Science.gov

Sample records for alkyl substituted phenols

  1. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3812 - Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polymer, alkylated (generic). 721.3812 Section 721.3812 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3812 Substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer... substance identified generically as substituted phenols and formaldehyde polymer, alkylated (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of 4-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type allylic alkylation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng-Le; Xu, Qing-Long; Gu, Qing; Wu, Xin-Yan; You, Shu-Li

    2015-03-14

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type allylic alkylation reaction of phenols was developed under mild conditions. In the presence of Pd2(dba)3 with (1R,2R)-DACH-phenyl Trost ligand (L2) in toluene at 50 °C, the reaction provides various C4 substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines with moderate to excellent yields, regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. PMID:25625805

  12. [Leukoderma caused by chemicals: mechanisms underlying 4-alkyl/aryl-substituted phenols- and rhododendrol-induced melanocyte loss].

    PubMed

    Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma is a skin depigmentation disorder known to occur in manufactural workplace through contact with chemicals, such as monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) and 4-tert- butylphenol (4-TBP). In the skin depigmented -legions induced by these chemicals, the number of melanocyte was severely decreased. Anti-melanoma agent 4-cysteaminylphenol (4-SCAP) and its derivatives are also known to cause leukoderma. Evidence has accumulated supporting that typical class of chemicals causing leukoderma is "4-alkyl/aryl-substituted phenols/catechols", which are structurally similar to melanin precursor tyrosine. Tyrosinase-mediated oxidation of these chemicals yields toxic ortho-quinones which bind to cellular proteins and produce reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, this tyrosinase-dependent metabolic activation is thought to cause melanocyte-specific damage and subsequent immune reactions toward melanocytes. Recently, rhododendrol, an inhibitor of tyrosinase developed for so-called lightening/whitening cosmetics, was shown to cause leukoderma in the users. In this review, I document the causes of known chemical leukoderma and rhododendrol- induced leukoderma, focusing on their common mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss. PMID:26821466

  13. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10506 - Alkylated phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated phenols (generic). 721.10506... Substances § 721.10506 Alkylated phenols (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkylated phenols (PMNs...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl substituted diaromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  20. Alkyl and phenolic glycosides from Saussurea stella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Min; Wang, Ru-Feng; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-07-01

    One alkyl glycoside, saussurostelloside A (1), two phenolic glycosides, saussurostellosides B1 (2) and B2 (3), and 27 known compounds, including eleven flavonoids, seven phenolics, six lignans, one neolignan, one phenethyl glucoside and one fatty acid, were isolated from an ethanol extract of Saussurea stella (Asteraceae). Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic analysis. Of the known compounds, (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), picraquassioside C (10), and diosmetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (27) were isolated from the Asteraceae family for the first time, while (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), di-O-methylcrenatin (11), protocatechuic acid (14), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (17), formononetin (28), and phenethyl glucoside (29) were isolated from the Saussurea genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of three new compounds (1-3), five lignans ((-)-arctiin (4), (+)-pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (5), (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7) and (+)-syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8)), one neolignan (picraquassioside C (10)), and one phenolic glycoside (di-O-methylcrenatin (11)) were evaluated by testing their inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase from PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Only compound 5 showed moderate inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase, with an inhibition ratio of 39.1%.

  1. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9572 - Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic... Substances § 721.9572 Substituted alkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10497 Substituted alkyl... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  12. Selective catalytic hydroalkylation and deoxygenation of substituted phenols to bicycloalkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2012-04-01

    Phenol and substituted phenols are hydroalkylated and hydrodeoxygenated to bi-cycloalkanes in a tandem reaction over Pd nanoclusters supported on a large-pore molecular sieve HBEA at 473-523 K using water as solvent. The HBEA-supported Pd catalyst (metal-acid ratio: 1:22 mol/mol) optimally balances the competing rates of metal catalyzed hydrogenation as well as of solid acid-catalyzed dehydration and carbon-carbon coupling to combine hydrodeoxygenation and dimerization of phenol derivatives to C{sub 12}-C{sub 18} bicycloalkanes in a single reaction sequence. A detailed kinetic study of the elementary reactions of (substituted) phenol and their potential products (cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and cyclohexene) demonstrates that phenol selectively reacts with the in situ generated cyclohexanol or cyclohexene on Broensted acid sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation of phenol with alcohol intermediates and alcohol dehydration are parallel reactions, which are subtly influenced by the competing hydrogenation reactions as well as by the presence of water as solvent. IR spectroscopy of adsorbed species and preliminary molecular modeling indicate that phenol and cyclohexanol enrichment in the large pores of zeolite HBEA is critical for the high activity and hydroalkylation selectivity.

  13. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  19. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10384 - Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkanolamine phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10384 Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance... substituted alkanolamine phenol (PMN P-10-332) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10508 - Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10508 Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkene substituted bis phenol (PMN P-07-161) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10384 - Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkanolamine phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10384 Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance... substituted alkanolamine phenol (PMN P-10-332) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10384 - Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkanolamine phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10384 Substituted alkanolamine phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance... substituted alkanolamine phenol (PMN P-10-332) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10561 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10561 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10561 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10561 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10386 - Substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10386 Substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted phenol (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10508 - Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10508 Alkene substituted Bis phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkene substituted bis phenol (PMN P-07-161) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10387 - Substituted bis-phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted bis-phenol (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10387 Substituted bis-phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bis-phenol (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with silica and substituted silane (generic). 721.10497 Section 721.10497 Protection of... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  18. Catalytic Asymmetric Alkylation of Substituted Isoflavanones

    PubMed Central

    Nibbs, Antoinette E.; Baize, Amanda-Lauren; Herter, Rachel M.; Scheidt, Karl A.

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of isoflavanones and protected 3-phenyl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones catalyzed by a novel cinchonidine-derived phase transfer catalyst E is reported. This functionalization occurs at the non-activated C3 methine to afford novel products that can easily be functionalized to generate more complex fused ring systems. The process accommodates a variety of isoflavanones and activated electrophiles and installs a stereogenic quaternary center in high yield and with good-to-excellent selectivity. PMID:19658430

  19. 40 CFR 721.10711 - Alkyl substituted catechol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10711 Alkyl substituted catechol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  20. Para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes in reaction with dinitrogen tetroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, M.M.; Geiderikh, A.V.; Mochalov, S.S.; Shabarov, Yu.S.

    1988-11-10

    The reaction of para-alkyl-substituted phenylcyclopropanes with dinitrogen tetroxide was studied. In solvents with various polarities at /minus/30/degree/C dinitrogen tetroxide only reacts with the three-carbon ring. Here the initially formed adducts are only stable at low temperatures; with increase in temperature they are converted into p-alkylcinnamaldehydes and 5-(p-alkylphenyl)isoxazolines.

  1. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  6. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10486 - Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10486 Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (PMN P-04-591) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10635 - Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10635 Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (generic). (a... generically as alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (PMN P-12-480) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3845 - Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3845 Alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted aromatic glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-661) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10635 - Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10635 Alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (generic). (a... generically as alkyl maleimide substituted bicyclic olefin (PMN P-12-480) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10486 - Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10486 Alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl substituted amino-benzamide (PMN P-04-591) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). 721.10352 Section 721.10352 Protection of Environment... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (PMN P-08-93) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. Formation of meta-Substituted Phenols by Transition Metal-Free Aromatization: Use of 2-Bromocyclohex-2-en-1-ones.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guojun; Clive, Derrick L J

    2016-09-16

    Addition of Grignard or other organometallic reagents to 2-halocyclohex-2-en-1-ones bearing an alkyl or aryl group at C-5, followed by mild acid treatment and exposure to 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) at room temperature, generates meta-substituted phenols in which the newly introduced meta substituent originates from the Grignard reagent. The range of effective organometallic reagents includes alkyl, allyl, alkynyl, aryl, and heteroaryl compounds including those with fluorine substituents. The initial halocyclohexenone can be deprotonated at C-6 and reacted with carbon, fluorine, or sulfur electrophiles before the Grignard addition so as to generate highly substituted phenols. PMID:27563935

  2. 40 CFR 721.10200 - Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-alkyl substituted (generic). 721.10200 Section 721.10200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10200 Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl... substance identified generically as benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (PMN P-09-75)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10200 - Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-alkyl substituted (generic). 721.10200 Section 721.10200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10200 Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl... substance identified generically as benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (PMN P-09-75)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10200 - Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-alkyl substituted (generic). 721.10200 Section 721.10200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10200 Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl... substance identified generically as benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (PMN P-09-75)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10200 - Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-alkyl substituted (generic). 721.10200 Section 721.10200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10200 Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl... substance identified generically as benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (PMN P-09-75)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10200 - Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-alkyl substituted (generic). 721.10200 Section 721.10200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10200 Benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl... substance identified generically as benzenacetonitrile, cyclohexylidene-alkyl substituted (PMN P-09-75)...

  7. Copper-catalyzed N- and O-alkylation of amines and phenols using alkylborane reagents.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Shunsuke; Kuninobu, Yoichiro

    2013-04-01

    By the reaction of amines with alkylborane reagents in the presence of a catalytic amount of copper(II) acetate Cu(OAc)2 and di-tert-butyl peroxide, a cross-coupling reaction proceeded and alkylated amines were obtained in good to excellent yields. Phenols are also applicable for this reaction, and the corresponding alkyl aryl ethers were produced. PMID:23521042

  8. Synthesis, hydrolyses and dermal delivery of N-alkyl-N-alkyloxycarbonylaminomethyl (NANAOCAM) derivatives of phenol, imide and thiol containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Susruta; Sloan, Kenneth B

    2006-07-01

    Synthesis, characterization and hydrolysis in aqueous buffers of novel N-alkyl-N-alkyloxycarbonylaminomethyl (NANAOCAM) derivatives of substituted phenols, theophylline (Th) and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) were carried out. The mechanism of hydrolysis was further investigated by synthesis, characterization and hydrolysis of N-aryl-N-alkyloxycarbonylaminomethyl (NArNAOCAM) derivatives of phenols. The hydrolysis follows pseudounimolecular first order kinetics and operates by way of an S(N)1-type mechanism. Topical delivery of selected derivatives of acetaminophen (APAP), Th and 6MP was examined in in vitro diffusion cell experiments from IPM across hairless mice skins. The prodrug of APAP and 6MP increased permeation across the skin by about 2- and 4-fold, respectively, compared to the parent drug. NANAOCAM promoieties can act as novel prodrug derivatives of phenol, imide and thiol containing drugs for enhancing topical absorption.

  9. Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate the hTRPA1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S P; Buber, M T; Yang, Q; Cerne, R; Cortés, R Y; Sprous, D G; Bryant, R W

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Thymol, a major component of thyme and oregano, has medical uses in oral care products as an astringent and antibiotic. Its distinctive sharp odour and pungent flavour are considered aversive properties. The molecular basis of these aversive properties is not well understood. Experimental approach: The ability of thymol to activate human transient receptor potential channel A1 (hTRPA1) expressed in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells was measured by membrane potential and calcium-sensitive dyes in a fluorescence-imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay. Direct activation of hTRPA1 currents was measured by whole-cell voltage clamp recording. Intracellular calcium changes were measured using fura-2 dye. The FLIPR assay was also used to measure membrane potential changes elicited by thymol after pretreatment with camphor, a known TRPA1 inhibitor. The ability of related alkyl phenols to activate hTRPA1 was also determined. Key results: Thymol potently activated a membrane potential response and intracellular calcium increase in hTRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation by thymol desensitized hTRPA1 to further exposure to thymol or the known ligand allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). The related phenols 2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol, 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol) and carvacrol also activated hTRPA1. Phenols with less bulky carbon substitutions and lower logP values were less potent in general. The response to thymol was blocked by camphor. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest a role for hTRPA1 activation in the reported pungent and aversive properties of some of these pharmaceutically important phenols. PMID:18334983

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of alkyl substituted nanographene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziogos, Orestis George; Theodorou, Doros Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Discotic polyaromatic molecules, similar to nanometric graphene flakes, constitute an interesting class of materials for organic electronic applications. Grafting flexible side chains around the periphery of such molecules enhances their processability and gives rise to diverse behaviours, such as the manifestation of liquid-crystalline character and anisotropic mechanical response. In this work, we examine by means of molecular dynamics simulations the properties of molecular crystals comprised of alkyl-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene mesogens. Pristine and mono-substituted systems by hydrogen or iodine atoms are modelled, with variable side chain length. A general structural and mechanical robustness to peripheral substitution is reported, with the mesogens forming tightly packed molecular wires even at elevated temperature and pressure. In their discotic ordering, the molecules present relatively low translational mobility, a beneficial phenomenon for charge transport. A thermotropic dependence of the mechanical response is identified, with the systems behaving differently in their room-temperature crystalline phase and in their liquid-crystalline phase at elevated temperatures. The melting process is also examined, elucidating an initial negative expansion along a high symmetry direction and the existence of a metastable state, before falling into the final liquid-crystalline state. Dedicated to Professor Jean-Pierre Hansen, with deepest appreciation of his outstanding contributions to liquid and soft matter theory.

  11. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10606 Alkyl substituted... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10606 Alkyl substituted... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  17. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7785 Substituted alkyl aminomethylene...

  19. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration.

    PubMed

    Mari, Michele; Lucarini, Simone; Bartoccini, Francesca; Piersanti, Giovanni; Spadoni, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha) derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization-cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization. PMID:25246958

  20. Masked N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alkylation of Phenols with Organic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Lui, Matthew Y; Yuen, Alexander K L; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    An easily prepared masked N-heterocyclic carbene, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium-2-carboxylate (DMI-CO2 ), was investigated as a "green" and inexpensive organocatalyst for the alkylation of phenols. The process made use of various low-toxicity and renewable alkylating agents, such as dimethyl- and diethyl carbonate, in a focused microwave reactor. DMI-CO2 was found to be a very active catalyst and excellent yields of a range of aryl alkyl ethers were obtained under relatively benign conditions. The observed difference in the conversion behavior of phenol methylation, in the presence of either the carbene or 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU) catalyst, was rationalized on the basis of mechanistic investigations. The primary mode of action for the N-heterocyclic carbene is nucleophilic catalysis. Activation of the dialkyl carbonate electrophile results in concomitant evolution of an organo-soluble alkoxide, which deprotonates the phenolic starting material. In contrast, DBU is initially protonated by the phenol and thus consumed. Subsequent regeneration and participation in nucleophilic catalysis only becomes significant after some phenolate alkylation occurs. PMID:27528488

  1. Heterogeneous catalysis by solid superacids--14. Perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid (nafion-h) catalyzed Friedel-crafts alkylation of toluene and phenol with alkyl chloroformates and oxalates

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.A.; Meidar, D.; Malhotra, R.; Olah, J.A.; Narang, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    Product distributions obtained in the alkylation of toluene with methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl chloroformate and dimethyl oxalate and of phenol with methyl and ethyl chloroformate and dimethyl- and diethyloxalate.

  2. REVISITING CLASSICAL NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTIONS IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF ALKYL AZIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of alkyl azides using microwave (MW) radiation is described in aqueous medium by reacting alkyl halides or tosylates with alkali azides. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions is applicable to the ...

  3. O-alkylation of phenols for upgrading of coal-derived liquids; 1: Reaction of Phenols with Branched Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.A.; Long, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    Model phenolic compounds as well as coal-derived phenols were found to be readily etherified by reaction with 2-methyl-2-butene and an acid catalyst. The reaction is equilibrium limited with formation of ethers being favored at low temperatures and high olefin concentrations. Ring alkylation can be minimized by employing mild reaction conditions. Various acids were employed and 40% sulfuric acid in methanol was found to be superior to 40% sulfuric acid in water, especially at high olefin concentrations. The acid/methanol solutions were also found to be quite useful for extraction of phenols from coal naphtha. Increased steric bulk in the vicinity of the phenolic hydroxyl group was observed to retard etherification.

  4. Alkyl substitution effect: A high mobility bistetracene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yujuan; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-03-01

    Tetracenes and their derivatives are widely used in organic semiconductors for the advantages of small reorganization energies and large electronic couplings. The influences of long alkyl chain on charge transfer mobility of two bistetracene derivatives are investigated theoretically. The results show that the introduction of long alkyl chains would lead to a more compact packing, and increase electronic coupling, but reduce intermolecular distance. However, the introduction of long alkyl chains has little influence on reorganization energy. This provides a new understanding of the introduction of long alkyl chain on designing new high efficiency organic semiconductors.

  5. Stereochemistry analysis and comparison of two C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates with their C(3)-aryl substituted analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-Yue; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Bing-Long; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jin-Song

    2016-03-01

    Two representative C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates (4a and 4b) were synthesized and their conformational features were investigated by single crystal X-ray crystallography for the first time. These stereochemistry results of 4a and 4b were compared with those obtained from the earlier research of C(3)-aryl substituted analogues (1-3).

  6. Characterization of phenol and alkyl phenols in organic matrixes with monoethylene glycol extraction and multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Cortes, H J; Shellie, R A

    2013-07-01

    The use of monoethylene glycol as an extraction medium for removing phenol and alkyl phenols in organic matrixes such as hydrocarbons is introduced and combined with a practical analytical multidimensional gas chromatography approach. The analytical approach has been successfully developed for the characterization of phenol, cresols, xylenols, and alkyl phenols like 4-ethylphenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol. The technique employs a single-step extraction of the analytes with monoethylene glycol and sonication, followed by multidimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode for the detection and quantitation. Extraction efficiency of phenol approached 100% while cresols, xylenols, and 4-ethylphenol were 97% or higher and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol was better than 91% under the analytical conditions used. With the technique described, a complete analysis can be conducted in less than 16 min. Reproducibility of area counts at two levels, namely, 5 ppm(w) and 50 ppm(w) over a period of 2 days were found to be less than 4% (n = 20). The analytes of interest was found to be linear over a range from 100 ppb(w) to 250 ppm(w) with correlation coefficient of at least 0.999 and detection limit of 50 ppb(w) . Spike recoveries from 500 ppb(w) to 250 ppm(w) for all analytes range from 96 to 102%.

  7. Chiral Brønsted Base-Promoted Nitroalkane Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis of sec-Alkyl-3-Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Dobish, Mark C.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    A Brønsted base-catalyzed reaction of nitroalkanes with alkyl electrophiles provides indole heterocycles substituted at C3 bearing a sec-alkyl group with good enantioselectivity (up to 90% ee). Denitration by hydrogenolysis provides a product with equally high ee. An indolenine intermediate is implicated in the addition step, and surprisingly, water cosolvent was found to have a beneficial effect in this step, leading to a one-pot protocol for elimination/enantioselective addition using PBAM, a bis(amidine) chiral nonracemic base. PMID:21090654

  8. 40 CFR 721.5880 - Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur bridged substituted phenols... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5880 Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name). (a) Chemical... substituted phenols (PMN P-89-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5880 - Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur bridged substituted phenols... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5880 Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name). (a) Chemical... substituted phenols (PMN P-89-396) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  15. Contributions of inner and outer coordination sphere bonding in determining the strength of substituted phenolic pyrazoles as copper extractants.

    PubMed

    Healy, Mary R; Roebuck, James W; Doidge, Euan D; Emeleus, Lucy C; Bailey, Philip J; Campbell, John; Fischmann, Adam J; Love, Jason B; Morrison, Carole A; Sassi, Thomas; White, David J; Tasker, Peter A

    2016-02-21

    Alkyl-substituted phenolic pyrazoles such as 4-methyl-2-[5-(n-octyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L2H) are shown to function as Cu-extractants, having similar strength and selectivity over Fe(iii) to 5-nonylsalicylaldoxime which is a component of the commercially used ACORGA® solvent extraction reagents. Substitution in the phenol ring of the new extractants has a major effect on their strength, e.g. 2-nitro-4-methyl-6-[5-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L4H) which has a nitro group ortho to the phenolic hydroxyl group unit and has an extraction distribution coefficient for Cu nearly three orders of magnitude higher than its unsubstituted analogue 4-methyl-6-[5-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenol (L8H). X-ray structure determinations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that inter-ligand hydrogen bonding between the pyrazole NH group and the phenolate oxygen atom stabilise the Cu-complexes, giving pseudomacrocyclic structures. Electron-accepting groups ortho to the phenol oxygen atoms buttress the inter-ligand H-bonding, enhancing extractant strength but the effectiveness of this is very dependent on steric factors. The correlation between the calculated energies of formation of copper complexes in the gas phase and the observed strength of comparably substituted reagents in solvent extraction experiments is remarkable. Analysis of the energies of formation suggests that big differences in strength of extractants arise principally from a combination of the effects of the substituents on the ease of deprotonation of the proligands and, for the ortho-substituted ligands, their propensity to buttress inter-ligand hydrogen bonding. PMID:26763168

  16. Symmetry matters: photodissociation dynamics of symmetrically versus asymmetrically substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Karsili, Tolga N V; Wenge, Andreas M; Marchetti, Barbara; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2014-01-14

    We report a combined experimental (H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translational spectroscopy) and theoretical (ab initio electronic structure and vibronic coupling calculations) study of the effects of symmetry on the photodissociation dynamics of phenols. Ultraviolet photoexcitation to the bound S1((1)ππ*) state of many phenols leads to some O-H bond fission by tunneling through the barrier under the conical intersection (CI) between the S1 and dissociative S2((1)πσ*) potential energy surfaces in the R(O-H) stretch coordinate. Careful analysis of the total kinetic energy release spectra of the resulting products shows that the radicals formed following S1 ← S0 excitation of phenol and symmetrically substituted phenols like 4-fluorophenol all carry an odd number of quanta in vibrational mode ν(16a), whereas those deriving from asymmetrically substituted systems like 3-fluorophenol or 4-methoxyphenol do not. This contrasting behavior can be traced back to symmetry. Symmetrically substituted phenols exist in two equivalent rotamers, which interconvert by tunneling through the barrier to OH torsional motion. Their states are thus best considered in the non-rigid G4 molecular symmetry group, wherein radiationless transfer from the S1 to S2 state requires a coupling mode of a2 symmetry. Of the three a2 symmetry parent modes, the out-of-plane ring puckering mode ν(16a) shows much the largest interstate coupling constant in the vicinity of the S1/S2 CI. The nuclear motions associated with ν(16a) are orthogonal to the dissociation coordinate, and are thus retained in the radical products. Introducing asymmetry (even a non-linear substituent in the 4-position) lifts the degeneracy of the rotamers, and lowers the molecular symmetry to Cs. Many more parent motions satisfy the reduced (a'') symmetry requirement to enable S1/S2 coupling, the most effective of which is OH torsion. This motion 'disappears' on O-H bond fission; symmetry thus imposes no restriction to

  17. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid... substances identified generically as reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10145 - Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified reaction products of alkyl... Modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane, substituted epoxide, and amino compound... identified generically as modified reaction products of alkyl alcohol, halogenated alkane,...

  7. Alkyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes.

    PubMed

    Lidster, Benjamin J; Kumar, Dharam R; Spring, Andrew M; Yu, Chin-Yang; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Turner, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    [2.2]Paracyclophane-1,9-dienes substituted with n-octyl chains have been synthesised from the corresponding dithia[3.3]paracyclophanes using a benzyne induced Stevens rearrangement. The use of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride as the in situ benzyne source gave significantly improved yields over traditional sources of benzyne and enabled the preparation of n-octyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes on a multi-gram scale.

  8. Redox Potentials, Laccase Oxidation, and Antilarval Activities of Substituted Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Keshar; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Gorman, Maureen J.; Barrigan, Lydia M.; Peng, Zeyu; Kanost, Michael R.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Zhu, Kun Yan; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing oxidases that are involved in sclerotization of the cuticle of mosquitoes and other insects. Oxidation of exogenous compounds by insect laccases may have the potential to produce reactive species toxic to insects. We investigated two classes of substituted phenolic compounds, halogenated di- and trihydroxybenzenes and substituted di-tert-butylphenols, on redox potential, oxidation by laccase and effects on mosquito larval growth. An inverse correlation between the oxidation potentials and laccase activity of halogenated hydroxybenzenes was found. Substituted di-tert-butylphenols however were found to impact mosquito larval growth and survival. In particular, 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol (15) caused greater than 98% mortality of Anopheles gambiae larvae in a concentration of 180 nM, whereas 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanal oxime (13) and 6,8-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene (33) caused 93% and 92% mortalities in concentrations of 3.4 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Larvae treated with di-tert-butylphenolic compounds died just before pupation. PMID:22300888

  9. 40 CFR 721.10517 - Alkyl methacrylates, polymer with substituted carbomonocycle, hydroxymethyl acrylamide and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl methacrylates, polymer with substituted carbomonocycle, hydroxymethyl acrylamide and fluorinatedalkyl acrylate (generic). 721.10517 Section 721.10517 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  10. Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of 3-Substituted Indoles with Electron-Deficient Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jian-Quan; Fan, Ren-Jie; Deng, Qiao-Man; Liu, Ren-Rong; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia

    2016-04-01

    Highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts C2-alkylation reactions of 3-substituted indoles with α,β-unsaturated esters and nitroalkenes were developed using chiral Lewis acids as catalysts, which afforded chiral indole derivatives bearing C2-benzylic stereogenic centers in good to excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee). PMID:26959867

  11. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  16. Retention behavior of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Sander, Lane C; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Lee, Milton L; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-08-26

    Retention indices for 79 alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) were determined by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) on a monomeric and polymeric octadecylsilane (C18) stationary phase. Molecular shape parameters [length, breadth, thickness (T), and length-to-breadth ratio (L/B)] were calculated for all the compounds studied. Based on separations of isomeric methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on polymeric C18 phases, alkyl-substituted PASHs are expected to elute based on increasing L/B ratios. However, the correlation coefficients had a wide range of values from r=0.43 to r=0.93. Several structural features besides L/B ratios were identified to play an important role in the separation mechanism of PASHs on polymeric C18 phases. First, the location of the sulfur atom in a bay-like-region results in alkylated-PASHs being more retentive than non-bay-like-region alkylated-PASHs, and they elute later than expected based on L/B value. Second, the placement of the alkyl group in the k region of the structure resulted in a later elution than predicted by L/B. Third, highly nonplanar methyl-PASHs (i.e., 1-Me and 11-MeBbN12T) elute prior to the parent PASH (BbN12T).

  17. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8673 - [(Disubstituted phenyl)]azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl-substituted-pyridines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8673 azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as azo dihydro hydroxy alkyl oxo...

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Deng, S. H.; Zheng, A. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Chen, X. B.; Zeng, X. H.; Hu, Y. G.

    2016-08-01

    The 3-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 3 by sequential reaction of iminophosphorane 1, aromatic isocyanates and various nucleophiles (HY), found some compounds showed good antitumor and antibacterial activities. Meanwhile, aliphatic isocyanates were applied in the reaction to prepare 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3- d]pyrimidinones, but there are no reports of their antifungal activities. As a continuation of our research for new biologically active heterocycles, we herein wish to report a facile synthesis and antifungal activities of 3-alkyl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinones 6 via easily accessible iminophosphorane 1. The growth inhibitory effect of one concentration (50mg/L) of compounds 6 against five fungus(Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gossypii, Gibberella zeae and Dothiorella gregaria) in vitro was tested by the method of toxic medium. Compound 6d showed the best inhibition rate against Gibberella zeae with 85.68%.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5880 - Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur bridged substituted phenols... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5880 Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5880 - Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur bridged substituted phenols... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5880 Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5880 - Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur bridged substituted phenols... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5880 Sulfur bridged substituted phenols (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject...

  11. Chemical derivatization for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 1. Alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines

    SciTech Connect

    Quirke, J.M.E.; Adams, C.L.; Van Berkel, G.J. )

    1994-04-15

    Derivatization strategies and specific derivatization reactions for conversion of simple alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines to ionic or solution-ionizable derivatives, that is [open quotes]electrospray active[close quotes] (ES-active) forms of the analyte, are presented. Use of these reactions allows detection of analytes among those listed that are not normally amenable to analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS). In addition, these reactions provide for analysis specificity and flexibility through functional group specific derivatization and through the formation of derivatives that can be detected in positive ion or in negative ion mode. For a few of the functional groups, amphoteric derivatives are formed that can be analyzed in either positive or negative ion modes. General synthetic strategies for transformation of members of these five compound classes to ES-active species are presented along with illustrative examples of suitable derivatives. Selected derivatives were prepared using model compounds and the ES mass spectra obtained for these derivatives are discussed. The analytical utility of derivatization for ES-MS analysis is illustrated in three experiments: (1) specific detection of the major secondary alcohol in oil of peppermint, (2) selective detection of phenols within a synthetic mixture of phenols, and (3) identification of the medicinal amines within a commercially available cold medication as primary, secondary or tertiary. 65 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Optimization of alkylating agent prodrugs derived from phenol and aniline mustards: a new clinical candidate prodrug (ZD2767) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    PubMed

    Springer, C J; Dowell, R; Burke, P J; Hadley, E; Davis, D H; Blakey, D C; Melton, R G; Niculescu-Duvaz, I

    1995-12-22

    Sixteen novel potential prodrugs derived from phenol or aniline mustards and their 16 corresponding drugs with ring substitution and/or different alkylating functionalities were designed. The [[[4-]bis(2-bromoethyl)-(1a), [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)-(1b), and [[[4-[(2-chloroethyl)-[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]phenyl]oxy] carbonyl]-L-glutamic acids (1c), their [[[2- and 3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L- glutamic acids (1e-1), and the [[3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]carbamoyl]-L- glutamic acids (1o-r) were synthesized. They are bifunctional alkylating agents in which the activating effect of the phenolic hydroxyl or amino function is masked through an oxycarbonyl or a carbamoyl bond to a glutamic acid. These prodrugs were designed to be activated to their corresponding phenol and aniline nitrogen mustard drugs at a tumor site by prior administration of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The synthesis of the analogous novel parent drugs (2a-r) is also described. The viability of a colorectal cell line (LoVo) was monitored with the potential prodrugs and the parent drugs. The differential in the cytotoxicity between the potential prodrugs and their corresponding active drugs ranged between 12 and > 195 fold. Compounds 1b-d,f,o exhibited substantial prodrug activity, since a cytotoxicity differential of > 100 was achieved compared to 2b-d,f,o respectively. The ability of the potential prodrugs to act as substrates for CPG2 was determined (kinetic parameters KM and kcat), and the chemical stability was measured for all the compounds. The unsubstituted phenols with different alkylating functionalities (1a-c) proved to have the highest ratio of the substrates kcat:KM. From these studies [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (1b) emerges as a new ADEPT clinical trial candidate due to its physicochemical and

  13. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction..., reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (PMN P-99-0531) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction... chemical substance identified generically as Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 8-Functionalization of alkyl-substituted-3,8-dimethyl BODIPYs by Knoevenagel condensation.

    PubMed

    Palao, Eduardo; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Bañuelos-Prieto, Jorge; Lopez, Teresa Arbeloa; Lopez-Arbeloa, Iñigo; Armesto, Diego; Ortiz, Maria J

    2013-09-01

    New 8-alkenylBODIPYs have been synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation between a series of alkyl-substituted-3,8-dimethylBODIPYs and aromatic or aliphatic aldehydes. This is in clear contrast with literature precedents, which indicate that this reaction occurs exclusively on the methyl group at C-3. The change in hybridization of the carbon at the 8-position (from sp(3) to sp(2)) determines the fluorescence emission of the BODIPY, while the presence of electron-donating or -withdrawing groups leads to intramolecular charge transfer processes.

  4. A single theoretical descriptor for the bond-dissociation energy of substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Carolina; Almodovar, Iriux; Rezende, Marcos Caroli

    2015-01-01

    Relative to the corresponding value of phenol, the bond-dissociation energies (BDE) of substituted phenols correlate well with a single descriptor: the Mulliken charge on the oxygen atom of the phenoxyl radical. However, the correlation fails for phenols ortho-substituted with polar groups. Internal reaction coordinates (IRC) for the model reaction of hydrogen abstraction by the hydroperoxyl radical from various 2- and 4-substituted phenols were calculated in order to investigate the role of intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and steric effects on the process. Calculations yielded theoretical values in good agreement with experimental ΔBDE values. The hydrogen-abstraction process was further analyzed in terms of density functional theory (DFT)-based reactivity indices such as local electrophilicity, the Fukui function for nucleophilic attack, and dual descriptor values of the phenolic hydroxyl oxygen along the IRC. PMID:25617211

  5. Alkyl substitution effects on the intercalation of carcinogenic hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon metabolites into DNA

    SciTech Connect

    LeBreton, P.R.

