 disaster. In this respect, EQ 3.11 destroyed solid infrastructure on land, and within minutes, PFASs stocked therein were released into the open environment. The historically significant tsunami backwash swept them away from their origin to the coastal water within several hours. It was estimated that from 0.8 to 1.0 tons of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and 4.8 to 5.1 tons of PFOA were discharged into the coastal waters after EQ 3.11 and the tsunami that followed. The reconstruction of EQ 3.11 also traced the influence of this pollution in open ocean water until March 2012, and a statistical and finger printing analysis revealed that there were different distribution mechanisms in coastal regions than in the open ocean for PFOS, other shorter chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids. PMID:26321264

  1. 40 CFR 721.7600 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-ny-lazohetero monocyclic poly-one (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-ny-lazohetero monocyclic poly-one (generic name). 721.7600 Section 721.7600 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7600 Alkyl(heterocyclicyl)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10664 Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10145 Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10664 Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  13. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  14. Alkylating potential of oxetanes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Palma, Bernardo Brito; Martins, Célia; Kranendonk, Michel; Rodrigues, Antonio S; Calle, Emilio; Rueff, José; Casado, Julio

    2010-07-19

    Small, highly strained heterocycles are archetypical alkylating agents (oxiranes, beta-lactones, aziridinium, and thiirinium ions). Oxetanes, which are tetragonal ethers, are higher homologues of oxiranes and reduced counterparts of beta-lactones, and would therefore be expected to be active alkylating agents. Oxetanes are widely used in the manufacture of polymers, especially in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and are present, as a substructure, in compounds such as the widely used antimitotic taxol. Whereas the results of animal tests suggest that trimethylene oxide (TMO), the parent compound, and beta,beta-dimethyloxetane (DMOX) are active carcinogens at the site of injection, no studies have explored the alkylating ability and genotoxicity of oxetanes. This work addresses the issue using a mixed methodology: a kinetic study of the alkylation reaction of 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP), a trap for alkylating agents with nucleophilicity similar to that of DNA bases, by three oxetanes (TMO, DMOX, and methyloxetanemethanol), and a mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and cell viability study (Salmonella microsome test, BTC E. coli test, alkaline comet assay, and MTT assay). The results suggest either that oxetanes lack genotoxic capacity or that their mode of action is very different from that of epoxides and beta-lactones. PMID:20550097

  15. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, amine salt (PMN P-93-353) are subject to reporting under this section for the...) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (where N = 20 ppb)....

  16. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.625 - Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). 721.625 Section 721.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.625 Alkylated diarylamine, sul-furized (generic name). (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10361 - Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10361 Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic). (a... generically as anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (PMN P-10-15) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10361 - Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10361 Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic). (a... generically as anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (PMN P-10-15) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10361 - Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10361 Anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (generic). (a... generically as anthraquinonedicarboximide, diamino-N-alkyl- (PMN P-10-15) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721.3845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ether (generic). 721.3845 Section 721.3845 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.3900 Section 721.3900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (generic) (P-11-338). 721.10417 Section 721.10417 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.5985 Section 721.5985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  15. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in snow, lake, surface runoff water and coastal seawater in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minghong; Yang, Haizhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Lu, Zhibo; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-03-30

    The multi-matrices samples from snow (n=4), lake water (n=4), surface runoff water (SRW) (n=1) and coastal seawater (n=10) were collected to investigate the spatial distribution and the composition profiles of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica in 2011. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). 14 PFASs in snow, 12 PFASs in lake water, 9 PFASs in SRW and 13 PFASs in coastal seawater were quantified, including C(4), C(7), C(8), C(10) PFSAs, C(4)-C(9), C(11)-C(14), C(16) PFCAs, and FOSA. PFOA was detected in all samples with the highest concentration (15,096 pg/L) in coastal seawater indicating a possible influence of local sewage effluent. High concentration and mostly frequency of PFBA occurred in snow (up to 1112 pg/L), lake water (up to 2670 pg/L) and SRW (1431 pg/L) while detected in the range of method detection limited (MDL) in the coastal seawaters indicate that PFBA is mainly originated from atmospheric dust contamination and also affected by the degradation of their precursors. No geographical differences in PFOS concentrations (n=8, 18 ± 3 pg/L) were measured in all snow and lake water samples also suggests that PFOS could be originated from the degradation of their precursors which can transported by long-range atmospheric route, but in a very low level. PMID:22305203

  16. A simple and rapid extraction method for sensitive determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood serum suitable for exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; van Leeuwen, Stefan; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-04-27

    In this work, we propose a microextraction method based on a new supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of reverse aggregates of hexanoic acid, combined with liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QQQ MS-MS) for the determination of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in blood serum. A SUPRAS is a nano-structured liquid made up of surfactant aggregates synthesized through a self-assembly process. The method involved the acidification of 765 μL of blood serum (600 μmol of hydrochloric acid per mL of serum) followed by the addition of hexanoic acid (97 μL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (600 μL), conditions under which the supramolecular solvent (∼360 μL) formed in situ after vortex-shaking and centrifugation. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency and concentration factors were studied. The overall sample treatment took only 20 min and several samples (20-30) can be simultaneously analyzed using conventional lab equipments, making additional investments unnecessary. Recoveries for the internal standards in samples ranged from 75 to 89% with relative standard deviations between 1 and 15%. Calibration was based on the use of internal standards. The method was very sensitive with detection limits ranging from 2 to 20 pg mL(-1) for PFASs. The approach developed was successfully applied to the determination of PFASs in different blood serum samples. The concentration of PFASs found in samples of animal origin ranged between 17 and 197.3 pg mL(-1) and between 84 and 5168 pg mL(-1) in samples of human origin. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it suitable for the evaluation of exposure to PFASs. PMID:22420956

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels from 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Hamers, Timo; Swart, Kees; Aars, Jon; Lie, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Else Mari Espseth; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-11-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are protein-binding blood-accumulating contaminants that may have detrimental toxicological effects on the early phases of mammalian development. To enable an evaluation of the potential health risks of PFAS exposure for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), an exposure assessment was made by examining plasma levels of PFASs in polar bear mothers in relation to their suckling cubs-of-the-year (~4 months old). Samples were collected at Svalbard in 1998 and 2008, and we investigated the between-year differences in levels of PFASs. Seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑₇PFCAs: PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTrDA) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (∑₂PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) were detected in the majority of the mothers and cubs from both years. In mothers and cubs, most PFCAs were detected in higher concentrations in 2008 than in 1998. On the contrary, levels of PFOS were lower in 2008 than in 1998, while levels of PFHxS did not differ between the two sampling years. PFOS was the dominating compound in mothers and cubs both in 1998 and in 2008. Concentration of PFHpA did not differ between mothers and cubs, while concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA, PFHxS, and PFOS were higher in mothers than in their cubs. Except from PFHpA, all compounds correlated significantly between mothers and their cubs. The mean cub to mother ratios ranged from 0.15 for PFNA to 1.69 for PFHpA. On average (mean±standard error of mean), the levels of ∑₇PFCAs and ∑₂PFSAs in cubs were 0.24±0.01 and 0.22±0.01 times the levels in their mothers, respectively. Although maternal transfer appears to be a substantial source of exposure for the cubs, the low cub to mother ratios indicate that maternal transfer of PFASs in polar bears is relatively low in comparison with hydrophobic contaminants (e.g. PCBs). Because the level of several PFASs in mothers and cubs from both sampling years exceeded the levels associated

  18. 40 CFR 721.642 - Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and tetrapropylenepenta-. 721.642 Section 721.642... Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and... substances amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-18 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylenetri-, (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.642 - Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and tetrapropylenepenta-. 721.642 Section 721.642... Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and... substances amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-18 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylenetri-, (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.642 - Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and tetrapropylenepenta-. 721.642 Section 721.642... Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and... substances amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-18 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylenetri-, (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.642 - Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and tetrapropylenepenta-. 721.642 Section 721.642... Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and... substances amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-18 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylenetri-, (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.642 - Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and tetrapropylenepenta-. 721.642 Section 721.642... Amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-16 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylene-tri-, tripropylenetetra-, and... substances amines, N-(C14-18 and C16-18 unsaturated alkyl)] dipropylenetri-, (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96-1674 and P-96-1675) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described.... (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (h),...

  4. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96-1674 and P-96-1675) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described.... (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping requirements as specified in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (h),...

  5. Stockholm Arlanda Airport as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to water, sediment and fish.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Norström, Karin; Viktor, Tomas; Cousins, Anna Palm; Josefsson, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Fire training facilities are potential sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the nearby environment due to the usage of PFAS-containing aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs). The multimedia distribution of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) was investigated near a fire training facility at Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sweden. The whole body burden of PFASs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) was 334±80μg absolute and was distributed as follows: Gonad>liver≈muscle>blood>gill. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and sediment/water partition coefficient (Kd) increased by 0.6-1.7 and 0.2-0.5 log units, respectively, for each additional CF2 moiety for PFCAs and PFSAs. PFAS concentrations in water showed no significant decreasing trend between 2009 and 2013 (p>0.05), which indicates that Stockholm Arlanda Airport may be an important source for long-term contamination of the nearby environment with PFASs. PMID:24821232

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances in aquatic environment-comparison of fish and passive sampling approaches.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Daniel; Grabic, Roman; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Turek, Jan; Kodes, Vit; Golovko, Oksana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Randak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of seven perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in 36 European chub (Squalius cephalus) individuals from six localities in the Czech Republic. Chub muscle and liver tissue were analysed at all sampling sites. In addition, analyses of 16 target PFASs were performed in Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCISs) deployed in the water at the same sampling sites. We evaluated the possibility of using passive samplers as a standardized method for monitoring PFAS contamination in aquatic environments and the mutual relationships between determined concentrations. Only perfluorooctane sulphonate was above the LOQ in fish muscle samples and 52% of the analysed fish individuals exceeded the Environmental Quality Standard for water biota. Fish muscle concentration is also particularly important for risk assessment of fish consumers. The comparison of fish tissue results with published data showed the similarity of the Czech results with those found in Germany and France. However, fish liver analysis and the passive sampling approach resulted in different fish exposure scenarios. The total concentration of PFASs in fish liver tissue was strongly correlated with POCIS data, but pollutant patterns differed between these two matrices. The differences could be attributed to the metabolic activity of the living organism. In addition to providing a different view regarding the real PFAS cocktail to which the fish are exposed, POCISs fulfil the Three Rs strategy (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in animal testing. PMID:26599587

  7. Levels of Contamination by Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Honey from Selected European Countries.

    PubMed

    Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk; Piskuła, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 10 PFASs in selected types of honey samples from selected eastern, northern and southern European countries. A total of 26 samples of honey were analyzed. PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids) were detected in almost all (92 %) analyzed samples in the range of 0.124-0.798 ng g(-1) ww (wet weight). The average concentrations of particular PFCAs (ng g(-1) ww) in honey samples increased in the following order: perfluorononanoic acid (0.164) < perfluorooctanoic acid (0.189) < perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.271) < perfluorodecanoic acid (0.278). Amongst perfluoroalkane sulfonates, only perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was identified in four of 26 analyzed samples, and its concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 0.191 ng g(-1) ww. Italian eucalyptus honey contained the highest total content of PFASs (0.878 ng g(-1) ww). Samples originating from an industrial region of Poland showed 20 % higher concentrations of PFCAs compared to those from non-industrial regions. PMID:27234259

  8. Size and age-concentration relationships for perfluoroalkyl substances in stingray livers from eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Lai, Foon Yin; Townsend, Kathy; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-10-15

    While the literature has reported a widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine biota, very limited studies have been dedicated to the southern hemisphere. Hepatic concentrations of nine PFAAs were analysed in 49 stranded stingrays from eastern Australia using liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and relationships with biological parameters (i.e. body size, age and sex) were investigated. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were the predominant compounds quantified, with hepatic concentrations varying from 2 to 117 and from 0.2 to 19 ng·g(-1) w.w., respectively. A negative correlation between the concentration of PFASs in the livers of 32 blue-spotted stingrays and the body size/age was found. This relationship was independent of the animal's sex. We postulate that the dependence on body size is related to differing uptake kinetics of the chemicals, after the sting rays were exposed to an increased level of the contaminants in their environment. Such a pollution event could be related to a severe flood event that occurred at this location a few months before the samples' collection. Our results indicate that the influence of the body size/age should be taken into account when estimating bioaccumulation parameters from environmental measurements or exposure levels of biota to PFASs. PMID:25108254

  9. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Etterson, Matthew A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150–200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed.