    1986-05-01

    A large number of carcinogenic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon metabolites intercalate into DNA with binding constants in terms of PO/sub 4//sup -/ concentration which lie in the range 10/sup 3/-10/sup 4/ M/sup -1/. These binding constants are similar to those associated with base stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions that occur naturally in DNA. Previous studies show that different metabolites derived from the same parent hydrocarbon exhibit different binding properties. In recent studies the authors have examined the effects of alkyl substitution on hydrocarbon binding to calf thymus DNA. Such groups can enhance or inhibit carcinogenic activity. Studies of 1-alkyl BP/sup +/ derivatives and of their 7,8-dihydrodiols indicate that the alkyl groups ethyl, isopropyl and t-butyl inhibit intercalation. Methyl groups can either inhibit or enhance intercalation into DNA. The binding constants of DMBA and BA are nearly the same. However, DMA, which is a ..pi.. electron model compound of the bay region diol epoxide of DMBA, binds 6.7 times better than anthracene. Similarly, highly carcinogenic 5-methylchyrsene binds to DNA 3.9 times better than chrysene. /sup +/Abbreviations: BP, benzo(a)pyrene; DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; BA, benz(a)anthracene DMA, 9,10-dimethylanthracene.

  6. A combined approach of experiments and computational docking simulation to the Coprinus cinereus peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization of alkyl phenols.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Chul; Joo, Jeong Chan; An, Eun Suk; Song, Bong Keun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yoo, Young Je

    2011-04-01

    The characteristics of the oxidative polymerization of alkyl phenol derivatives catalyzed by Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) were studied qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of experiments and computational docking simulations. As determined by docking study of CIP and alkyl phenols, the binding interaction was found to be important for the determination of substrate specificity. The distant binding and indirect orientation of o-isopropyl phenol and o-tertiary butyl phenol to the catalytic residue (56His) could explain the inability of CIP to polymerize these substrates. Three hydrophobic residues (156Pro, 192Leu, and 230Phe) at the entrance of the binding pocket were also found to be crucial in binding and orientation of alkyl phenols. A two-parameter QSAR equation with the binding distance and the molecular volume of the substrates was proposed and the polymerization yield was accurately predicted by two-parameter QSAR equation.

  7. The Effect of Varying Short-Chain Alkyl Substitution on the Molar Absorptivity and Quantum Yield of Cyanine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Gala; Henary, Maged; Patonay, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The effect of varying short-chain alkyl substitution of the indole nitrogens on the spectroscopic properties of cyanine dyes was examined. Molar absorptivities and fluorescence quantum yields were determined for a set of pentamethine dyes and a set of heptamethine dyes for which the substitution of the indole nitrogen was varied. For both sets of dyes, increasing alkyl chain length resulted in no significant change in quantum yield or molar absorptivity. These results may be useful in designing new cyanine dyes for analytical applications and predicting their spectroscopic properties. PMID:21760707

  8. Oxidation of substituted phenols by Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C.; Gibson, D.T.

    1988-06-01

    The biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzenes by Pseudomonas putida involves the initial conversion of the parent molecules to cis-dihydrodiols by dioxygenase enzyme systems. The cis-dihydrodiols are then converted to the corresponding catechols by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase enzymes. Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 uses a similar system for growth on toluene or dichlorobenzenes. We tested the wild-type organisms and a series of mutants for their ability to transform substituted phenols after induction with toluene. When grown on toluene, both wild-type organisms converted methyl-, chloro-, and nitro-substituted phenols to the corresponding catechols. Mutant strains deficient in dihydrodiol dehydrogenase or catechol oxygenase activities also transformed the phenols. Oxidation of phenols was closely correlated with the induction and activity of the toluene dioxygenase enzyme system.

  9. Multistep conversion of para-substituted phenols by phenol hydroxylase and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Qiao; Kong, Chunlei; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-04-01

    A multistep conversion system of para-substituted phenols by recombinant phenol hydroxylase (PH(IND)) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC(LA-4)) was constructed in this study. Docking studies with different para-substituted phenols and corresponding catechols inside of the active site of PH(IND) and BphC(LA-4) predicted that all the substrates should be transformed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the products of multistep conversion were the corresponding para-substituted catechols and semialdehydes. For the first-step conversion, the formation rate of 4-fluorocatechol (0.39 μM/min/mg dry weight) by strain PH(IND) hydroxylation was 1.15, 6.50, 3.00, and 1.18-fold higher than the formation of 4-chlorocatechol, 4-bromocatechol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. For the second-step conversion, the formation rates of semialdehydes by strain BphC(LA-4) were as follows: 5-fluoro-HODA>5-chloro-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-nitro-ODA>5-bromo-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-methyl-ODA. The present study suggested that the multistep conversion by both ring hydroxylase and cleavage dioxygenase should be potential in the synthesis of industrial precursors and provide a novel avenue in the wastewater recycling treatment.

  10. Thermodynamic and alkylation interference analysis of the lac repressor-operator substituted with the analogue 7-deazaguanine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Gottlieb, P A

    1993-10-26

    Guanine residues in the lac operator were substituted with the isosteric analogue of 7-deazaguanine. The observed equilibrium dissociation constants for lac repressor binding to substituted operators were measured in 10 mM Tris, 150 mM KCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, and 0.1 mM DTE, pH 7.6, at 25 degrees C, using either a standard equilibrium assay or a competition assay. Of the seven individual sites tested, only three significantly altered the complex affinity. Two of these sites are symmetrically related and are positioned in the major grooves that are known to interact directly with repressor, and the third site is located in the central core region of the operator. The alkylation interference assay, which identifies essential phosphate sites, was used to define the extent of perturbation on the protein-DNA complex by the modified nucleotide. Chemical footprinting data for the singly substituted operator done at a single concentration of protein reflected the alignment of sterically incompatible groups or disruption in the local conformation, but did not appear to alter general phosphate backbone interactions. Similar experiments with a doubly substituted operator revealed that the free energy of binding was an additive combination of each of the individual sites, and the alkylation interference data were similar to the singly substituted and wild-type operators. A constitutive mutant which also had a higher binding constant had a similar alkylation interference pattern. PMID:8218202

  11. Evaluation of the α-phenylvinyl cation as a chemical ionization reagent for the differentiation of isomeric substituted phenols in an ITMS.

    PubMed

    Begala, Michela

    2015-04-01

    Ion-molecule reactions between the α-phenylvinyl cation and isomeric naturally occurring phenols were investigated using a quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer. The α-phenylvinyl cation m/z 103, generated by chemical ionization from phenylacetylene, reacts with neutral aromatic compounds to form the characteristic species: [M + 103](+) adduct ions and the trans-vinylating product ions [M + 25](+) , which correspond to [M + 103](+) adduct after the loss of benzene. Isomeric differentiation of several ring-substituted phenols was achieved by using collision-induced dissociation of the [M + 103](+) adduct ions. This method also showed to be effective in the differentiation of 4-ethylguaiacol from one of its structural isomers that displays identical EI and EI/MS/MS spectra. The effects of gas-phase alkylation with phenylvinyl cation on the dissociation behavior were examined using mass spectrometry(n) and labeled derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Study of charge transfer complexes of [70]fullerene with phenol and substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Banerjee, Shrabanti; Banerjee, Manas

    2005-07-01

    To improve the understanding of the charge transfer (CT) interaction of [70]fullerene with electron donors, interaction of [70]fullerene with a series of phenols, e.g., phenol, resorcinol and p-quinol were studied in 1,4-dioxan medium using absorption spectroscopy. An absorption band due to CT transition was observed in the visible region. The experimental CT transition energies (h nuCT) are well correlated (through Mulliken's equation) with the vertical ionisation potentials (I(D)v) of the series of phenols studied. From an analysis of this correlation degrees of charge transfer for the [70]fullerene-phenol complexes were estimated. The degrees of charge transfer in the ground state of the complexes have been found to be very low (<2%). The h nuCT values change systematically as the number and position of the -OH groups change on the aromatic ring of the phenol moiety. From the trends in the h nuCT values, the Hückel parameters (h(O) and k(C-O)) for the -OH group were obtained in a straightforward way and the values so obtained, viz., 1.91 and 1.0, respectively, are close to the ones (1.8 and 0.8) recommended by Streitwieser on the basis of other evidence. Oscillator strengths, transition dipole strengths and resonance energies of the [70]fullerene-phenol complexes were determined. Formation constants of the CT complexes were determined at four different temperatures from which enthalpies and entropies of formation of the complexes were estimated.

  13. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  14. Temperature dependence of the vapour tension of methyl-substituted phenol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Gagarin

    2007-05-15

    Notable among the coking products of coal are phenol and its derivatives, derived for the coal tar and water layer above ht tar. Given that phenol an its derivatives are mainly extracted from coal tar fractions by rectification, information on how the vapor tension of the individual components depends on the temperature is of great importance. For phenol and various substituted alkylphenols there are tabular data. In the pre-computer era these data were sufficient for the separation of phenol mixtures. However, the development and introduction of information technology in the coal industry and in the design process demands the mathematical description of the physicochemical processes of coking products. The temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure for organic compounds is commonly described by the Antoine equation.

  15. Direct, Catalytic and Regioselective Synthesis of 2-Alkyl, Aryl, and Alkenyl-Substituted N-Heterocycles from N-Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Larionov, Oleg V.; Stephens, David; Mfuh, Adelphe; Chavez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    A one-step transformation of heterocyclic N-oxides to 2-alkyl, aryl, and alkenyl-substituted N-heterocycles is described. The success of this broad-scope methodology hinges on the combination of copper catalysis and activation by lithium fluoride or magnesium chloride. The utility of this method for the late-stage modification of complex N-heterocycles is exemplified by facile syntheses of new structural analogs of several antimalarial, antimicrobial and fungicidal agents. PMID:24410049

  16. Building Congested Ketone: Substituted Hantzsch Ester and Nitrile as Alkylation Reagents in Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxin; Liu, Zheng; Tian, Jiaqi; Li, Jin; Ma, Jing; Cheng, Xu; Li, Guigen

    2016-09-28

    For the first time, 4-alkyl Hantzsch esters were used to construct molecules with all-carbon quaternary centers by visible light-induced photoredox catalysis via transfer alkylation. Up to a 1500 h(-1) turnover frequency was achieved in this reaction. Reactions of 4-alkyl Hantzsch nitriles as tertiary radical donors joined two contiguous all-carbon quaternary centers intermolecularly, and this chemistry was used to synthesize a common precursor of a class of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors. PMID:27622653

  17. Isomerization of the alkyl ligand in (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PR[sub 3])(alkyl) complexes. Influences of heteroatom substitutents in the alkyl group on the alkyl isomerization equilibria and stability of alkylmetal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Reger, D.L.; Garza, D.G.; Lebioda, L. )

    1992-12-01

    A series of complexes of unusually stable alkylpalladium complexes of the formula (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PR[sub 3])(alkyl) (R = Me, Et) have been prepared from the reaction of (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PR[sub 3])Cl and the appropriate alkyllithium or Grignard reagent. The substituted complexes (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PEt[sub 3])(CH[sub 2]CH[sub 2]CF[sub 3]) and (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PEt[sub 3])(CH[sub 2]CH[sub 2]CN) were prepared in similar reactions, and the isomer of the latter, (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PEt[sub 3])(CH(CN)CH[sub 3]), was prepared from the low-temperature, in situ reaction of (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PEt[sub 3])H and CH[sub 2]CHCN. The reaction of (Me[sub 2]NCS[sub 2])Pd(PEt[sub 3])Cl with Li[C(CH[sub 3])[sub 3

  18. Unraveling the nature of interaction between substituted phenol and amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Walid M I; Abo Dena, Ahmed S

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive study of the interaction between nitrophenols (π-acceptors) and amiodarone (AM) was performed using electronic absorption spectra. The key point is to clarify the erroneous interpretation of the interaction between nitrophenols and one of the basic organic drugs. Matching of the experimental UV-vis spectra and the theoretical ones obtained by DFT calculations revealed that the tertiary amino group of AM reacts with the phenol compounds under investigation via proton-transfer but not charge-transfer (C.T.) mechanisms, unlike what is commonly known about this type of interaction. The interaction was carried out in solutions of different basic pH values to study the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the reaction. The results show that the reaction is a simple acid-base reaction. As a result, this reaction cannot be used by analytical chemists for determination of one of the studied compounds due to its very low selectivity. TD-DFT as well as geometry optimization of the nitrophenols were calculated with the B3LYP functional, using aug-cc-pvDZ and LanL2DZ as basis sets for ionic and neutral compounds, respectively. The theoretical spectra of possible interactions between AM and nitrophenols result in the same spectra of ionized nitrophenols alone, indicating no possibility for the formation of charge-transfer complexes. PMID:24428617

  19. Superbasic alkyl-substituted bisphosphazene proton sponges: synthesis, structural features, thermodynamic and kinetic basicity, nucleophilicity and coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kögel, Julius F; Xie, Xiulan; Baal, Eduard; Gesevičius, Donatas; Oelkers, Benjamin; Kovačević, Borislav; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2014-06-16

    Herein we describe an easily accessible class of superbasic proton sponges based on the 1,8-bisphosphazenylnaphthalene (PN) proton pincer motif and P-alkyl substituents ranging from methyl (TMPN) to n-butyl (TBPN), isopropyl (TiPrPN) and cyclopentyl (TcyPPN). These neutral bases with a pK(BH)(+) value (MeCN) of ~30 were accessible via a Kirsanov condensation using commercially available 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, and in case of TMPN and TBPN, simple one-pot procedures starting from trisalkylphosphanes can be performed. Furthermore, the known pyrrolidinyl-substituted superbase TPPN previously synthesized via a Staudinger reaction could also be prepared by the Kirsanov strategy allowing its preparation in a larger scale. The four alkyl-substituted proton sponges were structurally characterized in their protonated form; molecular XRD structures were also obtained for unprotonated TiPrPN and TcyPPN. Moreover, we present a detailed description of spectroscopic features of chelating bisphosphazenes including TPPN and its hyperbasic homologue P2-TPPN on which we reported recently. The four alkyl-substituted superbases were investigated with respect to their basic features by computational means and by NMR titration experiments revealing unexpectedly high experimental pK(BH)(+) values in acetonitrile between 29.3 for TMPN and 30.9 for TBPN. Besides their thermodynamic basicity, we exemplarily studied the kinetic basicity of TMPN and TPPN by means of NMR-spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, the competing nucleophilic versus basic properties were examined by reacting the proton sponges with ethyl iodide. Insight into the coordination chemistry of chelating superbases was provided by reacting TMPN with trimethylaluminum and trimethylgallium to give cationic complexes of Group XIII metal alkyls that were structurally characterized.

  20. Oil recovery method utilizing a dialkyl phenol polyethoxy alkyl sulfonate as a solubilizing co-surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, N.G.; Hughes, J.W.; Kudchadker, M.V.

    1980-09-02

    The dialkylbenzene polyethoxy alkyl sulfonate is combined with a water soluble petroleum sulfonate surfactant to form an effective surfactant solution that is stable in high salinity environments. The surfactant solution is injected into an underground petroleum reservoir in order to recover crude oil therefrom.

  1. Ytterbium(III) triflate catalyzed tandem Friedel-Crafts alkylation/hydroarylation of propargylic alcohols with phenols as an expedient route to indenols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Teo, Wan Teng; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2009-11-01

    A method to prepare indenols efficiently by ytterbium(III) triflate catalyzed tandem Friedel-Crafts alkylation/hydroarylation of propargylic alcohols with phenols is described. The reaction was accomplished in moderate to excellent yields and regioselectivity under mild conditions and offers a straightforward and convenient one step synthetic route to bioactive indenols and its derivatives.

  2. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines.

    PubMed

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Pati, Sarah G; Bolotin, Jakov; Eustis, Soren N; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the mechanisms and isotope effects associated with the N-dealkylation and N-atom oxidation of substituted N-methyl- and N,N-dimethylanilines to identify isotope fractionation trends for the assessment of oxidations of aromatic N-alkyl moieties by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). In laboratory batch model systems, we determined the C, H, and N isotope enrichment factors for the oxidation by MnO(2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), derived apparent (13)C-, (2)H-, and (15)N-kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs), and characterized reaction products. The N-atom oxidation pathway leading to radical coupling products typically exhibited inverse (15)N-AKIEs (up to 0.991) and only minor (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs. Oxidative N-dealkylation, in contrast, was subject to large normal (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs (up to 1.019 and 3.1, respectively) and small (15)N-AKIEs. Subtle changes of the compound's electronic properties due to different types of aromatic and/or N-alkyl substituents resulted in changes of reaction mechanisms, rate-limiting step(s), and thus isotope fractionation trends. The complex sequence of electron and proton transfers during the oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines suggests highly compound- and mechanism-dependent isotope effects precluding extrapolations to other organic micropollutants reacting along the same degradation pathways. PMID:22681573

  3. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines.

    PubMed

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Pati, Sarah G; Bolotin, Jakov; Eustis, Soren N; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the mechanisms and isotope effects associated with the N-dealkylation and N-atom oxidation of substituted N-methyl- and N,N-dimethylanilines to identify isotope fractionation trends for the assessment of oxidations of aromatic N-alkyl moieties by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). In laboratory batch model systems, we determined the C, H, and N isotope enrichment factors for the oxidation by MnO(2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), derived apparent (13)C-, (2)H-, and (15)N-kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs), and characterized reaction products. The N-atom oxidation pathway leading to radical coupling products typically exhibited inverse (15)N-AKIEs (up to 0.991) and only minor (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs. Oxidative N-dealkylation, in contrast, was subject to large normal (13)C- and (2)H-AKIEs (up to 1.019 and 3.1, respectively) and small (15)N-AKIEs. Subtle changes of the compound's electronic properties due to different types of aromatic and/or N-alkyl substituents resulted in changes of reaction mechanisms, rate-limiting step(s), and thus isotope fractionation trends. The complex sequence of electron and proton transfers during the oxidative transformation of substituted aromatic N-alkyl amines suggests highly compound- and mechanism-dependent isotope effects precluding extrapolations to other organic micropollutants reacting along the same degradation pathways.

  4. Emission spectra of the cations of some fluoro-substituted phenols in the gaseous phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, John Paul; Marthaler, O.; Mohraz, Manijeh; Shiley, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Emission spectra of the cations of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorophenol, of 2,3,4- and 2,4,5-trifluorophenol, of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenol and of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenol have been obtained in the gas phase using low-energy electron beam excitation. The band systems are assigned to the B??(??-1) ??? X??(??-1) electronic transitions of these cations by reference to photoelectron spectroscopic data. The He(I??) photoelectron spectra and the ionisation energies of ten fluoro-substituted phenols are reported. The symmetries of the four lowest electronic states of these cations are inferred from the radiative decay studies. The lifetimes of the lowest vibrational levels of the B??(??-1) state of the six fluoro-substituted phenol cations above have also been measured. ?? 1980.

  5. pi-Selective stationary phases: (II) Adsorption behavior of substituted aromatic compounds on n-alkyl-phenyl stationary phases

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A; Mayfield, Kirsty; Dennis, Gary; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frontal analysis method was used to measure the adsorption isotherms of phenol, 4-chlorophenol, p-cresol, 4-methoxyphenol and caffeine on a series of columns packed with home-made alkyl-phenyl bonded silica particles. These ligands consist of a phenyl ring tethered to the silica support via a carbon chain of length ranging from 0 to 4 atoms. The adsorption isotherm models that fit best to the data account for solute-solute interactions that are likely caused by p-p interactions occurring between aromatic compounds and the phenyl group of the ligand. These interactions are the dominant factor responsible for the separation of low molecular weight aromatic compounds on these phenyl-type stationary phases. The saturation capacities depend on whether the spacer of the ligands have an even or an odd number of carbon atoms, with the even alkyl chain lengths having a greater saturation capacity than the odd alkyl chain lengths. The trends in the adsorption equilibrium constant are also significantly different for the even and the odd chain length ligands.

  6. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  7. Smectic-A and Hexatic-B Liquid Crystal Phases of Sanidic Alkyl-Substituted Dibenzo[fg,op]naphthacenes.

    PubMed

    Repasky, Paul J; Agra-Kooijman, Deña M; Kumar, Satyendra; Hartley, C Scott

    2016-03-17

    Despite longstanding interest in liquid crystalline compounds with simple rod- or disc-like shapes (calamitics or discotics), very few examples of the analogous board-shaped, or "sanidic", liquid crystals exist. A new series of alkyl-substituted dibenzo[fg,op]naphthacenes have been prepared by planarization of o-phenylene precursors through dehydrohalogenation. Their photophysical properties have been studied in dichloromethane. Liquid crystal phase behavior was characterized by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. All of the compounds exhibit monotropic liquid crystal phases on cooling from the isotropic phase. The compounds with shorter alkyl (pentyl and heptyl) chains exhibit the uniaxial smectic-A phase analogous to that of simple calamitic mesogens. The compounds with longer alkyl (nonyl, undecyl, and tridecyl) chains exhibit a new smectic liquid crystal phase featuring short-range positional order with an apparent rectangular lattice in the smectic layers, that is, an orthogonal biaxial hexatic-B. The molecular arrangement in this phase likely corresponds to a distorted herringbone packing of the board-shaped structures. Further, the compound with nonyl chains exhibits an underlying smectic-B phase. DFT calculations show that the cores of the mesogens are twisted into C2-symmetric saddle-shaped geometries because of steric interactions along their rims. The liquid crystal phases and their structures are discussed in the context of the compounds' board-like shapes and intercore interactions.

  8. A general and concise enantioselective divergent approach to 13-alkyl-substituted ionones.

    PubMed

    Bugoni, Serena; Merlini, Valentina; Porta, Alessio; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Vidari, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    A novel enantioselective divergent route to 13-alkyl derivatives of α- and γ-ionone, important components of perfumes and fragrances, is reported. This relatively short and convenient methodology takes advantage of the use of a common intermediate, easily obtained from highly enantiomerically enriched (S)-α-ionone, which avoids the separate installation of the butenone side chain at C(6) for each analog. Olfactory evaluation of synthesized compounds reconfirmed the influence of the hydrophobic interactions of alkyl substituents at C(5) with olfactory receptors (ORs) in the chemoreception of ionones, and suggested that a synperiplanar orientation of C(13) and the lateral chain is the better geometry fitting OR's cavity.

  9. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction product with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6181 Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  14. Communication: Spectroscopic characterization of an alkyl substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO through pure rotational transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-01-07

    An alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO was detected in the gas phase through Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Observed pure rotational transitions show a small splitting corresponding to the A/E components due to the threefold methyl internal rotation. The rotational constants and the barrier height of the hindered methyl rotation were determined to be A = 17 586.5295(15) MHz, B = 7133.4799(41) MHz, C = 5229.1704(40) MHz, and V{sub 3} = 837.1(17) cm{sup −1}. High-level ab initio calculations which reproduce the experimentally determined values well indicate that the in-plane C–H bond in the methyl moiety is trans to the C–O bond, and other two protons are directed to the terminal oxygen atom for the most stable structure of syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO. The torsional barrier of the methyl top is fairly large in syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO, implying a significant interaction between the terminal oxygen and the protons of the methyl moiety, which may be responsible for the high production yields of the OH radical from energized alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediates.

  15. Volatilization of benzene and eight alkyl-substituted benzene compounds from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Predicting the fate of organic compounds in streams and rivers often requires knowledge of the volatilization characteristics of the compounds. The reference-substance concept, involving laboratory-determined ratios of the liquid-film coefficients for volatilization of the organic compounds to the liquid-film coefficient for oxygen absorption, is used to predict liquid-film coefficients for streams and rivers. In the absence of experimental data, two procedures have been used for estimating these liquid-film coefficient ratios. These procedures, based on the molecular-diffusion coefficient and on the molecular weight, have been widely used but never extensively evaluated. Liquid-film coefficients for the volatilization of benzene and eight alkyl-substituted benzene compounds (toluene through n-octylbenzene) from water were measured in a constant-temperature, stirred water bath. Liquid-film coefficients for oxygen absorption were measured simultaneously. A range of water mixing conditions was used with a water temperature of 298.2 K. The ratios of the liquid-film coefficients for volatilization to the liquid-film coefficient for oxygen absorption for all of the organic compounds were independent of mixing conditions in the water. Experimental ratios ranged from 0.606 for benzene to 0.357 for n-octylbenzene. The molecular-diffusion-coefficient procedure accurately predicted the ratios for ethylbenzene through n-pentylbenzene with a power dependence of 0.566 on the molecular-diffusion coefficient, in agreement with published values. Predicted ratios for benzene and toluene were slightly larger than the experimental ratios. These differences were attributed to possible interactions between the molecules of these compounds and the water molecules and to benzene-benzene interactions that form dimers. Because these interactions also are likely to occur in natural waters, it was concluded that the experimental ratios are more correct than the predicted ratios for

  16. Synthesis of functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones via adscititious xanthate-promoted radical cyclization of allyl(alkyl/aryl)dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Simiao; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Xu, Jiaxi

    2016-01-21

    Functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones were synthesized efficiently from alkyl allyl(alkyl/aryl)-dithiocarbamates via radical cyclization with the corresponding S-alkyl O-ethyl xanthates as the adscititious radical precursors. The application of the adscititious radical precursors improves not only the yields, but also the efficiency in the radical cyclization reaction significantly. The current adscititious radical precursor method provides a new strategy for the achievement and improvement of some radical reactions which are hardly or difficultly realized by the traditional direct methods. PMID:26626401

  17. Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation for synthesis of 2-substituted indole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xiaohu; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhou, Lin; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2013-12-14

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric intermolecular C2 Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction between N-methyl skatole and β,γ-unsaturated α-ketoesters has been realized by a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Ni(II) complex. The corresponding indole derivatives were obtained in good yield (up to 96%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) under mild reaction conditions. PMID:24158312

  18. Effects of Alkyl Substitution on the Physical Properties and Gas Transport Behavior in Selected Poly(R-phenoxyphosphazenes)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Ogden; Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-08-01

    A systematic preparation of alkyl substituted phenoxy-phosphazene polymers was performed. In this study, phosphazenes substituted with 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, and 4-isopropylphenol are reported. An additional polymer substituted with 4-tert-butylphenoxy-1-ethanol also was synthesized in this work. Data derived for these materials, including chemical, thermal and gas transport characterization, were compared to previous reports discussing poly[bis-phenoxyphosphazene] and its analog with tert-butyl substitution: poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene]. The tert-butyl moiety influences orderly chain packing, presumably through steric hindrance that can influence aromatic p-stacking. For the new poly[(alkylphenoxy)phosphazenes], semi-crystallinity is maintained and the added steric bulk serves to decrease the Tg and increase both permeability and selectivity for the gas pairs: O2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Removal of the tert-butyl moiety from the immediate vicinity of the backbone through a flexible spacer serves to depress the Tg as compared to poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene], but provides no performance enhancement for gas transport.

  19. Chromatographic techniques for the determination of alkyl-phenols, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds in raw and roasted cold pressed cashew nut oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2010-11-19

    Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg.

  20. Tilting and Tumbling in Transmembrane Anion Carriers: Activity Tuning through n‐Alkyl Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sophie J.; Marques, Igor; Dias, Christopher M.; Tromans, Robert A.; Lees, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anion transport by synthetic carriers (anionophores) holds promise for medical applications, especially the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Among the factors which determine carrier activity, the size and disposition of alkyl groups is proving remarkably important. Herein we describe a series of dithioureidodecalin anionophores, in which alkyl substituents on one face are varied from C0 to C10 in two‐carbon steps. Activities increase then decrease as the chain length grows, peaking quite sharply at C6. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the transporter chloride complexes releasing chloride as they approach the membrane‐aqueous interface. The free transporter then stays at the interface, adopting an orientation that depends on the alkyl substituent. If chloride release is prevented, the complex is positioned similarly. Longer chains tilt the binding site away from the interface, potentially freeing the transporter or complex to move through the membrane. However, chains which are too long can also slow transport by inhibiting movement, and especially reorientation, within the phospholipid bilayer. PMID:26748870

  1. Cobalt-Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of para-substituted phenolics. Preparation of benzoquinones

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Hames, B.R.; Dimmel, D.R.

    1995-04-21

    Para-substituted phenolics, serving as models for lignin (a renewable source of carbon), are oxidized to the corresponding benzoquinone with oxygen in the presence of catalytic amounts of Co-Schiff base complexes. The reaction products observed depend on the structure of the catalyst. The 5-coordinate catalysts (pyridine)[bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine]cobalt[(pyr)Co(salen)]and[bis(salicylideneamino)ethylamine]cobalt [Co(n-Me salpr)] convert syringyl alcohol (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone in high yield. In contrast, syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) is unreactive toward these catalysts. However, the 4-coordinate Co(salen) converts syringaldehyde to 2,6-dimethoxybenzoiquinone in 72% isolated yield. Phenols bearing a single methoxy group on the ring are unreactive toward any catalyst in MeOH. However, vanillyl alcohol (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol) is converted to 2-methoxybenzo-quinone with Co(N-Me salpr) and oxygen in 43% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 58% yield in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in the presence of 1% CuCl{sub 2}. The success of the oxidations appears to be related to the ease of removal of the phenolic hydrogen by the Co/O{sub 2} complex. Competitive deactivation of the catalyst occurs with substrates of lower reactivity. 84 tabs.

  2. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tingshun Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-15

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH{sub 3}-TPD and N{sub 2} physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)–MCM-48 samples, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48 and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h{sup −1} and the reaction temperature is 140 °C. - Highlights: • Sulfuric acid functional mesoporous solid acid catalysts were prepared via impregnation method. • The alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol was carried out over these solid acid catalysts. • The catalytic activity of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25 catalyst is much higher than that of the others. • A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% was achieved under optimum reaction conditions for SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/Zr-MCM-48-25.

  3. Effects of alkyl and aryl substitution on the myocardial specificity of radioiodinated phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium cations

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Hay, H.G.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Several radioiodinated iodopentenyl-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides have been prepared and evaluated in rats to determine the effects of structural variations of the cations on myocardial uptake and retention. The synthesis of (E)-(1-iodo-1-penten-5-yl)-trisubstituted phosphonium, arsonium, and ammonium iodides via the condensation of trisubstituted phosphine, arsine, and amine precursors, respectively, with (E)-1,5-diiodopentene is described. In some cases a second route involved condensation with (E)-1-borono-5-iodo-1-pentene followed by iodination. In the phosphonium series, the compounds triphenyl 1, dicyclohexylphenyl 5, tricyclohexyl 6, and dimethyl-n-octyl 8 were prepared. The triphenylarsonium 10 and triethylammonium 11 compounds were also prepared. The corresponding radioiodinated analogues were prepared and tissue distribution studies performed in rats. The results (percent dose/gram, 30 min) demonstrate that replacement of phosphorus with arsenic (1, 3.99%; 10, 3.17%) or the replacement of the phenyl ring with the cyclohexyl ring system (6, 2.67%) has no apparent effect on heart uptake. In the series of compounds studied, replacement of the cyclic ring system with alkyl groups, however, significantly decreased heart uptake with both the phosphorus (8, 1.95%) and nitrogen agents (11, 1.11%). Gamma camera imaging studies with (/sup 123/I)-5 and (/sup 123/I)-8 further substantiated the decreased heart uptake with alkyl substitution and the apparent hepatobiliary clearance of 8.

  4. Investigation of optical and thermal properties of N-(alkyl-substituted) maleimides for use in zero-zero-birefringence polymer.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Shotaro; Hotta, Hikaru; Shafiee, Houran; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-02-01

    N-(alkyl-substituted) maleimides (RMIs) were proposed as materials useful for the development of a zero-zero-birefringence polymer that exhibits no birefringence. We analyzed the optical and thermal properties of poly(RMI)s, such as the refractive index, birefringence, and glass transition temperature. The characteristics of the obtained polymers varied significantly because the shift of the density and polarizability derived from the change of the substituent structure influenced the optical properties, and the bulkiness of the substituents influenced the thermal properties. We also designed a zero-zero-birefringence polymer using N-ethyl maleimide (EMI) as a comonomer, and the obtained copolymer had no birefringence, relatively high heat resistance, and high transparency. PMID:25967788

  5. Alkylation of 2-substituted (6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyllithium species with epoxides

    PubMed Central

    Vyvyan, James R.; Brown, Rebecca C.; Woods, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    Substituted (6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyllithium species were reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctane and 2-methyl-2,3-epoxynonane. The monosubstituted epoxide reacted efficiently with lutidyllithium and a number of 2-substituted-(6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyllithium derivatives. The trisubstituted epoxide gave low yields of adducts with all (2-pyridyl)methyllithium species studied. These results are discussed in the context of a proposed synthesis of cananodine. PMID:19113936

  6. Chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of C3-substituted indoles to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketimino esters.

    PubMed

    Bi, Bo; Lou, Qin-Xin; Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Sheng-Wei; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Hu, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-01

    A highly enantioselective C2 Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of 3-substituted indoles to β,γ-unsaturated α-ketimino esters has been developed. This reaction was efficiently catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. The corresponding C2-substituted indole derivatives, bearing an α-ketimino ester motif, were obtained in moderate to high yields (up to 93%) and with high enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee). PMID:25594307

  7. Evaluation of the α-phenylvinyl cation as a chemical ionization reagent for the differentiation of isomeric substituted phenols in an ITMS.

    PubMed

    Begala, Michela

    2015-04-01

    Ion-molecule reactions between the α-phenylvinyl cation and isomeric naturally occurring phenols were investigated using a quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer. The α-phenylvinyl cation m/z 103, generated by chemical ionization from phenylacetylene, reacts with neutral aromatic compounds to form the characteristic species: [M + 103](+) adduct ions and the trans-vinylating product ions [M + 25](+) , which correspond to [M + 103](+) adduct after the loss of benzene. Isomeric differentiation of several ring-substituted phenols was achieved by using collision-induced dissociation of the [M + 103](+) adduct ions. This method also showed to be effective in the differentiation of 4-ethylguaiacol from one of its structural isomers that displays identical EI and EI/MS/MS spectra. The effects of gas-phase alkylation with phenylvinyl cation on the dissociation behavior were examined using mass spectrometry(n) and labeled derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26149114

  8. Supramolecular assembly and nanostructures of a series of luminol derivatives with aromatic/alkyl substituted groups in Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingrui; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2014-06-01

    A series of functional luminol derivatives with aromatic and alkyl substituted groups has been designed and synthesized from the reaction of the corresponding chloride precursors with luminol. These compounds can be spread on water surface to form stable Langmuir films at the air-water interface. It has been found that UV and IR spectra confirmed the characteristic aromatic segment, imide group, and aromatic/alkyl substituted groups. In addition, for the interfacial assembly process of compounds with alkyl substituted groups, there are obvious spectral changes for the alkyl chains. AFM results indicated that various different aggregated domains may be fabricated in the transferred LB films. For all cases, the substituted groups in molecular structures have an important effect in regulating the aggregation mode and spectral changes in organized molecular films. The present results showed that the modified luminol derivatives may have potential application in functional material fields such as ECL sensor, which may give some insight to study the relationship between the molecular structures and supramolecular aggregation of amphiphiles in organized molecular films.

  9. Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl-substituted amine biphenolate ligands: unexpected ligand degradation and divergent complex constitutions governed by N-alkyls.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lan-Chang; Chien, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tsz; Lin, Sheng-Ta

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity and thermal stability of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the N-alkyl-substituted amine biphenolate ligands of the type [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), or nPr (1c)) were investigated. The reactions of either [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr or Hf) with equimolar H2[1a] or M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) (M = Zr or Hf) with 2 equiv of H2[1a] at 25 °C in diethyl ether or 80 °C in toluene afford moderate yields of colorless crystals of M[1a](OiPr)(iPrOCH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2) (M = Zr (4a) or Hf (5a)). Controlled experiments revealed that the production of 4a and 5a proceeds via unexpected thermal degradation of H2[1a] that produces a highly reactive, transient ortho-quinone methide intermediate. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] and H2[1c], however, led to the formation of homoleptic bis-ligand complexes Zr[1b]2 (8b) and M[1c]2 (M = Zr (8c) or Hf (9c)) as colorless crystals. Decisive factors governing these divergent reaction pathways and complex constitutions are discussed. The X-ray structures of 4a, 5a, 8b, 8c, and 9c are presented.

  10. Hydroxylation of p-substituted phenols by tyrosinase: Further insight into the mechanism of tyrosinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Munoz, Jose Luis; Berna, Jose; Garcia-Molina, Maria del Mar; Garcia-Molina, Francisco; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio; Varon, Ramon [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, Avda. Espana s and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The action the copper complexes and tyrosinase on phenols is equivalent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotope effect showed that nucleophilic attack to copper atom may be the slower step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The value of {rho} (Hammett constant) supports an electrophilic aromatic substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data obtained in steady state pH 7 conditions support the mechanism of Scheme 1SM. -- Abstract: A study of the monophenolase activity of tyrosinase by measuring the steady state rate with a group of p-substituted monophenols provides the following kinetic information: k{sub cat}{sup m} and the Michaelis constant, K{sub M}{sup m}. Analysis of these data taking into account chemical shifts of the carbon atom supporting the hydroxyl group ({delta}) and {sigma}{sub p}{sup +}, enables a mechanism to be proposed for the transformation of monophenols into o-diphenols, in which the first step is a nucleophilic attack on the copper atom on the form E{sub ox} (attack of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of C-1 on the copper atom) followed by an electrophilic attack (attack of the hydroperoxide group on the ortho position with respect to the hydroxyl group of the benzene ring, electrophilic aromatic substitution with a reaction constant {rho} of -1.75). These steps show the same dependency on the electronic effect of the substituent groups in C-4. Furthermore, a study of a solvent deuterium isotope effect on the oxidation of monophenols by tyrosinase points to an appreciable isotopic effect. In a proton inventory study with a series of p-substituted phenols, the representation of k{sub cat}{sup f{sub n}}/k{sub cat}{sup f{sub 0}} against n (atom fractions of deuterium), where k{sub cat}{sup f{sub n}} is the catalytic constant for a molar fraction of deuterium (n) and k{sub cat}{sup f{sub 0}} is the corresponding kinetic parameter in a water solution, was linear for all substrates. These results indicate that

  11. Elimination vs substitution reaction. A dichotomy between Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis basicity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Francisco; Richaud, Arlette; Alonso, Julio A

    2015-02-20

    The Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis basicity dichotomy in the elimination vs substitution reaction competition is analyzed in terms of a novel Brønsted-Lowry-Lewis basicity ωp/e. This new index unifies the dichotomy and explains the competition between elimination and substitution mechanisms of alkyl centers with para-substituted phenols.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation against Leishmania amazonensis of a series of alkyl-substituted benzophenones.

    PubMed

    Maciel-Rezende, Claudia Mara; de Almeida, Letícia; Costa, Éderson D'Martin; Pires, Francieli Ribeiro; Alves, Karina Ferreira; Viegas, Cláudio; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Doriguetto, Antônio Carlos; Marques, Marcos José; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique

    2013-06-01

    Nine O-alkyl and O-prenyl derivatives were synthesized from commercial 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4,e4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and were evaluated for their leishmanicidal activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, as well their toxicity in murine macrophages. All derivatives exhibited better biological activity than their hydroxylated benzophenones precursors, and new compound LFQM-123 (3c) was 250-fold more active than its precursor 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (3). Moreover, some of the results were comparable to the standard drug Amphotericin B, suggesting that the increase in lipophilicity could facilitate protozoa membrane permeation. In this study we confirmed that benzophenone derivatives exhibit leishmanicidal properties, with relatively low toxicity, and thus could be exploited as promise prototypes for the design and development of new drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  13. Interpreting In vitro Data for Prioritizing Environmental Chemical Concerns: I. Trout and Human ER Binding of Alkyl- and Alkoxy-phenols

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 24 p-alkylphenols (p-APs), several alkoxy, phenyl- and ortho-substituted phenols, and select nonylphenol ethoxylates and carboxylates were tested in rainbow trout- and human- estrogen receptor (rtER, hER) competitive binding assays to allow assay and species compariso...

  14. Host guest inclusion complexes of four partial alkyl-substituted cucurbit[6]urils with some probe guests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-Hai; Ni, Xin-Long; Tian, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Yun-Qin; Xue, Sai-Feng; Tao, Zhu; Zhu, Qing-Jiang

    2008-11-01

    Using probe guests, three host-guest inclusion complexes of two new alkyl-substituted cucurbit[6]uril hosts, ortho-tetramethyl cucurbit[6]uril ( o-TMeQ[6]) and symmetrical tetracyclohexano cucurbit[6]uril (TCyHQ[6]) have been characterized successfully by single crystal X-ray diffractions. They are { o-TMeQ[6]-5,5'dimethyl-2,2'-bispyridine ( DMBPY) +}Cl -21H 2O( 1), {( o-TMeQ[6]) 2-1,6-bisbenzoimidazolylhexane ( SBH) 2+} 2Cl -52H 2O ( 2) and {TCyHQ[6]- dioxane}14H 2O ( 3). Moreover, two similar crystal structure of two inclusion complexes of other two partial substituted cucurbit[6]urils, meta-hexamethyl cucurbit[6]uril ( m-HMeQ[6]) and symmetrical dicyclohexano cucurbit[6]uril ( p-(CyH) 2Q[6]) with HCl salt of DMBPY were also reported. They were { p-(CyH) 2Q[6]- DMBPY+}Cl -16H 2O ( 4) and { m-HMeQ[6]- DMBPY+}Cl -15H 2O ( 5). The driving force for the information of the host-guest inclusion complexes can be attributed to not only the cavity interaction (host), but also the hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interaction between the carbonyl oxygen at the portals of the host and the protonated nitrogen of the guest.

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of propofol and its nitrosoderivative. comparison with homologue substituted phenols.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, Maria Pia; Stevanato, Roberto; Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Scutari, Guido; Boscolo, Rita; Folda, Alessandra; Bindoli, Alberto

    2004-03-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), some substituted phenols (2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-ditertbutylphenol) and their 4-nitrosoderivatives have been compared for their scavenging ability towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and for their inhibitory action on lipid peroxidation. These products were also compared to the classical antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. When measuring the reactivity of the various phenolic derivatives with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl the following order of effectiveness was observed: butylated hydroxyanisole > propofol > 2,6-dimethylphenol > 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol > butylated hydroxytoluene. In cumene hydroperoxide-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation, propofol acts as the most effective antioxidant, while butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-di-tertbutylphenol and butylated hydroxytoluene exhibit a rather similar effect, although lower than propofol. In the iron/ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation propofol, at concentrations higher than 10 microM, exhibits antioxidant properties comparable to those of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,6-Dimethylphenol is scarcely effective in both lipoperoxidative systems. The antioxidant properties of the various molecules depend on their hydrophobic characteristics and on the steric and electronic effects of their substituents. However, the introduction of the nitroso group in the 4-position almost completely removes the antioxidant properties of the examined compounds. The nitrosation of the aromatic ring of antioxidant molecules and the consequent loss of antioxidant capacity can be considered a condition potentially occurring in vivo since nitric oxide and its derivatives are continuously formed in biological systems.

  16. Efficient cross-coupling of aryl Grignard reagents with alkyl halides by recyclable ionic iron(III) complexes bearing a bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium cation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chong-Liang; Xie, Cun-Fei; Wu, Yu-Feng; Sun, Hong-Mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-14

    A novel bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium salt, 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)benzimidazolium chloride (H3LCl, 1), was designed and used to prepare ionic iron(III) complexes of the type [H3L][FeX4] (X = Cl, 2; X = Br, 3). Both 2 and 3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The catalytic performances of 2 and 3 in cross-coupling reactions using aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens were studied. This analysis shows that complex 2 has good potential for alkyl chloride-mediated coupling. In comparison, complex 3 showed slightly lower catalytic activity. After decanting the product contained in the ethereal layer, complex 2 could be recycled at least eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  17. Efficient cross-coupling of aryl Grignard reagents with alkyl halides by recyclable ionic iron(III) complexes bearing a bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium cation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chong-Liang; Xie, Cun-Fei; Wu, Yu-Feng; Sun, Hong-Mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2013-12-14

    A novel bis(phenol)-functionalized benzimidazolium salt, 1,3-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)benzimidazolium chloride (H3LCl, 1), was designed and used to prepare ionic iron(III) complexes of the type [H3L][FeX4] (X = Cl, 2; X = Br, 3). Both 2 and 3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The catalytic performances of 2 and 3 in cross-coupling reactions using aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens were studied. This analysis shows that complex 2 has good potential for alkyl chloride-mediated coupling. In comparison, complex 3 showed slightly lower catalytic activity. After decanting the product contained in the ethereal layer, complex 2 could be recycled at least eight times without significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:24145602

  18. Orthogonal selectivity with cinnamic acids in 3-substituted benzofuran synthesis through C-H olefination of phenols.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Soumitra; Sharma, Upendra; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-03-28

    A palladium catalyzed intermolecular annulation of cinnamic acids and phenols has been achieved for the selective synthesis of 3-substituted benzofurans. Isotope labeling, competition experiments, kinetic studies, and intermediate trapping have supported a sequence of C-C bond formation and decarboxylation followed by the C-O cyclization pathway.

  19. Enantioselective synthesis and olfactory evaluation of 13-alkyl-substituted alpha-ionones.

    PubMed

    Luparia, Marco; Boschetti, Paolo; Piccinini, Francesca; Porta, Alessio; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Vidari, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    To study the influence of the steric bulk of the substituents at C(5) on the olfactory characteristics of alpha-ionone, the (S)-antipodes of compounds 8-10 were synthesized starting from (S)-alpha-cyclogeraniol (14a). The latter was available in useful preparative yield with 95% ee by enantioselective lipase-PS-mediated acetylation of the racemic mixture. Key step in the conversion of 14a to 8-10 was an S(N)2'-type reaction of an organocuprate on the allylic phosphate 20, which appears to be a general method for the introduction of an alkyl substituent at the cyclohexene C=C bond of ionones. Olfactory evaluation showed that, compared to the parent (S)-alpha-ionone (1), the odor strength and fragrance facets of the three analogues 8-10 are significantly influenced by the bulkiness of the substituent at C(13), giving further evidence that hydrophobic interactions of this group play a significant role in the chemoreception of ionones. In particular, the odor of the ethyl derivative 8 was found to be significantly stronger than that of the parent (S)-alpha-ionone (1).

  20. Synthesis and highly potent hypolipidemic activity of alpha-asarone- and fibrate-based 2-acyl and 2-alkyl phenols as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mendieta, Aarón; Jiménez, Fabiola; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Rosales-Acosta, Blanca; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Medina-Franco, José L; Meurice, Nathalie; Gutiérrez, Rsuini U; Montiel, Luisa E; Cruz, María Del Carmen; Tamariz, Joaquín

    2014-11-01

    In the search for new potential hypolipidemic agents, the present study focused on the synthesis of 2-acyl phenols (6a-c and 7a-c) and their saturated side-chain alkyl phenols (4a-c and 5a-c), and on the evaluation of their hypolipidemic activity using a murine Tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemic protocol. The whole series of compounds 4-7 greatly and significantly reduced elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, with series 6 and 7 showing the greatest potency ever found in our laboratory. At the minimum dose (25mg/kg/day), the latter compounds lowered cholesterol by 68-81%, LDL by 72-86%, and triglycerides by 59-80%. This represents a comparable performance than that shown by simvastatin. Experimental evidence and docking studies suggest that the activity of these derivatives is associated with the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  1. Phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus

    Up to the end of the nineteenth century, phenol was recovered primarily from coal tar. With the commercialization of the phenolic resins, the demand for phenol grew significantly. Currently, the cumene-to-phenol process is the predominant synthetic route for the production of phenol. It is accompanied by acetone as a co-product. Cumene is oxidized with oxygen to form cumene hydroperoxide. The peroxide is subsequently decomposed to phenol and acetone, using a strong mineral acid as catalyst. The products are purified in a series of distillation columns. The cumene-to-phenol process is described in more detail in this chapter. An overview is given about synthetic routes via direct oxidation of benzene. None of these alternative routes has been commercialized. The chapter also gives an overview of global supply and use of phenol in 2008. Finally, the main natural sources and synthetic routes for cresols, xylenols, resorcinol, and bisphenol-A are described. These components are used as comonomers for special phenolic resins.

  2. Characterizing PUF disk passive air samplers for alkyl-substituted PAHs: Measured and modelled PUF-AIR partition coefficients with COSMO-RS.

    PubMed

    Parnis, J Mark; Eng, Anita; Mackay, Donald; Harner, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Isomers of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dibenzothiophenes are modelled with COSMO-RS theory to determine the effectiveness and accuracy of this approach for estimation of isomer-specific partition coefficients between air and polyurethane foam (PUF), i.e., KPUF-AIR. Isomer-specific equilibrium partitioning coefficients for a series of 23 unsubstituted and isomeric alkyl-substituted PAHs and dibenzothiophenes were measured at 22 °C. This data was used to determine the accuracy of estimated values using COSMO-RS, which is isomer specific, and the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) template approach, which treats all alkyl-substitutions as a single species of a given side-chain carbon number. A recently developed oligomer-based model for PUF was employed, which consisted of a 1:1 condensed pair of 2,4-toluene-diisocyanide and glycerol. The COSMO-RS approach resulted in a significant reduction in the RMS error associated with simple PAHs and dibenzothiophene compared with the GAPS template approach. When used with alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes grouped into carbon-number categories, the GAPS template approach gave lower RMS error (0.72) compared to the COSMO-RS result (0.87) when the latter estimates were averaged within the carbon-number-based categories. When the isomer-specific experimental results were used, the COSMO-RS approach resulted in a 21% reduction in RMS error with respect to the GAPS template approach, with a 0.57 RMS error for all alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes studied. The results demonstrate that COSMO-RS theory is effective in generating isomer-specific PUF-air partition coefficients, supporting the application of PUF-based passive samplers for monitoring and research studies of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in air. PMID:26692513

  3. New cyclotetrasiloxanes bearing sila-alkyl substituted side chains and their applications as templates for gold nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ravi; Chaudhary, Manchal; Molloy, Kieran C; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    New sila-alkyl substituted cyclotetrasiloxanes, [RMe2SiCH2CH2(Me)SiO]4 [R = Ph(1), 2-thienyl(2), 2-furyl(3)] have been synthesized by a hydrosilylation reaction between 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane, (D4(Vi)) and dimethylphenylsilane/dimethyl-2-thienylsilane/dimethyl-2-furylsilane in the presence of Karstedt's catalyst. X-ray crystallographic studies of 1 and 2 reveal all-trans conformation of the methyl groups bonded to puckered siloxane core and formation of 3D supramolecular assemblies by virtue of intermolecular C-H···π interactions. These siloxanes act as potential templates for expeditious one pot synthesis of gold nanowires of varying aspect ratios which are obtained by reduction of HAuCl4·3H2O with triethylsilane (CHCl3, RT). On the other hand, the use of linear polysiloxane, [2-ThMe2SiCH2CH2(Me)SiO]n (4) in lieu of the cyclosiloxane 2 affords predominant formation of polydispersed AuNPs along with a few extended structures. These results suggest that conformational confinement of the appended groups on the cyclosiloxanes, 1-3 plays an important role to impart morphological control of the gold nanowire assemblies.

  4. Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts--Electrophilic aromatic substitution and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Criquet, Justine; Rodriguez, Eva M; Allard, Sebastien; Wellauer, Sven; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-11-15

    Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range of 10(4) to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The highest value was recorded for the reaction between HOBr and the fully deprotonated resorcinol (k = 2.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). The reactivity of phenolic compounds is enhanced by the activating character of the phenolic substituents, e.g. further hydroxyl groups. With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000. Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. The dominant process mainly depends on the relative position of the hydroxyl substituents and the possibility of quinone formation. While phenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and bisphenol A undergo EAS, hydroquinone, catechol, gallic acid and tannic acid, with hydroxyl substituents in ortho or para positions, react with bromine by ET leading to quantitative formation of the corresponding quinones. Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. For the reaction of six NOM extracts with bromine, electrophilic aromatic substitution

  5. Reaction of bromine and chlorine with phenolic compounds and natural organic matter extracts--Electrophilic aromatic substitution and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Criquet, Justine; Rodriguez, Eva M; Allard, Sebastien; Wellauer, Sven; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-11-15

    Phenolic compounds are known structural moieties of natural organic matter (NOM), and their reactivity is a key parameter for understanding the reactivity of NOM and the disinfection by-product formation during oxidative water treatment. In this study, species-specific and/or apparent second order rate constants and mechanisms for the reactions of bromine and chlorine have been determined for various phenolic compounds (phenol, resorcinol, catechol, hydroquinone, phloroglucinol, bisphenol A, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, hesperetin and tannic acid) and flavone. The reactivity of bromine with phenolic compounds is very high, with apparent second order rate constants at pH 7 in the range of 10(4) to 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The highest value was recorded for the reaction between HOBr and the fully deprotonated resorcinol (k = 2.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). The reactivity of phenolic compounds is enhanced by the activating character of the phenolic substituents, e.g. further hydroxyl groups. With the data set from this study, the ratio between the species-specific rate constants for the reactions of chlorine versus bromine with phenolic compounds was confirmed to be about 3000. Phenolic compounds react with bromine or chlorine either by oxidation (electron transfer, ET) or electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) processes. The dominant process mainly depends on the relative position of the hydroxyl substituents and the possibility of quinone formation. While phenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and bisphenol A undergo EAS, hydroquinone, catechol, gallic acid and tannic acid, with hydroxyl substituents in ortho or para positions, react with bromine by ET leading to quantitative formation of the corresponding quinones. Some compounds (e.g. phloroglucinol) show both partial oxidation and partial electrophilic aromatic substitution and the ratio observed for the pathways depends on the pH. For the reaction of six NOM extracts with bromine, electrophilic aromatic substitution

  6. Direct, one-pot reductive alkylation of anilines with functionalized acetals mediated by triethylsilane and TFA. Straightforward route for unsymmetrically substituted ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Righi, Marika; Bedini, Annalida; Piersanti, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Federica; Spadoni, Gilberto

    2011-01-21

    A new, robust, and reliable method has been developed for the selective reductive N-alkylation of primary and secondary aromatic amines with some functionalized acetals using TFA/Et(3)SiH as a reagent combination. A variety of unsymmetrically substituted ethylenediamines can be synthesized in a one-pot procedure in excellent yields at room temperature. This new procedure offers significant advantages over previous synthetic approaches, including brevity, mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, and high functional group tolerance.

  7. Tandem Esterification/1,4-Addition-Type Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of Phenols/Naphthols with Olefinic Thioazlactones: Access to Functionalized 1,2-Dihydrobenzo[f]chromen-3-ones and 3,4-Dihydrochromen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products.

  8. Tandem Esterification/1,4-Addition-Type Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions of Phenols/Naphthols with Olefinic Thioazlactones: Access to Functionalized 1,2-Dihydrobenzo[f]chromen-3-ones and 3,4-Dihydrochromen-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei Halimehjani, Azim; Khoshdoun, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    An efficient approach for the synthesis of novel alkyl 2,3-dihydro-3-oxo-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromen-2-ylcarbamodithioates and alkyl 3,4-dihydro-2-oxo-4-aryl-2H-chromen-3-ylcarbamodithioates from 2-(alkylthio)thioazlactones (thioazlactones) and phenols or naphthols catalyzed by PTSA was developed. The reaction proceeds via a domino esterification/intramolecular 1,4-addition-type Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction to afford interesting complex molecules by a simple procedure with high yields and diastereoselectivity. An X-ray analysis was carried out to firmly establish the stereochemistry of the products. PMID:27310869

  9. Prediction and determination of the stereochemistry of the 1,3,5-trimethyl-substituted alkyl chain in verucopeptin, a microbial metabolite.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Aya; Kishimoto, Shinji; Nishimura, Shinichi; Otsuka, Saori; Sakai, Yuki; Hattori, Akira; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    For the prediction of the relative stereochemistry of 1,3-dimethyl substitution in alkyl chains, a simple approach based on (1)H NMR data was recently proposed; Δδ values of methylene protons located between methyl-substituted methine carbons can be diagnostic for predicting it. Here we applied this empirical "geminal proton rule" to verucopeptin, a lipopeptide from Streptomyces sp. To determine the absolute stereochemistry of the 1,3,5-trimethyl-substituted alkyl chain in verucopeptin, we converted the corresponding alkyl chain to a carboxylic acid by oxidative cleavage. The geminal proton rule clearly predicted the relative stereochemistry as 31S*,33S*,35R*. This prediction was definitely confirmed by synthesizing four possible diastereomers and comparing their NMR spectra. Furthermore, we reinvestigated the geminal proton rule using reported compounds and our synthesized compounds. Our result strongly suggests that the rule was solid, at least for predicting the stereochemistry of 2,4-dimethylated and 2,4,6-trimethylated fatty acids.

  10. Oxidation of substituted phenols in the environment: A QSAR analysis of rate constants for reaction with singlet oxygen. [Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Holgne, J. , Duebendorf )

    1991-09-01

    Substituted phenols can be oxidized by singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}), which is formed in sunlit surface waters, and it has been suggested that this reaction may contribute to the environmental fate of phenolic substances. In aqueous solution, the observed rate of phenol disappearance is due to reaction of both the phenolate anion and the undissociated phenol. In order to quantify the effect of substituents on the rates of these reactions, second-order rate constants have been measured for both species for 22 substituted phenols by use of a model system containing the sensitizer rose bengal. Correlation analysis based on half-wave oxidation potentials, E{sub 1/2}, and on {sigma} constants reveals significant quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for both the undissociated phenols and the phenolate anions. Ortho- and multisubstituted phenols have been included in the correlations. These QSARs are consistent with the rate-limiting formation of a precursor complex with a small amount of charge-transfer character and can be used to predict additional rate constants for a wide range of environmentally significant substituted phenols.

  11. Reactivity of Cations and Zwitterions Formed in Photochemical and Acid-Catalyzed Reactions from m-Hydroxycycloalkyl-Substituted Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cindro, Nikola; Antol, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Halasz, Ivan; Wan, Peter; Basarić, Nikola

    2015-12-18

    Three m-substituted phenol derivatives, each with a labile benzylic alcohol group and bearing either protoadamantyl 4, homoadamantyl 5, or a cyclohexyl group 6, were synthesized and their thermal acid-catalyzed and photochemical solvolytic reactivity studied, using preparative irradiations, fluorescence measurements, nanosecond laser flash photolysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The choice of m-hydroxy-substitution was driven by the potential for these phenolic systems to generate m-quinone methides on photolysis, which could ultimately drive the excited-state pathway, as opposed to forming simple benzylic carbocations in the corresponding thermal route. Indeed, thermal acid-catalyzed reactions gave the corresponding cations, which undergo rearrangement and elimination from 4, only elimination from 5, and substitution and elimination from 6. On the other hand, upon photoexcitation of 4-6 to S1 in a polar protic solvent, proton dissociation from the phenol, coupled with elimination of the benzylic OH (as hydroxide ion) gave zwitterions (formal m-quinone methides). The zwitterions exhibit reactivity different from the corresponding cations due to a difference in charge distribution, as shown by DFT calculations. Thus, protoadamantyl zwitterion has a less nonclassical character than the corresponding cation, so it does not undergo 1,2-shift of the carbon atom, as observed in the acid-catalyzed reaction. PMID:26595342

  12. Scanning Probe Microscopy Study of Electronic Properties in Alkyl-substituted Oligothiopene-based Field-Effect Transitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharimani, N.; Nysten, B.

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could easily replace the inorganic semi-conductors to manufacture field-effect transistors (FET). They can be easily processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing. These simple and cheap manufacturing methods pave the way to new applications for plastic electronics: electronic tags, biosensors, flexible screens, … The performance of these liquid crystal nanomaterials is due to their specific nanoscale structure. However, one limitation to the improvement of organic electronic devices is an incomplete understanding of their optoelectronic properties at the nanoscale. The organic semiconductor films often contain a combination of many ordered and disordered regions, grain boundaries and localized traps. These features impact charge transport and trapping at the sub-100 nm length scales [1]. Electrical SPM techniques such as STM, KPFM, EFM and CS-AFM have the potential to provide the correlation between the electronic properties directly and local film structure and have already made important contributions to the field of organic electronics. Here we report on the investigation of the structural and electronic properties of p-conductive organic field-effect transistors based on alkyl-substituted oligothiophenes with bottom-contact structure. For this purpose we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KPFM) in dual frequency mode under ambient conditions. This study helps to determine the local potential in the channel of active OFETs. On the other hand the molecular arrangements of these molecules on the HOPG surface have been studied using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) at the liquid-solid interface.

  13. N-Alkyl-Substituted Isatins Enhance P2X7 Receptor-Induced Interleukin-1β Release from Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) activates the P2X7 receptor channel to induce the rapid release of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, from macrophages. Microtubule rearrangements are thought to be involved in this process. Some isatin derivatives alter microtubules and display anticancer activities. The current study investigated the effect of isatin and seven structurally diverse isatin derivatives on P2X7-mediated IL-1β release from murine J774 macrophages. ATP-induced IL-1β and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed by specific colorimetric assays. P2X7 activity was determined by flow cytometric measurements of ATP-induced cation dye uptake. Cytotoxicity of isatin derivatives was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. ATP caused rapid IL-1β release in a concentration-dependent manner, and this process was completely impaired by the P2X7 antagonist, AZ10606120. In contrast, 5,7-dibromo-N-(p-methoxybenzyl)isatin (NAI) and 3-{4-[5,7-dibromo-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenamino]phenyl}propanoic acid (NAI-imine) enhanced P2X7-induced IL-1β release by twofold compared to that of isatin and the parent molecule, 5,7-dibromoisatin. NAI and NAI-imine had minimal effect on P2X7-induced dye uptake and LDH release. In contrast, 24-hour incubation with NAI and NAI-imine (in the absence of exogenous ATP) induced macrophage death in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that N-alkyl-substituted isatins enhance P2X7 receptor-induced IL-1β release from murine macrophages. Thus, in addition to direct anticancer effects, these compounds may also impact inflammatory and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27524862

  14. Spectroscopic Characterization of AN Alkyl-Substituted Criegee Intermediate CH_{3}CHOO and its OH Radical Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beames, Joseph M.; Liu, Fang; Lu, Lu; Lester, Marsha I.

    2013-06-01

    In the atmosphere, cycloaddition of ozone to the double bond of alkenes produces energized Criegee intermediates, which undergo subsequent decay processes to yield OH radicals. In this laboratory, a simple alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediate CH_{3}CHOO is produced by 248 nm photolysis of CH_{3}CHI_{2} and subsequent reaction of CH_{3}CHI with O_{2} in a quartz capillary tube reactor, following the same approach utilized for CH_{2}OO. The CH_{3}CHOO intermediate (m/z=60) and other products are detected following supersonic expansion using 118 nm VUV ionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The OH radical products from decomposition of the CH_{3}CHOO intermediate are also directly detected at m/z=17 using a new UV+VUV ionization scheme, combining UV excitation on the OH A ^2Σ^+-X ^2Π (1,0) transition with fixed-frequency VUV at 118 nm, or alternatively by UV laser-induced fluorescence on the OH A-X transition; OH products are also observed from CH_{2}OO. The CH_{3}CHOO intermediate is characterized by a strong B ^1A'-X ^1A' electronic transition, in which UV excitation near the peak of a broad absorption profile centered at 320 nm results in significant depletion of the CH_{3}CHOO photoionization signal. The mechanism proposed for OH generation from energized CH_{3}CHOO and many larger Criegee intermediates is a 1,4 H-atom shift to form vinylhydroperoxide species that decay to produce OH. This reaction scheme provides a non-photolytic source of OH radicals in the atmosphere during night and winter times. J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {134}, 20045 (2012). J. M. Beames, F. Liu, M. I. Lester and C. Murray, J. Chem. Phys. {134}, 241102 (2011).

  15. Phenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenol ; CASRN 108 - 95 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  16. Alkylating enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wessjohann, Ludger A; Keim, Jeanette; Weigel, Benjamin; Dippe, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chemospecific and regiospecific modifications of natural products by methyl, prenyl, or C-glycosyl moieties are a challenging and cumbersome task in organic synthesis. Because of the availability of an increasing number of stable and selective transferases and cofactor regeneration processes, enzyme-assisted strategies turn out to be promising alternatives to classical synthesis. Two categories of alkylating enzymes become increasingly relevant for applications: firstly prenyltransferases and terpene synthases (including terpene cyclases), which are used in the production of terpenoids such as artemisinin, or meroterpenoids like alkylated phenolics and indoles, and secondly methyltransferases, which modify flavonoids and alkaloids to yield products with a specific methylation pattern such as 7-O-methylaromadendrin and scopolamine.