  10. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Etterson, Matthew A; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150-200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed. PMID:23860575

  11. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples. PMID:26413802

  12. Exposure of Norwegian toddlers to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): The association with breastfeeding and maternal PFAS concentrations.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Granum, Berit; Haug, Line S

    2016-09-01

    High exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in children. PFASs exposure pathways of toddlers might differ from those of infants and adults, and the investigations on determinants of PFASs exposure in early childhood are scarce. Our aims were to examine the PFAS blood concentrations in Norwegian toddlers and to assess their relationship with maternal PFAS concentrations in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. We determined PFAS concentrations in 112 plasma samples of 3-year-old children collected at 2010-2011 and 99 maternal serum samples collected around delivery at 2007-2008. PFAS concentrations in children were regressed on duration of breastfeeding, and the effect modification by maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations was examined in 55 mother-child pairs. Six PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of both maternal and children samples. Positive and significant correlations ranging between 0.50 and 0.66 were found between maternal and child concentrations of the same PFAS congeners. Nevertheless, toddlers had higher total PFAS blood concentrations than their mothers, due to higher concentrations of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS. Every month of breastfeeding was associated with an increase of 3.3% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.8-5.8) for PFOS, 4.7% (95%CI: 2.8-6.6) for PFOA and 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6-9.7) for PFHpS in toddlers' plasma and a dose-response association was found, after adjustment for confounders. However, PFNA and PFUnDA concentrations in children were not associated with either maternal concentrations or breastfeeding duration. Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer, prenatally, and breastfeeding, postanatally, are among the main determinants of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS concentrations in toddlers, while that was not the case for PFNA and PFUnDA. Nevertheless, due to the small number of mother child-pairs in our study, our results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27453094

  13. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761

  14. Discovery of C5-C17 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in water by in-line SPE-HPLC-Orbitrap with in-source fragmentation flagging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanna; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-04-21

    The presence of unknown organofluorine compounds in environmental samples has prompted the development of nontargeted analytical methods capable of detecting new perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). By combining high volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, a sensitive (0.003-0.2 ng F/mL for model mass-labeled PFASs) untargeted workflow was developed for discovery and characterization of novel PFASs in water. In the first step, up to 5 mL of water is injected to in-line solid phase extraction, chromatographed by HPLC, and detected by electrospray ionization with mass spectral acquisition in parallel modes cycling back and forth: (i) full scan with ultrahigh resolving power (RP = 120,000, mass accuracy ≤3 ppm), and (ii) in-source fragmentation flagging scans designed to yield marker fragment ions including [C2F5](-) (m/z 118.992), [C3F7](-) (m/z 168.988), [SO4H](-) (m/z 96.959), and [Cl](-) (m/z 34.9). For flagged PFASs, plausible empirical formulas were generated from accurate masses, isotopic patterns, and fragment ions. In the second step, another injection is made to collect high resolution MS/MS spectra of suspect PFAS ions, allowing further confirmation of empirical formulas while also enabling preliminary structural characterization. The method was validated by applying it to an industrial wastewater, and 36 new PFASs were discovered. Of these, 26 were confidently assigned to 3 new PFAS classes that have not previously been reported in the environment: polyfluorinated sulfates (CnFn+3Hn-2SO4(-); n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15), chlorine substituted perfluorocarboxylates (ClCnF2nCO2(-); n = 4-11), and hydro substituted perfluorocarboxylates (HCnF2nCO2(-); n = 5-16). Application of the technique to environmental water samples is now warranted. PMID:25818392

  15. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  16. Quantification of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and perfluoroalkyl substances in the marine sediments of Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Long, Edward R; Dutch, Margaret; Weakland, Sandra; Chandramouli, Bharat; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of 119 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in marine sediments measured throughout Puget Sound (n = 10) and Bellingham Bay (n = 30), Washington, USA, are reported. These data are among the first measurements of PPCPs and PFASs in marine sediments from the Pacific Northwest and provide a comparison to previous measurements of these chemicals in influent, effluent, and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plants throughout the region. The concentrations of both PPCPs and PFASs in sediments from Puget Sound and Bellingham Bay ranged from very low to non-detectable for most compounds. Only 14 of the 119 PPCPs and 3 of 13 PFASs were quantifiable in sediments. Diphenhydramine (an antihistamine) was most frequently detected (87.5% of samples), with a maximum concentration of 4.81 ng/g dry weight and an estimated mean detected concentration of 1.68 ng/g. Triclocarban (an antibacterial) was detected in 35.0% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.6 ng/g dry weight. Perfluoroalkyl substances were detected in 2.5% of analyses. Perfluorobutanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were detected in 7, 5, and 1 sample(s) each, respectively, with the highest concentrations observed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (1.5 ng/g). Detected concentrations were often highest within the industrial harbor in Bellingham Bay and near the cities of Seattle and Bremerton. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1701-1710. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23843318

  17. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  18. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721.10108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction... chemical substance identified generically as Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(4), (c)(4) (where N = 100). The requirement of 40 CFR 721.91(a)(4) that the amount of the substance...-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical...

  5. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)(4), (c)(4) (where N = 100). The requirement of 40 CFR 721.91(a)(4) that the amount of the substance...-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with silica (generic). 721.10498 Section 721.10498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... with silica (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10702 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thio polyacrylic acid-acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thio polyacrylic acid-acrylamide (generic). 721.10702 Section 721.10702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under this... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c),(d),(e), (f), (g), (h),(i), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under this... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c),(d),(e), (f), (g), (h),(i), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7200 - Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Perfluoroalkyl aromatic carbamate modified alkyl methacrylate copolymer. 721.7200 Section 721.7200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10059 Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10058 Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenols and formaldehyde... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(4), (c)(4) (where N = 100). The requirement of 40 CFR 721.91(a)(4) that the amount of the substance...-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical...

  5. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(4), (c)(4) (where N = 100). The requirement of 40 CFR 721.91(a)(4) that the amount of the substance...-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical...

  6. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(4), (c)(4) (where N = 100). The requirement of 40 CFR 721.91(a)(4) that the amount of the substance...-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. (a) Chemical...

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances assessment in drinking waters from Brazil, France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Schwanz, Thiago G; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) occurs primarily via dietary intake and drinking water. In this study, 16 PFASs have been assessed in 96 drinking waters (38 bottled waters and 58 samples of tap water) from Brazil, France and Spain. The total daily intake and the risk index (RI) of 16 PFASs through drinking water in Brazil, France and Spain have been estimated. This study was carried out using an analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The quality parameters of the analytical method were satisfactory for the analysis of the 16 selected compounds in drinking waters. Notably, the method limits of detection (MLOD) and method limits of quantification (MLOQ) were in the range of 0.15 to 8.76ng/l and 0.47 to 26.54ng/l, respectively. The results showed that the highest PFASs concentrations were found in tap water samples and the more frequently found compound was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with mean concentrations of 7.73, 15.33 and 15.83ng/l in French, Spanish and Brazilian samples, respectively. In addition, PFOS was detected in all tap water samples from Brazil. The highest level of PFASs contamination in a single sample was 140.48ng/l in a sample of Spanish tap water. In turn, in bottled waters the highest levels were detected in a French sample with 116ng/l as the sum of PFASs. Furthermore, the most frequent compounds and those at higher concentrations were perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) with a mean of frequencies in the three countries of 51.3%, followed by perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) (27.2%) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (23.0%). Considering that bottled water is approximately 38% of the total intake, the total PFASs exposure through drinking water intake for an adult man was estimated to be 54.8, 58.0 and 75.6ng/person per day in Spain, France and Brazil, respectively. However, assuming that the water content in other beverages

  8. 40 CFR 721.600 - 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name). 721.600 Section 721.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.600 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.600 - 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name). 721.600 Section 721.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.600 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.600 - 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name). 721.600 Section 721.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.600 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium...

  11. 40 CFR 721.600 - 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name). 721.600 Section 721.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.600 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium...

  12. 40 CFR 721.600 - 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium salt (generic name). 721.600 Section 721.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.600 3-Alkyl-2-(2-anilino)vinyl thi-azolinium...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  15. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  16. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  17. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products. PMID:25854201

  18. Syntheses and analytical characterizations of N-alkyl-arylcyclohexylamines.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Jason; Colestock, Tristan; Cicali, Brian; Elliott, Simon P; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Adejare, Adeboye; Dempster, Nicola M; Brandt, Simon D

    2016-08-01

    The rise in new psychoactive substances that are available as 'research chemicals' (RCs) remains a significant forensic and legislative challenge. A number of arylcyclohexylamines have attracted attention as RCs and continue to be encountered, including 3-MeO-PCP, 3-MeO-PCE and 3-MeO-PCPr. These compounds are commonly perceived as ketamine-like dissociative substances and are believed to act predominantly via antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. To aid in the identification of newly emerging substances of abuse, the current studies were performed. The syntheses of fifteen N-alkyl-arylcyclohexylamines are described. Analytical characterizations were performed via gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple forms of mass spectrometry as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ultraviolet diode array detection and infrared spectroscopy. The series consisted of the N-alkyl derivatives (N-methyl, N-ethyl, N-propyl) of phenyl-substituted and isomeric 2-, 3- and 4-methoxy phenylcyclohexylamines, as well as the N-alkyl derivatives obtained from 3-methylphenyl and 2-thienyl moieties. In addition to the presentation of a range of previously unreported data, it was also found that positional isomers of aryl methoxyl-substituted arylcyclohexylamines were readily distinguishable under a variety of analytical conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26360516

  19. A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2016-05-01

    A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. PMID:27062722

  20. Changes in Serum Concentrations of Maternal Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances over the Course of Pregnancy and Predictors of Exposure in a Multiethnic Cohort of Cincinnati, Ohio Pregnant Women during 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Data on predictors of gestational exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the United States are limited. To fill in this gap, in a multiethnic cohort of Ohio pregnant women recruited in 2003–2006, we measured perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and six additional PFASs in maternal serum at ∼16 weeks gestation (N = 182) and delivery (N = 78), and in umbilical cord serum (N = 202). We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal serum PFASs concentrations and demographic, perinatal, and lifestyle factors. PFASs concentrations in maternal sera and in their infants’ cord sera were highly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficients = 0.73–0.95). In 71 maternal-infant dyads, unadjusted geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) (in μg/L) in maternal serum at delivery of PFOS [8.50 (7.01–9.58)] and PFOA [3.43 (3.01–3.90)] were significantly lower than at 16 weeks gestation [11.57 (9.90–13.53], 4.91 (4.32–5.59), respectively], but higher than in infants’ cord serum [3.32 (2.84–3.89), 2.85 (2.51–3.24), respectively] (P < 0.001). Women who were parous, with a history of previous breastfeeding, black, or in the lowest income category had significantly lower PFOS and PFOA GM concentrations than other women. These data suggest transplacental transfer of PFASs during pregnancy and nursing for the first time in a U.S. birth cohort. PMID:25026485

  1. Alkylation and acylation of cyclotriphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Benson, Mark A; Zacchini, Stefano; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy; Chan, Yuri; Steiner, Alexander

    2007-08-20

    Phosphazenes (RNH)6P3N3 (R = n-propyl, isobutyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, tert-butyl, benzyl) are readily alkylated at ring N sites by alkyl halides forming N-alkyl phosphazenium cations. Alkylation of two ring N sites occurred after prolonged heating in the presence of methyl iodide or immediately at room temperature with methyl triflate yielding N,N'-dimethyl phosphazenium dications. Geminal dichloro derivatives Cl2(RNH)4P3N3 are methylated by methyl iodide at the ring N site adjacent to both P centers carrying four RNH groups. X-ray crystal structures showed that the alkylation of ring N sites leads to substantial elongation of the associated P-N bonds. Both N-alkyl and N,N'-dialkyl phosphazenium salts form complex supramolecular networks in the solid state via NH...X interactions. Systems carrying less-bulky RNH groups show additional NH...N bonds between N-alkyl phosphazenium ions. N-Alkyl phosphazenium halides form complexes with silver ions upon treatment with silver nitrate. Depending on the steric demand of RNH substituents, either one or both of the vacant ring N sites engage in coordination to silver ions. Treatment of (RNH)6P3N3 (R = isopropyl) with acetyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, respectively, yielded N-acyl phosphazenium ions. X-ray crystal structures revealed that elongation of P-N bonds adjacent to the acylated ring N site is more pronounced than it is in the case of N-alkylated species. Salts containing N-alkyl phosphazenium ions are stable toward water and other mild nucleophiles, while N,N'-dialkyl and N-acyl phosphazenium salts are readily hydrolyzed. The reaction of (RNH)6P3N3 with bromoacetic acid led to N-alkylation at one ring N site in addition to formation of an amide via condensation of an adjacent RNH substituent with the carboxylic acid group. The resulting bromide salt contains mono cations of composition (RNH)5P3N3CH2CONR in which a CH2-C(O) unit is embedded between a ring N and an exocyclic N site of the phosphazene. PMID

  2. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride

  3. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  13. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus).