  17. Stereoselective Alkylations of Chiral Nitro Imine and Nitro Hydrazone Dianions. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Enriched 3-Substituted 1-Nitrocyclohexenes†

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Ares, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Dianions of chiral nitro imines (generated by a combination of LDA and s-BuLi) underwent diastereoselective alkylation with methyl, butyl, isopropyl, allyl and methallyl iodides. In contrast to the behavior of simple metalloenamines, the most selective auxiliary contained no coordinating groups, but did possess a large steric difference between the two substituents. The yield and selectivity of the alkylations were improved by the addition of HMPA or DMPU. The use of (S)-1-naphthylethylamine as the auxiliary afforded the R absolute configuration of the alkylation products. This stereochemical outcome could be rationalized by simple steric approach controlled alkylation in a conformationally fixed, internally coordinated dianion. A SAMP nitro hydrazone gave poorer yields and selectivities. PMID:18855478

  18. Swallow-tailed alkyl and linear alkoxy-substituted dibenzocoronene tetracarboxdiimide derivatives: synthesis, photophysical properties, and thermotropic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tengzhou; Pu, Jialing; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenguang

    2013-05-17

    A series of dibenzocoronene tetracarboxdiimide derivatives decorated with alkyl swallow-tail and alkoxy moieties were synthesized, and their structures were characterized. 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as an effective oxidant was first used in the benzannulation of perylene diimides with the almost quantitative yield. The thermotropic behavior was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarization optical microscopy (POM). The introduction of alkyl swallow-tail and alkoxy substituents facilitates thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior. The branching site of alkyl swallow-tail units at the α position and the longer alkoxy chains played a similar role in lowering the mesophase transition as well as isotropization transition temperatures. The UV-vis absorption spectra of all compounds appeared as absorption in 425-600 nm region, and POM images of certain compounds exhibited characteristic columnar hexagonal (Col(h)) packing and readily self-assembled into a homeotropic alignment toward the substrate. PMID:23600443

  19. Alkyl-Substituted δ-Lactones Derived from Dihydrojasmone and Their Stereoselective Fungi-Mediated Conversion: Production of New Antifeedant Agents.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Semba, Damian; Szczepanik, Maryla; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Gabryś, Beata

    2016-09-13

    A chemoenzymatic method was applied to obtain optically pure alkyl-substituted δ-lactones. First, chemical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of dihydrojasmone (1) was carried out, affording two new alkyl-substituted δ-lactones: 3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) and 5-methyl-6-pentyl-1,13-dioxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-2-one (3). In the next step, fungal strains were investigated as biocatalysts to enantioselective conversion of δ-lactones (2) and (3). The fungal cultures: Fusarium culmorum AM10, Fusarium equiseti AM15 and Beauveria bassiana AM278 catalyzed the stereoselective hydration of the double bond of lactone (2) (ee = 20%-99%) while Didymosphaeria igniaria KCh6670 proved to be the best biocatalyst for the reduction of carbonyl group in the epoxylactone (3) (ee = 99%). In both cases, chiral oxyderivatives were obtained in low to high yields (7%-91%). The synthetic lactones (2), (3) and its derivatives (4), (5) were tested for their antifeedant activity towards larvae and adults of lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) and peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]) and some of them were active towards studied insects.

  20. Alkyl-Substituted δ-Lactones Derived from Dihydrojasmone and Their Stereoselective Fungi-Mediated Conversion: Production of New Antifeedant Agents.

    PubMed

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Semba, Damian; Szczepanik, Maryla; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Gabryś, Beata

    2016-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic method was applied to obtain optically pure alkyl-substituted δ-lactones. First, chemical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of dihydrojasmone (1) was carried out, affording two new alkyl-substituted δ-lactones: 3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) and 5-methyl-6-pentyl-1,13-dioxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-2-one (3). In the next step, fungal strains were investigated as biocatalysts to enantioselective conversion of δ-lactones (2) and (3). The fungal cultures: Fusarium culmorum AM10, Fusarium equiseti AM15 and Beauveria bassiana AM278 catalyzed the stereoselective hydration of the double bond of lactone (2) (ee = 20%-99%) while Didymosphaeria igniaria KCh6670 proved to be the best biocatalyst for the reduction of carbonyl group in the epoxylactone (3) (ee = 99%). In both cases, chiral oxyderivatives were obtained in low to high yields (7%-91%). The synthetic lactones (2), (3) and its derivatives (4), (5) were tested for their antifeedant activity towards larvae and adults of lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer) and peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]) and some of them were active towards studied insects. PMID:27649116

  1. Substituent effects in the absorption spectra of phenol radical species: origin of the redshift caused by 3,5-dimethoxyl substitution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Muchall, Heidi M; Peslherbe, Gilles H

    2013-01-01

    The ground-state equilibrium geometries, electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of methyl- and methoxyl-substituted phenol radical cations and phenoxyl radicals have been investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory (namely TD-B3LYP) and complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2). The "anomalous" large redshifts of the absorption maxima of the phenol radical species observed in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region upon di-meta-methoxyl substitution are reproduced by the calculations. Furthermore, these "anomalous" shifts which were unexplained to date can be rationalized on the basis of a qualitative molecular orbital perturbation analysis. PMID:23216064

  2. Substituent effects in the absorption spectra of phenol radical species: origin of the redshift caused by 3,5-dimethoxyl substitution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Muchall, Heidi M; Peslherbe, Gilles H

    2013-01-01

    The ground-state equilibrium geometries, electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of methyl- and methoxyl-substituted phenol radical cations and phenoxyl radicals have been investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory (namely TD-B3LYP) and complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2). The "anomalous" large redshifts of the absorption maxima of the phenol radical species observed in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region upon di-meta-methoxyl substitution are reproduced by the calculations. Furthermore, these "anomalous" shifts which were unexplained to date can be rationalized on the basis of a qualitative molecular orbital perturbation analysis.

  3. Small molecules based on thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione for high open-circuit voltage (VOC) organic photovoltaics: effect of different positions of alkyl substitution on molecular packing and photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Suk; Shin, Tae Joo; Jo, Won Ho

    2014-11-26

    Two different thienopyrroledione (TPD)-based small molecules (SMs) with different alkyl substitution positions were synthesized, and their photovoltaic properties are measured and compared to examine the effect of the alkyl substitution position on their optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties. The use of TPD as an electron-accepting unit in conjugated SMs effectively lowers the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the conjugated SMs and leads to high open-circuit voltage (VOC). The two SMs with n-hexyl group substituted at different positions exhibit almost identical optical and electrochemical properties in the pristine state. However, the crystallographic and morphological characteristics of the two SMs are significantly different, because they are blended with PC71BM. The SM in which n-alkyl groups are substituted at the central accepting unit exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0% with VOC=0.94 V, which is among the highest PCE values of TPD-based SM devices, whereas the SM with n-alkyl groups being substituted at the chain ends shows a moderate PCE value of 3.1%.

  4. Oxidation of substituted phenols using copper(II) metallatriangles formed through ligand sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahiya, Kuldeep; Kumar, Ravinder; Lloret, Francisco; Mathur, Pavan

    2014-12-01

    Reaction of N2,N2";-bis-[(1-butyl-benzimidazol-2yl)methyl]biphenyl-2,2";-dicarboxamide (L) with CuX2ṡnH2O in methanol leads to the assembly of four trinuclear Cu(II) complexes with the general formula [Cu3(L)3X3]ṡ3XṡnH2OṡmMeCN, where X = Cl-, Br-, NO3- and C6H5COO- and n = 0-5, m = 0-8 (compounds 1-4, respectively). The structure of one of the complex contains three Cu(II) metal ions at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Each of the copper(II) are coordinated through two benzimidazolyl imine N-atoms and two amide carbonyl O-atoms and the apical position is occupied by an anionic nitrate ion, leading to a distorted square pyramidal environment. The magnetic susceptibility data were analyzed through Hamiltonian H = -J (S1S2 + S2S3 + S1S3) obtaining -J = 0.16, 0.12, 0.15 and 0.14 cm-1 for 1-4, respectively. X-Band EPR spectra typically show a broad single line at 120 K with g ∼ 2.11. Oxidation of phenols was studied homogeneously using copper(II) metallatriangles (1-3) as catalyst in acetonitrile. The oxidation of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butyl phenol yields the corresponding quinone after oxidative dealkylation. The oxidation of 2-amino-5-methyl phenol yields the corresponding phenoxazinone while the oxidation of 2-amino-4-tert-butyl phenol yields the phenoxazine instead of phenoxazinone. The products so obtained were analyzed by NMR and X-ray single crystallography.

  5. Use of bark-derived pyrolysis oils ass a phenol substitute in structural panel adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Louisiana Pacific Corp

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of this program was to pilot the world's first commercial-scale production of an acceptable phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin containing natural resin (NR) ingredients, for use as an adhesive in Oriented-Strand Board (OSB) and plywood panel products. Natural Resin products, specifically MNRP are not lignin ''fillers''. They are chemically active, natural phenolics that effectively displace significant amounts of phenol in PF resins, and which are extracted from bark-derived and wood-derived bio-oils. Other objectives included the enhancement of the economics of NR (MNRP) production by optimizing the production of certain Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}) byproducts, particularly char and activated carbon. The options were to activate the char for use in waste-water and/or stack gas purification. The preliminary results indicate that RTP{trademark} carbon may ultimately serve as a feedstock for activated carbon synthesis, as a fuel to be used within the wood product mill, or a fuel for an electrical power generating facility. Incorporation of the char as an industrial heat source for use in mill operations was L-P's initial intention for the carbon, and was also of interest to Weyerhaeuser as they stepped into in the project.

  6. N-Alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide as dual-action vaginal microbicides with reverse transcriptase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bala, Veenu; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Jangir, Santosh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Krishna, Atul; Singh, Mala; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-08-28

    The growing population and health-care burden (due to STIs and HIV) imposes a particular economic crisis over resource-poor countries. Thus a novel approach as vaginal microbicides emerges as integrated tool to control both population and anti-STIs/HIV. Our continued efforts in this field led to the synthesis of fifteen N-alkyl/aryl-4-(3-substituted-3-phenylpropyl) piperazine-1-carbothioamide (12-26) derivatives as topical vaginal microbicides which were evaluated for anti-Trichomonas, spermicidal, antifungal and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activities. All compounds were also tested for preliminary safety through cytotoxicity assays against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and the vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking studies were performed to gain an insight into the binding mode and interactions of the most promising compound 12 [oxo derivative], comprising of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitory (72.30%), spermicidal (MEC 0.01%), anti-Trichomonas (MIC 46.72 μM) and antifungal (MIC 9.34-74.8 μM) activities, along with its hydroxyl (17) and O-alkylated 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy (22) derivative, with similar activities. The stability of compound 12 in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) and its preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics performed in female NZ-rabbits signifies its clinical safety in comparison to marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9. PMID:26209833

  7. [3 + 2]-Annulations of N-alkyl-3-substituted indoles with quinone monoketals catalysed by Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhuo; Chen, Jia-Nan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xue-Fei; Yang, Pei-Jun; Hu, Ji-Ping; Yang, Gaosheng

    2016-01-21

    An organocatalytic dearomative [3 + 2]-annulation of N-alkyl-3-alkylindoles with quinone monoketals is developed. The reaction provides a mild and straightforward way to various benzofuro[2,3-b]indolines of potential biological and pharmaceutical interest in moderate to good yields. Moreover, when 3-phenylindole, a problematic substrate in previous relevant studies, was used as the substrate under the otherwise same reaction conditions, a novel 1,2-shift of the phenyl group occurred followed by aromatization to provide 2,3-diaryl indoles useful for cancer therapy studies in moderate yields.

  8. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  13. Ionic iron(III) complexes of bis(phenol)-functionalized imidazolium cations: synthesis, structures and catalysis for aryl Grignard cross-coupling of alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hai-ning; Xing, Ya-lin; Xia, Cong-liang; Sun, Hong-mei; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Yong

    2012-10-14

    A series of bis(phenol)-functionalized imidazolium salts, 1,3-bis(4,6-di-R(1)-2-hydroxybenzyl)-2-R(2)-4,5-di-R(3)-imidazolium chlorides H(3)L(n)Cl (R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = R(3) = H, H(3)L(1)Cl, 1; R(1) = CH(3), R(2) = R(3) = H, H(3)L(2)Cl, 2; R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = H, R(3) = Cl, H(3)L(3)Cl, 3; R(1) = (t)Bu, R(2) = CH(3), R(3) = H, H(3)L(4)Cl, 4), were used to produce a novel series of ionic iron(III) complexes [H(3)L(n)][FeX(4)] (n = 1, X = Cl, 5; n = 2, X = Cl, 6; n = 3, X = Cl, 7; n = 4, X = Cl, 8; n = 1, X = Br, 9; n = 3, X = Br, 10). All of the complexes were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography were also used. All of the complexes were non-hygroscopic and air-stable, with five of them existing as solids (5, 7-10) and one as an oil (6) at room temperature. A preliminary catalytic study on the cross-coupling reactions of aryl Grignard reagents with primary and secondary alkyl halides bearing β-hydrogens, revealed that all of the ionic iron(III) complexes exhibited good to excellent catalytic activity. Complexes 5, 6 and 8 exhibited optimal activity, whereas 7, 9 and 10 showed only moderate activity. Furthermore, by simply decanting the cross-coupling product in the ether layer, complexes 5 and 6 could be reused in at least seven successive runs without significant loss in catalytic activity.

  14. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of New Alkyl-Substituted Phthalimide 1H-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Shalom Pôrto de Oliveira; da Silva, Moara Targino; de Oliveira, Ronaldo Nascimento; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Four new 1,2,3-triazole phthalimide derivatives with a potent anti-inflammatory activity have been synthesized in the good yields by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction from N-(azido-alkyl)phthalimides and terminal alkynes. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by injecting carrageenan through the plantar tissue of the right hind paw of Swiss white mice to produce inflammation. All the compounds 3a–c and 5a–c exhibited an important anti-inflammatory activity; the best activity was found for the compounds 3b and 5c, which showed to be able to decrease by 69% and 56.2% carrageenan-induced edema in mice. These compounds may also offer a future promise as a new anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:23304092

  15. The effect of concentration of phenols on their batch methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y T; Suidan, M T; Pfeffer, J T; Najam, I

    1989-04-20

    The biodegradability of phenol and six other phenolic compounds (o-, m-, and p-cresol, 2-, 3-, and 4-ethylphenol) was examined in batch methanogenic cultures. The effect of concentration of these alkyl phenols on the anaerobic biodegradation of phenol was also evaluated. The inoculum used in this study was cultivated in a continuous flow laboratory fermenter with phenol as the primary substrate. Phenol, at initial concentrations as high to 1400 mg/L was completely degraded to methane and carbondioxide after 350 hours incubation. Complete degradation of m- and p-cresol was also observed while the ethylphenols and o-cresol were not significantly degraded.At initial concentrations exceeding 600 mg/L, phenol inhibited the phenol-degrading microorganisms but not the methanogens. At about 600 mg/L, cresols reduced the rate of phenol degradation to 50% of that observed in a control culture containing only 200 mg/L phenol. Ethylphenols were more inhibitory than cresols. Phenol degrading microorganisms were more susceptible to inhibition by cresols and ethylphenols than were the methanogens. The inhibitory effects of the three isomers of cresol and ethylphenol did not vary with the isomer but rather with the substituted functional group.

  16. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of α-(Substituted Phenoxybutyryloxy or Valeryloxy)alkylphosphonates and 2-(Substituted Phenoxybutyryloxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Zhou, Yuan; Peng, Hao; He, Hong-Wu; Lu, Xing-Tao

    2016-09-21

    On the basis of our work on the modification of alkylphosphonates 1, a series of α-(substituted phenoxybutyryloxy or valeryloxy)alkylphosphonates (4-5) and 2-(substituted phenoxybutyryloxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one (6) were designed and synthesized. The bioassay results indicated that 14 of title compounds 4 exhibited significant postemergence herbicidal activity against velvetleaf, common amaranth, and false daisy at 150 g ai/ha. Compounds 5 were inactive against all tested weeds. Compounds 6 exhibited moderate to good inhibitory effect against the tested dicotyledonous weeds. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses showed that the length of the carbon chain as linking bridge had a great effect on the herbicidal activity. Broad-spectrum tests of compounds 4-1, 4-2, 4-9, 4-30, and 4-36 were carried out at 75 g ai/ha. Especially, 4-1 exhibited 100% inhibition activity against the tested dicotyledonous weeds, which was higher than that of glyphosate.

  17. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of α-(Substituted Phenoxybutyryloxy or Valeryloxy)alkylphosphonates and 2-(Substituted Phenoxybutyryloxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Zhou, Yuan; Peng, Hao; He, Hong-Wu; Lu, Xing-Tao

    2016-09-21

    On the basis of our work on the modification of alkylphosphonates 1, a series of α-(substituted phenoxybutyryloxy or valeryloxy)alkylphosphonates (4-5) and 2-(substituted phenoxybutyryloxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one (6) were designed and synthesized. The bioassay results indicated that 14 of title compounds 4 exhibited significant postemergence herbicidal activity against velvetleaf, common amaranth, and false daisy at 150 g ai/ha. Compounds 5 were inactive against all tested weeds. Compounds 6 exhibited moderate to good inhibitory effect against the tested dicotyledonous weeds. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analyses showed that the length of the carbon chain as linking bridge had a great effect on the herbicidal activity. Broad-spectrum tests of compounds 4-1, 4-2, 4-9, 4-30, and 4-36 were carried out at 75 g ai/ha. Especially, 4-1 exhibited 100% inhibition activity against the tested dicotyledonous weeds, which was higher than that of glyphosate. PMID:27530975

  18. Novel indolin-2-one-substituted methanofullerenes bearing long n-alkyl chains: synthesis and application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Irina P; Izdelieva, Inessa A; Trukhanov, Vasily A; Shaikhutdinova, Gulnara R; Yakhvarov, Dmitry G; Latypov, Shamil K; Mironov, Vladimir F; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Golovnin, Ilya V; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2014-01-01

    Summary An easy, high-yield and atom-economic procedure of a C60 fullerene modification using a reaction of fullerene C60 with N-alkylisatins in the presence of tris(diethylamino)phosphine to form novel long-chain alkylindolinone-substituted methanofullerenes (AIMs) is described. Optical absorption, electrochemical properties and solubility of AIMs were studied. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/AIMs solar cells were fabricated and the effect of the AIM alkyl chain length and the P3HT:AIM ratio on the solar cell performance was studied. The power conversion efficiencies of about 2% were measured in the P3HT/AIM devices with 1:0.4 P3HT:AIM weight ratio for the AIMs with hexadecyl and dodecyl substituents. From the optical and AFM data, we suggested that the AIMs, in contrast to [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), do not disturb the P3HT crystalline domains. Moreover, the more soluble AIMs do not show a better miscibility with the P3HT crystalline phase. PMID:24991262

  19. 4-Alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl-Substituted Benzodithiophene-Based Wide Band Gap Polymers for High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Jicheng; Liu, Yahui; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Cuihong; Bo, Zhishan

    2016-02-17

    Two novel polymers PTFBDT-BZS and PTFBDT-BZO with 4-alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl substituted benzodithiophene as the donor unit, benzothiadiazole or benzooxadiazole as the acceptor unit, and thiophene as the spacer have been synthesized and used as donor materials for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These two polymers exhibited wide optical band gaps of about 1.8 eV. PSCs with the blend of PTFBDT-BZS:PC71BM (1:2, by weight) as the active layer fabricated without using any processing additive and any postannealing treatment showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.24% with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short circuit current (Jsc) of 12.67 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 0.73 under AM 1.5G illumination, indicating that PTFBDT-BZS is a very promising donor polymer for PSCs. The blend of PTFBDT-BZO:PC71BM showed a lower PCE of 5.67% with a Voc of 0.96 V, a Jsc of 9.24 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 0.64. One reason for the lower PCE is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a smaller LUMO offset with PC71BM, which cannot provide enough driving force for charge separation. And another reason is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a lower hole mobility in comparison with PTFBDT-BZS.

  20. A Single-Component Conductor Based on a Radical Gold Dithiolene Complex with Alkyl-Substituted Thiophene-2,3-dithiolate Ligand.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Toshiki; Jeannin, Olivier; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Lorcy, Dominique; Mori, Takehiko; Fourmigué, Marc

    2015-10-19

    Alkyl-substituted thiophene-2,3-dithiolate ligands are prepared through a Thio-Claisen rearrangement of 4,5-bis(propargylthio)-1,3-dithiole-2-thione derivatives. The two novel dithiolate ligands, namely, 4,5-dimethyl-thiophene-2,3-dithiolate (α-Me2tpdt) and 4-ethyl-5-methyl-thiophene-2,3-dithiolate (α-EtMetpdt), are engaged in anionic Au(III) square planar complexes formulated as [Au(α-Me2tpdt)2](-) and [Au(α-EtMetpdt)2](-), isolated as Ph4P(+) salts. Monoelectronic oxidation gives the neutral radical complexes [Au(α-Me2tpdt)2](•) and [Au(α-EtMetpdt)2](•). The latter crystallizes into uniform stacks with limited interstack interactions, giving rise to a calculated half-filled band structure. It exhibits a semiconducting behavior with room temperature conductivity of 3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1), indicating that this single-component conductor can be described as a Mott insulator. The different structures observed in [Au(α-EtMetpdt)2](•) and the known [Au(Et-thiazdt)2](•) complex (Et-thiazdt: N-ethyl-thiazoline-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate), despite their very similar shapes, are tentatively attributed to differences in the electronic structures of the ligand skeleton.

  1. 4-Alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl-Substituted Benzodithiophene-Based Wide Band Gap Polymers for High-Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangwu; Gong, Xue; Zhang, Jicheng; Liu, Yahui; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Cuihong; Bo, Zhishan

    2016-02-17

    Two novel polymers PTFBDT-BZS and PTFBDT-BZO with 4-alkyl-3,5-difluorophenyl substituted benzodithiophene as the donor unit, benzothiadiazole or benzooxadiazole as the acceptor unit, and thiophene as the spacer have been synthesized and used as donor materials for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These two polymers exhibited wide optical band gaps of about 1.8 eV. PSCs with the blend of PTFBDT-BZS:PC71BM (1:2, by weight) as the active layer fabricated without using any processing additive and any postannealing treatment showed power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.24% with an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short circuit current (Jsc) of 12.67 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 0.73 under AM 1.5G illumination, indicating that PTFBDT-BZS is a very promising donor polymer for PSCs. The blend of PTFBDT-BZO:PC71BM showed a lower PCE of 5.67% with a Voc of 0.96 V, a Jsc of 9.24 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 0.64. One reason for the lower PCE is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a smaller LUMO offset with PC71BM, which cannot provide enough driving force for charge separation. And another reason is probably due to that PTFBDT-BZO has a lower hole mobility in comparison with PTFBDT-BZS. PMID:26646056

  2. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  3. Facile synthesis of 5H-benzo[b]carbazol-6-yl ketones via sequential reaction of Cu-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation, iodine-promoted cyclization, nucleophilic substitution and aromatization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Dongping; Wang, Haolong; Wu, Fan; Li, Xincheng; Wan, Boshun

    2014-09-21

    A convenient method to access 5H-benzo[b]carbazol-6-yl ketones via a sequential Cu-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction of indoles with 2-(2-(alkynyl)benzylidene)malonates and iodine-promoted electrophilic cyclization followed by nucleophilic substitution and aromatization was developed. The products of the functional 5H-benzo[b]carbazol-6-yl ketones were obtained with up to 98% yield. PMID:25070224

  4. Diradical reaction mechanisms in [3 + 2]-cycloadditions of hetaryl thioketones with alkyl- or trimethylsilyl-substituted diazomethanes

    PubMed Central

    Pipiak, Paulina; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reactions of dihetaryl and aryl/hetaryl thioketones with 2-diazopropane, diazoethane, and (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane were studied at variable temperature. The experiments showed that reactions with 2-diazopropane carried out at –75 °C occur mainly via the initially formed, relatively stable 1,3,4-thiadiazolines as products of the [3 + 2]-cycloaddition of the diazo dipole onto the C=S bond. The latter decompose only at higher temperature (ca. −40 °C) to generate thiocarbonyl S-isopropanide. In the absence of the starting thioketone, the corresponding thiiranes and/or ethene derivatives, formed from them via spontaneous desulfurization, are the main products. In contrast, reactions with diazoethane occurred predominantly via initially formed diradicals, which in cascade processes gave sterically crowded 4,4,5,5-tetrahetaryl-1,3-dithiolanes as major products. Finally, the reaction of dihetaryl thioketones with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane occur smoothly at −75 °C leading to the corresponding 4,4,5,5-tetrahetaryl-1,3-dithiolanes as the exclusive [3 + 2]-cycloadducts formed via a cascade of postulated diradicals. The presence of S or Se atoms in the hetaryl rings is of importance for stabilizing diradical intermediates. Remarkably, in no single case, the ‘head-to-head dimerization’ of aryl/hetaryl and dihetaryl substituted thiocarbonyl ylides was observed. PMID:27340463

  5. Development and application of a simultaneous SPE-method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HET) and phenols in aqueous samples from German Rivers and the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Siemers, Anne-Kathrin; Mänz, Jan Sebastian; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Ruck, Wolfgang K L

    2015-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HETs), alkylated PAHs and phenols are known as the prevailing contaminants in groundwater at tar contaminated sites. Besides these local sources, the concentrations and the distribution in particular of NSO-HETs in environmental samples, such as rivers, have received notably less attention. To investigate their occurrence in river basins two sensitive analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of 86 substances including NSO-HETs, classical EPA-PAHs, alkylated PAHs and phenols were developed: liquid-liquid extraction for the whole water phase and solid phase extraction for the dissolved water phase only. Solely GC-MS or additionally LC-MSMS for fractionated basic nitrogen heterocycles (N-HETs) were used for quantification. Limits of quantification were in the low ngL(-1) range. Concentrations were determined in 29 aqueous samples from 8 relatively large rivers located in Lower Saxony (Germany) and the North Sea. NSO-HETs had comparable or even higher sum concentrations than EPA-PAHs. N-HETs, especially acridine and quinolines with concentrations of up to 20ngL(-1) per substance, were predominant.

  6. Influence of alkyl chain length on charge transport in symmetrically substituted poly(2,5-dialkoxy- p -phenylenevinylene) polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuladhar, Sachetan M.; Sims, Marc; Kirkpatrick, James; Maher, Robert C.; Chatten, Amanda J.; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Nelson, Jenny; Etchegoin, Pablo G.; Nielsen, Christian B.; Massiot, Philippe; George, Wayne N.; Steinke, Joachim H. G.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the hole transport characteristics, as measured by time of flight, of a family of symmetrically substituted dialkoxy poly( p -phenylenevinylene) polymers with different side-chain length. As side-chain length is decreased, the magnitude of the hole mobility μh increases while the field dependence of μh becomes more positive and the temperature dependence of μh becomes stronger. For the shortest side-chain derivative studied, μh exceeds 10-4cm2V-1s-1 at electric fields greater than 105Vcm-1 . The trend in magnitude of μh with side-chain length is consistent with the expected increase in electronic wave-function overlap as interchain separation decreases, while the trends in electric-field and temperature dependences of μh are consistent with increasing site energy disorder. We show that the electrostatic contribution to the site energy difference for pairs of oligomers follows the observed trend as a function of interchain separation, although the pairwise contribution is too small to explain the data quantitatively. Nonresonant Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize the microstructure of our films. We construct spatial maps of the Raman ratio I1280/I1581 and confirm an expected decrease in average film density with side-chain extension. The structural heterogeneity in the maps is analyzed but no clear correlation is observed with transport properties, suggesting that the structural variations relevant for charge transport occur on a length scale finer than the resolution of ˜1μm .

  7. Mechanistic Insights into the Oxidation of Substituted Phenols via Hydrogen Atom Abstraction by a Cupric–Superoxo Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To obtain mechanistic insights into the inherent reactivity patterns for copper(I)–O2 adducts, a new cupric–superoxo complex [(DMM-tmpa)CuII(O2•–)]+ (2) [DMM-tmpa = tris((4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methyl)amine] has been synthesized and studied in phenol oxidation–oxygenation reactions. Compound 2 is characterized by UV–vis, resonance Raman, and EPR spectroscopies. Its reactions with a series of para-substituted 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols (p-X-DTBPs) afford 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DTBQ) in up to 50% yields. Significant deuterium kinetic isotope effects and a positive correlation of second-order rate constants (k2) compared to rate constants for p-X-DTBPs plus cumylperoxyl radical reactions indicate a mechanism that involves rate-limiting hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). A weak correlation of (kBT/e) ln k2 versus Eox of p-X-DTBP indicates that the HAT reactions proceed via a partial transfer of charge rather than a complete transfer of charge in the electron transfer/proton transfer pathway. Product analyses, 18O-labeling experiments, and separate reactivity employing the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl radical provide further mechanistic insights. After initial HAT, a second molar equiv of 2 couples to the phenoxyl radical initially formed, giving a CuII–OO–(ArO′) intermediate, which proceeds in the case of p-OR-DTBP substrates via a two-electron oxidation reaction involving hydrolysis steps which liberate H2O2 and the corresponding alcohol. By contrast, four-electron oxygenation (O–O cleavage) mainly occurs for p-R-DTBP which gives 18O-labeled DTBQ and elimination of the R group. PMID:24953129

  8. Mechanistic insights into the oxidation of substituted phenols via hydrogen atom abstraction by a cupric-superoxo complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Peterson, Ryan L; Ohkubo, Kei; Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Himes, Richard A; Woertink, Julia; Moore, Cathy D; Solomon, Edward I; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-07-16

    To obtain mechanistic insights into the inherent reactivity patterns for copper(I)-O2 adducts, a new cupric-superoxo complex [(DMM-tmpa)Cu(II)(O2(•-))](+) (2) [DMM-tmpa = tris((4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)methyl)amine] has been synthesized and studied in phenol oxidation-oxygenation reactions. Compound 2 is characterized by UV-vis, resonance Raman, and EPR spectroscopies. Its reactions with a series of para-substituted 2,6-di-tert-butylphenols (p-X-DTBPs) afford 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DTBQ) in up to 50% yields. Significant deuterium kinetic isotope effects and a positive correlation of second-order rate constants (k2) compared to rate constants for p-X-DTBPs plus cumylperoxyl radical reactions indicate a mechanism that involves rate-limiting hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). A weak correlation of (k(B)T/e) ln k2 versus E(ox) of p-X-DTBP indicates that the HAT reactions proceed via a partial transfer of charge rather than a complete transfer of charge in the electron transfer/proton transfer pathway. Product analyses, (18)O-labeling experiments, and separate reactivity employing the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl radical provide further mechanistic insights. After initial HAT, a second molar equiv of 2 couples to the phenoxyl radical initially formed, giving a Cu(II)-OO-(ArO') intermediate, which proceeds in the case of p-OR-DTBP substrates via a two-electron oxidation reaction involving hydrolysis steps which liberate H2O2 and the corresponding alcohol. By contrast, four-electron oxygenation (O-O cleavage) mainly occurs for p-R-DTBP which gives (18)O-labeled DTBQ and elimination of the R group.

  9. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of 2-(substituted phenoxyacetoxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; He, Hong-Wu; Zuo, Na; He, Hai-Feng; Peng, Hao; Tan, Xiao-Song

    2012-08-01

    A series of 2-(substituted phenoxyacetoxy)alkyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-ones IIa-s were designed and synthesized on the basis of the previous work for the modification of alkylphosphonates I, and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (31)P NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. Their herbicidal activities against seven species of weeds were evaluated in a greenhouse. A part of the title compounds such as IIa-g, IIk, IIo, and IIr exhibited significant postemergence herbicidal activity against Abutilon theophrasti, Brassica juncea, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Eclipta prostrate at a dosage of 150 g ai/ha. Structure-activity relationship analyses indicated that the introduction of a phosphorus-containing heterocyclic ring had a favorable effect on herbicidal activity, and their herbicidal activity could be further increased by a reasonable combination of X, Y, and R in parent structure II. It could be found that the title compounds IIa 2-[(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetoxy](methyl)methyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one and IIr 2-[(4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)acetoxy](methyl)methyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-2-one possess high activity and a broad spectrum against all of the test broadleaf weeds with 70-100% inhibition effect at a dosage of 75 g ai/ha, and the title compounds IIa and IIr are safe for corn and wheat at a dosage of 150 g ai/ha. Furthermore, the title compound IIa possesses low rat toxicity. These results suggest that the title compounds IIa and IIr could be potential and selective postemergence herbicides for further development.

  10. Development of an automated on-line solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of aniline, phenol, caffeine and various selected substituted aniline and phenol compounds in aqueous matrices.

    PubMed

    Patsias, J; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E

    2000-12-29

    A fully automated solid-phase extraction (SPE)-high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of substituted anilines and phenols in aqueous matrices at the low- to sub-microg/l level. Diode array and electrochemical detection operated in tandem mode were used for analyte detection. Two new polymeric sorbent materials (Hysphere-GP and Hysphere-SH) were evaluated for the on-line SPE of substituted anilines and phenols from aqueous matrices and their performance was compared with the PRP-1 and PLRP-S sorbents. Hysphere-GP sorbent packed in 10 x 2 mm cartridges was found to give better results in terms of sensitivity and selectivity of the overall analytical method. The proposed analytical method was validated for the analysis of these compounds in Axios river water that receives industrial, communal and agricultural wastes. The detection limits for all the compounds range between 0.05 and 0.2 microg/l, except for aniline and phenol which have detection limits of 0.5 and 1 microg/l, respectively (aniline detected by electrochemical detection). The recoveries for all the compounds are higher than 75% except for aniline (6%), phenol (50%) and 3-chlorophenol (67%). Finally, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the Hysphere-GP (10 x 2 mm) cartridges for sample stabilization and storage, the stability of the compounds of interest at the sorbed state onto these cartridges has been evaluated under three different temperature regimes (deep freeze, refrigeration, 20 degrees C).

  11. Palladium-catalyzed C–N and C–O bond formation of N-substituted 4-bromo-7-azaindoles with amides, amines, amino acid esters and phenols

    PubMed Central

    Surasani, Rajendra; Rao, A V Dhanunjaya; Chandrasekhar, K B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Simple and efficient procedures for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of N-substituted 4-bromo-7-azaindole (1H-pyrrole[2,3-b]pyridine), with amides, amines, amino acid esters and phenols through C–N and C–O bond formation have been developed. The C–N cross-coupling reaction of amides, amines and amino acid esters takes place rapidly by using the combination of Xantphos, Cs2CO3, dioxane and palladium catalyst precursors Pd(OAc)2/Pd2(dba)3. The combination of Pd(OAc)2, Xantphos, K2CO3 and dioxane was found to be crucial for the C–O cross-coupling reaction. This is the first report on coupling of amides, amino acid esters and phenols with N-protected 4-bromo-7-azaindole derivatives. PMID:23209536

  12. GC separation of enantiomers of alkyl esters of 2-bromo substituted carboxylic acids enantiomers on 6-TBDMS-2,3-di-alkyl- β- and γ-cyclodextrin stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Spánik, Ivan; Kačeriaková, Darina; Krupčík, Jan; Armstrong, Daniel Wayne

    2014-06-01

    The gas chromatographic separation of enantiomers of 2-Br carboxylic acid derivatives was studied on four different 6-TBDMS-2,3-di-O-alkyl- β- and -γ-CD stationary phases. The differences in thermodynamic data {ΔH and -ΔS} for the 15 structurally related racemates were evaluated. The influence of structure differences in the alkyl substituents covalently attached to the stereogenic carbon atom, as well as in the ester group of the homologous analytes, and the selectivity of modified β- and γ- cyclodextrin derivatives was studied in detail. The cyclodextrin cavity size, as well as elongation of alkyl substituents in positions 2 and 3 of 6-TBDMS-β-CD, also affected their selectivity. The quality of enantiomeric separations is influenced mainly by alkyl chains of the ester group of the molecule and this appears to be independent of the CD stationary phase used. In some cases the separations occur as the result of external adsorption rather than inclusion complexations with the chiral selector. It was found that the temperature dependencies of the selectivity factor were nonlinear.

  13. Reduced N-alkyl substituted bis(imino)pyridine cobalt complexes: molecular and electronic structures for compounds varying by three oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amanda C; Milsmann, Carsten; Bill, Eckhard; Lobkovsky, Emil; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wieghardt, Karl; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    The stepwise 1-3 electron reduction of the N-alkyl substituted bis(imino)pyridine cobalt dichloride complexes, ((R)APDI)CoCl(2), was studied where (R)APDI = 2,6-(RN=CMe)(2)C(5)H(3)N, R = C(6)H(11) (Cy), CHMe(2) ((i)Pr). One electron reduction with either zinc metal or NaBEt(3)H furnished the bis(imino)pyridine cobalt monochloride compounds, ((R)APDI)CoCl. X-ray diffraction on the ((iPr)APDI)CoCl derivative established a distortion from square planar geometry where the chloride ligand is lifted out of the idealized cobalt-chelate plane. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry on both compounds established spin crossover behavior with an S = 1 state being predominant at room temperature. Computational studies, in combination with experimental results, establish that the triplet spin isomer arises from a high spin Co(II) center (S(Co) = 3/2) antiferromagnetically coupled to a bis(imino)pyridine chelate radical anion, [PDI](-) (S(PDI) = 1/2). At lower temperatures, the Co(II) ion undergoes a spin transition to the low spin form (S(Co) = 1/2) and antiferromagnetic coupling gives rise to the observed diamagnetic ground state. Replacing the chloride ligand with a methyl group, namely ((R)APDI)CoCH(3), also yielded distorted compounds, albeit less pronounced, that are diamagnetic at room temperature. Two electron reduction of the ((R)APDI)CoCl(2) derivatives with excess 0.5% sodium amalgam or 2 equiv of NaBEt(3)H furnished the bis(chelate)cobalt complexes, ((R)APDI)(2)Co, while three electron reduction with 3 equiv of sodium naphthalenide yielded the cobalt dinitrogen anions, [Na(solv)(3)][((R)APDI)CoN(2)] (solv = THF, Et(2)O). Both bis(chelate) compounds were crystallographically characterized and determined to have S = 3/2 ground states by SQUID magnetometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Computational studies, in combination with metrical parameters determined from X-ray diffraction, establish a high spin (S(Co) = 3

  14. Regioselectivity of Birch reductive alkylation of biaryls.

    PubMed

    Lebeuf, Raphaël; Robert, Frédéric; Landais, Yannick

    2005-10-13

    [reaction: see text] The regioselectivity of the Birch reductive alkylation of polysubstituted biaryls has been investigated. Results indicate that regioselectivity is affected by the electronic nature of substituents on both aromatic rings. The electron-rich 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl moiety is selectively reduced and then alkylated, while phenols and aniline are not dearomatized under these conditions. Biaryls possessing a phenol moiety are alkylated on the second ring, providing that the acidic proton has been removed prior to the Li/NH3 reduction.

  15. Relative toxicity of para-substituted phenols: log K/sub ow/ and pKa-dependent structure-activity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1987-06-01

    The toxic response of the majority of industrial chemicals which are nonreactive and non -ionic can be quantitatively modeled by the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (K/sub ow/) in a linear fashion following a log-log transformation of the data. The toxicity of phenols, however does not model by these same quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Earlier studies have shown that the addition of pKa as a second molecular descriptor improves the predictive capability of log K/sub ow/ QSAR. The predicted toxicity of phenol derivatives, which ionize poorly under the test conditions, is not significantly altered by using models in which pKa is not included. In an effort to systematically explore the extent to which such log K/sub ow/ and, log K/sub ow/ and pKa-dependent QSAR can be used to predict the biological activity of phenols, the first in a series of investigations was conducted using the rapid and inexpensive Tetrahymena population growth impairment assay to determine relative toxicity of 30 para-substituted derivatives.

  16. A new iron(III) complex of glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand: Synthesis, characterization and catechol dioxygenase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberikia, Iraj; Safaei, Elham; Kowsari, Mohammad Hossein; Lee, Yong-Ill; Cotic, Patricia; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2012-12-01

    A new iron(III) complex of the glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand (H3LGDC) has been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques, cyclic voltammetry, ESI-MS and magnetic susceptibility studies. X-ray analysis reveals that in iron complex of FeLGDC the iron(III) center has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination sphere and is surrounded by an amine nitrogen, a carboxylate, a water and two phenolate oxygen atoms. The DFT calculations with the UB3LYP/6-311++G** level optimized structure of the complex are in good agreement with experimental X-ray structural data. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility indicates that FeLGDC is the paramagnetic high spin iron(III) complex. It has been shown that electrochemical oxidation of this complex is ligand-centered due to the oxidation of phenolate to the phenoxyl radicals. This enzyme mimic utilized molecular oxygen in carrying out the oxidative cleavage of catechols with complete conversion at room temperature.

  17. Selective and Efficient Generation of ortho-Brominated para-Substituted Phenols in ACS-Grade Methanol.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, David; Saes, Bartholomeus W H; Johnston, Heather J; Boys, Sarah K; Healy, Alan; Hulme, Alison N

    2016-01-13

    The mono ortho-bromination of phenolic building blocks by NBS has been achieved in short reaction times (15-20 min) using ACS-grade methanol as a solvent. The reactions can be conducted on phenol, naphthol and biphenol substrates, giving yields of >86% on gram scale. Excellent selectivity for the desired mono ortho-brominated products is achieved in the presence of 10 mol % para-TsOH, and the reaction is shown to be tolerant of a range of substituents, including CH3, F, and NHBoc.

  18. Copper-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of nonactivated alkyl tosylates and mesylates with alkyl and aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Hui; Yang, Chu-Ting; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Xu, Ling; Cui, Mian; Lu, Xi; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao; Liu, Lei

    2014-11-17

    A copper-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling reaction of nonactivated alkyl tosylates and mesylates with alkyl and aryl bromides was developed. It provides a practical method for efficient and cost-effective construction of aryl-alkyl and alkyl-alkyl CC bonds with stereocontrol from readily available substrates. When used in an intramolecular fashion, the reaction enables convenient access to various substituted carbo- or heterocycles, such as 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and benzochromene derivatives.

  19. A p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) protection/deprotection approach toward the synthesis of 5-phenoxy-4-chloro-N-(aryl/alkyl) thiophene-2-sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Williams, Alfred L; Dandepally, Srinivasa R; Kotturi, Sharadsrikar V

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of 17 phenoxy substituted 4-chloro-N-(aryl/alkyl)thiophene-2-sulfonamides using a PMB protection/deprotection strategy is described. Nucleophilic displacement of p-methoxybenzyl (PMB) protected 4,5-dichloro-N-(aryl/alkyl)-thiophene-2-sulfonamides was carried out with different phenols under mild basic conditions. Reaction times of 3-6 h and overall yields of 78-98% were achieved with the PMB group in place compared to no reaction without this protecting group. The PMB group was easily and selectively removed in 68-98% yield using TFA in DCM.

  20. A Mild Synthesis of New Aryl Vinyl Ethers and Diethyl 1-[(Alkyl)(cyano)methyl]vinylphosphonates via the Substitution of a 2,3-Difunctional Allyl Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Ben Kraïem, Jihène; Arfaoui, Aïcha; Amri, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of aryl vinyl ethers 3 and diethyl 3-cyano-3-alkylprop-1-en-2-ylphosphonates 4 has been prepared, respectively, from coupling reaction of diethyl 1-(bromomethyl)-2-cyanovinylphosphonate 2 with phenols and Gilman reagents. PMID:24688373

  1. Substituent controlled reactivity switch: selective synthesis of α-diazoalkylphosphonates or vinylphosphonates via nucleophilic substitution of alkyl bromides with Bestmann-Ohira reagent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Mukund M D; Chaturvedi, Atul Kumar; Rastogi, Namrata

    2014-11-01

    We report a substituent controlled nucleophilic displacement of alkyl bromides with Bestmann-Ohira reagent yielding either dimethyl diazoalkylphosphonates or (E)-vinylphosphonates. The dimethyl diazoalkylphosphonates could be readily converted into corresponding (E)-vinylphosphonates in the presence of Cu following nitrogen elimination in quantitative yields.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide with para substituted of phenols based on charge-transfer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Killa, Hamada M. A.; Grabchev, Ivo; El-Sayed, Mohamed Y.

    2007-09-01

    The interaction of charge-transfer (CT) complexes resulted from the reaction of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide (BHENDI) with some various acceptors like as substituted phenols in para position; 4-aminophenol (4AP), 4-methylphenol (4MP) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP) have been studied in methanol at room temperature. The reaction was studied using electronic (UV-vis), mid infrared, and 1H NMR spectra and thermal measurements (TGA and DTG) as well as elemental analysis CHN. The chemical analysis data of the resulted CT-complexes, BHENDI-acceptors, reveal that the formation of a 1:2 CT complexes in all cases. The interaction of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide and phenolic acceptors were investigated spectrophotometrically and found two detected CT bands have n-π * transition. The donor site involved in CT interaction is the diimide two nitrogen atoms by forming hydrogen bonding. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters like Δ E, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G are calculated from the DTG diagrams using Coats-Redfern method. The electrical conductivity properties for the solid CT complexes were measured within the temperature of room 25 °C.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Alkyl Sulfenate Anions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiezheng; Zhang, Mengnan; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Carol Y; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-11-01

    A unique palladium-catalyzed arylation of alkyl sulfenate anions is introduced that affords aryl alkyl sulfoxides in high yields. Due to the base sensitivity of the starting sulfoxides, sulfenate anion intermediates, and alkyl aryl sulfoxide products, the use of a mild method to generate alkyl sulfenate anions was crucial to the success of this process. Thus, a fluoride triggered elimination strategy was employed with alkyl 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl sulfoxides to liberate the requisite alkyl sulfenate anion intermediates. In the presence of palladium catalysts with bulky monodentate phosphines (SPhos and Cy-CarPhos) and aryl bromides or chlorides, alkyl sulfenate anions were readily arylated. Moreover, the thermal fragmentation and the base promoted elimination of alkyl sulfoxides was overridden. The alkyl sulfenate anion arylation exhibited excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of functional groups, such as anilines and phenols, which are also known to undergo palladium catalyzed arylation reactions.

  4. Treatment of substituted phenol mixtures in single phase and two-phase solid-liquid partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Rita, Sara; Angelucci, Domenica Mosca; Annesini, M Cristina; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2011-07-15

    The biological treatment of phenolics is constrained by the inherent cytotoxicity of these compounds. One method to alleviate such toxicity is to add a sequestering phase to absorb, and subsequently release, the substrate(s) to the micro-organisms; such a system is termed a Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor. Here we have compared the performance of a TPPB, relative to single phase operation, in which a small volume (5%, v/v) of beads of the polymer Hytrel 8206 was used to treat aqueous mixtures of 2,4-dimethylphenol and 4-nitrophenol. Hytrel 8206 was selected from a range of polymers that were tested for their partition coefficients (PCs) for the target molecules, with the more hydrophobic compound (2,4-dimethylphenol) having a higher PC value (201) than 4-nitrophenol (143). Significantly increased removal rates for both substrates were demonstrated in TPPB mode relative to single phase operation. Additionally, the differential release of the compounds to the aqueous phase and their distinct PC values changed the kinetic pattern of the biotreatment system, smoothing out the cellular oxygen demand. Release of the substrates by the polymer over 60 operating cycles was virtually complete (>97%) demonstrating the reusability and robustness of the use of polymers in overcoming cytotoxicity of phenolic substrates.

  5. Density functional theory study of hydrogen atom abstraction from a series of para-substituted phenols: why is the Hammett σ(p)+ constant able to represent radical reaction rates?

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsusada; Hirozumi, Koji; Harada, Masataka; Hitaoka, Seiji; Chuman, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    The rate of hydrogen atom abstraction from phenolic compounds by a radical is known to be often linear with the Hammett substitution constant σ(+), defined using the S(N)1 solvolysis rates of substituted cumyl chlorides. Nevertheless, a physicochemical reason for the above "empirical fact" has not been fully revealed. The transition states of complexes between the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (dpph·) and a series of para-substituted phenols were determined by DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations, and then the activation energy as well as the homolytic bond dissociation energy of the O-H bond and charge distribution in the transition state were calculated. The heterolytic bond dissociation energy of the C-Cl bond and charge distribution in the corresponding para-substituted cumyl chlorides were calculated in parallel. Excellent correlations among σ(+), charge distribution, and activation and bond dissociation energies revealed quantitatively that there is a strong similarity between the two reactions, showing that the electron-deficiency of the π-electron system conjugated with a substituent plays a crucial role in determining rates of the two reactions. The results provide a new insight into and physicochemical understanding of σ(+) in the hydrogen abstraction from substituted phenols by a radical.

  6. Enantioselective Synthesis of Homoallylic Amines through Reactions of (Pinacolato)allylborons with Aryl-, Heteroaryl-, Alkyl- or Alkene-Substituted Aldimines Catalyzed by Chiral C1-Symmetric NHC–Cu Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2011-01-01

    A catalytic method for enantioselective synthesis of homoallylamides through Cu-catalyzed reactions of stable and easily accessible (pinacolato)allylborons with aryl-, heteroaryl-,alkyl- or alkenyl-substituted N-phosphinoylimines is disclosed. Transformations are promoted by 1–5 mol % of readily accessible NHC–Cu complexes, derived from C1-symmetric imidazolinium salts, which can be prepared in multi-gram quantities in four steps from commercially available materials. Allyl additions deliver the desired products in up to quantitative yield and 98.5:1.5 enantiomeric ratio and are amenable to gram-scale operations. A mechanistic model accounting for the observed selectivity levels and trends is proposed. PMID:21341657

  7. Relative embryotoxic potency of p-substituted phenols in the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and comparison to their toxic potency in vivo and in the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

    PubMed

    Strikwold, Marije; Woutersen, Ruud A; Spenkelink, Bert; Punt, Ans; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-09-01

    The applicability of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) as an alternative for in vivo embryotoxicity testing was evaluated for a series of five p-substituted phenols. To this purpose, the potency ranking for this class of compounds derived from the inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation in the EST was compared to in vivo embryotoxic potency data obtained from literature and to the potency ranking defined in the in vitro whole embryo culture (WEC) assay. From the results obtained it appears that the EST was able to identify the embryotoxic potential for p-substituted phenols, providing an identical potency ranking compared to the WEC assay. However, the EST was not able to predict an accurate ranking for the phenols compared to their potency observed in vivo. Only phenol, the least potent compound within this series, was correctly ranked. Furthermore, p-mercaptophenol was correctly identified as a relative potent congener of the phenols tested, but its ranking was distorted by p-heptyloxyphenol, of which the toxicity was overestimated in the EST. It is concluded that when attempting to explain the observed disparity in potency rankings between in vitro and in vivo embryotoxicity, the in vitro models should be combined with a kinetic model describing in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes of the compounds.

  8. Predicting pK(a) values of substituted phenols from atomic charges: comparison of different quantum mechanical methods and charge distribution schemes.

    PubMed

    Svobodová Vareková, Radka; Geidl, Stanislav; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Skrehota, Ondrej; Kudera, Michal; Sehnal, David; Bouchal, Tomás; Abagyan, Ruben; Huber, Heinrich J; Koca, Jaroslav

    2011-08-22

    The acid dissociation (ionization) constant pK(a) is one of the fundamental properties of organic molecules. We have evaluated different computational strategies and models to predict the pK(a) values of substituted phenols using partial atomic charges. Partial atomic charges for 124 phenol molecules were calculated using 83 approaches containing seven theory levels (MP2, HF, B3LYP, BLYP, BP86, AM1, and PM3), three basis sets (6-31G*, 6-311G, STO-3G), and five population analyses (MPA, NPA, Hirshfeld, MK, and Löwdin). The correlations between pK(a) and various atomic charge descriptors were examined, and the best descriptors were selected for preparing the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models. One QSPR model was created for each of the 83 approaches to charge calculation, and then the accuracy of all these models was analyzed and compared. The pK(a)s predicted by most of the models correlate strongly with experimental pK(a) values. For example, more than 25% of the models have correlation coefficients (R²) greater than 0.95 and root-mean-square errors smaller than 0.49. All seven examined theory levels are applicable for pK(a) prediction from charges. The best results were obtained for the MP2 and HF level of theory. The most suitable basis set was found to be 6-31G*. The 6-311G basis set provided slightly weaker correlations, and unexpectedly also, the STO-3G basis set is applicable for the QSPR modeling of pK(a). The Mulliken, natural, and Löwdin population analyses provide accurate models for all tested theory levels and basis sets. The results provided by the Hirshfeld population analysis were also acceptable, but the QSPR models based on MK charges show only weak correlations.

  9. N-alkylation of organo-imido substituted polyoxometalates: an efficient and stoichiometric approach for the easy post-modification of polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rao Naumaan Nasim; Lv, Chunlin; Zhang, Jin; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2015-03-14

    An efficient protocol for post-functionalization of organo-imido polyoxometalates is developed via creating a remote tertiary “N” atom over the surface of organo-imido hexamolybdates and subsequently post-functionalizing it with the help of allyl or alkyl halides to afford stoichiometric, “in situ” crystalline products at moderate temperatures. The parent organo-imido product 2 and post-functionalized crystalline products 3 and 4 are compared for their solid state structures. The post-functionalization protocol introduced here allows the inclusion of the desired functional groups as remote reactive organic groups over a POM's highly negative surface. The in situ crystallization of post-functionalized products further guarantees an 100% purity of final products, along with 95% yield. PMID:25651928

  10. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  11. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). (a... generically as naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted...

  14. Optimization and Simultaneous Determination of Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates and Brominated Flame Retardants in Water after SPE and Heptafluorobutyric Anhydride Derivatization followed by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Chokwe, Tlou B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Sibali, Linda L; Ncube, Esper J

    2012-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was investigated for the simultaneous analysis of two types of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), i.e., alkylphenol ethoxylates and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), by extraction and derivatization followed by GC-MS. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Cleanert PestiCarb, C18, Cleanert-SAX and Florosil), solvents (toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate) and bases (NaHCO3, triethylamine and pyridine) were tested and the best chromatographic analysis was achieved by extraction with Strata-X (33 μm, Reverse Phase) cartridge and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 55 °C under Na2CO3 base in hexane. It was observed that APE together with lower substituted PBBs (PBB1, PBB10, PBB18 and PBB49), HBCD and TBBPA can be determined simultaneously under the same GC conditions. This simple and reliable analytical method was applied to determining trace amounts of these compounds from wastewater treatment plant samples. The recoveries of the target compounds from simulated water were above 60 %. The limit of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 μg L(-1) and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 μg L(-1). There were no appreciable differences between filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples from Leeuwkil treatment plant although concentration of target analytes in filtered influent was slightly lower than the concentration of target analytes in unfiltered influent water. The concentrations of the target compounds from the wastewater treatment were determined from LOQ upwards. PMID:23864736

  15. Antioxidant, DNA binding and nuclease activities of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes derived from 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols and diimines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Imran Musthafa, M. A.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-12-01

    A series of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)](ClO4)2 (1-8) [L1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2‧-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)], have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions and the electronic spectra revealed the square pyramidal geometry with N4O coordination environment around copper(II) nuclei. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The EPR spectra of complexes with g|| (2.206-2.214) and A|| (154-172 × 10-4 cm-1) values support the square-based CuN3O coordination chromophore and the presence of unpaired electron localized in dx-y ground state. Antioxidant studies against DPPH revealed effective radical scavenging properties of the synthesized complexes. Binding studies suggest that the heteroleptic copper(II) complexes interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through minor-groove and electrostatic interaction, and all the complexes display pronounced nuclease activity against supercoiled pBR322 DNA.

  16. Mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols: Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding and cheminuclease activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Karthick, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Four new zinc(II) complexes [Zn(HL1-4)Cl2] (1-4), where HL1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, have been isolated and fully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 4 shows the distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry around zinc(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonding interaction. The complexes display no d-d electronic band in the visible region due to d10 electronic configuration of zinc(II) ion. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes exhibit similar voltammogram at reduction potential due to electrochemically innocent Zn(II) ion, which evidenced that the electron transfer is due to the nature of the ligand. Binding interaction of complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied by UV-Vis absorption titration, viscometric titration and cyclic voltammetry. All complexes bind with CT DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order of 2 > 1 ≫ 3 > 4. The prominent cheminuclease activity of complexes on plasmid DNA (pBR322 DNA) was observed in the absence and presence of H2O2. Oxidative pathway reveals that the underlying mechanism involves hydroxyl radical.

  17. Chelation-driven rearrangement of primary alkyl aminopalladation products to stable trisubstituted alkyl-palladium complexes.

    PubMed

    Rosewall, Carolyn F; Ingalls, Erica L; Kaminsky, Werner; Michael, Forrest E

    2015-04-01

    The formation of highly substituted carbon centers using catalysis has been a widely sought after goal, but complexes of highly substituted carbon atoms with transition metals are rare, and the factors that affect the relative stability of complexes with differentially substituted carbon atoms are poorly understood. In this study, a set of equilibrating alkyl-palladium complexes were subtly tuned to form either a primary or trisubstituted alkyl complex as the more thermodynamically favored state, depending on either the substrate or reaction conditions. An X-ray crystal structure of the trisubstituted alkyl-palladium complex is presented and compared with the corresponding primary alkyl complex. The mechanism for rearrangement and the factors that drive the change in stability are discussed.

  18. Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl substituted amine biphenolate ligands: coordination chemistry and living ring-opening polymerization catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lan-Chang; Lin, Sheng-Ta; Chien, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tsz

    2013-07-01

    The coordination chemistry of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the tridentate amine biphenolate ligands [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), nPr (1c)) featuring distinct N-alkyl substituents is described. Alcoholysis of Zr(OiPr)4(HOiPr) or Hf(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1a] in diethyl ether solutions at -35 °C generates the corresponding five-coordinate [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr (2a), Hf (3a)) in high isolated yield. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] produce six-coordinate [1b]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2b·HOiPr), Hf (3b·HOiPr)) as an isopropanol adduct. Repetitive trituration of 2b·HOiPr and 3b·HOiPr with diethyl ether gives five-coordinate 2b and 3b, respectively. Treatment of M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1c] under similar conditions affords six-coordinate [1c]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2c·HOiPr), Hf (3c·HOiPr)), subsequent recrystallization of which from acetonitrile-diethyl ether solutions leads to acetonitrile adducts 2c·MeCN and 3c·MeCN. Reactivity studies of these zirconium and hafnium complexes revealed that they are all active catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. Among them, the N-isopropyl derived complexes are most reactive. Polymerizations catalyzed by 2b, 3b and 3c·MeCN were proved to be living. The X-ray structures of 2a·HOiPr, 2a·MeCN, 2c·HOiPr, 2c·MeCN, and 3c·MeCN are presented.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  20. Hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over Ni/SiO2-ZrO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Yu, Yuxiao; Chen, Lungang

    2013-04-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using guaiacol as model compound. SiO2-ZrO2 (SZ), a complex oxide synthesized by precipitation method with different ratio of Si/Zr, was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O and calcined at 500°C. Conversion rates and product distribution for guaiacol HDO at 200-340°C were determined. Guaiacol conversion reached the maximum at 300°C in the presence of Ni/SZ-3. When HDO reaction was carried out with real lignin-derived phenolic compounds under the optimal conditions determined for guaiacol, the total yield of hydrocarbons was 62.81%. These hydrocarbons were comprised of cyclohexane, alkyl-substituted cyclohexane and alkyl-substituted benzene. They have high octane number, would be the most desirable components for fungible liquid transportation fuel. PMID:23500562

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over Ni/SiO2-ZrO2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Yu, Yuxiao; Chen, Lungang

    2013-04-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using guaiacol as model compound. SiO2-ZrO2 (SZ), a complex oxide synthesized by precipitation method with different ratio of Si/Zr, was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2·6H2O and calcined at 500°C. Conversion rates and product distribution for guaiacol HDO at 200-340°C were determined. Guaiacol conversion reached the maximum at 300°C in the presence of Ni/SZ-3. When HDO reaction was carried out with real lignin-derived phenolic compounds under the optimal conditions determined for guaiacol, the total yield of hydrocarbons was 62.81%. These hydrocarbons were comprised of cyclohexane, alkyl-substituted cyclohexane and alkyl-substituted benzene. They have high octane number, would be the most desirable components for fungible liquid transportation fuel.

  2. Alkyl rearrangement processes in organozirconium complexes. Observation of internal alkyl complexes during hydrozirconation

    SciTech Connect

    Chirik, P.J.; Day, M.W.; Labinger, J.A.; Bercaw, J.E.

    1999-11-10

    Isotopically labeled alkyl zirconocene complexes of the form (CpR{sub n}){sub 2}Zr(CH{sub 2}CDR{sub 2}{prime})(X) (CpR{sub n} = alkyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl; R{prime} = H, alkyl group; X = H, D, Me) undergo isomerization of the alkyl ligand as well as exchange with free olefin in solution under ambient conditions. Increasing the substitution on the Cp ring results in slower isomerization reactions, but these steric effects are small. In contrast, changing X has a very large effect on the rate of isomerization. Pure {sigma}-bonding ligands such as methyl and hydride promote rapid isomerization, whereas {pi}-donor ligands inhibit {beta}-H elimination and hence alkyl isomerization. For ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Zr(R)(Cl), internal alkyl complexes have been observed for the first time. The rate of isomerization depends on the length of the alkyl group: longer alkyl chains (heptyl, hexyl) isomerize faster than shorter chains (butyl). The transient intermediate species have been identified by a combination of isotopic labeling and {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, and {sup 13}C NMR experiments. The solid-state structure of the zirconocene cyclopentyl chloride complex, Cp{sub 2}Zr(cyclo-C{sub 5}H{sub 9})(Cl), has been determined by X-ray diffraction.

  3. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  4. [Branch-specific detection of phenols and assessment of ground water solubility].

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Kerndorff, H; Kühn, S

    2000-01-01

    are possible. Input of phenols on agricultural lands can be caused by pesticides, sewage sludge or manure. The groundwater downstream of landfills often contains phenol, chlorophenols, cresols, and xylenols. The formation of phenol from other organic contaminants as benzene in groundwater has been reported. The potential for mobilization of phenols in the saturated zone can be estimated from their physical and chemical properties. Especially low molecular weight phenols are easily mobilized due to their high solubility in water and low potential for accumulation. These compounds are: phenol, cresols, xylenols, chlorophenols, hydroxybenzenes, nitrophenols, anisidines, aminophenols, anisol, 2-phenoxyethanol, and thiophenol. The stability of phenols under laboratory conditions varies. The complete mineralization depends mainly on the experimental set-up, i.e. nutrients, temperature, and type of inocula. The anaerobic degradation of phenols is generally slower than the aerobic. Phenol is readily biodegradable under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In general, the biodegradability depends on the type, number and position of substitutes. Phenols with nitro-, alkyl-, or chlorosubstitutes are more recalcitrant than phenol itself. Our biodegradability test show that the decomposition of alkylphenols is determined by the length and branching of the alcyllic chain. Phenols with high contamination potential are chlorophenols, xylenols, and nitrophenols. These compounds are both mobile and recalcitrant in the saturated zone. Phenolic compounds of a medium contamination risk are dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, cresols, and phenol because they are mobile but less stable in groundwater. These compounds are known contaminants in the groundwater at gasworks, landfills, and ammunition factories. Aminophenols, anisidines, tert-butylphenols, ethylphenols, hydroxybenzenes, and 2-phenoxyethanol also constite a potential hazard for groundwater; however, no contaminations with these

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Bromides with a Nitrogen Nucleophile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new class of catalytic reaction: the thermal substitution of a secondary and or tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile. The alkylation of a nitrogen nucleophile with an alkyl halide is a classical method for the construction of C–N bonds, but traditional substitution reactions are challenging to achieve with a secondary and or tertiary alkyl electrophile due to competing elimination reactions. A catalytic process could address this limitation, but thermal, catalytic coupling of alkyl halides with a nitrogen nucleophile and any type of catalytic coupling of an unactivated tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile are unknown. We report the coupling of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides with benzophenone imines to produce protected primary amines in the presence of palladium ligated by the hindered trialkylphosphine Cy2t-BuP. Mechanistic studies indicate that this amination of alkyl halides occurs by a reversible reaction to form a free alkyl radical. PMID:27725963

  6. Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Richard J.

    The topic of this chapter is electrophilic substitution of indole and its derivatives. The indole ring is highly reactive at its 3-position toward protonation, halogenation, alkylation and acylation. Electrophilic substitution can be combined with inter- or intramolecular addition at C-2. Intramolecular alkylation by iminium ions (Pictet-Spengler reaction) is particularly useful. Enantioselectivity can be achieved in many conjugate addition reactions. These reactions have been applied to synthesis of both natural products and drugs.