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Roos, Anna; Lind, Ylva; Hope, Kjell; Ekblad, Alf; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds. PMID:27174782

  14. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy-...

  15. Alkylation of toluene with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Walendziewski, J.; Trawczynski, J.

    1996-10-01

    A series of Y and ZSM-5 zeolite based catalysts was prepared. Zeolites were cation exchanged and formed with 50% of aluminum hydroxide as a binder, and the obtained catalysts were finally thermally treated. Activity tests in alkylation of toluene with ethanol were carried out in the temperature range of 325--400 C, in nitrogen or hydrogen stream, and a pressure up to 3 MPa. The feed consisted of toluene and ethanol mixed in a mole ratio 1/1 or 2/1. The obtained results showed that among the studied catalysts the highest activity in the alkylation reaction was attained by ZSM-5 zeolite based catalyst with a moderate acidity and medium silica to alumina ratio, i.e., {approximately}50. Activity and selectivity of the most active catalyst as well as conversion of the feed components were similar to those reported in other papers. The content of p-ethyltoluene in alkylation products attained ca. 60%.

  16. A biological source of oceanic alkyl nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Lewis, C. B.; Velasco, F. L.; Escobar, C.; Kellogg, D.; Velcamp, M.

    2013-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are an important component of reactive nitrogen in the troposphere. The oceans are a source of alkyl nitrates to the atmosphere, however the source of alkyl nitrates in the oceans is unknown. It has been demonstrated that the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals (ROO) with nitric oxide (NO) produces alkyl nitrates in the aqueous phase. We hypothesize that alkyl nitrates may be formed by organisms through the same reaction and therefore biological production could be a source of alkyl nitrates to the troposphere. This work focuses on the production of alkyl nitrates by the diatoms Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira weisfloggi. Using chemostats, we measure alkyl nitrates formed under nitrate limited conditions. We also use triggers and inhibitors of nitric oxide formation to determine if alkyl nitrate formation is affected by changes in NO production. To date, the rates of production of alkyl nitrates in our cultures, lead us to estimate a production rate on the order of femtomolar/day for C1-C3 alkyl nitrates by diatom species in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. This suggests that diatoms may contribute to the overall ocean source of alkyl nitrates; however, it is possible that other types of phytoplankton, such as cyanobacteria, that are more abundant in the open ocean, may contribute to a greater extent.

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%PFASs were sporadically detected in liver. PFOS levels in feathers and liver were highly correlated (r=0.78, p<0.01), in contrast to PFOA (r=-0.11, p=0.78). Combined with high PFOA levels in feathers this suggests that PFOA may be present on the external surface of feathers, due to external contamination originating from the air in the vicinity of point sources. Therefore the possibility of using feathers as a passive air sampler for high PFOA levels should be investigated in the future. PMID:23266911

  18. Phosphine-alkene ligand-mediated alkyl-alkyl and alkyl-halide elimination processes from palladium(II).

    PubMed

    Tuxworth, Luke; Baiget, Lise; Phanopoulos, Andreas; Metters, Owen J; Batsanov, Andrei S; Fox, Mark A; Howard, Judith A K; Dyer, Philip W

    2012-10-28

    N-Diphenylphosphino-7-aza-benzobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene (2) behaves as a chelating phosphine-alkene ligand for Pd(0) and Pd(II), promoting direct alkyl-alkyl and indirect alkyl-halide reductive elimination reactions due to the stabilisation of the resulting bis(phosphine-alkene)Pd(0) complex. PMID:22986447

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in a terrestrial raptor: relationships to environmental conditions and individual traits.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Ahrens, Lutz; Herzke, Dorte; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife may be influenced by the physical and biotic environment, and concentrations vary greatly among areas, seasons, and individuals. Different hypotheses about sources of variation in perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations were examined in eggs (n = 107) of tawny owls (Strix aluco) collected over a 24-yr period (1986-2009) in Norway. Predictor variables included the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), temperature, snow, food availability (vole abundance), and individual traits such as age, body condition, and clutch size. Concentrations of both perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) varied several fold in the population, both inter- and intra-annually. Moreover, individuals laid eggs with several times higher or lower PFAS concentrations within few years (1 yr-5 yr). After controlling for temporal trends (i.e., declining PFOS and increasing PFCA concentrations), both PFOS and PFCAs were positively associated to the winter NAO in the previous year (NAOy - 1 ), suggesting that atmospheric transport may be affecting the input of PFASs to the local ecosystem. Perfluoro-octane sulfonate was negatively related to temperature, but the pattern was complex as there was an interaction between temperature and the feeding conditions. The PFOS accumulation was highest in years with high vole abundance and low to medium temperatures. For PFCAs, there was an interaction between NAOy - 1 and feeding conditions, suggesting that strong air transport toward Norway and high consumption of voles led to a moderate increase in PFCA accumulation. The individual traits, however, had very little impact on the concentrations of PFASs in the eggs. The present study thus suggests that annual variation in environmental conditions influences the concentrations of PFASs in a terrestrial raptor such as the tawny owl. PMID:25323676

  20. Oil compositions containing alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivatives of copolymers of an alpha olefin or an alkyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.T.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes an oil composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil selected from a crude oil or fuel oil and a minor amount of an alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivative of an alpha olefin or alkyl vinyl ether and an unsaturated alpha, beta-dicarboxylic compound copolymer having pour point depressant ;properties. The copolymer comprising the reaction product of an alpha olefin having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or mixtures of alpha olefins having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or an alkyl vinyl ether or mixture of alkyl vinyl ethers.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with silica and substituted silane (generic). 721.10497 Section 721.10497 Protection of... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products with silica and substituted silane (generic). 721.10497 Section 721.10497 Protection of... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  3. Use of alkyl sulfates in the dewaterng of a coal flotation concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zubkova, Yu.N.; Basenkova, V.L.; Kucher, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility has been shown of using anionic SAAs in the dewatering of a coal flotation concentrate. It has been established that the adsorption of alkyl sulfates (ASs) obeys the general laws of the adsorption of organic substances from solutions on coals. The addition of electrolytes intensifies the adsorption of ASs, leading to the hydrophobization of the coal particles. 10 refs.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  6. Ombrotrophic peat bogs are not suited as natural archives to investigate the historical atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Thuens, Sabine; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-17

    As ombrotrophic peat bogs receive only atmospheric input of contaminants, they have been identified as suitable natural archives for investigating historical depositions of airborne pollutants. To elucidate their suitability for determining the historical atmospheric contamination with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), two peat cores were sampled at Mer Bleue, a bog located close to Ottawa, Canada. Peat cores were segmented, dried, and analyzed in duplicate for 25 PFASs (5 perfluororalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), 7 perfluororalkyl sulfonamido substances). Peat samples were extracted by ultrasonication, cleaned up using a QuEChERS method, and PFASs were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Twelve PFCAs and PFSAs were detected regularly in peat samples with perfluorooctane sulfonate (85-655 ng kg(-1)), perfluorooctanoate (150-390 ng kg(-1)), and perfluorononanoate (45-320 ng kg(-1)) at highest concentrations. Because of post depositional relocation processes within the peat cores, true or unbiased deposition fluxes (i.e., not affected by post depositional changes) could not be calculated. Apparent or biased deposition rates (i.e., affected by post depositional changes) were lower than measured/calculated deposition rates for similar urban or near-urban sites. Compared to PFAS production, PFAS concentration and deposition maxima were shifted about 30 years toward the past and some analytes were detected even in the oldest segments from the beginning of the 20th century. This was attributed to PFAS mobility in the peat profile. Considerable differences were observed between both peat cores and different PFASs. Overall, this study demonstrates that ombrotrophic bogs are not suited natural archives to provide authentic and reliable temporal trend data of historical atmospheric PFAS deposition. PMID:22680699

  7. Substance p.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Geppetti, P

    2001-06-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the history of substance P from its discovery in the 1930s to the present day. The development of substance P receptor agonists and antagonists, and more recently the employment of transgenic mice, provide a framework to explore the functional role of substance P. Chronic inflammation and pain are associated with a number of diseases, and it has been proposed that substance P, released from primary afferent nerve endings play a role in these conditions. Recent developments with substance P antagonists have demonstrated the importance of substance P in several models of disease that span from asthma to chronic bronchitis; from cystitis, inflammatory bowel disease to migraine; emesis, depression, pain and seizures. Advancements in the knowledge of the role of substance P, its agonists and antagonists could provide clinical solutions for a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:11378438

  8. Determinants of plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in pregnant Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, KW; Ydersbond, TA; Haug, LS; Haugen, M; Knutsen, HK; Thomsen, C; Meltzer, HM; Becher, G; Sabaredzovic, A; Hoppin, JA; Eggesbø, M; Longnecker, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread pollutants that have been associated with adverse health effects although not on a consistent basis. Diet has been considered the main source of exposure. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants of four plasma PFASs in pregnant Norwegian women. Methods This study is based in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Our sample included 487 women who enrolled in MoBa from 2003–2004. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, medical, and reproductive history was completed at 17 weeks gestation and a dietary questionnaire was completed at 22 weeks gestation. Maternal plasma samples were obtained around 17 weeks of gestation. Plasma concentrations of four PFASs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA)) were examined in relation to demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and pregnancy-related covariates. Predictors were identified by optimizing multiple linear regression models using Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Results Parity was the determinant with the largest influence on plasma PFAS concentrations, with r2 between 0.09 and 0.32 in simple regression models. In optimal multivariate models, when compared to nulliparous women, parous women had 46%, 70%, 19%, and 62% lower concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA respectively (p<0.001 except for PFHxS, p<0.01). In all these models, duration of breastfeeding was associated with reduced PFAS levels. PFOA showed the largest reduction from breastfeeding, with a 2–3% reduction per month of breastfeeding in typical cases. Levels of PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA increased with time since most recent pregnancy. While pregnancy-related factors were the most important predictors, diet was a significant factor explaining up to 4% of the variance. One quartile increase in estimated dietary PFAS intake

  9. Methods of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  10. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2015-02-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  12. Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Thyroid Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S.; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rej, Robert; Fitzgerald, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of the thyroid disruptive properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly in aging populations, is limited. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess associations between thyroid function, as measured by serum thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3), and serum perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in an aging population and (ii) determine if other persistent organic pollutants with thyroid disruptive properties including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) modify such associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 87 men and women 55 to 74 years of age, without clinically-diagnosed thyroid disease, who resided in upper Hudson River communities in New York. Geometric means (standard deviations) of serum PFOS and PFOA were 31.6 (1.7) ng/mL and 9.17 (1.72) ng/mL, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that one interquartile range difference in PFOS corresponded to 4% and 9% increases in fT4 and T4 respectively. We detected statistical interactions between PFOA and age for effects on fT4 and T4; joint increases in PFOA and age were associated with increases in fT4 and T4, of 3% and 7%, respectively. We also detected statistical interactions between PFOS and total PCBs for the effect on T3 and between PFOA and total PBDEs for the effect on TSH. Our results suggest that PFASs are associated with subtle alterations in thyroid hormone levels in this population, and that these associations are likely to vary by age, and levels of PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:25483837

  13. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroxytyrosol Alkyl-Carbonate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2016-07-22

    Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance. PMID:27337069

  14. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Webster, Thomas F; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3-4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4-6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS-outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  15. Impact of biological filtrations for organic micropollutants and polyfluoroalkyl substances removal from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-08-01

    The impact of biological activated carbon (BAC), sand filtration (SF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) for removal of the selected organic micropollutants and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from secondary effluent was studied. BAC led to greater removal of dissolved organic carbon (43%) than BAF (30%) which in turn was greater than SF (24%). All biological filtration systems could effectively remove most of the selected organic micropollutants, and there was a greater removal of these micropollutants by BAC (76-98%) than BAF (70-92%) or SF (68-90%). It was found that all treatment was effective for removal of the hydrophobic (log D > 3.2) and readily biodegradable organic micropollutants. The major mechanism for the removal of these molecules was biodegradation by the micro-organism and sorption by the biofilm. Compared to organic micropollutants removal, there was a lower removal of PFASs by all treatments, and BAF and SF had a considerably lower removal than BAC treatment. The better removal for all molecule types by BAC was due to additional adsorption capacity by the activated carbon. This study demonstrated that the BAC process was most effective in removing organic micropollutants present in the secondary effluent. PMID:26695189

  16. Alternative and Legacy Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Differences between European and Chinese River/Estuary Systems.