  7. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives as potential dual cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Gao, Guangwei; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Yun; Zhan, Xiaoping; Liu, Zenglu; Mao, Zhenmin; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wang, Liqun

    2014-10-30

    A series of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives have been synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Some of the target compounds exhibited significant antitumor activity, including compounds 6h and 6k (against K562 cells), 6i (against HeLa cells) and 6j (against A549 cells). N-(p-methoxy-phenyl)-isoindigo (6k) exhibited a high and selective anti-proliferative activity against K562 cells (IC50 7.8 μM) and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 6k arrested the cell cycle at S phase in K562 cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin A and CDK2, which played critical roles in DNA replication and passage through G2 phase. Moreover, compound 6k down-regulated the expression of p-GSK-3β (Ser9), β-catenin and c-myc proteins, up-regulated the expression of GSK-3β, consequently, suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells. The binding mode of compound 6k with GSK-3β was simulated using molecular docking tools. All of these studies gave a better understanding to the molecular mechanisms of this class of agents and clues to develop dual CDK2/GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation inhibitors applied in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25151579

  8. Structure-activity relationships of 1-alkyl-5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 5-[2-[(3-substituted)-1-azetidinyl]ethyl]-2-piperidones. 1. Selective antagonists of the neurokinin-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, A Roderick; Marchington, Allan P; Middleton, Donald S; Newman, Sandra D; Jones, Barry C

    2002-11-21

    The design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of a novel class of neurokinin-2 (NK2) antagonists 1-alkyl-5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-[2-[(3-substituted)-1-azetidinyl]ethyl]-2-piperidones (5-44) are described. These compounds are formally derived from 2 by incorporating the metabolically vulnerable N-methylamide function into a more stable six-membered ring lactam 4, resulting in increased stability in human liver microsome (HLM) preparations relative to 2 (T1/2(HLM) of 30 min vs <10 min for 2). This series was further optimized by replacing the 4,4-disubstituted piperidine functionality found in 4 with simple 3-substituted azetidines. This series, exemplified by 1-benzyl-5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-[2-[3-(4-morpholinyl)-1-azetidinyl]ethyl]-2-piperidone 5, was found to possess excellent functional potency for the NK2 receptor in the Rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) assay (pA2 = 9.3) and increased in vitro metabolic stability (T1/2(HLM) = 70 min) relative to 4. Metabolic route identification studies revealed that N-benzyl oxidation was a major route in this relatively lipophilic lead (log D = 3.2). Further exploration of the N-lactam substituent SAR targeting reduced lipophilicity to attenuate P-450 metabolism revealed that incorporation of a cyclopropylmethyl group in this region of the molecule gave a balance of good potency and high metabolic stability. For example, the significantly less lipophilic analogue 29 (log D = 2.3) possessed both good functional potency (RPA, pA2 = 8.1) and high in vitro metabolic stability (T1/2(HLM) = 120 min). Optimization in this N-cyclopropylmethyllactam series by modification of the nature of the azetidine 3-substituent as a strategy to further increase potency and moderate log D led to the identification of sulfamide analogue 33, which possessed both excellent metabolic stability in vitro (T1/2(HLM) >120 min) and high potency in both RPA (pA2 = 8.9) and human bladder smooth muscle (pK(b) = 8.9) functional assays. In addition, NK2

  9. ESR spectra and kinetics of the disproportionation of substituted phenoxyl radicals. III. Cross-disproportionation in a system containing two phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Roginskii, V.A.; Krasheninnikova, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    An ESR method was used to study the kinetics of radical reactions in systems of an initiator with two phenolic antioxidants. A theoretical analysis yielded formulas for calculating the equilibrium constant of reversible phenol-phenoxyl exchange reactions and the rate constant for the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals. Equilibrium and cross-disproportionation constants were measured for five different binary systems. From the results it was concluded that a connection exists between the cross-disproportionation rate constant and the structure of the phenol (in this case steric factors are most important than the O-H bond strength in the phenol). It is shown that the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals may lead to the generation of a more active antioxidant, as in the case of ionol + a synthetic analog of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, leading to synergistic effects.

  10. Antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates and glycosyl alkyl gallates in fish oil in water emulsions: relevance of their surface active properties and of the type of emulsifier.

    PubMed

    González, María J; Medina, Isabel; Maldonado, Olivia S; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C

    2015-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and a series of alkyl gallates (C4-C18) and glycosylated alkyl gallates (C4-C18) on fish oil-in-water emulsions was studied. Three types of emulsifiers, lecithin, Tween-20 and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were tested. A nonlinear behavior of the antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates when increasing alkyl chain length was observed for emulsions prepared with lecithin. Medium-size alkyl gallates (C6-C12) were the best antioxidants. In contrast, for emulsions prepared with Tween-20, the antioxidants seem to follow the polar paradox. Glucosyl alkyl gallates were shown previously to be better surfactants than alkyl gallates. Nevertheless, they exhibited a worse antioxidant capacity than their corresponding alkyl gallates, in emulsions prepared with lecithin or Tween-20, indicating the greater relevance of having three OH groups at the polar head in comparison with having improved surfactant properties but just a di-ortho phenolic structure in the antioxidant.

  11. Transistor application of alkyl-substituted picene

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hideki; Hamao, Shino; Goto, Hidenori; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Gohda, Shin; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko

    2014-01-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated with a thin film of 3,10-ditetradecylpicene, picene-(C14H29)2, formed using either a thermal deposition or a deposition from solution (solution process). All FETs showed p-channel normally-off characteristics. The field-effect mobility, μ, in a picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FET with PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) gate dielectric reached ~21 cm2 V−1 s−1, which is the highest μ value recorded for organic thin-film FETs; the average μ value (<μ>) evaluated from twelve FET devices was 14(4) cm2 V−1 s−1. The <μ> values for picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FETs with other gate dielectrics such as SiO2, Ta2O5, ZrO2 and HfO2 were greater than 5 cm2 V−1 s−1, and the lowest absolute threshold voltage, |Vth|, (5.2 V) was recorded with a PZT gate dielectric; the average |Vth| for PZT gate dielectric is 7(1) V. The solution-processed picene-(C14H29)2 FET was also fabricated with an SiO2 gate dielectric, yielding μ = 3.4 × 10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1. These results verify the effectiveness of picene-(C14H29)2 for electronics applications. PMID:24854436

  12. Reaction of Lithium Diethylamide with an Alkyl Bromide and Alkyl Benzenesulfonate: Origins of Alkylation, Elimination, and Sulfonation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lekha; Ramírez, Antonio; Collum, David B.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of NMR, kinetic, and computational methods are used to examine reactions of lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with n-dodecyl bromide and n-octyl benzenesulfonate. The alkyl bromide undergoes competitive SN2 substitution and E2 elimination in proportions independent of all concentrations except for a minor medium effect. Rate studies show that both reactions occur via trisolvated-monomer-based transition structures. The alkyl benzenesulfonate undergoes competitive SN2 substitution (minor) and N-sulfonation (major) with N-sulfonation promoted at low THF concentrations. The SN2 substitution is shown to proceed via a disolvated monomer suggested computationally to involve a cyclic transition structure. The dominant N-sulfonation follows a disolvated-dimer-based transition structure suggested computationally to be a bicyclo[3.1.1] form. The differing THF and lithium diethylamide orders for the two reactions explain the observed concentration-dependent chemoselectivities. PMID:21077695

  13. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  14. Headspace-single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the content of alkyl- and methoxy-phenolic compounds in biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Arturo A; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2011-09-15

    The content of ten phenolic compounds present in four different biomass smoke materials: rock rose (Cistus monpelienisis), prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica), pine needles (Pinus canariensis), and almonds skin (Prunus dulcis), have been evaluated. The sampling method mainly consisted of a trap alkaline solution to solubilize the phenols, and was optimized by an experimental design. Average sampling efficiencies of 78.1% and an average precision value of 10.6% (as relative standard deviation, RSD), were obtained for the selected group of phenols. The trapped phenolates were further analyzed by a headspace-single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) procedure, in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The optimum variables for the HS-SDME method were: 1-decanol as extractant solvent, 3.5 μL of microdrop volume, 2 mL of sample volume, a pH value of 2, saturation of NaCl, an extraction temperature of 60°C, and an extraction time of 25 min. The optimized HS-SDME method presented detection limits ranging from 0.35 to 5.8 μg mL(-1), RSD values ranging from 0.7 to 7.4%, and an average relative recovery (RR) of 99.8% and an average standard deviation of 5.2. The average content of phenolic compounds in the biomass materials studied were 70, 161, 206 and 252 mg kg(-1) of biomass for prickly pear, almonds skin, rock rose, and pine needles, respectively. The main components of the smokes were vanillin, phenol and methoxyphenols, in all smoking materials studied.

  15. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high throughput screening assay. 4. Structure-activity relationships of N-alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Drewe, John; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Labreque, Denis; Bubenick, Monica; Attardo, Giorgio; Denis, Real; Lamothe, Serge; Gourdeau, Henriette; Tseng, Ben; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2008-02-14

    In our continuing effort to discover and develop apoptosis inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as novel anticancer agents, we explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions. A methyl group substituted at the nitrogen in the 7-position of the pyrrole ring led to a series of potent apoptosis inducers with potency in the low nanomolar range. These compounds were also found to be low nanomolar or subnanomolar inhibitors of cell growth, and they inhibited tubulin polymerization, indicating that methylation of the 7-position nitrogen does not change the mechanism of action of these chromenes. Compound 2d was identified as a highly potent apoptosis inducer with an EC50 value of 2 nM and a highly potent inhibitor of cell growth with a GI50 value of 0.3 nM in T47D cells.

  16. Antihydrophobic cosolvent effects for alkylation reactions in water solution, particularly oxygen versus carbon alkylations of phenoxide ions.

    PubMed

    Breslow, Ronald; Groves, Kevin; Mayer, M Uljana

    2002-04-10

    Antihydrophobic cosolvents such as ethanol increase the solubility of hydrophobic molecules in water, and they also affect the rates of reactions involving hydrophobic surfaces. In simple reactions of hydrocarbons, such as the Diels-Alder dimerization of 1,3-cyclopentadiene, the rate and solubility data directly reflect the geometry of the transition state, in which some hydrophobic surface becomes hidden. In reactions involving polar groups, such as alkylations of phenoxide ions or S(N)1 ionizations of alkyl halides, cosolvents in water can have other effects as well. However, solvation of hydrophobic surfaces is still important. By the use of structure-reactivity relationships, and comparing the effects of ethanol and DMSO as solvents, it has been possible to sort out these effects. The conclusions are reinforced by an ab initio computer model for hydrophobic solvation. The result is a sensible transition state for phenoxide ion as a nucleophile, using its oxygen n electrons to avoid loss of conjugation. The geometry of alkylation of aniline is very different, involving packing (stacking) of the aniline ring onto the phenyl ring of a benzyl group in the benzylation reaction. The alkylation of phenoxide ions by benzylic chlorides can occur both at the phenoxide oxygen and on ortho and para positions of the ring. Carbon alkylation occurs in water, but not in nonpolar organic solvents, and it is observed only when the phenoxide has at least one methyl substituent ortho, meta, or para. The effects of phenol substituents and of antihydrophobic cosolvents on the rates of the competing alkylation processes indicate that in water the carbon alkylation involves a transition state with hydrophobic packing of the benzyl group onto the phenol ring. The results also support our conclusion that oxygen alkylation uses the n electrons of the phenoxide oxygen as the nucleophile and does not have hydrophobic overlap in the transition state. The mechanisms and explanations for

  17. Indirect electroanalytical detection of phenols.

    PubMed

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2015-05-01

    A novel indirect electrochemical protocol for the electroanalytical detection of phenols is presented for the first time. This methodology is demonstrated with the indirect determination of the target analytes phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through an electrochemically adapted optical protocol. This electrochemical adaptation allows the determination of the above mentioned phenols without the use of any oxidising agents, as is the case in the optical method, where pyrazoline compounds (mediators) chemically react with the target phenols forming a quinoneimine product which is electrochemically active providing an indirect analytical signal to measure the target phenol(s). A range of commercially available pyrazoline substitution products, namely 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, antipyrine, 3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one, 3-amino-1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-Pyrazolin-5-one, 4-amino-1,2-dimethyl-3-pentadecyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride, 3-amino-1-(2-amino-4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-pyrazolin-5-one hydrochloride and 4-aminoantipyrine are evaluated as mediators for the indirect detection of phenols. The indirect electrochemical detection of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol through the use of 4-aminoantipyrine as a mediator are successfully determined in drinking water samples at analytically useful levels. Finally, the comparison of the direct (no mediator) and the proposed indirect determination (with 4-aminoantipyrine) towards the analytical detection of the target phenols in drinking water is presented. The limitation of the proposed electroanalytical protocol is quantified for all the four target phenols.

  18. A Novel synthesis of 2-functionalized benzofurans by palladium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 2-(1-hydroxyprop-2-ynyl)phenols followed by acid-catalyzed allylic isomerization or allylic nucleophilic substitution.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Mancuso, Raffaella; Salerno, Giuseppe

    2008-09-19

    A novel two-step synthesis of 2-hydroxymethylbenzofurans 3 and 2-alkoxymethylbenzofurans 4-6, based on palladium-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 2-(1-hydroxyprop-2-ynyl)phenols 1 under basic conditions to give 2-methylene-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-ols 2, followed by acid-catalyzed isomerization or allylic nucleophilic substitution with alcohols as nucleophiles, is reported. Cycloisomerization reactions leading to 2 (80-98% yields) were carried out at 40 degrees C in MeOH as the solvent, in the presence of a base and catalytic amounts of PdX2 + 2KX (X = Cl, I). Isomerization reactions of 2 readily occurred at 25-60 degrees C in DME as the solvent, with H2SO4 as the proton source, to give 2-hydroxymethylbenzofurans 3 in 65-90% yields. In a similar manner, allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of 2 with ROH as nucleophiles [carried out at 25-40 degrees C in ROH (R = Me) or ROH-DME mixtures (R = Bu, Bn) in the presence of H2SO4] afforded 2-alkoxymethylbenzofurans 4, 5, and 6 (R = Me, Bu, and Bn, respectively), in 65-98% yields.

  19. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroxytyrosol Alkyl-Carbonate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2016-07-22

    Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance. PMID:27337069

  20. Synthesis and antiviral activity of some C2-, C4-, and C6-substituted pyrazolo[3,4-D]pyrimidine acyclonucleosides with the alkylating chains of ACV, HBG, and ISO-DHPG.

    PubMed

    Moukha-Chafiq, Omar; Taha, Mohamed Labd; Lazrek, Hassan Bihi; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Clercq, Erik De

    2006-01-01

    A useful route to obtain trisubstituted pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines 14-17 is described. Those later were coupled with the alkylating agents 18-20 as in ACV, HBG, and iso-DHPG to give, after deprotection, the desired acylonucleosides 33-44. Almost all of the new compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the replication of various DNA viruses in culture.

  1. Decarboxylative Alkyl-Alkyl Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Konev, Mikhail O; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2016-09-12

    Alkyl with alkyl: A significant development in alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions, namely the nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative Negishi coupling of N-hydroxyphthalimide esters, was recently reported by Baran and co-workers. This method enables the synthesis of various highly functionalized compounds, including natural product derivatives.

  2. Synthesis, anti-proliferative and genotoxicity studies of 6-chloro-5-(2-substituted-ethyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones and 6-chloro-5-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(alkyl/ary-2-ylidene)indolin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Meti, Gangadhar Y; Kamble, Atulkumar A; Kamble, Ravindra R; Somagond, Shilpa M; Devarajegowda, H C; Kumari, Sandhya; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish K

    2016-10-01

    A series of 6-chloro-5-(2-substituted-ethyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones (3a-h) and 6-chloro-5-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(alkyl/aryl-2-ylidene)indolin-2-ones (5i-x) were synthesized. Compounds 3a-e, 5i-l and 5q-r were selected by NIH, USA for in vitro anti-proliferative screening. Based on the impressive growth inhibitory (GI %) effect by the compounds 3a-b and 3e which showed growth inhibition in the range 1.22-76.30%, 2.85-76.03% and 10.98-82.05% respectively at 10(-5) concentration, these compounds were further analyzed for anti-proliferative activity at 5 dose concentration and genotoxicity. PMID:27240276

  3. Effect of N-alkyl and N-alkenyl substituents in noroxymorphindole, 17-substituted-6,7-dehydro-4,5alpha-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxy-6,7:2',3'-indolomorphinans, on opioid receptor affinity, selectivity, and efficacy.

    PubMed

    McLamore, S; Ullrich, T; Rothman, R B; Xu, H; Dersch, C; Coop, A; Davis, P; Porreca, F; Jacobson, A E; Rice, K C

    2001-04-26

    The N-alkyl analogues (N-ethyl through N-heptyl), branched N-alkyl chain analogues (N-isopropyl, N-2-methylpropyl, and N-3-methylbutyl), and N-alkenyl analogues ((E)-N-3-methylallyl (crotyl), N-2-methylallyl, and N-3,3-dimethylallyl) were prepared in the noroxymorphindole series (17-substituted-6,7-dehydro-4,5alpha-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxy-6,7:2',3'-indolomorphinans), and the effect of the N-substituent on opioid receptor affinity, selectivity, and efficacy was examined using receptor binding assays, [(35)S]GTPgammaS efficacy determinations, and smooth muscle functional assays (electrically stimulated mouse vas deferens and guinea pig ileum). All of the compounds acted as opioid antagonists, including those with N-substituents which usually confer either weak agonist-antagonist behavior (N-ethyl) or potent opioid agonist activity (N-pentyl) in morphinan-like ligands which interact with the mu-receptor. Several N-substituted noroxymorphindoles were found to be more mu/delta-selective than naltrindole (NTI). The N-2-methylallylnoroxymorphindole, in particular, was found to be more selective than NTI in receptor binding assays (mu/delta = 1700 vs 120; kappa/delta = 810 vs 140), as an antagonist in the GTPgammaS assay (mu/delta = 170 vs 140; kappa/delta = 620 vs 160), and considerably more selective than NTI in the functional assays (mu/delta > 2200 vs 90). It also had high affinity for the delta-opioid receptor (K(i) = 4.7 nM in the binding assay) and high antagonist potency (1.2 nM in the GTPgammaS assay; 8.9 nM in the MVD assay).

  4. Facile C-H alkylation in water: enabling defect-free materials for optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Gunin; Iyer, Parameswar K

    2010-04-16

    A facile method for the alkylation of fluorene achieved via direct C-H alkylation under aqueous conditions is reported, wherein the formation of fluorenone is inhibited, resulting in the exclusive formation of the desired dialkyl-substituted fluorene monomer. As a proof of concept, this method has also been successfully extended to perform N-alkylation of carbazole, diphenylamine, and N,N-dialkylation of aniline in high yields.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan alkyl urea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Ji-Zhou; Chen, Wei; Bai, Zheng-Wu

    2016-07-10

    Chitosan is a versatile material employed for various purposes in many fields including the development of chiral stationary phases for enantioseparation. Chitosan alkyl urea is a kind of intermediate used to prepare enantioseparation materials. In order to synthesize the intermediates, in the present work, a new way to prepare chitosan alkyl urea has been established: chitosan was first reacted with methyl chloroformate yielding N-methoxyformylated chitosan, which was then converted to chitosan alkyl urea through amine-ester exchange reaction. With a large excess of methyl chloroformate and primary amine of low stereohindrance, the amino group in chitosan could be almost completely converted to ureido group. The as-prepared chitosan alkyl urea derivatives were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR,(1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra. The chemical shifts of hydrogen and carbon atoms of glucose unit were assigned. It was found that the degree of substitution was obviously lower if cyclopropyl amine, aniline, tert-butyl amine and diethyl amine were used as reactants for the amine-ester exchange reaction. The reason was explained with the aid of theoretical calculations.

  6. Alkylation reactions of phosphachroman-2,4-diones and 4-hydroxy phosphacoumarins.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueshu; Wang, Yitong; Fu, Hua; Jiang, Yuyang; Zhao, Yufen

    2006-04-01

    Phosphachroman-2,4-dione and 4-alkoxyphosphacoumarin derivatives, phosphonic analogues of chromones and coumarins with potential biological activities, were synthesized in good yields through sequential base-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of O-alkyl-O'-(2'-methoxycarbonyl phenyl)-(substituted) benzyl phosphonates and alkylation. The synthesis sets the stage for an examination of the biological activities. PMID:16524614

  7. Novel template-directed anodic phenol-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Malkowsky, Itamar M; Rommel, Christina E; Fröhlich, Roland; Griesbach, Ulrich; Pütter, Hermann; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2006-09-25

    Substituted phenols were anodically coupled to the corresponding 2,2'-biphenols via tetraphenoxy borate derivatives. This electrochemical method is particularly useful for methyl-substituted substrates, such as 2,4-dimethyl phenol. The selective ortho-coupling reaction can be easily performed on a multikilogram scale. PMID:16874823

  8. Synthesis, central nervous system activity and structure-activity relationships of novel 1-(1-Alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazo)-3-substituted urea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Szacoń, Elżbieta; Rządkowska, Marzena; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kędzierska, Ewa; Fidecka, Sylwia; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    A series of 10 novel urea derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated for their central nervous system activity. Compounds 3a-3h were prepared in the reaction between the respective 1-alkyl-4-aryl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amines 1a and 1b and appropriate benzyl-, phenethyl-isocyanate or ethyl 4-isocyanatobenzoate and ethyl isocyanatoacetate 2 in dichloromethane. Derivatives 4c and 4g resulted from the conversion of 3c and 3g into the respective amides due to action of an aqueous ammonia solution. The results obtained in this study, based on literature data suggest a possible involvement of serotonin system and/or the opioid system in the effects of tested compounds, and especially in the effect of compound 3h. The best activity of compound 3h may be primarily attributed to its favourable ADMET properties, i.e., higher lipophilicity (related to lower polar surface area and greater molecular surface, volume and mass than for other compounds) and good blood-brain permeation. This compound has also the greatest polarizability and ovality. The HOMO and LUMO energies do not seem to be directly related to activity.

  9. Chemoselectivity in the Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Debabrata

    2011-08-01

    An orthogonal set of Cu-catalysts for the selective mono-arylation of alkyl aryl diols using aryl iodides is presented. Picolinic acid ligated copper catalyst provided phenol O-arylation only, while alkyl aryl ethers are generated by ligand-free copper catalyst in the presence of 2 equivalents NaOt-Bu. PMID:21698330

  10. Genetic and Functional Analysis of the tbc Operons for Catabolism of Alkyl- and Chloroaromatic Compounds in Burkholderia sp. Strain JS150

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Malinverni, Juliana C.; Majko, Michelle M.; Kukor, Jerome J.

    2001-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. strain JS150 is able to metabolize a wide range of alkyl-and chloroaromatic hydrocarbons through multiple, apparently redundant catabolic pathways. Previous research has shown that strain JS150 is able to synthesize enzymes for multiple upper pathways as well as multiple lower pathways to accommodate variously substituted catechols that result from degradation of complex mixtures of monoaromatic compounds. We report here the genetic organization and functional characterization of a gene cluster, designated tbc (for toluene, benzene, and chlorobenzene utilization), which has been cloned as a 14.3-kb DNA fragment from strain JS150 into vector pRO1727. The cloned DNA fragment expressed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1c allowed the recombinant to grow on toluene or benzene and to transform chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, phenol, and cresols. The tbc genes are organized into two divergently transcribed operons, tbc1 and tbc2, each comprised of six open reading frames. Similarity searches of databases revealed that the tbc1 and tbc2 genes showed significant homology to multicomponent cresol and phenol hydroxylases and to toluene and benzene monooxygenases, respectively. Deletion mutagenesis and product analysis were used to demonstrate that tbc2 plays a role in the initial catabolism of the unactivated alkyl- or chloroaromatic substrate and that the tbc1 gene products play a role in the catabolism of the first metabolite that results from transformation of the initial substrate. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare individual components of these tbc monooxygenases with similar sequences in the databases. These results provide further evidence for the existence of multiple, functionally redundant alkyl- and chloroaromatic monooxygenases in strain JS150. PMID:11571188

  11. Alkyl hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives that inhibit HIV-1 protease dimerization.

    PubMed

    Flausino, O A; Dufau, L; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Rose, T; Bolzani, V S; Reboud-Ravaux, M

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of gallic acid and its derivatives as anti-cancer, antimicrobial and antiviral agents is well known. We have examined the mechanism by which natural gallic acid and newly synthesized gallic acid alkyl esters and related protocatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibit HIV-1 protease to compare the influence of the aromatic ring substitutions on inhibition. We used Zhang-Poorman's kinetic analysis and fluorescent probe binding to demonstrate that several gallic and protecatechuic acid alkyl esters inhibited HIV-1 protease by preventing the dimerization of this obligate homodimeric aspartic protease rather than targeting the active site. The tri-hydroxy substituted benzoic moiety in gallates was more favorable than the di-substituted one in protocatechuates. In both series, the type of inhibition, its mechanism and the inhibitory efficiency dramatically depended on the length of the alkyl chain: no inhibition with alkyl chains less than 8 carbon atoms long. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborated the kinetic data and propose that gallic esters are intercalated between the two N- and C-monomer ends. They complete the β-sheet and disrupt the dimeric enzyme. The best gallic ester (14 carbon atoms, K(id) of 320 nM) also inhibited the multi-mutated protease MDR-HM. These results will aid the rational design of future generations of non-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 protease dimerization that inhibit multi-mutated proteases. Finally, our work suggests the wide use of gallic and protocatechuic alkyl esters to dissociate intermolecular β-sheets involved in protein-protein interactions.

  12. Ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczak, H.; Materna, K.; Urbanski, R.; Szymanowski, J.

    1999-10-15

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration represents a potentially attractive tool for the removal of different contaminants from wastewaters. The ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenol or 4-nitrophenol was studied. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecylrimethyl ammonium sulfate, alkyl polyglucoside Glucopon 215 SC UP, and oxyethylated methyl dodecanoates with the average degree of oxyethylation equal to 5 and 9 were used as surfactants and NaHCO{sub 3} as an electrolyte and alkalizing agent. Filtration and phenol rejection depends on the presence of NaHCO{sub 3} and the type of surfactant. NaHCO{sub 3} depresses to the filtration rate, especially in the case of SDS and hydrophobic oxyethylated methyl dodecanoate. The highest filtration rates are obtained for hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and alkyl polyglucoside micellar solutions. The best separations, both of phenol and 4-nitrophenol (almost 100% rejection), are obtained for CTAB micellar solutions at the pH range from 3 to 11. Nonionic surfactants are not effective enough for the separation of phenol and 4-nitrophenol. SDS solutions permit only the separation of phenol.

  13. Pervaporation of phenols

    DOEpatents

    Boddeker, Karl W.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous phenolic solutions are separated by pervaporation to yield a phenol-depleted retentate and a phenol-enriched permeate. The separation effect is enhanced by phase segregation into two immiscible phases, "phenol in water" (approximately 10% phenol), and "water in phenol" (approximately 70% phenol). Membranes capable of enriching phenols by pervaporation include elastomeric polymers and anion exchange membranes, membrane selection and process design being guided by pervaporation performance and chemical stability towards phenolic solutions. Single- and multiple-stage procresses are disclosed, both for the enrichment of phenols and for purification of water from phenolic contamination.

  14. Pervaporation of phenols

    DOEpatents

    Boddeker, K.W.

    1989-02-21

    Aqueous phenolic solutions are separated by pervaporation to yield a phenol-depleted retentate and a phenol-enriched permeate. The separation effect is enhanced by phase segregation into two immiscible phases, phenol in water'' (approximately 10% phenol), and water in phenol'' (approximately 70% phenol). Membranes capable of enriching phenols by pervaporation include elastomeric polymers and anion exchange membranes, membrane selection and process design being guided by pervaporation performance and chemical stability towards phenolic solutions. Single- and multiple-stage processes are disclosed, both for the enrichment of phenols and for purification of water from phenolic contamination. 8 figs.

  15. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  16. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  1. Synthesis, docking study and relaxant effect of 2-alkyl and 2-naphthylchromones on rat aorta and guinea-pig trachea through phosphodiesterase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Navarrete, Andrés; González-Andrade, Martín; Alarcón, Carlos; Aguilera-Cruz, Alejandro; Reyes-Ramírez, Adelfo

    2013-10-01

    Chromone (4), which form the base structure of various flavonoids isolated as natural products, is capable of relaxing smooth muscle. This is relevant to the treatment of high blood pressure, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The former disorder involves the contraction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and the latter two bronchoconstriction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). One of the principal mechanisms by which flavonoids relax muscle tissue is the inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), present in both VSM and ASM. Therefore, a study was designed to analyze the structure-activity relationship of chromone derivatives in vaso- and bronchorelaxation through the inhibition of PDE. Docking studies showed that these chromones bind at the catalytic site of PDEs. Consequently, we synthesized analogs of chromones substituted at position C-2 with alkyl and naphthyl groups. These compounds were synthesized from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and acyl chlorides in the presence of DBU and pyridine, modifying the methodology reported for the synthesis of 3-acylchromones by changing the reaction temperature from 80 to 30°C and using methylene chloride as solvent, yielding the corresponding phenolic esters 10a-10h. These compounds were cyclized with an equivalent of DBU, pyridine as solvent, and heated at reflux temperature, yielding the chromones 11a-11h. Evaluation of the vasorelaxant effect of 4, 11a-11h on rat aorta demonstrated that potency decreases with branched alkyl groups. Whereas the EC50 of compound 11d (substituted by an n-hexyl group) was 8.64±0.39 μM, that of 11f (substituted by an isobutyl group) was 14.58±0.64 μM. Contrarily, the effectiveness of the compound is directly proportional to the length of the alkyl chain, as evidenced by the increase in maximal effect of compound 11c versus 11d (66% versus 100%) and 11e versus 11f (60% versus 96%). With an aromatic group like naphthyl as the C-2 substituent, the effectiveness was only 43%. All compounds

  2. N-Alkyl-, 1-C-Alkyl-, and 5-C-Alkyl-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-(L)-ribitols as Galactosidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Front, Sophie; Gallienne, Estelle; Charollais-Thoenig, Julie; Demotz, Stéphane; Martin, Olivier R

    2016-01-01

    A series of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-(l)-ribitol (DIR) derivatives carrying alkyl or functionalized alkyl groups were prepared and investigated as glycosidase inhibitors. These compounds were designed as simplified 4-epi-isofagomine (4-epi-IFG) mimics and were expected to behave as selective inhibitors of β-galactosidases. All compounds were indeed found to be highly selective for β-galactosidases versus α-glycosidases, as they generally did not inhibit coffee bean α-galactosidase or other α-glycosidases. Some compounds were also found to be inhibitors of almond β-glucosidase. The N-alkyl DIR derivatives were only modest inhibitors of bovine β-galactosidase, with IC50 values in the 30-700 μM range. Likewise, imino-L-ribitol substituted at the C1 position was found to be a weak inhibitor of this enzyme. In contrast, alkyl substitution at C5 resulted in enhanced β-galactosidase inhibitory activity by a factor of up to 1000, with at least six carbon atoms in the alkyl substituent. Remarkably, the 'pseudo-anomeric' configuration in this series does not appear to play a role. Human lysosomal β-galactosidase from leukocyte lysate was, however, poorly inhibited by all iminoribitol derivatives tested (IC50 values in the 100 μM range), while 4-epi-IFG was a good inhibitor of this enzyme. Two compounds were evaluated as pharmacological chaperones for a GM1-gangliosidosis cell line (R301Q mutation) and were found to enhance the mutant enzyme activity by factors up to 2.7-fold.

  3. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  4. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  5. Asymmetric Intramolecular Alkylation of Chiral Aromatic Imines via Catalytic C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Watzke, Anja; Wilson, Rebecca; O'Malley, Steven; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2007-04-16

    The asymmetric intramolecular alkylation of chiral aromatic aldimines, in which differentially substituted alkenes are tethered meta to the imine, was investigated. High enantioselectivities were obtained for imines prepared from aminoindane derivatives, which function as directing groups for the rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond activation. Initial demonstration of catalytic asymmetric intramolecular alkylation also was achieved by employing a sterically hindered achiral imine substrate and catalytic amounts of a chiral amine.

  6. Branch-Selective Alkene Hydroarylation by Cooperative Destabilization: Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Crisenza, Giacomo E M; Sokolova, Olga O; Bower, John F

    2015-12-01

    An iridium(I) catalyst system, modified with the wide-bite-angle and electron-deficient bisphosphine d(F) ppb (1,4-bis(di(pentafluorophenyl)phosphino)butane) promotes highly branch-selective hydroarylation reactions between diverse acetanilides and aryl- or alkyl-substituted alkenes. This provides direct and ortho-selective access to synthetically challenging anilines, and addresses long-standing issues associated with related Friedel-Crafts alkylations. PMID:26490739

  7. Microwave-assisted preparation of azachalcones and their N-alkyl derivatives with antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Usta, Asu; Öztürk, Elif; Beriş, Fatih Ş

    2014-01-01

    Two new azachalcones were prepared by both Claisen-Schmidt condensation and a simple environmentally trendy microwave-assisted method. Ten new N-alkyl (C6,8,10,12,14)-substituted azachalconium bromides (3a-e, 4a-e) were prepared from compounds 1 and 2 with corresponding alkyl halides. The antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were tested against Enterococcus faecalis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus micro-organisms. PMID:24571646

  8. Branch-Selective Alkene Hydroarylation by Cooperative Destabilization: Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Alkylation of Acetanilides

    PubMed Central

    Crisenza, Giacomo E M; Sokolova, Olga O; Bower, John F

    2015-01-01

    An iridium(I) catalyst system, modified with the wide-bite-angle and electron-deficient bisphosphine dFppb (1,4-bis(di(pentafluorophenyl)phosphino)butane) promotes highly branch-selective hydroarylation reactions between diverse acetanilides and aryl- or alkyl-substituted alkenes. This provides direct and ortho-selective access to synthetically challenging anilines, and addresses long-standing issues associated with related Friedel–Crafts alkylations. PMID:26490739

  9. Effect of the ortho alkylation of perylene bisimides on the alignment and self-assembly properties.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debarshi; Kendhale, Amol M; Debije, Michael G; Ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Shishmanova, Ivelina K; Portale, Giuseppe; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of the ortho alkylation of perylene bisimides on the alignment and self-assembly properties has been studied. It was found that the dichroic properties of perylene bisimides in a liquid crystal host can be reversed with a single synthetic step by ortho alkylation. Furthermore, a solvent-induced growth of ultralong organic n-type semiconducting fibrils from non-ortho-alkylated perylene bisimide was observed. Ortho substitution of the perylene bisimide core alters the mode of fibrillar growth, leading to isotropic crystallization.

  10. Effect of the Ortho Alkylation of Perylene Bisimides on the Alignment and Self-Assembly Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Debarshi; Kendhale, Amol M; Debije, Michael G; ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Shishmanova, Ivelina K; Portale, Giuseppe; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the ortho alkylation of perylene bisimides on the alignment and self-assembly properties has been studied. It was found that the dichroic properties of perylene bisimides in a liquid crystal host can be reversed with a single synthetic step by ortho alkylation. Furthermore, a solvent-induced growth of ultralong organic n-type semiconducting fibrils from non-ortho-alkylated perylene bisimide was observed. Ortho substitution of the perylene bisimide core alters the mode of fibrillar growth, leading to isotropic crystallization. PMID:25478308

  11. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Alkyl Nitroderivatives of Hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Elena; Palma-Valdés, Rocío; Sarriá, Beatriz; Gallardo, Irene; de la Cruz, José P; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel; Espartero, José L

    2016-01-01

    A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson's disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel compounds has been evaluated using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Oxygen Radical Scavenging Capacity (ORAC) assays compared to that of nitrohydroxytyrosol (NO₂HT) and free HT. New compounds showed variable antioxidant activity depending on the alkyl side chain length; compounds with short chains (2-4 carbon atoms) maintained or even improved the antioxidant activity compared to NO₂HT and/or HT, whereas those with longer side chains (6-8 carbon atoms) showed lower activity than NO₂HT but higher than HT. PMID:27213306

  12. Review of chlorinated phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    The chlorinated phenols are a group of 19 isomers composed of phenol with substituted chlorines. These chemicals are readily soluble in organic solvents but only slightly soluble in water, except for the chlorophenate salts. Chlorophenols with less than 3 chlorines are not used extensively except in the production of higher chlorophenols and chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides. Pentachlorophenol and some tetrachlorophenols are used worldwide, primarily as wood preservatives or fungicides. Residues of chlorophenols have been found worldwide in soil, water and air samples, in food products, and in human and animal tissues and body fluids. Environmental contamination with these chemicals occurs from industrial effluents, agricultural runoff, breakdown of chlorophenyloxyacetic acid herbicides and hexachlorobenzene, and from spontaneous formation following chlorination of water for disinfection and deodorization. The acute toxicity of these chemicals is relatively low and little is known concerning their chronic effects. Chlorophenols have not been shown conclusively to be mutagens, teratogens or carcinogens. However, these compounds may act as promotors or cocarcinogens and the immune system is particularly sensitive to their toxic effects. Transplacental exposure to chlorophenols may result in embryotoxicity and abortion. The major mode of toxic action is as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The toxicity of chlorophenols decreases with decreasing chlorination. These chemicals are mild hepatotoxins and are stored mainly in hepatic and renal tissues.

  13. Investigating Hydrogen Bonding in Phenol Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedor, Anna M.; Toda, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen bonding of phenol can be used as an introductory model for biological systems because of its structural similarities to tyrosine, a para-substituted phenol that is an amino acid essential to the synthesis of proteins. Phenol is able to form hydrogen bonds readily in solution, which makes it a suitable model for biological…

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongkang; Morandi, Garrett D; Brown, R Stephen; Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and logKow values provided a rough estimation of structure-activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete explanation of the chronic toxicity of alkyl PAHs.

  15. Phenolic content variability and its chromosome location in tritordeum

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Lopez, José F.; Ostos-Garrido, Francisco J.; Castillo, Almudena; Martín, Antonio; Gimenez, Maria J.; Pistón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolics content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was used for extraction of the free, conjugates and bound phenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by RP-HPLC and the results were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. This is the first study that describes the composition of phenolic acids of the amphiploid tritordeum. As in wheat, the predominant phenolic compound is ferulic acid. In tritordeum there is great variability for the content of phenolic compounds and the main factor which determines its content is the genotype followed by the environment, in this case included in the year factor. Phenolic acid content is associated with the substitution of chromosome DS1D(1Hch) and DS2D(2Hch), and the translocation 1RS/1BL in tritordeum. The results show that there is high potential for further improving the quality and quantity of phenolics in tritordeum because this amphiploid shows high variability for the content of phenolic compounds. PMID:24523725

  16. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride

  17. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation with Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Jiang, Hui; Mao, Jianyou; Bellomo, Ana; Jeong, Soo A; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-01-18

    Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions are among the most efficient methods to construct C-C bonds between sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In contrast, much less work has been done with nickel catalysts, perhaps because of the different mechanisms of the allylic substitution reactions. Palladium catalysts generally undergo substitution by a "soft"-nucleophile pathway, wherein the nucleophile attacks the allyl group externally. Nickel catalysts are usually paired with "hard" nucleophiles, which attack the metal before C-C bond formation. Introduced herein is a rare nickel-based catalyst which promotes substitution with diarylmethane pronucleophiles by the soft-nucleophile pathway. Preliminary studies on the asymmetric allylic alkylation are promising.

  18. Domino cyclization-alkylation protocol for the synthesis of 2,3-functionalized indoles from o-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Murugan, Vinod K; Pullarkat, Sumod A

    2012-05-21

    A practical and efficient protocol for the one-pot synthesis of 2,3-substituted indoles was developed via a palladacycle catalyzed domino cyclization-alkylation reaction involving 2-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols under mild conditions without any additives.

  19. Synthesis, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of new 1-alkyl-4-(1-alkyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-2-yl)pyridinium bromides.

    PubMed

    Kahriman, Nuran; Yaylı, Büşra; Aktaş, Ayça; Iskefiyeli, Zeynep; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Yaylı, Nurettin

    2013-11-01

    New 1-alkyl-4-(1-alkyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-2-yl)pyridinium bromides (3a-k) were synthesized from 1,4'-diazaflavone [2-pyridin-4-ylquinolin-4(1H)-one] and evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. A rapid one-pot preparation of 1,4'-diazaflavone (2) was done from 2'-amino substituted chalcone (1) by intramolecular Michael addition using solvent-free microwave heating. New N,N'-dialkyl substituted (C₅-C₁₅) 1,4'-diazaflavonium bromides were synthesized from compound 2 with corresponding alkyl halides. Compounds 3a-k were active against six bacteria (MIC: 7.8-500.0 μg/mL). They also showed good antioxidant activities in DPPH scavenging (SC₅₀: 45-133 μg/mL) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (14-141 μM TEAC) tests. The biological activities decreased as alkyl chain length increased. The reason behind the obvious negative effect of alkyl chain elongation is unclear and requires investigations about the intermolecular interactions of these pyridinium salts with bioassay components.

  20. Alkylation of pyridines at their 4-positions with styrenes plus yttrium reagent or benzyl Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Tomoya; Hata, Takeshi; Urabe, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A new regioselective alkylation of pyridines at their 4-position was achieved with styrenes in the presence of yttrium trichloride, BuLi, and diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL-H) in THF. Alternatively, similar products were more simply prepared from pyridines and benzyl Grignard reagents. These reactions are not only a useful preparation of 4-substituted pyridines but are also complementary to other relevant reactions usually giving 2-substituted pyridines.

  1. Alkylation of pyridines at their 4-positions with styrenes plus yttrium reagent or benzyl Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Mizumori, Tomoya; Hata, Takeshi; Urabe, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    A new regioselective alkylation of pyridines at their 4-position was achieved with styrenes in the presence of yttrium trichloride, BuLi, and diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL-H) in THF. Alternatively, similar products were more simply prepared from pyridines and benzyl Grignard reagents. These reactions are not only a useful preparation of 4-substituted pyridines but are also complementary to other relevant reactions usually giving 2-substituted pyridines. PMID:25352343

  2. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-12-31

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group.

  3. Turnover capacity of coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    PubMed

    Aitken; Heck

    1998-05-01

    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity (defined as the molar or mass concentration of substrate oxidized per unit concentration of enzyme inactivated) of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude (absolute values on the order of 10(5)-10(6) on a molar basis), depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r2 = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical sigma values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal. In the latter case we conclude that inactivation of CIP during the oxidation of hydroxy- and amino-substituted phenols occurs by a different mechanism than that of the other phenolic substrates.

  4. Salt-free catanionic surface active ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate: aggregation behavior in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingjing; Han, Bing; Lin, Meijia; Cheng, Ni; Yu, Li; Liu, Min

    2013-12-15

    A series of salt-free catanionic surface active ionic liquids (SAILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolim alkyl sulfates (denoted as [Cnmim][CmSO4], n=6, 8, 10; m=12 and n=4; m=10, 14) were synthesized by an ion exchange reaction and their surface properties in aqueous solution were examined systematically by surface tension, fluorescence and electrical conductivity measurements. As catanionic surfactants, these SAILs exhibit notably higher surface activity, compared to the cationic or anionic analogues. Increment in both cationic and anionic alkyl chain lengths for [Cnmim][CmSO4] can both improve the amphiphilic character remarkably. This can be ascribed to cooperative interactions as formation of catanionic pairs between alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations and alkyl sulfate anions. The negative micellization Gibbs free energy values prove that the micellization of all the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolim alkyl sulfates investigated is a spontaneous process. Any additional CH2 group makes the micellization process easier regardless if it is on a cation or an anion. When keeping the total carbon atom number constant, we find that the [Cnmim][CmSO4] molecules with greater asymmetric alkyl chains display superior surface activity. This work indicates that the self-assembly of these imidazolium-based salt-free catanionic SAILs can be tailored by adjusting the mismatch of alkyl chains. These SAILs are expected to have potential applications in the fields of colloidal and interface and nanomaterial synthesis.

  5. Alkyl substituent effects on gas-phase acidities - The influence of hybridization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauman, J. I.; Blair, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Exploration of the effect on acidity of alkyl groups bonded to trigonal and digonal carbon. Some results on the relative acidities of toluene and p-xylene, and acetylene and substitute acetylenes, as determined by ion cyclotron resonance (icr) spectroscopy, are described. Some limitations of the CNDO/2 calculation method are discussed.

  6. Pd-catalyzed cascade allylic alkylation and dearomatization reactions of indoles with vinyloxirane.

    PubMed

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-09-14

    We have developed Pd-catalyzed intermolecular Friedel-Crafts-type allylic alkylation and allylic dearomatization reactions of substituted indoles bearing a nucleophilic group with vinyloxirane, providing an efficient method to synthesize structurally diverse tetrahydrocarboline and spiroindolenine derivatives under mild conditions. PMID:27511802

  7. Direct C-H alkylation and indole formation of anilines with diazo compounds under rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Choi, Miji; Jo, Hyeim; Oh, Yongguk; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, In Su

    2015-12-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct functionalization of aniline C-H bonds with α-diazo compounds is described. These transformations provide a facile construction of ortho-alkylated anilines with diazo malonates or highly substituted indoles with diazo acetoacetates.

  8. Removal of phenols from wastewater by soluble and immobilized tyrosinase

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Tatsumi, Kenji )

    1993-09-20

    An enzymatic method for removal of phenols from industrial wastewater was investigated. Phenols in an aqueous solution were removed after treatment with mushroom tyrosinase. The reduction order of substituted phenols is catechol > p-cresol > p-chlorophenol > phenol > p-methoxyphenol. In the treatment of tyrosinase alone, no precipitate was formed but a color change from colorless to dark-brown was observed. The colored products were removed by chitin and chitosan which are available abundantly as shellfish waste. In addition, the reduction rate of phenols was observed to be accelerated in the presence of chitosan. Tyrosinase, immobilized by using amino groups in the enzyme on cation exchange resins, can be used repeatedly. By treatment with immobilized tyrosinase, 100% of phenol was removed after 2 h, and the activity was reduced very little even after 10 repeat treatments.

  9. One-pot synthesis of 4'-alkyl-4-cyanobiaryls on the basis of the terephthalonitrile dianion and neutral aromatic nitrile cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Peshkov, Roman Yu; Panteleeva, Elena V; Chunyan, Wang; Tretyakov, Evgeny V; Shteingarts, Vitalij D

    2016-01-01

    A convenient one-pot approach to alkylcyanobiaryls is described. The method is based on biaryl cross-coupling between the sodium salt of the terephthalonitrile dianion and a neutral aromatic nitrile in liquid ammonia, and successive alkylation of the long-lived anionic intermediate with alkyl bromides. The reaction is compatible with benzonitriles that contain methyl, methoxy and phenyl groups, fluorine atoms, and a 1-cyanonaphthalene residue. The variety of ω-substituted alkyl bromides, including an extra bromine atom, a double bond, cyano and ester groups, as well as a 1,3-dioxane fragment are suitable as alkylation reagents. PMID:27559409

  10. One-pot synthesis of 4′-alkyl-4-cyanobiaryls on the basis of the terephthalonitrile dianion and neutral aromatic nitrile cross-coupling

    PubMed Central

    Peshkov, Roman Yu; Chunyan, Wang; Tretyakov, Evgeny V; Shteingarts, Vitalij D

    2016-01-01

    Summary A convenient one-pot approach to alkylcyanobiaryls is described. The method is based on biaryl cross-coupling between the sodium salt of the terephthalonitrile dianion and a neutral aromatic nitrile in liquid ammonia, and successive alkylation of the long-lived anionic intermediate with alkyl bromides. The reaction is compatible with benzonitriles that contain methyl, methoxy and phenyl groups, fluorine atoms, and a 1-cyanonaphthalene residue. The variety of ω-substituted alkyl bromides, including an extra bromine atom, a double bond, cyano and ester groups, as well as a 1,3-dioxane fragment are suitable as alkylation reagents. PMID:27559409

  11. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    PubMed

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  16. Visible-light-promoted iminyl radical formation from vinyl azides: synthesis of 6-(fluoro)alkylated phenanthridines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyang; Yu, Shouyun

    2016-09-18

    An efficient strategy assisted by visible-light-promoted iminyl radical formation has been developed for the synthesis of 6-(fluoro)alkylated phenanthridine derivatives. In the reactions, addition of alkyl and trifluoromethyl radicals onto vinyl azides gives iminyl radicals, which then undergo intramolecular homolytic aromatic substitution leading to phenanthridines. These reactions can be carried out under mild conditions with high chemical yields and broad substrate scope. PMID:27530901

  17. Oil compositions containing alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivatives of copolymers of an alpha olefin or an alkyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.T.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes an oil composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil selected from a crude oil or fuel oil and a minor amount of an alkyl amine or alkyl mercaptan derivative of an alpha olefin or alkyl vinyl ether and an unsaturated alpha, beta-dicarboxylic compound copolymer having pour point depressant ;properties. The copolymer comprising the reaction product of an alpha olefin having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or mixtures of alpha olefins having from about 2 to about 30 carbon atoms or an alkyl vinyl ether or mixture of alkyl vinyl ethers.

  18. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  19. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-03-24

    A process is described for stripping uranium from a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant to and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate, nonsaturated in uranium. The uranium is stripped from, the organic extractant into the stripping solution, and the resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle.

  20. Environmental fate of phenolic endocrine disruptors: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Giger, Walter; Gabriel, Frédéric L P; Jonkers, Niels; Wettstein, Felix E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2009-10-13

    Alkylphenolic compounds derived from microbial degradation of non-ionic surfactants became a major focus of environmental research in the early 1980s. More toxic than the parent compounds and weakly oestrogenic, certain metabolites of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) surfactants, especially nonylphenol (NP), raised sustained concern over the risk they pose to the environment and triggered legal measures as well as partly voluntary actions by the manufacturing industry. Continuous progress in the development of analytical techniques is crucial to understand how these alkylphenolic compounds behave in wastewater treatment, the aquatic environment and in laboratory experiments. Measured concentrations and mass flows of phenolic endocrine disruptors, particularly nonylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A and parabens in municipal wastewater effluents and in the Glatt River, Switzerland, show that rain events leading to discharges of untreated wastewater into rivers have a great impact on the riverine mass flows of contaminants. Biotransformation experiments in our laboratory with nonylphenoxyacetic acid and individual NP isomers enabled the elucidation of degradation pathways of these compounds. The finding that nonylphenoxyacetic acid is metabolized via NP further underscores the role of NP as the most relevant metabolite in the degradation of NPnEO. Several Sphingomonadaceae bacterial strains were found to degrade alpha-quaternary 4-NP isomers by an ipso-substitution mechanism, and to use only the aromatic part of the molecule. These reactions turned out to be isomer specific, meaning that rate and extent of transformation depend on constitution, and possibly also on the absolute configuration of the alkyl side chain of a specific isomer. The observation that NP isomers with distinct oestrogenic activities are differentially degraded has significant implications for risk assessment.

  1. Environmental fate of phenolic endocrine disruptors: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Giger, Walter; Gabriel, Frédéric L P; Jonkers, Niels; Wettstein, Felix E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2009-10-13

    Alkylphenolic compounds derived from microbial degradation of non-ionic surfactants became a major focus of environmental research in the early 1980s. More toxic than the parent compounds and weakly oestrogenic, certain metabolites of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) surfactants, especially nonylphenol (NP), raised sustained concern over the risk they pose to the environment and triggered legal measures as well as partly voluntary actions by the manufacturing industry. Continuous progress in the development of analytical techniques is crucial to understand how these alkylphenolic compounds behave in wastewater treatment, the aquatic environment and in laboratory experiments. Measured concentrations and mass flows of phenolic endocrine disruptors, particularly nonylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A and parabens in municipal wastewater effluents and in the Glatt River, Switzerland, show that rain events leading to discharges of untreated wastewater into rivers have a great impact on the riverine mass flows of contaminants. Biotransformation experiments in our laboratory with nonylphenoxyacetic acid and individual NP isomers enabled the elucidation of degradation pathways of these compounds. The finding that nonylphenoxyacetic acid is metabolized via NP further underscores the role of NP as the most relevant metabolite in the degradation of NPnEO. Several Sphingomonadaceae bacterial strains were found to degrade alpha-quaternary 4-NP isomers by an ipso-substitution mechanism, and to use only the aromatic part of the molecule. These reactions turned out to be isomer specific, meaning that rate and extent of transformation depend on constitution, and possibly also on the absolute configuration of the alkyl side chain of a specific isomer. The observation that NP isomers with distinct oestrogenic activities are differentially degraded has significant implications for risk assessment. PMID:19736229

  2. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  3. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective allylic substitution with alkylboranes.

    PubMed

    Shido, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Mika; Tanabe, Masahito; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2012-11-14

    The first catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution reaction with alkylboron compounds has been achieved. The reaction between alkyl-9-BBN reagents and primary allylic chlorides proceeded with excellent γ-selectivities and high enantioselectivities under catalysis of a Cu(I)-DTBM-SEGPHOS system. The protocol produces terminal alkenes with an allylic stereogenic center branched with functionalized sp(3)-alkyl groups. The reaction with a γ-silicon-substituted allyl chloride affords an efficient strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of functionalized α-stereogenic chiral allylsilanes. PMID:23106350

  4. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-12-04

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  5. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2004-08-10

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  6. Wettability of pristine and alkyl-functionalized graphane.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka

    2012-07-21

    Graphane is a hydrogenated form of graphene with high bandgap and planar structure insensitive to a broad range of chemical substitutions. We describe an atomistic simulation approach to predict wetting properties of this new material. We determine the contact angle to be 73°. The lower hydrophobicity compared to graphene is explained by the increased planar density of carbon atoms while we demonstrate that the presence of partial charges on carbon and hydrogen atoms plays only a minor role. We further examine the effects of graphane functionalization by alkyl groups of increasing chain lengths. The gradual increase in contact angle with chain length offers a precise control of surface wettability. A saturated contact angle of 114° is reached in butylated form. We find the saturation of contact angle with respect to the length of the functional groups to coincide with the loss of water's ability to penetrate the n-alkyl molecular brush and interact with carbon atoms of the underlying lattice. Since no experimental data have yet become available, our modeling results provide the first estimate of the wettability of graphane. The results also show how its alkyl functionalization provides the basis for a variety of chemical modifications to tune hydrophilicity while preserving the planar geometry of the substrate. PMID:22830724

  7. Wettability of pristine and alkyl-functionalized graphane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka

    2012-07-01

    Graphane is a hydrogenated form of graphene with high bandgap and planar structure insensitive to a broad range of chemical substitutions. We describe an atomistic simulation approach to predict wetting properties of this new material. We determine the contact angle to be 73°. The lower hydrophobicity compared to graphene is explained by the increased planar density of carbon atoms while we demonstrate that the presence of partial charges on carbon and hydrogen atoms plays only a minor role. We further examine the effects of graphane functionalization by alkyl groups of increasing chain lengths. The gradual increase in contact angle with chain length offers a precise control of surface wettability. A saturated contact angle of 114° is reached in butylated form. We find the saturation of contact angle with respect to the length of the functional groups to coincide with the loss of water's ability to penetrate the n-alkyl molecular brush and interact with carbon atoms of the underlying lattice. Since no experimental data have yet become available, our modeling results provide the first estimate of the wettability of graphane. The results also show how its alkyl functionalization provides the basis for a variety of chemical modifications to tune hydrophilicity while preserving the planar geometry of the substrate.

  8. Methods of making alkyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  9. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  10. Water extracts of tree Hypericum sps. protect DNA from oxidative and alkylating damage and enhance DNA repair in colon cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alice A; Marques, Filipe; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Diet may induce colon carcinogenesis through oxidative or alkylating DNA damage. However, diet may also contain anticarcinogenic compounds that contribute to cancer prevention. DNA damage prevention and/or induction of repair are two important mechanisms involved in cancer chemoprevention by dietary compounds. Hypericum sps. are widely used in traditional medicine to prepare infusions due to their beneficial digestive and neurologic effects. In this study, we investigated the potential of water extracts from three Hypericum sps. and some of their main phenolic compounds to prevent and repair oxidative and alkylating DNA damage in colon cells. The results showed that water extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum androsaemum, Hypericum undulatum, quercetin and rutin have protective effect against oxidative DNA damage in HT29 cells. Protective effect was also observed against alkylating DNA damage induced by methyl-methanesulfonate, except for H. androsaemum. With regard to alkylating damage repair H. perforatum, H. androsaemum and chlorogenic acid increased repair of alkylating DNA damage by base excision repair pathway. No effect was observed on nucleotide excision repair pathway. Antigenotoxic effects of Hypericum sps. may contribute to colon cancer prevention and the high amount of phenolic compounds present in Hypericum sps. play an important role in DNA protective effects.

  11. Formal Direct Cross-Coupling of Phenols with Amines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengwang; Zeng, Huiying; Girard, Simon A; Wang, Feng; Chen, Ning; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-11-23

    The transition-metal-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has been the most powerful method for the formation of aryl amines over the past decades. Phenols are regarded as ideal alternatives to aryl halides as coupling partners in cross-couplings. An efficient palladium-catalyzed formal cross-coupling of phenols with various amines and anilines has now been developed. A variety of substituted phenols were compatible with the standard reaction conditions. Secondary and tertiary aryl amines could thus be synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:26531683

  12. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  13. Carboxy, carboalkoxy and carbamile substituted isonitrile radionuclide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Kronauge, James; Abrams, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A coordination complex comprising a radionuclide selected from the class consisting of radioactive isotopes of Tc, Ru, Co, Pt and Re and an isonitrile ligand of the formula: (CNX)R, where X is a lower alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of COOR.sup.1 and CONR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.1 can be H, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms. R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 can be H, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 can be the same of different is disclosed. Kits that can be used to form these complexes are also disclosed.

  14. Carboxy, carboalkoxy and carbamile substituted isonitrile radionuclide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Davison, Alan; Kronauge, James; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-04-05

    A coordination complex comprising a radionuclide selected from the class consisting of radioactive isotopes of Tc, Ru, Co, Pt and Re and an isonitrile ligand of the formula: (CNX)R, where X is a lower alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, wherein R is selected from the group consisting of COOR.sup.1 and CONR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.1 can be H, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 can be H, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 can be the same or different is disclosed. Kits that can be used to form these complexes are also disclosed.

  15. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis.

  16. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis. PMID:23865460

  17. Organocatalytic methods for chemoselective O-tert-butoxycarbonylation of phenols and their regeneration from the O-t-Boc derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chankeshwara, Sunay V; Chebolu, Rajesh; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2008-11-01

    Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4) catalyzes O-tert-butoxycarbonylation of functionalized phenols without any side reactions (bromination, addition of CBr3 to a double bond, and formation of symmetrical diaryl carbonates, cyclic carbonates, or carbonic-carbonic anhydrides). The parent phenols are regenerated from the O-t-Boc derivatives by the catalyst system CBr4-PPh3 without affecting other protecting groups (aryl alkyl ether, alkyl ester, and thioacetal) or competitive side reaction such as bromination, nitrene (from NO2) and alpha,alpha-dibromoolefine (with CHO/COMe) formation, and transesterification (with CO2Me/Et) taking place.

  18. Properties of alkyl hydroxycinnamates and effects on Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, J D; Nagel, C W

    1983-01-01

    Alkyl esters of six hydroxycinnamic acids, shown to be active antimicrobial agents when tested against Pseudomonas fluorescens, were further investigated for their effects against this organism. There was no statistically significant adaptation by this organism to either of the methyl esters of caffeic, rho-coumaric, cinnamic, or rho-hydroxybenzoic acids. Mixtures of these compounds taken two at a time gave at least additive effects, with some mixtures showing synergism. Preliminary work was also performed to determine the mode of inhibitory action for these compounds. The inhibition of oxygen utilization by the methyl esters correlated well with growth inhibition. Short-term lethality studies showed that none of the alkyl esters or methyl or propyl paraben produced any bacteriocidal effects. Oil-water partition coefficients were determined for these compounds and were shown to have no correlation with growth inhibitions. These all point to a specific mode of action, based in part on cellular energy depletion, rather than the nonspecific membrane-disrupting effects of other phenolic antimicrobial agents. PMID:6401979

  19. Alkenyl substituted bicyclic nucleoside analogues retain nanomolar potency against Varicella Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Christopher; Bidet, Olivier; Derudas, Marco; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Balzarini, Jan

    2009-04-15

    Novel alkenyl substituted aryl bicyclic furano pyrimidines have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). The para-substituted analogues retain the nanomolar potency we have reported for p-alkyl analogues, while the ortho- and meta-alkenyl systems lose 3-4 orders of potency. PMID:19328697

  20. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  1. Sensory Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  2. Hemoglobin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Anbari, Kevin K; Garino, Jonathan P; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2004-10-01

    Orthopaedic patients frequently require blood transfusions to treat peri-operative anemia. Research in the area of hemoglobin substitutes has been of great interest since it holds the promise of reducing the reliance on allogeneic blood transfusions. The three categories of hemoglobin substitutes are (1) cell-free, extracellular hemoglobin preparations made from human or bovine hemoglobin (hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers or HBOCs); (2) fluorine-substituted linear or cyclic carbon chains with a high oxygen-carrying capacity (perfluorocarbons); and (3) liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. Of the three, HBOCs have been the most extensively studied and tested in preclinical and clinical trials that have shown success in diminishing the number of blood transfusions as well as an overall favorable side-effect profile. This has been demonstrated in vascular, cardiothoracic, and orthopaedic patients. HBOC-201, which is a preparation of cell-free bovine hemoglobin, has been approved for clinical use in South Africa. These products may well become an important tool for physicians treating peri-operative anemia in orthopaedic patients.

  3. How Does the Ionic Liquid Organizational Landscape Change when Nonpolar Cationic Alkyl Groups Are Replaced by Polar Isoelectronic Diethers?

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Hemant K.; Santos, Cherry S.; Daly, Ryan P.; Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Shirota, Hideaki; Edward W. Castner Jr.; Margulis, Claudio J.

    2012-12-21

    The X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the structure of four room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) comprising the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (NTf2) anion paired with the triethyloctylammonium (N2228+) and triethyloctylphosphonium (P2228+) cations and their isoelectronic diether analogs, the (2-ethoxyethoxy)ethyltriethylammonium (N222(2O2O2)+) and (2-ethoxyethoxy)ethyltriethylphosphonium (P222(2O2O2)+) cations. Agreement between simulations and experiments is good and permits a clear interpretation of the important topological differences between these systems. The first sharp diffraction peak (or prepeak) in the structure function S(q) that is present in the case of the liquids containing the alkyl-substituted cations is absent in the case of the diether substituted analogs. Using different theoretical partitioning schemes for the X-ray structure function, we show that the prepeak present in the alkyl-substituted ILs arises from polarity alternations between charged groups and nonpolar alkyl tails. In the case of the diether substituted ILs, we find considerable curling of tails. Anions can be found with high probability in two different environments: close to the cationic nitrogen (phosphorus) and also close to the two ether groups. Moreover, for the two diether systems, anions are found in locations from which they are excluded in the alkyl-substituted systems. This removes the longer range (polar/nonpolar) pattern of alternation that gives rise to the prepeak in alkyl-substituted systems.

  4. Mechanistic insights into nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decades the transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides has significantly progressed. Within the context of alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling, first row transition metals spanning from iron, over cobalt, nickel, to copper have been successfully applied to catalyze this difficult reaction. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still in its infancy. Herein we outline our latest mechanistic studies that explain the efficiency of nickel, in particular nickamine-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions.

  5. Supercritical water oxidation kinetics and pathways for ethylphenols, hydroxyacetophenones, and other monosubstituted phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.J.; Savage, P.E.

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined the decomposition of o-, m-, and p-ethylephenol and o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenone in dilute aqueous solutions at 460 C and 25.3 MPa, both in the presence and absence of added oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, the ethylphenols produced vinylphenols as the major product and the hydroxyacetophenones produced phenol, benzendiols, and hydroxybenzaldehydes. In the presence of oxygen, ethylphenols and hydroxyacetophenones reacted through two major parallel paths and one minor path. The major primary paths for ethylphenols were to vinylphenols and to ring-opening products and ultimately CO{sub 2}. The minor path was to phenol. For hydroxyacetophenones, the major primary paths were to phenol and to ring-opening products and ultimately CO{sub 2}. The minor path was to hydroxybenzaldehydes. The relative rates of these parallel paths were sensitive to the location of the substituent. Although reactions did occur in the absence of oxygen, the disappearance rates were much slower than those observed during oxidation. Power-law global rate expressions were developed for reactant disappearance during oxidation. These rate laws were used along with rate laws previously reported for other monosubstituted phenols to examine the relative oxidation rates for different phenols. All of the substituted phenols oxidized more quickly than phenol itself. The oxidation rates for the substituted phenols were functions of both the identity and location of the substituent. For a given substituent, the reactivity was always in the order ortho > para > meta for all of the substituted phenols examined.