    PubMed

    Heydebreck, Franziska; Tang, Jianhui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-21

    The production and use of long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) must comply with national and international regulations. Driven by increasingly stringent regulations, their production has been outsourced to less regulated countries in Asia. In addition, the fluoropolymer industry started to use fluorinated alternatives, such as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid (HFPO-DA). Between August 2013 and September 2014, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of HFPO-DA and legacy PFASs in surface waters of the following river/estuary systems: the Elbe and Rhine Rivers in Germany, the Rhine-Meuse delta in The Netherlands, and the Xiaoqing River in China. Distinct differences were revealed among the study areas; notably, the Chinese samples were highly polluted by an industrial point source discharging mainly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This particular point source resulted in concentrations more than 6000 times higher than an industrial point source observed in the Scheur River, where HFPO-DA was the dominant compound with a concentration of 73.1 ng/L. Moreover, HFPO-DA was detected in all samples along the coastline of the North Sea, indicating that the compound may be transported from the Rhine-Meuse delta into the German Bight via the water current. To the best of our knowledge, the fluorinated alternative, HFPO-DA, was detected for the first time in surface waters of Germany and China. PMID:26106903

  17. Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances through the consumption of fish from lakes affected by aqueous film-forming foam emissions - A combined epidemiological and exposure modeling approach. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Solrunn; Vestergren, Robin; Herzke, Dorte; Melhus, Marita; Evenset, Anita; Hanssen, Linda; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2016-09-01

    Releases of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) from airport firefighting activities have been identified as important local point sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in nearby waterways. PFASs can be taken up by fish, and in turn by the humans that consume them. Despite the global extent of AFFF emissions, few studies exist on related impacts on humans. We aimed to investigate the associations between the consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations in humans using a combination of statistical tools, empirical data, and toxicokinetic modeling. Participants of the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Study were the basis for this study sample, which comprised 74 persons. Fifty-nine participants who reported consuming fish from AFFF-affected waters and 15 nonconsumers completed a questionnaire and gave serum samples. Participants were classified based on their consumption of trout and char: high (n=16), moderate (n=16), low (n=27), and nonconsumers (n=15); and serum samples were tested for the presence of 15 PFASs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was found in all participants, with the highest concentrations detected in the high consumption group (geometric means, 28ng/mL) compared to the low consumption group and nonconsumers (10 and 11ng/mL, respectively). In an analysis of variance contrast model, a significant, positive increasing trend was seen for fish consumption and PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Toxicokinetic modeling allowed us to predict the median increases in serum concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA among high consumers within a factor of 2.2. The combination of statistical evaluation and toxicokinetic modeling clearly demonstrated a positive relationship between consumption of fish from AFFF-affected waters and serum PFAS concentrations. Further studies on dietary exposure to other PFASs present in AFFF and its consequences on human health are warranted. PMID

  18. A North American and global survey of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface soils: Distribution patterns and mode of occurrence.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Keegan; Mabury, Scott A; Jenkins, Thomas M; Washington, John W

    2016-10-01

    The distribution of 32 per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface soils was determined at 62 locations representing all continents (North America n = 33, Europe n = 10, Asia n = 6, Africa n = 5, Australia n = 4, South America n = 3 and Antarctica n = 1) using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) systems. Quantifiable levels of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA-PFTeDA) were observed in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 29 to 14,300 pg/g (dry weight), while perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS, PFOS and PFDS) were detected in all samples but one, ranging from PFASs in terrestrial settings. The geometric mean PFCA and PFSA concentrations were observed to be higher in the northern hemisphere (930 and 170 pg/g) compared to the southern hemisphere (190 and 33 pg/g). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were the most commonly detected analytes at concentrations up to 2670 and 3100 pg/g, respectively. The sum of PFCA homologues of PFOA commonly were roughly twice the concentration of PFOA. The PFCA and PFSA congener profiles were similar amongst most locations, with a few principal-component statistical anomalies suggesting impact from nearby urban and point sources. The ratio of even to odd PFCAs was consistent with the atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer-based precursors previously observed in laboratory and environmental studies. Given the soils were collected from locations absent of direct human activity, these results suggest that the atmospheric long-range transport (LRT) of neutral PFASs followed by oxidation and deposition are a significant source of PFCAs and PFSAs to soils. PMID:27441993

  19. Spatial distribution and partitioning behavior of selected poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in freshwater ecosystems: a French nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriel; Giraudel, Jean-Luc; Botta, Fabrizio; Lestremau, François; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Budzinski, Hélène; Labadie, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution and partitioning of 22 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 133 selected rivers and lakes were investigated at a nationwide scale in mainland France. ΣPFASs was in the range99% of ΣPFASs in the sediment, likely as a consequence of industrial point source discharge). Several treatments for data below detection limits (non-detects) were used to compute descriptive statistics, differences among groups, and correlations between congeners, as well as log Kd and log Koc partition coefficients; in that respect, the Regression on Order Statistics (robust ROS) method was preferred for descriptive statistics computation while the Akritas-Theil-Sen estimator was used for regression and correlation analyses. Multiple regression results suggest that PFAS levels in the dissolved phase and sediment characteristics (organic carbon fraction and grain size) may be significant controlling factors of PFAS levels in the sediment. PMID:25721143

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluoroalkyl substances in serum of pregnant women: levels, correlations, and potential health implications.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Flemming; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Husby, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Barington, Torben; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analysed in serum samples of pregnant women from Denmark to provide information about their exposure and to study indications of common exposure pathways. The main BDE congener was the fully brominated BDE-209 with a median value of 7.5 ng/g lipid (46 pg/mL; 9.8 pmol/g lipid). Other BDE congeners decreased in the order BDE-47 > BDE-99 > BDE-153. The summed concentration of tri- to hepta-BDEs was 7.7 ng/g lipid, i.e. in the higher end of previously reported concentrations from Europe, including plasma samples of pregnant Danish women. Total lipid contents were relatively low, on average 5.9 g/L (9.0 mmol/L). The main PFAS compound was perfluorooctane sulfonate with a median concentration of 8.4 ng/mL. Other PFASs decreased in the order perfluorooctanoic acid > perfluorononanoic acid > perfluorodecanoic acid > perfluorohexane sulfonate and resulted in a ΣPFAS of 12 ng/mL. Within each group, compounds were highly intercorrelated with the exception of BDE-209, which was not correlated with any of the other compounds. No correlations were found either between PFASs and PBDEs suggesting different sources of exposure and/or pharmacokinetic and metabolisation processes. PBDE and PFAS concentrations were in the range associated with adverse effects in some epidemiological studies. PMID:24435476

  1. Occupational asthma due to alkyl cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, T. )

    1990-08-01

    A case of bronchial asthma induced by occupational exposure to alkyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive, occurred in an assembly operation. Provocative exposure testing induced immediate and delayed asthmatic responses. Alkyl cyanoacrylate seemed to act as an allergen or as an irritant, resulting in the development of asthma.

  2. Stabilized dialkyl aluminum complexes as alkylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J.; Baidossi, W.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although trialkylaluminum derivatives are widely used as Ziegler-Natta polymerization co-catalysts, their application as routine alkylating agents is limited owing to their pyrophoric nature. The authors have now found that substitution of one of the alkyl moieties by a chelating group reduces the sensitivity of the organoaluminum compounds to air, and enables one to utilize them under normal laboratory conditions.

  3. Alkylating reactivity and herbicidal activity of chloroacetamides.

    PubMed

    Jablonkai, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The relationship between S- and N-alkylating reactivity and herbicidal activity within a series of chloroacetamides, including several commercial herbicides and newly synthesised analogues was studied. The S-alkylating reactivity of selected chloroacetamides, as well as those of atrazine and chlorfenprop-methyl, was determined by in vitro GSH conjugation at a ratio of GSH to alkylating agent of 25:1. A spectrophotometric reaction using 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine was used to characterise the N-alkylating reactivity of the chemicals. Our results indicate that a reduced level of N-alkylating reactivity correlates with an improved herbicidal efficacy at a practical rate. However, the phytoxicity of the molecules is not simply dependent on chemical reactivities, but strictly related to the molecular structure, indicating that lipophilicity, uptake, mobility and induction of detoxifying enzymes may also be decisive factors in the mode of action. PMID:12701706

  4. C-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Obora, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The development of practical, efficient, and atom-economical methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds remains a topic of considerable interest in current synthetic organic chemistry. In this review, we have summarized selected topics from the recent literature with particular emphasis on C-alkylation processes involving hydrogen transfer using alcohols as alkylation reagents. This review includes selected highlights concerning recent progress towards the modification of catalytic systems for the α-alkylation of ketones, nitriles, and esters. Furthermore, we have devoted a significant portion of this review to the methylation of ketones, alcohols, and indoles using methanol. Lastly, we have also documented recent advances in β-alkylation methods involving the dimerization of alcohols (Guerbet reaction), as well as new developments in C-alkylation methods based on sp (3) C-H activation. PMID:27573136

  5. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  6. Fate and transport of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances including perfluorooctane sulfonamides in a managed urban water body.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung V; Reinhard, Martin; Chen, Huiting; Gin, Karina Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Transport and fate of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in an urban water body that receives mainly urban runoff was investigated. Water, suspended solids, and sediment samples were collected during the monsoon (wet) and inter-monsoon (dry) season at different sites and depths. Samples were analyzed for C7 to C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylate homologues (PFCAs) (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA), perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2FtS, respectively), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), N-ethyl FOSA (sulfluramid), N-ethyl sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), and N-methyl and N-ethyl sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA and N-MeFOSAA, respectively). Concentrations in wet samples were only slightly higher. The sum total PFAS (ΣPFAS) concentrations dissolved in the aqueous phase and sorbed to suspended solids (SS) ranged from 107 to 253 ng/L and 11 to 158 ng/L, respectively. PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFDA contributed most (approximately 90 %) to the dissolved ΣPFASs. N-EtFOSA dominated the particulate PFAS burden in wet samples. K D values of PFOA and PFOS calculated from paired SS and water concentrations varied widely (1.4 to 13.7 and 1.9 to 98.9 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively). Field derived K D was significantly higher than laboratory K D suggesting hydrophobic PFASs sorbed to SS resist desorption. The ΣPFAS concentrations in the top sedimentary layer ranged from 8 to 42 μg/kg and indicated preferential accumulation of the strongly sorbing long-chain PFASs. The occurrence of the metabolites N-MeFOSAA, N-EtFOSAA and FOSA in the water column and sediments may have resulted from biological or photochemical transformations of perfluorooctane sulfonamide precursors while the absence of FOSA, N-EtFOSA and 6:2FtS in sediments was consistent with biotransformation. PMID:27146547

  7. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function. PMID:26971703

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  9. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  16. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance alkyl (heter-o-cyc-licyl) phenyl-azo-het-ero mono-cyc-lic polyone, ((al-kyli-mi-da-zolyl) methyl... in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Protection in the... communication program. Requirements as specified in § 721.72 (b)(2), (d), (e) (concentration set at 1.0...