  6. Occupational asthma due to alkyl cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, T. )

    1990-08-01

    A case of bronchial asthma induced by occupational exposure to alkyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive, occurred in an assembly operation. Provocative exposure testing induced immediate and delayed asthmatic responses. Alkyl cyanoacrylate seemed to act as an allergen or as an irritant, resulting in the development of asthma.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721.9892 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9892 Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10108 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, hydrozy-[[[(hydroxyl-disulfo-naphthaleneyl)azo]-alkyl(C=1-5...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, metal salt (PMN P-04-498) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...- -alkyl(C=1-5)-(sulfoalkoxy)cyclic]azo]-substituted azo-, metal salt (generic). 721.10108 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  9. C-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Obora, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    The development of practical, efficient, and atom-economical methods for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds remains a topic of considerable interest in current synthetic organic chemistry. In this review, we have summarized selected topics from the recent literature with particular emphasis on C-alkylation processes involving hydrogen transfer using alcohols as alkylation reagents. This review includes selected highlights concerning recent progress towards the modification of catalytic systems for the α-alkylation of ketones, nitriles, and esters. Furthermore, we have devoted a significant portion of this review to the methylation of ketones, alcohols, and indoles using methanol. Lastly, we have also documented recent advances in β-alkylation methods involving the dimerization of alcohols (Guerbet reaction), as well as new developments in C-alkylation methods based on sp (3) C-H activation. PMID:27573136

  10. Sulfonic acid resin-catalyzed addition of phenols, carboxylic acids, and water to olefins: Model reactions for catalytic upgrading of bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qing-Wen; Yang, Xu-Lai; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Pittman, Charles U

    2010-05-01

    Acid-catalyzed 1-octene reactions with phenol and mixtures of phenol with water, acetic acid and 1-butanol were studied as partial bio-oil upgrading models. Bio-oil from fast biomass pyrolysis has poor fuel properties due to the presence of substantial amounts of water, carboxylic acid, phenolic derivatives and other hydroxyl-containing compounds. Additions across olefins offer a route to simultaneously lower water content and acidity while increasing hydrophobicity, stability and heating value. Amberlyst15, Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 effectively catalyzed phenol O- and C-alkylation from 65 to 120 degrees C, giving high O-alkylation selectivities in the presence of water, acetic acid and 1-butanol. Octanols and dioctyl ethers were formed from water and octyl acetates and phenol acetates from acetic acid. Phenol alkylation slowed in the presence of water. Dowex50WX2 and Dowex50WX4 were more stable in the presence of water than Amberlyst15 and were successfully recycled. Adding 1-butanol to phenol/water/1-octene, gave emulsion-like mixtures which improved phenol conversion and olefin hydration.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  16. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  17. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  18. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  19. Catalytic generation of vinylthionium ions. (4 + 3)-Cycloadditions and Friedel-Crafts alkylations.

    PubMed

    Topinka, Michael; Tata, Rama Rao; Harmata, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A 3-phenylsulfanyl-substituted allylic alcohol and an ester thereof were treated with Brønsted acids or a gold catalyst, respectively, to generate vinylthionium ions. These species react with dienes, primarily substituted furans, to give products of either (4 + 3)-cycloaddition or Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The results are rationalized on the basis of a stepwise mechanism in which the relative rates of ring closure versus proton loss in the intermediate σ-complex determine the course of the reaction. PMID:25110818

  20. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  1. Soluble, semivolatile phenol and nitrogen compounds in milk-processing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, V; Cruickshank, A; Wild, K; Heaven, M W; McGee, R; Watkins, M; Nash, D

    2009-07-01

    Potable water is an essential and major input in processing our food supplies, and the continued growth in food manufacturing is placing increased pressure on this limited resource. Recycling and reuse of factory wastewater can lessen potable water use but requires a detailed understanding of wastewater properties. This study uses solid-phase extraction techniques with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to investigate trace-level semivolatile organic species in various waste and reference waters associated with the Burra Foods milk-processing plant located in Southeastern Australia. Our focus was on contaminants containing phenolic and heterocyclic nitrogen functional groups, which, because of their toxicity and persistence, may limit options for water recycling and reuse. Effluent from the wastewater treatment plant of the factory showed both the highest soluble carbon burden (47 mg/kg) and concentrations of target compounds. The target species found in these effluents included methyl phenol (13 mg/kg), hydroxy indole (9.8 mg/kg), synthetic tolyltriazoles (5.1 mg/kg) and alkyl phenol ethoxylates (0.2 mg/kg). Given the environmental stability of the tolyltriazoles, they may act as chemical markers where these effluents are used for purposes such as irrigation. Milk evaporator condensate waters, in contrast to the effluent, contained very few target species, with only low levels of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives such as ethylglutarimide (450 mug/L) detected. Although there were fewer target microcontaminants overall in the potable and creek reference waters, these samples had characteristic profiles. The potable water analysis revealed hydroxy cineole (2.1 microg/L) and the creek analysis revealed dichlorohydroxyacetophenone (0.3 microg/L), which were not detected in other waters. The compounds found in the wastewaters are likely to have been derived from milk or synthetic chemicals used in factory operations. The presence of nitrogen compounds in

  2. Regiodivergent Addition of Phenols to Allylic Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarello, David N.; Moschitto, Matthew J.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    The regiodivergent addition of substituted phenols to allylic-oxides has been demonstrated using C2-symmetric palladium complexes. Complex phenol donors tyrosine, estradiol, and griseofulvin follow the predictive model. The Tsuji-Trost reaction is a powerful method to append both O- and C-donors to η3-allyl systems.1 The η3-allyl progenitor structures include allylic esters, carbonates, halides, and oxides. Internal allylic oxides2 remain one of the few systems that retain a marker of stereochemical induction with the newly liberated carbinol. The origin of the products can be traced to the diastereomeric η3-allyl intermediate and stereoisomer of oxide employed. We have recently identified3 a system capable of the conversion of racemic allylic oxides to distinct enantioenriched regioisomers using achiral phenol donors (Scheme 1). The allylic oxide regio-resolution (AORR) allowed the preparation of enantioenriched carbasugar natural products. We have now expanded this study to include a diverse array of achiral and chiral phenol donors. PMID:25933102

  3. Kinetic Selectivity of Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Bearing Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donde R.; Ung, Thay; Mkrtumyan, Garik; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.; Schrodi, Yann

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts 4–6 bearing cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) in the cross-metathesis of cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene (7) with allylbenzene (8) and the ethenolysis of methyl oleate (11) is reported. Relative to most NHC-substituted complexes, CAAC-substituted catalysts exhibit lower E/Z ratios (3:1 at 70% conversion) in the cross-metathesis of 7 and 8. Additionally, complexes 4–6 demonstrate good selectivity for the formation of terminal olefins versus internal olefins in the ethenolysis of 11. Indeed, complex 6 achieved 35 000 TONs, the highest recorded to date. CAAC-substituted complexes exhibit markedly different kinetic selectivity than most NHC-substituted complexes. PMID:18584055

  4. Binding of phenol and differently halogenated phenols to dissolved humic matter as measured by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Spaccini, Riccardo; Fontaine, Barbara; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    1H- and 19F-NMR measurements of spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxationtimes and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) were applied to investigate the association of nonsubstituted (phenol (P)) and halogen-substituted (2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP); 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and 2,4,6-trifluorophenol (TFP) phenols with a dissolved humic acid (HA). T1 and T2 values for both 1H and 19F in phenols decreased with enhancing HA concentration, indicating reduction in molecular mobility due to formation of noncovalent interactions. Moreover, correlation times (tau c) for different hydrogen and fluorine atoms in phenols showed that anisotropic mobility turned into isotropic motion with HA additions. Changes in relaxation times suggested that DCP and TCP were more extensively bound to HA than P and TFP. This was confirmed by diffusion measurements which showed full association of DCP and TCP to a less amount of HA than that required for entire complexation of P and TFP. Calculated values of binding constants (Ka) reflected the overall NMR behavior, being significantly larger for DCP- and TCP-HA (10.04 +/- 1.32 and 4.47 +/- 0.35 M(-1), respectively) than for P- and TFP-HA complexes (0.57 +/- 0.03 and 0.28 +/- 0.01 M(-1), respectively). Binding increased with decreasing solution pH, thus indicating a dependence on the fraction of protonated form (alpha) of phenols in solution. However, it was found that the hydrophobicity conferred to phenols by chlorine atoms on aromatic rings is a stronger drive than alpha for the phenols repartition within the HA hydrophobic domains.

  5. Vitreous Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Modern vitreoretinal surgery is a young science. While tremendous developments have occurred in instrument design and technique since Machemer first described vitrectomy surgery in 1973[1], the application of advanced materials concepts to the development of intra-ocular compounds is a particularly exciting area of research. To date, the development of vitreous substitutes has played a significant role in enabling the dramatic and progressive improvement in surgical outcome, but perhaps no other area of research has the potential to further improve the treatment of retinal detachment and other retinal disorders. While prior research has focused solely upon the ability of a compound to re-attach the retina, future research should seek to enable the surgeon to inhibit the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and re-detachment, the integration of stem-cell therapies with surgical retina, long-term delivery of medications to the posterior segment, and the promotion of more rapid and complete visual rehabilitation. PMID:19343097

  6. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role.

  7. Phenol burns and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B

    1994-02-01

    Phenol burns and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol burns who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface area deep partial skin thickness phenol burns and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported.

  8. Radical arylation of phenols, phenyl ethers, and furans.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Alexander; Pratsch, Gerald; Kolb, Roman; Heinrich, Markus R

    2010-02-22

    Radical arylations of para-substituted phenols and phenyl ethers proceeded with good regioselectivity at the ortho position with respect to the hydroxy or alkoxy group. The reactions were conducted with arenediazonium salts as the aryl radical source, titanium(III) chloride as the reductant, and diluted hydrochloric acid as the solvent. Substituted biaryls were obtained from hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzylamines, phenethylamines, and aromatic amino acids. The methodology described offers a fast, efficient, and cost-effective new access to diversely functionalized biphenyl alcohols and ethers. Free phenolic hydroxy groups, aromatic and aliphatic amines, as well as amino acid substructures, are well tolerated. Two examples for the applicability of the methodology are the partial synthesis of a beta-secretase inhibitor and the synthesis of a calcium-channel modulator. PMID:20066707

  9. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  10. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  11. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may be safely used as a component of articles..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers...

  12. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  13. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  14. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  15. GABA receptor antagonists and insecticides: common structural features of 4-alkyl-1-phenylpyrazoles and 4-alkyl-1-phenyltrioxabicyclooctanes.

    PubMed

    Sammelson, Robert E; Caboni, Pierluigi; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2004-06-15

    Fipronil [5-amino-3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole] is one of the most important insecticides. Structure-activity studies described here reveal that fipronil retains its very high binding potency at the human beta3 and house fly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and toxicity to house flies on replacing the pyrazole trifluoromethylsulfinyl moiety with tert-butyl or isopropyl and the phenyl trifluoromethyl substituent with ethynyl, trifluoromethoxy, bromo or chloro. Among the compounds studied, those with other alkyl groups at the 4-position of the pyrazole, as well as phenyl substitution without one or both of the 2,6-dichloro groups, are less effective. 5-Amino-4-tert-butyl-3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-ethynylphenyl)pyrazole is highly effective and almost isosteric with 4-tert-butyl-3-cyano-1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (the most potent 4-alkyl-1-phenyltrioxabicyclooctane) as a noncompetitive GABA antagonist and insecticide. These findings are interpreted as three binding subsites in the GABA receptor: a hydrophobic site undergoing steric interaction with the tert-butyl or equivalent group; a hydrogen bonding site to pyrazole N-2; a pi bonding site to the face of the phenyl moiety; with supplemental enhancement by the 3-cyano and 4-ethynyl substituents.

  16. Ruthenium-porphyrin-catalyzed diastereoselective intramolecular alkyl carbene insertion into C-H bonds of alkyl diazomethanes generated in situ from N-tosylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Annapureddy Rajasekar; Zhou, Cong-Ying; Guo, Zhen; Wei, Jinhu; Che, Chi-Ming

    2014-12-15

    With a ruthenium-porphyrin catalyst, alkyl diazomethanes generated in situ from N-tosylhydrazones efficiently underwent intramolecular C(sp(3))-H insertion of an alkyl carbene to give substituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines in up to 99% yield and with up to 99:1 cis selectivity. The reaction displays good tolerance of many functionalities, and the procedure is simple without the need for slow addition with a syringe pump. From a synthetic point of view, the C-H insertion of N-tosylhydrazones can be viewed as reductive coupling between a C=O bond and a C-H bond to form a new C-C bond, since N-tosylhydrazones can be readily prepared from carbonyl compounds. This reaction was successfully applied in a concise synthesis of (±)-pseudoheliotridane.

  17. Hypercrosslinked phenolic polymers with well developed mesoporous frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jinshui; Qiao, Zhenan -An; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Jiang, Xueguang; Chai, Song -Hai; Lu, Hanfeng; Nelson, Kimberly M.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-12

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Furthermore, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other aromatic-based polymers with robust frameworks.

  18. Hypercrosslinked phenolic polymers with well-developed mesoporous frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshui; Qiao, Zhen-An; Mahurin, Shannon M; Jiang, Xueguang; Chai, Song-Hai; Lu, Hanfeng; Nelson, Kimberly; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    A soft chemistry synthetic strategy based on a Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction is developed for the textural engineering of phenolic resin (PR) with a robust mesoporous framework to avoid serious framework shrinkage and maximize retention of organic functional moieties. By taking advantage of the structural benefits of molecular bridges, the resultant sample maintains a bimodal micro-mesoporous architecture with well-preserved organic functional groups, which is effective for carbon capture. Moreover, this soft chemistry synthetic protocol can be further extended to nanotexture other arene-based polymers with robust frameworks. PMID:25683637

  19. [Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of copper phthalocyanine derivates substituted by aliphatic alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Xu, Qing-Feng; Lu, Jian-Mei; Yao, She-Chun

    2007-04-01

    A series of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by aliphatic chain were obtained by the reaction of tetra-formyl chloride copper phthalocyanine and aliphatic alcohol such as n-butyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, n-hexyl alcohol, n-caprylic alcohol and lauryl alcohol. IR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis and 1H NMR verified the structures and substituting degree. The solubility and the relationship between fluorescence and concentration and substituting group were studied in organic solution. It was confirmed that the solubility in organic solution was improved greatly, the fluorescence did not change in linear according to the concentration and the fluorescence of copper phthalocyanine derivatives substituted by the long alkyl was stronger than that substituted by the relatively short alkyl.

  20. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed.

  1. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed. PMID:27573267

  2. Copper-catalyzed oxidative C-O bond formation of 2-acyl phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with ethers: direct access to phenol esters and enol esters.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sang Hoon; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sangil; Shin, Youngmi; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi; Kim, In Su

    2014-05-16

    A copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-carbonyl-substituted phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a wide range of dibenzyl or dialkyl ethers is described. This protocol provides an efficient preparation of phenol esters and enol esters in good yields with high chemoselectivity. This method represents an alternative protocol for classical esterification reactions.

  3. Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Two Different Phenols: An Efficient Route to Unsymmetrical Biphenols.

    PubMed

    More, Nagnath Yadav; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2015-06-19

    An efficient synthesis of unsymmetrical biphenols via the oxidative cross-coupling of two different phenols in the presence of K2S2O8 and Bu4N(+)·HSO3(-) (10 mol %) in CF3COOH at ambient conditions is described. 1:1 Cross-coupling of substituted phenols with naphthols and 1:2 cross-coupling of naphthols with phenol are also disclosed. By using Bu4N(+)·HSO3(-), the homocoupling of phenols or naphthols was controlled. In these reactions, the ortho C-H bond of two different phenols and the ortho and para C-H bond of phenols were coupled together. PMID:26023816

  4. Structure-toxicity relationships for phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Bearden, A.P.; Schultz, T.W.; Jaworska, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Toxicity values for 45 phenols tested in the 2-d static population growth inhibition assay with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis were tabulated. Each chemical was selected so the series formed uniform coverage of the hydrophobicity/ionization surface. A high quality hydrophobicity-dependent (log K{sub ow}) structure-toxicity relationship (log IGC{sub 50}{sup {minus}1} = 0.737 (log K{sub ow}) {minus} 1.440; n = 15, r{sup 2} = 0.093, s = 0.103, F = 758.29, Pr > F = 0.0001) was developed for phenols with pK{sub a} values > 9.4. Similarly, separate hydrophobicity-dependent relationships were developed for phenols with pK{sub a} values of 4.0, 5.1, 6.4, 7.5, and 8.7. Comparisons of intercepts and slopes, respectively, revealed phenols with pK{sub a},, values of 6.4 to be the most toxic and the least influenced by hydrophobicity. These relationships are reversed for the more acidic and basic phenols. Plots of toxicity versus pK{sub a} for nitro-substituted phenols and phenols with log K{sub ow} values of either 1.75 or 2.50 further demonstrated the parabolic relationship between toxicity and ionization constant. In an effort to more accurately model the parabolic-like relationship between toxicity and ionization, the bilinear function {vert_bar} 6.4 {minus} pK{sub a} {vert_bar} was used to model ionization effects for derivatives with pK{sub a} values of between 3.4 and 9.4. For derivatives with pK{sub a}, values < 3.4 and > 9.4, a value of 3.00 was used to quantitate ionization effects. The use of log K{sub ow} in conjunction with this modified pK{sub a} ({Delta} pK{sub a}) resulted in the structure-toxicity relationship (log IGC{sub 50}{sup {minus}1} = 0.574 (log K{sub ow}) {minus} 0.273 ({Delta} pK{sub a}) + 0.078; n = 45, r{sup 2}=0.902, s = 0.264, F = 193.06, Pr > F = 0.0001).

  5. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  6. Enantioselective Multicomponent Condensation Reactions of Phenols, Aldehydes, and Boronates Catalyzed by Chiral Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Keith S; Luan, Yi; Ramella, Daniele; Panek, James S; Schaus, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Chiral diols and biphenols catalyze the multicomponent condensation reaction of phenols, aldehydes, and alkenyl or aryl boronates. The condensation products are formed in good yields and enantioselectivities. The reaction proceeds via an initial Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aldehyde and phenol to yield an ortho-quinone methide that undergoes an enantioselective boronate addition. A cyclization pathway was discovered while exploring the scope of the reaction that provides access to chiral 2,4-diaryl chroman products, the core of which is a structural motif found in natural products. PMID:26576776

  7. Desulfurization characteristics of thermophilic Paenibacillus sp. strain A11-2 against asymmetrically alkylated dibenzothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Onaka, T; Konishi, J; Ishii, Y; Maruhashi, K

    2001-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. A11-2, which can utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sole sulfur source at high temperature (45-55 degrees C), was investigated for its ability to cleave carbon-sulfur bonds in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) ring with asymmetrical alkyl substitution, such as methyl, dimethyl, trimethyl, ethyl and propyl DBTs. The biodesulfurization products of each of these alkylated DBTs (Cx-DBTs) were identified and quantitatively determined. The results suggested that each of the Cx-DBTs was desulfurized at a low rate, then converted to alkylated hydroxybiphenyls containing the isomers, and molar ratios of these metabolic isomers were altered in terms of not only the positions but also the numbers and lengths of the alkyl substituents. Moreover, these ratios were compared with those obtained using the mesophilic desulfurizing bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis KA2-5-1. Consequently, biodesulfurization reactions of these microbes could be characterized using asymmetrically Cx-DBTs and their molecular shape parameters (length and length-to-breadth ratio), indicating differences in the selectivity of the microbial enzymic systems between the two bacterial strains.

  8. Quantitative determination of phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, V; Bomer, K A

    1975-07-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of phenol in phenolated calamine lotion USP is described. The method is based on spectrophotometrically measuring the color produced by reacting phenol with either ferric chloride or ferric nitrate. Beer's law is followed. The effect of ferric-ion concentration on the sensitivity of the assay method is reported.

  9. Improving the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations by substitution.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Gu, Fenglou; Li, Min; Lin, Bencai; Si, Zhihong; Hou, Tingjun; Yan, Feng; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2014-10-01

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates for preparing anion-exchange membranes because of their good alkaline stability. Substitution of imidazolium cations is an efficient way to improve their alkaline stability. By combining density functional theory calculations with experimental results, it is found that the LUMO energy correlates with the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations. The results indicate that alkyl groups are the most suitable substituents for the N3 position of imidazolium cations, and the LUMO energies of alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations depend on the electron-donating effect and the hyperconjugation effect. Comparing 1,2-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,2-DMIm+) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cations (1,3-DMIm+) with the same substituents reveals that the hyperconjugation effect is more significant in influencing the LUMO energy of 1,3-DMIms. This investigation reveals that LUMO energy is a helpful aid in predicting the alkaline stability of imidazolium cations.

  10. Phenol and cresol mixture degradation by the yeast Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Alexieva, Z; Gerginova, M; Manasiev, J; Zlateva, P; Shivarova, N; Krastanov, A

    2008-11-01

    Most industrial wastes contain different organic mixtures, making important the investigation on the microbial destruction of composite substrates. The capability of microbes to remove harmful chemicals from polluted environments strongly depends on the presence of other carbon and energy substrates. The effect of mixtures of phenol- and methyl-substituted phenols (o-, m-, p-cresol) on the growth behaviour and degradation capacity of Trichosporon cutaneum strain was investigated. The cell-free supernatants were analysed by HPLC. It was established that the presence of o-, m- and p- cresol has not prevented complete phenol assimilation but had significant delaying effect on the phenol degradation dynamics. The mutual influence of phenol and p-cresol was investigated. We developed the kinetic model on the basis of Haldane kinetics, which used model parameters from single-substrate experiments to predict the outcome of the two-substrate mixture experiment. The interaction coefficients indicating the degree to which phenol affects the biodegradation of p-cresol and vice versa were estimated. Quantitative estimation of interaction parameters is essential to facilitate the application of single or mixed cultures to the bio-treatment of hazardous compounds.

  11. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, solvatochromism and biological properties of 2,2'-((1E,1'E)-((1,2,5-oxadiazole-3,4-diyl)bis (azanylylidene))bis(methan-ylylidene))bis(4-(phenyldiazenyl)phenol).

    PubMed

    Kakanejadifard, Ali; Azarbani, Farideh; Saki, Zeinab; Kakanejadifard, Sahar; Zabardasti, Abedin

    2014-11-11

    Azo-azomethine dyes 2-((4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-ylimino)methyl)-4-(phenyl diazenyl)phenols (2a-h) have been synthesized by condensation reaction of 3,4-diamino-1,2,5-oxadiazole with 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(aryldiazenyl)]benzaldehyde (1a-h) in methanol. The structures of dyes have been characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorption spectra indicated enol-keto tautomeric and positive solvatochromism in compounds 2a-h which is dependent on the substitution, solvent, pH and environment temperature. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant activity by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Compounds substituted with electron donating groups, such as, alkyl and methoxy groups showed moderate antioxidant activity. The in vitro antibacterial activity of all compounds was determined by disk diffusion method. The test compounds showed varying degree of inhibition against B. cereus and S. aureus strains.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, solvatochromism and biological properties of 2,2‧-((1E,1‧E)-((1,2,5-oxadiazole-3,4-diyl)bis (azanylylidene))bis(methan-ylylidene))bis(4-(phenyldiazenyl)phenol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakanejadifard, Ali; Azarbani, Farideh; Saki, Zeinab; Kakanejadifard, Sahar; Zabardasti, Abedin

    2014-11-01

    Azo-azomethine dyes 2-((4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-ylimino)methyl)-4-(phenyl diazenyl)phenols (2a-h) have been synthesized by condensation reaction of 3,4-diamino-1,2,5-oxadiazole with 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(aryldiazenyl)]benzaldehyde (1a-h) in methanol. The structures of dyes have been characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorption spectra indicated enol-keto tautomeric and positive solvatochromism in compounds 2a-h which is dependent on the substitution, solvent, pH and environment temperature. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant activity by diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Compounds substituted with electron donating groups, such as, alkyl and methoxy groups showed moderate antioxidant activity. The in vitro antibacterial activity of all compounds was determined by disk diffusion method. The test compounds showed varying degree of inhibition against B. cereus and S. aureus strains.

  14. Removal of phenol from synthetic waste water using Gemini micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (GMEUF).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Huang, Guohe; Wei, Jia; Li, Huiqin; Zheng, Rubing; Zhou, Ya

    2012-10-15

    Comprehensive studies were conducted on the phenol wastewater ultrafiltration (UF) with the help of various concentrations of cationic Gemini surfactant (N1-dodecyl-N1,N1,N2,N2-tetramethyl-N2-octylethane-1,2-diaminium bromide, CG), conventional cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactant ((dodecyloxy)polyethoxyethanol, Brij35). A flat sheet module with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was employed in this investigation. The effects of feed concentration (phenol and surfactant) on the retention of phenol and surfactant, permeate flux and membrane fouling by micelles were evaluated. The distribution coefficient (D), the loading of the micelles (L(m)) and the equilibrium distribution constant (K) were also utilized to estimate the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration ability for phenol. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR-FTIR) and mercury porosimeter were applied to analyze membrane surface morphology, membrane material characteristics and membrane fouling for the original and fouled membranes. Based on the above analysis, the performance of the selected Gemini surfactant was proved superior in the following aspects: retention of phenol/surfactant (peak value is 95.8% for phenol retention), permeate flux and membrane fouling with respect to other conventional surfactants possessing equal alkyl chain length. These results demonstrated that CG surfactant with exceptional structure has favorable prospects in the treatment of phenol wastewater by the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.

  15. Abstraction of iodine from aromatic iodides by alkyl radicals: steric and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Dolenc, Darko; Plesnicar, Bozo

    2006-10-13

    Abstraction of the iodine atom from aryl iodides by alkyl radicals takes place in some cases very efficiently despite the unfavorable difference in bond dissociation energies of C-I bonds in alkyl and aryl iodides. The abstraction is most efficient in iodobenzenes, ortho-substituted with bulky groups. The ease of abstraction can be explained by the release of steric strain during the elimination of the iodine atom. The rate of abstraction correlates fairly well with the strain energy, calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods as a difference in the total energy of ortho and para isomers. However, besides the steric bulk, the presence of some other functional groups in an ortho substituent also influences the rate. The stabilization of the transition state, resembling a 9-I-2 iodanyl radical, by electron-withdrawing groups seems to explain a positive sign of the Hammett rho value in the radical abstraction of halogen atoms. PMID:17025291

  16. The role of alkyl substituents in deazaadenine-based diarylethene photoswitches

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Christopher; Heimes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Summary Diarylethenes are an important class of reversible photoswitches and often claimed to require two alkyl substituents at the carbon atoms between which the bond is formed or broken in the electrocyclic rearrangement. Here we probe this claim by the synthesis and characterization of four pairs of deazaadenine-based diarylethene photoswitches with either one or two methyl groups at these positions. Depending on the substitution pattern, diarylethenes with one alkyl group can exhibit significant photochromism, but they generally show poor stability towards extended UV irradiation, low thermal stability, and decreased fatigue resistance. The results obtained provide an important direction for the design of new efficient DNA photoswitches for the application in bionanotechnology and synthetic biology. PMID:27340498

  17. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions with a Hydride Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N Thanh; Thiel, Niklas O; Pape, Felix; Teichert, Johannes F

    2016-05-20

    An easily accessible copper(I)/N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex enables a regioselective hydride transfer to allylic bromides, an allylic reduction. The resulting aryl- and alkyl-substituted branched α-olefins, which are valuable building blocks for synthesis, are obtained in good yields and regioselectivity. A commercially available silane, (TMSO)2Si(Me)H, is employed as hydride source. This protocol offers a unified alternative to the established metal-catalyzed allylic substitutions with carbon nucleophiles, as no adaption of the catalyst to the nature of the nucleophile is required. PMID:27151495

  18. Antioxidant activity of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers in unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Cert, Rosa; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of ethyl and octyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers toward lipids was determined using the Rancimat and open cup methods at high temperatures and 50 °C, respectively. The effect of the unsaturation of the matrix was evaluated using sunflower, soya, and fish refined oils. The antioxidant activities of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers (HTy ethers), hydroxytyrosyl esters, and free hydroxytyrosol are similar, and are much higher than that of α-tocopherol at the same millimolar concentration. The relationship between the induction period and the concentration of the HTy ethers is a sigmoidal curve; an accurate concentration of HTy ethers is necessary to achieve maximum activity, as it increases with the level of matrix unsaturation. The presence of tocopherols in commercial oils affects the antioxidant effect of HTy ethers. Thus, the addition of a low concentration of HTy ethers results in a positive effect, whereas the effect of the addition of high amounts of ethers is slightly less than that of the phenol alone. The addition of HTy ethers to commercial refined oils increases the stability of the oils and preserves tocopherols and polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, enabling the oils to maintain their nutritional properties for longer periods of time.

  19. Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed, Ring-Forming Aromatic C–H Alkylations with Unactivated Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Alexander R. O.; Bohan, Patrick T.; Alexanian, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic C–H alkylation using unactivated alkyl halides and a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is described. This ring-forming process is successful with a variety of unactivated primary and secondary alkyl halides, including those with β-hydrogens. In contrast to standard polar or radical cyclizations of aromatic systems, electronic activation of the substrate is not required. The mild, catalytic reaction conditions are highly functional group tolerant and facilitate access to a diverse range of synthetically and medicinally important carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. PMID:25746442

  1. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  2. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  3. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs.

  4. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs. PMID:26379641

  5. Preparation of a series of model poly(n-alkyl styrene)s and their viscoelasticity and glass transition temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Satoru; Takano, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Yushu

    Viscoelasticity and glass transition temperatures for linear polymers of many species have been investigated so far, and it is well-known that the melt viscosity for the linear polymers varies with molecular weight in essentially the same manner such as packing length theory. It is important to understand the relationship between the viscosity and the molecular structure of various kinds of linear polymers. To investigate the relationship deeply, viscoelastic measurements using linear polymer analogues which the molecular structure is systematically varied should be useful. For example, poly(n-alkyl-substituted polymers) such as poly(n-alkyl methacrylate)s are one of the good candidate. In this study, a series of poly(n-alkyl styrene)s with the different number of carbon atoms(n) in the side alkyl groups (n =1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12) were carefully synthesized by an anionic polymerization technique, and the viscoelasticity and the glass transition temperatures of the poly(n-alkyl styrene)s with high molecular weight (Mw >=4Me) and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn <=1.1) were discussed.

  6. Toughening of phenolic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongbin

    2003-06-01

    Phenolic foam has excellent FST performance with relatively low cost, and thus is an attractive material for many applications. However, it is extremely brittle and fragile, precluding it from load-bearing applications. In order to make it tougher and more viable for structural purposes, an effective approach has been proposed and investigated in this study. Composite phenolic foam with short fiber reinforcements resulted in significant improvement in mechanical performance while retaining FST properties comparable to conventional phenolic foam. For example, composite phenolic foam with aramid fibers exhibited a seven-fold increase in peel resistance together with a five-fold reduction in friability. In shear tests, aramid composite foam endured prolonged loading to high levels of strain, indicating the potential for use in structural applications. On the other hand, glass fiber-reinforced phenolic foam produced substantial improvement in the stiffness and strength relative to the unreinforced counterpart. In particular, the Young's modulus of the glass fiber composite foam was increased by as much as 100% relative to the plain phenolic foam in the foam rise direction. In addition, different mechanical behavior was observed for aramid and glass fiber-reinforced foams. In an attempt to understand the mechanical behavior of composite foam, a novel NDT technique, micro-CT, was used to acquire information on fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Results from micro-CT measurements were compared with theoretical distribution models, achieving various degrees of agreement. Despite some limitations of current micro-CT technology, the realistic observation and measurement of cellular morphology and fiber distribution within composite foams portend future advances in modeling of reinforced polymer foam. To explain the discrepancy observed in shear stiffness between traditional shear test results and those by the short sandwich beam test, a

  7. Synthesis and structures of O-anthrylmethyl-substituted hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue-Kai; Ikejiri, Yusuke; Ni, Xi-Long; Zeng, Xi; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko

    2016-09-01

    O-Alkylation of 7,15,23-tri-tert-butyl-25,26,27-trihydroxy-2,3,10,11,18,19-hexahomo-3,11,19-trioxacalix[3]arene (1H3) with 9-chloromethylanthracene 5 was carried out under different reaction conditions. Variation of the number of anthrylmethyl group introduced at the phenolic rim of hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arene 1H3 was achieved through selective O-alkylation using stoichiometric amounts of 9-chloromethylanthracene 5 in acetone to afford the mono-O-alkylated product 2H2An, the di-O-alkylated product 3HAn2 and the tri-O-alkylated product partial-cone-4An3, respectively. Interestingly, by using an acetone/benzene (1:1 v/v) mixed solvent system, the cone-4An3 was successfully synthesized. These results suggest that the solvent can also control the conformation of the O-alkylation products. The possible reaction routes of the cone-4An3 and partial-cone-4An3 are also discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8700 - Halogenated alkyl pyridine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Halogenated alkyl pyridine. 721.8700... Substances § 721.8700 Halogenated alkyl pyridine. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18... identified generically as halogenated alkyl pyridine (PMN P-83-237) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). Link to an amendment... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as disubstituted alkyl triazines (PMNs...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs...

  14. 40 CFR 721.550 - Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. 721.550... Substances § 721.550 Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl alkenoate, azobis- (PMN P-88-2470)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.550 - Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. 721.550... Substances § 721.550 Alkyl alkenoate, azobis-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl alkenoate, azobis- (PMN P-88-2470)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10053 - Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10053 Alkyl silane methacrylate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.648 - Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.648 Alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkyl dialkylamino phenylsulfonyl alkenoate (PMN P-00-0816) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3485 - Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3485 Hydrofluorocarbon alkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorocarbon alkyl...