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances detected in the world's southernmost marine mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Krafft, Bjørn A; Herzke, Dorte; Eisert, Regina; Oftedal, Olav

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates concentrations of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in blood plasma of adult lactating Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) (n = 10) from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.23 ng/ml. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) were sporadically detected, while the remaining compounds were below the limit of detection. This is the first report of detectible concentrations of PFASs in an endemic Antarctic marine mammal species. We suggest that the pollutants have been subjected to long range atmospheric transportation and/or derive from a local source. A review of these and published data indicate that perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) dominate in biotic PFAS patterns in species feeding south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), whereas PFOS was the major PFAS detected in species feeding predominantly north of the current. PMID:25497307

  18. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis–linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10–9 M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10–5 M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose–response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  19. Characterizing direct emissions of perfluoroalkyl substances from ongoing fluoropolymer production sources: A spatial trend study of Xiaoqing River, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Xu, Lin; Song, Xiaowei; Niu, Xiameng; Zhang, Chunhui; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-11-01

    The spatial trend of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) along Xiaoqing River and its tributaries was studied to characterize isomer profiles and quantify emissions from fluoropolymer (FP) manufacturers in China. Substantially elevated ∑PFAS concentrations downstream of tributary 4 demonstrated that the emissions from this FP manufacturer dominated total riverine discharges. Isomer profiles of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water displayed a stepwise increase in percentage branched PFOA downstream of tributary 3 (14.0%) and 4 (22.7%) reflecting the importance of FP sources. Strong positive correlations between PFOA isomers in water downstream of tributary 4 indicated that isomer profiles were conserved from emission sources to the final reservoir. Riverine discharges of PFOA (23-67 t/yr) were in agreement with theoretical emission calculations from FP production (68 t/yr) whereas large discrepancies between the two methodologies were observed for perfluorobutanoic acid and perfluoropentanoic acid. Collectively, this study fills critical knowledge gaps for understanding ongoing global sources of PFASs. PMID:26160670

  20. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Lacorte, Sílvia; Tauler, Romà; Martin, Francis L

    2016-05-16

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10(-9) M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10(-5) M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose-response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  1. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-450; CAS...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-451; CAS...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-450; CAS...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-451; CAS...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  12. Motor fuel alkylation process utilizing low acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kocal, J.A.; Imai, T.

    1987-01-06

    A process is described for the alkylation of an isoparaffin with an olefin acting agent comprising contacting the isoparaffin with the olefin acting agent at alkylation conditions in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst consists essentially of an anhydrous, nonalcoholic mixture of from about 5 to 15 wt. % methyl tert-butyl ether and from 85 to 95 wt. % hydrofluoric acid. The volumetric ratio of hydrofluoric acid to isoparaffin and olefin acting agent is less than 0.75.

  13. Thermally induced alkylation of diamond.

    PubMed

    Hoeb, Marco; Auernhammer, Marianne; Schoell, Sebastian J; Brandt, Martin S; Garrido, Jose A; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D

    2010-12-21

    We present an approach for the thermally activated formation of alkene-derived self-assembled monolayers on oxygen-terminated single and polycrystalline diamond surfaces. Chemical modification of the oxygen and hydrogen plasma-treated samples was achieved by heating in 1-octadecene. The resulting layers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. This investigation reveals that alkenes selectively attach to the oxygen-terminated sites via covalent C-O-C bonds. The hydrophilic oxygen-terminated diamond is rendered strongly hydrophobic following this reaction. The nature of the process limits the organic layer growth to a single monolayer, and FTIR measurements reveal that such monolayers are dense and well ordered. In contrast, hydrogen-terminated diamond sites remain unaffected by this process. This method is thus complementary to the UV-initiated reaction of alkenes with diamond, which exhibits the opposite reactivity contrast. Thermal alkylation increases the range of available diamond functionalization strategies and provides a means of straightforwardly forming single organic layers in order to engineer the surface properties of diamond. PMID:21090790

  14. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:27573267

  15. A modeling assessment of the physicochemical properties and environmental fate of emerging and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Melissa Ines; Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-02-01

    Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants that are globally present in the environment, wildlife and humans. Phase-out actions and use restrictions to reduce the environmental release of long-chain PFCAs, PFSAs and their precursors have been taken since 2000. In particular, long-chain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being replaced with shorter-chain homologues or other fluorinated or non-fluorinated alternatives. A key question is: are these alternatives, particularly the structurally similar fluorinated alternatives, less hazardous to humans and the environment than the substances they replace? Several fluorinated alternatives including perfluoroether carboxylic acids (PFECAs) and perfluoroether sulfonic acids (PFESAs) have been recently identified. However, the scarcity of experimental data prevents hazard and risk assessments for these substances. In this study, we use state-of-the-art in silico tools to estimate key properties of these newly identified fluorinated alternatives. [i] COSMOtherm and SPARC are used to estimate physicochemical properties. The US EPA EPISuite software package is used to predict degradation half-lives in air, water and soil. [ii] In combination with estimated chemical properties, a fugacity-based multimedia mass-balance unit-world model - the OECD Overall Persistence (POV) and Long-Range Transport Potential (LRTP) Screening Tool - is used to assess the likely environmental fate of these alternatives. Even though the fluorinated alternatives contain some structural differences, their physicochemical properties are not significantly different from those of their predecessors. Furthermore, most of the alternatives are estimated to be similarly persistent and mobile in the environment as the long-chain PFASs. The models therefore predict that the fluorinated alternatives will become globally distributed in the

  16. Emerging endocrine disrupters: perfluoroalkylated substances.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Allan Astrup; Leffers, Henrik

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have increasingly been used as surfactants in various industry- and consumer products, because of their unique properties as repellents of dirt, water and oils. The most well-known PFCs are perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their derivatives belonging to the group of perfluoroalkylated substances. The PFCs are very persistent in the environment, and some of them have been discovered as global pollutants of air, water, soil and wildlife and even found in remote polar areas. Bioaccumulation occurs also in humans, and everybody in our society has traces of these PFCs in their blood and internal organs such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, gall bladder and testes. In the blood, PFOS and PFOA are bound to serum proteins. The acute toxicity of the polyfluorinated substances is moderate but some substances can induce peroxisome proliferation in rat livers and may change the fluidity of cell membranes. Some of these PFCs, such as PFOS and PFOA, are potential developmental toxicants and are suspected endocrine disruptors with effects on sex hormone levels resulting in lower testosterone levels and higher oestradiol level. Other PFCs have oestrogenic effects in cell cultures. The industrial production of PFOS and its derivatives stopped in 2000, and the European Union has banned most uses from the summer of 2008. However, hundreds of related chemicals: homologues with shorter or longer alkyl chain, PFOA and telomers, which potentially may degrade to perfluoroalkanoic (carboxylic) acids, are not regulated. PMID:18315716

  17. Alkyl rearrangement processes in organozirconium complexes. Observation of internal alkyl complexes during hydrozirconation

    SciTech Connect

    Chirik, P.J.; Day, M.W.; Labinger, J.A.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1999-11-10

    Isotopically labeled alkyl zirconocene complexes of the form (CpR{sub n}){sub 2}Zr(CH{sub 2}CDR{sub 2}{prime})(X) (CpR{sub n} = alkyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl; R{prime} = H, alkyl group; X = H, D, Me) undergo isomerization of the alkyl ligand as well as exchange with free olefin in solution under ambient conditions. Increasing the substitution on the Cp ring results in slower isomerization reactions, but these steric effects are small. In contrast, changing X has a very large effect on the rate of isomerization. Pure {sigma}-bonding ligands such as methyl and hydride promote rapid isomerization, whereas {pi}-donor ligands inhibit {beta}-H elimination and hence alkyl isomerization. For ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Zr(R)(Cl), internal alkyl complexes have been observed for the first time. The rate of isomerization depends on the length of the alkyl group: longer alkyl chains (heptyl, hexyl) isomerize faster than shorter chains (butyl). The transient intermediate species have been identified by a combination of isotopic labeling and {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 13}C NMR experiments. The solid-state structure of the zirconocene cyclopentyl chloride complex, Cp{sub 2}Zr(cyclo-C{sub 5}H{sub 9})(Cl), has been determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Blend of alkyl phenol ethoxylates and alkyl phenol glycoxylates and their use as surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Grolitzer, M. A.

    1985-11-12

    Nonionic surfactant compositions useful in forming stable emulsions with oil in saline solutions comprising a blend of: at least one alkyl phenol ethoxylate and at least one alkyl phenol glycoxylate. These surfactant compositions may be employed in enhanced oil recovery processes and other applications where good emulsification and high salinity tolerances are required such as textiles, leather, dairy, concrete grinding aids and drilling muds.

  19. Reliability of perfluoroalkyl substances in plasma of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haug, Line S; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-07-01

    The potential toxicity of background exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is currently under active investigation. Such investigations typically rely on a single measure of PFAS concentration, yet the longer-term reliability of a single measure has not been well characterized, especially among reproductive-aged women. Our aim was to investigate the association between PFAS plasma concentrations of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies and explore changes in plasma concentration related to reproductive factors. The women in our study were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) from 2003 to 2009. About half of them breastfed exclusively for 6 months and the rest of the participants did not breastfeed between the two consecutive pregnancies (median time between pregnancies: 18 months). Maternal blood was collected at mid-pregnancy and plasma was analyzed for 10 PFASs. Statistical analyses were restricted to 6 PFASs that were quantifiable in more than 80% of the samples. We estimated the correlation between repeated PFAS measurements, the percentage change between pregnancies and the effect of several reproductive factors in multivariate linear regression models of PFAS concentrations in the second pregnancy. The Pearson correlation coefficient between repeated PFAS measurements was, for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 0.80; perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), 0.50; perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 0.74; perfluorononanoate (PFNA), 0.39; perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), 0.71; and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), 0.60. Adjustment for maternal age, delivery year, and time and breastfeeding between pregnancies did not substantially affect the observed correlations. We found 44-47% median reductions in the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS between pregnancies, while the change in concentrations between pregnancies was smaller and more variable for PFNA, PFUnDA and PFDA. The variation in plasma concentrations in the second pregnancy was mainly

  20. Reliability of perfluoroalkyl substances in plasma of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haug, Line S.; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of background exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is currently under active investigation. Such investigations typically rely on a single measure of PFAS concentration, yet the longer-term reliability of a single measure has not been well characterized, especially among reproductive-aged women. Our aim was to investigate the association between PFAS plasma concentrations of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies and explore changes in plasma concentration related to reproductive factors. The women in our study were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) from 2003 to 2009. About half of them breastfed exclusively for 6 months and the rest of the participants did not breastfeed between the two consecutive pregnancies (median time between pregnancies: 18 months). Maternal blood was collected at mid-pregnancy and plasma was analyzed for 10 PFASs. Statistical analyses were restricted to 6 PFASs that were quantifiable in more than 80% of the samples. We estimated the correlation between repeated PFAS measurements, the percentage change between pregnancies and the effect of several reproductive factors in multivariate linear regression models of PFAS concentration in the second pregnancy. The Pearson correlation coefficient between repeated PFAS measurements was, for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 0.80; perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), 0.50; perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 0.74; perfluorononanoate (PFNA), 0.39; perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), 0.71; and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), 0.60. Adjustment for maternal age, delivery year, and time and breastfeeding between pregnancies did not substantially affect the observed correlations. We found 44-47% median reductions in the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS between pregnancies, while the change in concentrations between pregnancies was smaller and more variable for PFNA, PFUnDA and PFDA. The variation in plasma concentrations in the second pregnancy was mainly

  1. Alkylation of isobutane with light olefins: Yields of alkylates for different olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.; Kranz, K.E.; Masters, K.R.

    1993-12-01

    For alkylation of isobutane with C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} olefins using sulfuric acid as the catalyst, the yields of alkylates with different olefins are compared as the operating conditions are changed. The results of recent pilot plant experiments with propylene, C{sub 4} olefins, and C{sub 5} olefins permit such comparisons. The yields expressed as weight of alkylate produced per 100 wt of olefin consumed varied from about 201:100 to 220:100. Weight ratios of the isobutane consumed per olefin consumed vary from about 101:100 to 120:100. differences of yield values are explained by the changes in the overall chemistry. The procedure employed to calculate yields with good accuracy is based on the analysis of the alkylate and the amount of conjunct polymers produced. Based on literature data, yields are also reported for alkylations using HF as the catalyst.

  2. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed, Ring-Forming Aromatic C–H Alkylations with Unactivated Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Alexander R. O.; Bohan, Patrick T.; Alexanian, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic C–H alkylation using unactivated alkyl halides and a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is described. This ring-forming process is successful with a variety of unactivated primary and secondary alkyl halides, including those with β-hydrogens. In contrast to standard polar or radical cyclizations of aromatic systems, electronic activation of the substrate is not required. The mild, catalytic reaction conditions are highly functional group tolerant and facilitate access to a diverse range of synthetically and medicinally important carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. PMID:25746442

  4. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  5. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  6. IONIC LIQUID-CATALYZED ALKYLATION OF ISOBUTANE WITH 2-BUTENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed study of the alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene in ionic liquid media has been conducted using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium halides?aluminum chloride encompassing various alkyl groups (butyl-, hexyl-, and octyl-) and halides (Cl, Br, and I) on its cations and anions,...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan alkyl urea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Ji-Zhou; Chen, Wei; Bai, Zheng-Wu

    2016-07-10

    Chitosan is a versatile material employed for various purposes in many fields including the development of chiral stationary phases for enantioseparation. Chitosan alkyl urea is a kind of intermediate used to prepare enantioseparation materials. In order to synthesize the intermediates, in the present work, a new way to prepare chitosan alkyl urea has been established: chitosan was first reacted with methyl chloroformate yielding N-methoxyformylated chitosan, which was then converted to chitosan alkyl urea through amine-ester exchange reaction. With a large excess of methyl chloroformate and primary amine of low stereohindrance, the amino group in chitosan could be almost completely converted to ureido group. The as-prepared chitosan alkyl urea derivatives were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR,(1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra. The chemical shifts of hydrogen and carbon atoms of glucose unit were assigned. It was found that the degree of substitution was obviously lower if cyclopropyl amine, aniline, tert-butyl amine and diethyl amine were used as reactants for the amine-ester exchange reaction. The reason was explained with the aid of theoretical calculations. PMID:27106154

  8. Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Li, Yan; Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2015-04-21

    A new and efficient method of functionalizing high molecular weight polymers through alkylation using a metal amide base is described. This novel procedure can also be used to synthesize polymer-based macro-initiators containing radical initiating groups at the chain-ends for synthesis of block copolymers.

  9. Polygas spells relief from alkylation ills

    SciTech Connect

    Weismantel, G.E.

    1980-06-16

    Tight supplies and soaring prices of isobutane (for olefin alkylation), are causing renewed interest in the olefin ''polymerization'' (i.e., dimerization), route to high-octane gasoline-blending components. Modern polymerization processes, intended to supplement rather than replace alkylation offer considerable energy and capital savings, compared with alkylation-only schemes. In addition to the Institut Francais du Petrole's Dimersol ''polymerization'' tecnique which is already being used or will be used by 1981 in at least five U.S. refineries, with six more units in the planning stage, a low-cost process to ''polymerize'' excess refinery olefins, developed by International Energy Consultants Inc., is nearing commercialization. A third route to process C/sub 3//C/sub 4/ refinery streams with high conversion rates has been proposed by UOP Inc. The low motor octane number (MON) of the product gasoline (approx. 13 numbers lower than a typical alkylate), was recently confirmed in Total Petroleum Inc.'s studies, but Good Hope Refineries Inc. plans to increase its polymer gasoline MON by adding methyl tert.-butyl ether.

  10. Separate olefin processing in sulfuric acid alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, S.A.; Graves, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    This paper will discuss the effects of alkylating propylene, butylenes and amylenes together and suggest alternative processing schemes which will minimize the negative synergies, improve octane and/or minimize acid consumption. The first option will show the impact of segregating the propylene and amylenes. In the second option, the benefit of alkylating the individual olefins at their optimal acid strengths will be presented. Additionally, each olefin`s optimal reaction conditions will be examined. Unfortunately, many refiners may not have the existing flexibility to take advantage of separate olefin processing. First, the majority of the propylene, butylenes and amylenes must be separate upon entry to the alkylation unit. If the olefins cannot be segregated upstream, separate olefin processing will not be as beneficial. If this is the case, then the benefits of separate olefin processing will have to be weighed versus the capital and energy costs required to separate them. In addition, small units may not have sufficient numbers of Contactors and settlers to achieve adequate segregation. Later in this paper, the modifications required in the alkylation unit for separate olefin processing will be discussed.

  11. Occurrence of select perfluoroalkyl substances at U.S. Air Force aqueous film-forming foam release sites other than fire-training areas: Field-validation of critical fate and transport properties.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R Hunter; Long, G Cornell; Porter, Ronald C; Anderson, Janet K

    2016-05-01

    The use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish hydrocarbon-based fires is recognized as a significant source of environmental poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Although the occurrence of select PFASs in soil and groundwater at former fire-training areas (FTAs) at military installations operable since 1970 has been consistently confirmed, studies reporting the occurrence of PFASs at other AFFF-impacted sites (e.g. emergency response locations, AFFF lagoons, hangar-related AFFF storage tanks and pipelines, and fire station testing and maintenance areas) are largely missing from the literature. Further, studies have mostly focused on a single site (i.e., FTAs at military installations) and, thus, lack a comparison of sites with diverse AFFF release history. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate select PFAS occurrence at non-FTA sites on active U.S. Air Force installations with historic AFFF use of varying magnitude. Concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), an important PFOS precursor, were measured from several hundred samples among multiple media (i.e., surface soil, subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater) collected from forty AFFF-impacted sites across ten installations between March and September 2014, representing one of the most comprehensive datasets on environmental PFAS occurrence to date. Differences in detection frequencies and observed concentrations due to AFFF release volume are presented along with rigorous data analyses that quantitatively demonstrate phase-dependent (i.e., solid-phase vs aqueous-phase) differences in the chemical signature as a function of carbon chain-length and in situ PFOS (and to a slightly lesser extent PFHxS) formation, presumably due to precursor biotransformation. PMID:26786021

  12. Activation of the chemosensing transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) by alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Bernhard; Zehfuss, Franziska; Mückter, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Schäfer, Eva; Büch, Thomas; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is expressed in different tissues including skin, lung and neuronal tissue. Recent reports identified TRPA1 as a sensor for noxious substances, implicating a functional role in the molecular toxicology. TRPA1 is activated by various potentially harmful electrophilic substances. The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent that binds to numerous biological targets. Although SM is known for almost 200 years, detailed knowledge about the pathophysiology resulting from exposure is lacking. A specific therapy is not available. In this study, we investigated whether the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (CEES, a model substance for SM-promoted effects) and SM are able to activate TRPA1 channels. CEES induced a marked increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPA1-expressing but not in TRPA1-negative cells. The TRP-channel blocker AP18 diminished the CEES-induced calcium influx. HEK293 cells permanently expressing TRPA1 were more sensitive toward cytotoxic effects of CEES compared with wild-type cells. At low CEES concentrations, CEES-induced cytotoxicity was prevented by AP18. Proof-of-concept experiments using SM resulted in a pronounced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in HEK293-A1-E cells. Human A549 lung epithelial cells, which express TRPA1 endogenously, reacted with a transient calcium influx in response to CEES exposure. The CEES-dependent calcium response was diminished by AP18. In summary, our results demonstrate that alkylating agents are able to activate TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPA1 counteracted cellular toxicity and could thus represent a feasible approach to mitigate SM-induced cell damage. PMID:25395009

  13. Dichloromethyl alkyl ethers and sulfides in the Reformatskii reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lapkin, I.I.; Fotin, V.V.

    1986-09-10

    A study was carried out on the reaction of dichloromethyl alkyl ethers and sulfides with ..cap alpha..-brominated esters in the presence of zinc resulting in the formation of either ..cap alpha..-alkyl-..beta..-alkoxyacrylates (or ..cap alpha..-alkyl-..beta..-alkylthioacrylates) or ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..',..cap alpha..'-tetramethyl-..beta..-alkoxyglutaric acid (or ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..',..cap alpha..'-tetramethyl-..beta..-alkylthioglutaric acid) depending on the structure of the starting bromoester. PMR and IR spectroscopy indicates the geometry of the ..cap alpha..-alkyl-..beta..-alkoxyacrylates and ..cap alpha..-alkyl-..beta..-alkylthioacrylates.

  14. Acetylene-mediated alkylation of monoalkyl carbonates and carbamic acids with tert-amines

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    1996-12-31

    Carbonic acid diesters and carbamic acid esters are useful organic substances as intermediates for the syntheses of several chemicals. They are currently synthesized in industry using the processes based on phosgene or carbon monoxide. On the other hand, since carbon dioxide is an abundant and cheap carbonyl carbon source, and is much less toxic than those raw materials, substantial efforts have been focused on its fixation into carbonyl compounds including carbonic acid diesters and carbamic acid esters. However, their syntheses based on carbon dioxide reported so far require rather expensive substrates like alkyl halides, and are not competitive with the currently adopted industrial processes.

  15. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  16. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  17. Alkylation of Histidine Residues of Bothrops jararacussu Venom Proteins and Isolated Phospholipases A2: A Biotechnological Tool to Improve the Production of Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, C. L. S.; Andrião-Escarso, S. H.; Moreira-Dill, L. S.; Carvalho, B. M. A.; Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Santos-Filho, N. A.; Fernandes, C. A. H.; Fontes, M. R. M.; Giglio, J. R.; Barraviera, B.; Zuliani, J. P.; Fernandes, C. F. C.; Calderón, L. A.; Stábeli, R. G.; Albericio, F.; da Silva, S. L.; Soares, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and isolated phospholipases A2 (PLA2) of this toxin (BthTX-I and BthTX-II) were chemically modified (alkylation) by p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) in order to study antibody production capacity in function of the structure-function relationship of these substances (crude venom and PLA2 native and alkylated). BthTX-II showed enzymatic activity, while BthTX-I did not. Alkylation reduced BthTX-II activity by 50% while this process abolished the catalytic and myotoxic activities of BthTX-I, while reducing its edema-inducing activity by about 50%. Antibody production against the native and alkylated forms of BthTX-I and -II and the cross-reactivity of antibodies to native and alkylated toxins did not show any apparent differences and these observations were reinforced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data. Histopathological analysis of mouse gastrocnemius muscle sections after injection of PBS, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, or both myotoxins previously incubated with neutralizing antibody showed inhibition of the toxin-induced myotoxicity. These results reveal that the chemical modification of the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) diminished their toxicity but did not alter their antigenicity. This observation indicates that the modified PLA2 may provide a biotechnological tool to attenuate the toxicity of the crude venom, by improving the production of antibodies and decreasing the local toxic effects of this poisonous substance in animals used to produce antivenom. PMID:24901004

  18. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  19. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory. PMID:22716022

  20. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy. PMID:25192187

  1. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  2. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health. PMID:27179427

  3. Surfactant properties and tetrachloroethene (PCE) solubilisation ability of humic acid-like substances extracted from maize plant and from organic wastes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Adani, Fabrizio; Tambone, Fulvia; Davoli, Enrico; Scaglia, Barbara

    2010-02-01

    Humic acid-like substance (HA-like substance) extracted from maize plant residue at an yield of 81.1+/-4.9gkg(-1) of dry matter (dm) was tested for surfactant properties and ability to solubilise tetrachloroethene (PCE). Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of HA-like substance was detected to be 1986mgL(-1). Both, HA-like substance composition and average molecular weight [MW] affected CMC and a multiple linear regression model was proposed: CMC=12246-56.19 alkyl-C - 0.532MW (R(2)=0.90; P<0.01, n=7) where CMC was given in mgL(-1), alkyl-C was the percentage of total C, and MW was given in Da. Maize-HA-like substance solubilised PCE at the rate of 0.05g of PCE for each gram of maize-HA-like substance, which was 3.6-9.6 times lower than the data obtained in our earlier work using HA extracted from organic wastes, but was higher than that obtained with commercial HA from leonardite. Taking into consideration the two-site model of solubilisation of PCE in surfactant (i.e., solute partitioning into the micellar hydrophobic core and dissolution and/or binding into the hydrophilic non-ionic shell) and macromolecular composition of HA-like substance, the non-ionic hydrophile-alkyl lipophile balance was expected to control PCE solubilisation as the good multiple linear regression indicated: logK(dom)=-1.37+0.062 alkyl-C +0.055 O-alkyl-C (R(2)=0.93, P<0.05, n=6), where logK(dom) represents the micelle-water partitioning of PCE (mLg(-1)) and alkyl-C and O-alkyl-C represent the content of these two kinds of C detected by CP MAS (13)C NMR (as % of the total C). PMID:20044126

  4. Lithium perchlorate-nitromethane-promoted alkylation of anilines with arylmethanols.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Mao, Hai-Feng; Wang, Lu; Zou, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wei

    2011-11-01

    A new application of lithium perchlorate-nitromethane (LPNM) for the formation of aromatic C-N and C-C bonds is introduced. LPNM-promoted reactions of anilines with diarylmethanols selectively generate N-alkylated anilines or mono and double Friedel-Crafts alkylation products under different conditions by changing the reaction time, reaction temperature, and the ratio of the reactants. This method does not require the use of transition metal catalysts to prepare alkylated aniline derivatives. PMID:21547437

  5. Determining cysteine oxidation status using differential alkylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Birgit; Yoo, Chris B.; Collins, Christopher J.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative damage to proteins plays a major role in aging and in the pathology of many degenerative diseases. Under conditions of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can modify key redox sensitive amino acid side chains leading to altered biological activities or structures of the targeted proteins. This in turn can affect signaling or regulatory control pathways as well as protein turnover and degradation efficiency in the proteasome. Cysteine residues are particularly susceptible to oxidation, primarily through reversible modifications (e.g., thiolation and nitrosylation), although irreversible oxidation can lead to products that cannot be repaired in vivo such as sulfonic acid. This report describes a strategy to determine the overall level of reversible cysteine oxidation using a stable isotope differential alkylation approach in combination with mass spectrometric analysis. This method employs 13C-labeled alkylating reagents, such as N-ethyl-[1,4-13C2]-maleimide, bromo-[1,2-13C2]-acetic acid and their non-labeled counterparts to quantitatively assess the level of cysteine oxidation at specific sites in oxidized proteins. The differential alkylation protocol was evaluated using standard peptides and proteins, and then applied to monitor and determine the level of oxidative damage induced by diamide, a mild oxidant. The formation and mass spectrometric analysis of irreversible cysteine acid modification will also be discussed as several such modifications have been identified in subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. This strategy will hopefully contribute to our understanding of the role that cysteine oxidation plays in such chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, where studies in animal and cell models have shown oxidative damage to mitochondrial Complex I to be a specific and early target.

  6. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nadas, Janos I; Vukovic, Sinisa; Hay, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  11. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  12. ESCHERICHIA COLI Gene Induction by Alkylation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Michael R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Beard, K. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased β-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes. PMID:3080354

  13. The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giegerich, Jens; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The photodisscociation dynamics of the alkyl radicals i-propyl (CH(CH3)2) and t-butyl (C(CH3)3) are investigated by H-atom photofragment imaging. While i-propyl is excited at 250 nm, the photodynamics of t-butyl are explored over a large energy range using excitation wavelengths between 347 nm and 233 nm. The results are compared to those obtained previously for ethyl, CH3CH2, and to those reported for t-butyl using 248 nm excitation. The translational energy (ET) distribution of the H-atom photofragments is bimodal and appears rather similar for all three radicals. The low ET part of the distribution shows an isotropic photofragment angular distribution, while the high ET part is associated with a considerable anisotropy. Thus, for t-butyl, two H-atom loss channels of roughly equal importance have been identified in addition to the CH3-loss channel reported previously. A mechanism for the photodissociation of alkyl radicals is suggested that is based on interactions between Rydberg- and valence states.

  14. The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Giegerich, Jens; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-01-28

    The photodisscociation dynamics of the alkyl radicals i-propyl (CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) and t-butyl (C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) are investigated by H-atom photofragment imaging. While i-propyl is excited at 250 nm, the photodynamics of t-butyl are explored over a large energy range using excitation wavelengths between 347 nm and 233 nm. The results are compared to those obtained previously for ethyl, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}, and to those reported for t-butyl using 248 nm excitation. The translational energy (E{sub T}) distribution of the H-atom photofragments is bimodal and appears rather similar for all three radicals. The low E{sub T} part of the distribution shows an isotropic photofragment angular distribution, while the high E{sub T} part is associated with a considerable anisotropy. Thus, for t-butyl, two H-atom loss channels of roughly equal importance have been identified in addition to the CH{sub 3}-loss channel reported previously. A mechanism for the photodissociation of alkyl radicals is suggested that is based on interactions between Rydberg- and valence states.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  18. Clinical applications of quinone-containing alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Begleiter, A

    2000-11-01

    Quinone-containing alkylating agents are a class of chemical agents that have received considerable interest as anticancer drugs. These agents contain a quinone moiety that can be reduced and an alkylating group that can form covalent bonds with a variety of cellular components. The oxidation state of the quinone element can modulate the activity of the alkylating element, and reduction of the quinone is required for activation of the alkylating activity of many of these agents. The quinone element may also contribute to the cytotoxic activity of quinone-containing alkylating agents through the formation of reactive oxygen species during redox cycling. The natural product, mitomycin C, has been the most widely used quinone-containing alkylating agent in the clinic, but other quinone-containing alkylating agents like porfiromycin, diaziquone, carbazilquinone, triaziquone and EO9 have also been used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer. In addition, many other quinone-containing alkylating agents have been tested in preclinical studies and the development of new agents is being actively pursued. This chapter describes the current and past clinical uses of these agents in the treatment of cancer and discusses new agents that are currently in clinical trials. PMID:11056078

  19. Alkylation of refinery C5 streams to lower gasoline volatility

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkright, W.A.; Ditz, J.M.; Newsome, D.S. ); Lerner, H. ); Schorfheide, J.J. ); Libbers, D.D. )

    1994-01-01

    A pilot plant program was carried out to provide precise information about the sulfuric acid alkylation of refinery C5 streams under conditions found in commercial operation of the Exxon stirred, autorefrigerated alkylation process. The study used isobutane to alkylate the full range of pentenes in a C5 cut from an FCC unit as well as the linear olefin concentrate in the raffinate that would be obtained after processing this cut in a TAME unit. A few experiments were conducted with a mixture of C5 olefins matching the composition of the refinery feed in order to highlight the effect of impurities. The results showed that hydrocarbon impurities are a principal factor causing the high acid consumption values reported for pentene alkylation. The results also demonstrated that operating variables that affect acid consumption and alkylate quality in butene alkylation produce directionally similar effects in pentene alkylation, but of different magnitude. It is concluded that sulfur acid alkylation of pentenes produces an excellent isoparaffinic blending stock for the gasoline pool while eliminating volatile olefins and reducing gasoline RVP. Combined with the TAME process, a scheme for adding oxygen and achieving maximum RVP reduction at the same time is realized.

  20. Degradable Polymer Composites Fabricated from Starch and Alkyl Cyanoacrylate Monomer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradable polymer composites are fabricated from alkyl cyanoacrylate monomer and starch without special equipment. Alkyl cyanoacrylate, which is a major component of “super glue”, is a monomer that polymerizes at room temperature in the presence of initiators. During the fabrication of polymer com...

  1. 1-vinyl-4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakova, T.G.; Chipanina, N.N.; Gritza, A.I.; Kuznetsova, N.P.; Lopyrev, V.A.; Tatarova, L.A.

    1985-04-01

    Quaternary salts based on 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized. Alkyl iodides and bromides and dimethyl sulfate served as the quaternizing agent. Polymeric quaternary salts of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been obtained by alkylation of its polymer.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of alkyl cellulose in aqueous medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkyl celluloses are commercial products that are made typically in an alcohol medium over the course of several hours. In this work an alternative, simplified synthesis of alkyl cellulose is reported, using microwave irradiation and aqueous alkaline medium. No alcohol is needed during the reaction....

  3. Ni-Catalyzed C-C Couplings Using Alkyl Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takanori; Kambe, Nobuaki

    2016-10-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing new methods using Ni catalysts for the cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with organometallic reagents, and significant achievements in this area have emerged during the past two decades. Nickel catalysts have enabled the coupling reaction of not only primary alkyl electrophiles, but also sterically hindered secondary and tertiary alkyl electrophiles possessing β-hydrogens with various organometallic reagents to construct carbon skeletons. In addition, Ni catalysts opened a new era of asymmetric cross-coupling reaction using alkyl halides. Recent progress in nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl electrophiles with sp(3)-, sp(2)-, and sp-hybridized organometallic reagents including asymmetric variants as well as mechanistic insights of nickel catalysis are reviewed in this chapter. PMID:27580894

  4. Polyimide characterization studies - Effect of pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  5. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  6. An efficient copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkyl-triflates with alkyl-Grignard reagents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly efficient method for the formation of C-C covalent bonds by cross-coupling reaction between alkyl-triflates and alkyl-Grignard reagents catalyzed by copper catalyst, Li2CuCl4, is described. The reaction works with most primary triflates in diethyl ether at low temperature within 0.5-3 h an...

  7. Pd and Mo Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to control the alkylation of organic substrates becomes ever more powerful by using metal catalysts. Among the major benefits of metal catalysis is the possibility to perform such processes asymmetrically using only catalytic amounts of the chiral inducing agent which is a ligand to the metal of the catalyst. A unique aspect of asymmetric metal catalyzed processes is the fact that many mechanisms exist for stereoinduction. Furthermore, using the same catalyst system, many types of bonds including but not limited to C-C, C-N, C-O, C-S, C-P, and C-H can be formed asymmetrically. An overview of this process using palladium and molybdenum based metals being developed in my laboratories and how they influence strategy in synthesizing bioactive molecular targets is presented. PMID:22736934

  8. Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; De Silva, Amila O; Loi, Eva I H; Marvin, Chris H; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg(-1) d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased. PMID:23911339

  9. Analysis of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and biota of the Jucar River (E Spain). Sources, partitioning and relationships with water physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Lorenzo, María; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Barceló, Damià

    2016-05-01

    The presence, sources and partitioning of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6-C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were assessed in water, sediment, and biota of the Jucar River basin (E Spain). Considering the three matrices, perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the most frequent compounds, being remarkable the high occurrence of short-chain PFASs (C≤8), which are intended to replace the long-chain ones in several industrial and commercial applications. In general, all samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, with the exception of three fish samples. Mean concentrations detected in sediments (0.22-11.5ng g(-1)) and biota (0.63-274µgkg(-1)) samples were higher than those measured in water (0.04-83.1ngL(-1)), which might suggest (bio) accumulation. The occurrence of PFAS is related to urban and industrial discharges (Cuenca city in the upper part of basin, and car's factory, and effluents of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Alzira, in the lower part). Increasing pollution gradients were found. On the other hand, higher contamination levels were observed after regulation dams of the catchment pointing out their importance in the re-distribution of these contaminants. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). PFAS concentrations found in this study can be considered in acceptable levels if compared to existing Regulatory Legislation and, consequently, they do not pose an immediate human health risk. PMID:26974364

  10. U. S. refiners must increase alkylation capacity to meet demand

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.

    1994-08-22

    Alkylation is one of the most important refinery processes for producing conventional gasoline. And alkylate will continue to be a preferred blending stock in the reformulated-gasoline era. US alkylation units are operating at more than 90% of capacity, and additional capacity will be required to meet projected demand in 1998 and beyond. This capacity will come primarily through debottlenecking existing units, but new capacity will be required in the U.S., particularly after the year 2000. This paper briefly discusses industry trends, supply and demand, and solid acid catalyst technology.

  11. The relationship between the chemical structure and neurotoxicity of alkyl organophosphorus compounds

    PubMed Central

    Davies, D. R.; Holland, P.; Rumens, M. J.

    1960-01-01

    Thirty-six alkyl organophosphorus compounds have been tested for neurotoxicity in the chicken. The individual compounds were chosen to enable the importance of each portion of the molecule to be assessed in relation to the property of neurotoxicity. Seventeen substances were found to be neurotoxic, fifteen for the first time. All of these contained fluorine. On the basis of the results reported, certain predictions have been made about the chemical structure of compounds which would be expected to be neurotoxic. The importance of fluorine suggests that it plays a direct role in the development of the biochemical lesion, and this may occur as the result of its being carried by the molecule as a whole to specific areas in the nervous system. By the action of cholinesterase, the P-F bond may be ruptured and ionic fluorine liberated where it blocks some metabolic cycle. PMID:13814387

  12. Association of Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Bone Mineral Density, and Osteoporosis in the U.S. Population in NHANES 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Ebert, James R.; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are detectable in the serum of 95% of the U.S. population. Objective Considering the role of PFASs as endocrine disruptors, we examined their relationships with bone health. Methods The association between serum PFAS concentration and bone mineral density at total femur (TFBMD), femoral neck (FNBMD), lumbar spine (LSBMD), and physician-diagnosed osteoporosis was assessed in 1,914 participants using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–2010. Results The mean age of the participants was 43 years. Men had higher serum PFAS concentrations than women (p < 0.001) except for PFNA. In both sexes, serum PFOS concentrations were inversely associated with FNBMD (p < 0.05). In women, significant negative associations were observed for natural log (ln)–transformed PFOS exposure with TFBMD and FNBMD, and for ln-transformed PFOA exposure with TFBMD (p < 0.05). In postmenopausal women, serum PFOS was negatively associated with TFBMD and FNBMD, and PFNA was negatively associated with TFBMD, FNBMD, and LSBMD (all p < 0.05). With one log unit increase in serum PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, osteoporosis prevalence in women increased as follows: [adjusted odds ratios (aORs)] 1.84 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.905), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.38), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.05), respectively. In women, the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA, with aORs of 2.59 (95% CI: 1.01, 6.67), 13.20 (95% CI: 2.72, 64.15), and 3.23 (95% CI: 1.44, 7.21), respectively, based on 77 cases in the study sample. Conclusion In a representative sample of the U.S. adult population, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density, which varied according to the specific PFAS and bone site assessed

  13. Detection of Alkylating Agents using Electrical and Mechanical Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchikov, Yulia; Borzin, Elena; Gannot, Yair; Shemesh, Ariel; Meltzman, Shai; Hertzog-Ronen, Carmit; Tal, Shay; Stolyarova, Sara; Nemirovsky, Yael; Tessler, Nir; Eichen, Yoav

    2011-08-01

    Alkylating agents are reactive molecules having at least one polar bond between a carbon atom and a good leaving group. These often simple molecules are frequently used in organic synthesis, as sterilizing agents in agriculture and even as anticancer agents in medicine. Unfortunately, for over a century, some of the highly reactive alkylating agents are also being used as blister chemical warfare agents. Being relatively simple to make, the risk is that these will be applied by terrorists as poor people warfare agents. The detection and identification of such alkylating agents is not a simple task because of their high reactivity and simple structure of the reactive site. Here we report on new approaches to the detection and identification of such alkylating agents using electrical (organic field effect transistors) and mechanical (microcantilevers) means.

  14. Radical-based alkylation of guanine derivatives in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Caminal, Clara; Mulazzani, Quinto G

    2011-05-01

    The radical-based alkylation of 8-bromoguanosine (1a) and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (1b) at the C8 position has been investigated in aqueous solutions. Alkyl radicals were generated by scavenging of the primary species of γ-radiolysis by the alcohol substrate. These reactions result in the efficient formation of intermolecular C-C bonds in aqueous media, by using the reactivity of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals derived from alcohols with 1a and 1b. A mechanism for the formation of C8 guanine alkylated adducts has been proposed, based on the quantification of radiation chemical yields for the disappearance of starting material and the formation of all products. Two α-hydroxyalkyl radicals are needed to form an alkylated guanine, the first one adding to C8 followed by ejection of Br(-) with formation of guanyl adduct and the second one acting as reducing agent of the guanyl adduct. PMID:21431230

  15. Perfluorinated Alkyl Compounds: Challenges To Develop Robust And Reliable Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), some of which are known to be toxic in laboratory studies. Despite growing public concerns, environmental monitoring data are still limited...

  16. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  17. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  18. Substance Abuse and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…

  19. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bijay

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  20. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bijay; Giri, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  1. Alkyl and phenolic glycosides from Saussurea stella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Min; Wang, Ru-Feng; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-07-01

    One alkyl glycoside, saussurostelloside A (1), two phenolic glycosides, saussurostellosides B1 (2) and B2 (3), and 27 known compounds, including eleven flavonoids, seven phenolics, six lignans, one neolignan, one phenethyl glucoside and one fatty acid, were isolated from an ethanol extract of Saussurea stella (Asteraceae). Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic analysis. Of the known compounds, (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), picraquassioside C (10), and diosmetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (27) were isolated from the Asteraceae family for the first time, while (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), di-O-methylcrenatin (11), protocatechuic acid (14), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (17), formononetin (28), and phenethyl glucoside (29) were isolated from the Saussurea genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of three new compounds (1-3), five lignans ((-)-arctiin (4), (+)-pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (5), (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7) and (+)-syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8)), one neolignan (picraquassioside C (10)), and one phenolic glycoside (di-O-methylcrenatin (11)) were evaluated by testing their inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase from PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Only compound 5 showed moderate inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase, with an inhibition ratio of 39.1%. PMID:23567860

  2. HPLC and TLC characterisation of ecdysteroid alkyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Dinan, Laurence

    2009-10-01

    Semi-synthetic ecdysteroid alkyl ethers have increased potential over natural ecdysteroids as actuators of ligand-inducible gene-expression systems based on the ecdysteroid receptor for in vivo applications. However, a scalable synthesis of these compounds has yet to be developed. We report a set of reversed-phase (RP; C(18) and C(6)) and normal-phase (NP; diol) HPLC systems which can be used to analyse and separate ecdysteroid ethers with single or multiple O-methyl substitutions at the 2alpha-, 3beta-, 14alpha-, 22- and 25-positions. The elution order of methyl ether analogues of the prototypical ecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) was 3-methyl<2-methyl<14-methyl<25-methyl<22-methyl with both C(18)- and C(6)-RP-HPLC, when eluted with methanol/water mixtures. Further, the elution order of 20E 22-O-alkyl ethers was methylalkyl ethers can also be adequately resolved by NP-HPLC and silica HPTLC. On the latter, detection of ecdysteroid O-alkyl ethers with the p-anisaldehyde/sulphuric acid reagent distinguishes 22-O-alkyl ethers from non-22-O-alkyl ether analogues by the colour of the resulting spot. PMID:19648067

  3. Final Technical Report [Development of Catalytic Alkylation and Fluoroalkylation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A.

    2014-05-01

    In the early stages of this DOE-funded research project, we sought to prepare and study a well-defined nickel-alkyl complex containing tridentate nitrogen donor ligands. We found that reaction of (TMEDA)NiMe2 (1) with terpyridine ligand cleanly led to the formation of (terpyridyl)NiMe (2), which we also determined to be an active alkylation catalyst. The thermal stability of 2 was unlike that seen for any of the active pybox ligands, and enabled a number of key studies on alkyl transfer reactions to be performed, providing new insights into the mechanism of nickel-mediated alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. In addition to the mechanistic studies, we showed that the terpyridyl nickel compounds can catalytically cross-couple alkyl iodides in yields up to 98% and bromides in yields up to 46 %. The yields for the bromides can be increased up to 67 % when the new palladium catalyst [(tpy’)Pd-Ph]I is used. The best route to the targeted [(tpy)NiBr] (1) was found to involve the comproportionation reaction of [(dme)NiBr{sub 2}] and [Ni(COD){sub 2}] in the presence of two equivalents of terpyridine. This reaction was driven to high yields of product formation (72 % isolated) by the precipitation of 1 from THF solvent.

  4. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C–H functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage1. One of the core principles that underlies DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimnation of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of ‘spin-center shift’ (SCS)2, during which an alcohol C–O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centered radical intermediate. While SCS is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underutilized by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylations using alcohols as radical precursors. Considering traditional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, elevated temperatures, or peroxides3–7, the development of a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have significant utility in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. In this manuscript, we describe the successful execution of this idea via the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysis. The utility of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone. PMID:26308895

  5. Salvage of failed protein targets by reductive alkylation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  6. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-09-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage. One of the core principles underlying DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimination of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of `spin-centre shift', during which an alcohol C-O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centred radical intermediate. Although spin-centre shift is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underused by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors. Because conventional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, increased temperatures or peroxides, a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have considerable use in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. Here we describe the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes, using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first, to our knowledge, broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. The value of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone.

  7. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-09-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage. One of the core principles underlying DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimination of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of 'spin-centre shift', during which an alcohol C-O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centred radical intermediate. Although spin-centre shift is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underused by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors. Because conventional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, increased temperatures or peroxides, a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have considerable use in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. Here we describe the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes, using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first, to our knowledge, broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. The value of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone. PMID:26308895

  8. Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2006-02-01

    In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of alkyl phenols in the extracts. A mixture of anacardic acids (10.0 mg/ml) showed the higher antioxidant capacity (IC50=0.60 mM) compared to cardols and cardanols (IC50>4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids

  9. Combustion pathways of the alkylated heteroaromatics: bond dissociation enthalpies and alkyl group fragmentations

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, C.J.; Hadad, C.M.

    2009-11-15

    The bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of the alkyl groups of the alkyl-substituted heterocycles have been studied and compiled using DFT methodology, with the intent of modeling the larger heterocyclic functionalities found in coal. DFT results were calibrated against CBS-QB3 calculations, and qualitative trends were reproduced between these methods. Loss of hydrogen at the benzylic position provided the most favorable route to radical formation, for both the azabenzenes and five-membered heterocycles. The ethyl derivatives had lower BDE values than the methyl derivatives due to increased stabilization of the corresponding radicals. Calculated spin densities correlated well with bond dissociation enthalpies for these compounds, while geometric effects were minimal with respect to the heterocycles themselves. Temperature effects on the bond dissociation enthalpies were minor, ranging by about 5 kcal/mol from 298 to 2000 K; the free energies of reaction dropped significantly over the same range due to entropic effects. Monocyclic heteroaromatic rings were seen to replicate the chemistry of multicyclic heteroaromatic systems.

  10. Structure-activity studies on organoselenium alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S I; Spears, C P

    1990-01-01

    A variety of organoselenium alkylating agents were synthesized, using 2-hydroxyethyl and 3-hydroxypropyl selenocyanate intermediates, and studied to determine their chemical reactivities with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) and cytotoxicities against CCRF-CEM, L1210/0, and L1210/L-PAM cells. The comparison between the 2-chloroethyl sulfides and selenides 1-4 revealed the markedly enhanced nucleophilicity of selenium (Se) over sulfur (S) by two or more orders of magnitude. This finding indicates that a major consideration in the design of antitumor alkylating organoselenides is the reactivity of selenium. A Taft plot of the experimental first-order rate constant, knbp, and sigma* in a series of 2-chloroethylseleno compounds gave a slope of -1.73 (rho*), with the exception of 2-chloroethyl 2-nitrophenyl selenide (10). The anomalous behavior of 10 is explained in terms of the ortho-nitro stabilization effect directly interacting with the selenium atom of ethyleneselenonium ion to form a 5-membered cyclic intermediate. In the same series, a 5000-fold difference in alkylating reactivity offered only a sixfold variation in cytotoxicity against CCRF-CEM cells. Increasing the alkylating chain length from ethlene to propylene units markedly reduced alkylating reactivities. In the CH3Se(CH2)n Cl series, 16 (n = 3) was 1.5 X 10(5) times slower than 2 (n = 2) in NBP alkylation, revealing that 3-chloro-n-propyl selenides are not chemically reactive enough to be biological alkylating agents despite the presence of the highly nucleophilic selenium atom. Replacement of chloride with mesylate in 3-substituted propyl selenides, such as 17 and 20, restored desirable reactivities and cytotoxicities. PMID:2313578

  11. Substance use - LSD

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD ... LSD is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  12. Substance use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse; Chemical use; Chemical abuse; Drug addiction; Addiction - drug; Dependence on drugs ... known. A person's genes, the action of the drug, peer pressure, emotional distress, anxiety , depression , and environmental ...

  13. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ), having hallucinations Physical reactions may include muscle breakdown or twitching, ...

  14. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  15. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  16. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  17. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  18. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance taken from the tops of female marijuana plants. It contains the highest amount of THC. Marijuana is called many other names, including cannabis, grass, hashish, joint, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, weed.

  19. Substance use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283

  20. Substance use during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options. PMID:27239283