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Sample records for alkylated imino sugars

  1. A versatile approach to N-alkylated 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitols and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-He; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2011-04-01

    A versatile and concise synthesis of N-alkylated 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitol derivatives is described. These were prepared using pseudohemiketal lactams as key intermediates, which in turn were obtained from sucrose. The key intermediates were prepared by a diastereospecific tandem reaction which facilitated the introduction of various substituents on the nitrogen atom of the iminosugars.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  4. Rare-earth dichloro and bis(alkyl) complexes supported by bulky amido-imino ligand. Synthesis, structure, reactivity and catalytic activity in isoprene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kissel, Alexander A; Lyubov, Dmitry M; Mahrova, Tatyana V; Fukin, Georgy K; Cherkasov, Anton V; Glukhova, Tatyana A; Cui, Dongmei; Trifonov, Alexander A

    2013-07-07

    A monoanionic amido-imino ligand system [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(Me)C(=CH2)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)](-) was successfully employed for the synthesis of monomeric dichloro [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(Me)C(=CH2)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]LnCl2(THF)2 (Ln = Y, 2Y; Lu, 2Lu) and bis(alkyl) [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(Me)C(=CH2)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]Ln(CH2SiMe3)2(THF) (Ln = Y, 4Y; Lu, 4Lu) species of yttrium and lutetium. Dichloro complexes 2Y and 2Lu turned out to be unstable in aromatic solvents. The ligand symmetrization reaction in the case of 2Y affords the yttrium complex coordinated by dianionic [(2,6-iPr2C6H3)NC(=CH2)C(=CH2)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)](2-) ligand, (2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(Me)C(Me)=N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2) and YCl3. On the contrary, bis(alkyl) species 4Y and 4Lu are rather stable and do not undergo such a transformation or thermal decomposition. The treatment of complex 4Y with DME resulted in C-O bond cleavage and the formation of a dimeric methoxy-alkyl species {[(2,6-iPr2C6H3)N=C(Me)C(=CH2)N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)]Y(CH2SiMe3)(μ-OMe)}2 (5). The ternary systems 4Ln/AliBu3/borate (borate = [HNMe2Ph][B(C6F5)4] and [CPh3][B(C6F5)4]; molar ratio 1 : 10 : 1) performed high catalytic activity in isoprene polymerization and ability to convert into polymer 1000-5000 equivalents of isoprene in 20-120 min with quantitative conversion. The obtained polyisoprenes possessed high molecular weights (2.9 × 10(4)-4.1 × 10(4)) and moderate polydispersities (2.14-3.52). Predominant 3,4-regioselectivity (up to 78%) was observed.

  5. Fast and selective sugar conversion to alkyl lactate and lactic acid with bifunctional carbon-silica catalysts.

    PubMed

    de Clippel, Filip; Dusselier, Michiel; Van Rompaey, Ruben; Vanelderen, Pieter; Dijkmans, Jan; Makshina, Ekaterina; Giebeler, Lars; Oswald, Steffen; Baron, Gino V; Denayer, Joeri F M; Pescarmona, Paolo P; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2012-06-20

    A novel catalyst design for the conversion of mono- and disaccharides to lactic acid and its alkyl esters was developed. The design uses a mesoporous silica, here represented by MCM-41, which is filled with a polyaromatic to graphite-like carbon network. The particular structure of the carbon-silica composite allows the accommodation of a broad variety of catalytically active functions, useful to attain cascade reactions, in a readily tunable pore texture. The significance of a joint action of Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites was studied here to realize fast and selective sugar conversion. Lewis acidity is provided by grafting the silica component with Sn(IV), while weak Brønsted acidity originates from oxygen-containing functional groups in the carbon part. The weak Brønsted acid content was varied by changing the amount of carbon loading, the pyrolysis temperature, and the post-treatment procedure. As both catalytic functions can be tuned independently, their individual role and optimal balance can be searched for. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that the presence of weak Brønsted acid sites is crucial in accelerating the rate-determining (dehydration) reaction, that is, the first step in the reaction network from triose to lactate. Composite catalysts with well-balanced Lewis/Brønsted acidity are able to convert the trioses, glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone, quantitatively into ethyl lactate in ethanol with an order of magnitude higher reaction rate when compared to the Sn grafted MCM-41 reference catalyst. Interestingly, the ability to tailor the pore architecture further allows the synthesis of a variety of amphiphilic alkyl lactates from trioses and long chain alcohols in moderate to high yields. Finally, direct lactate formation from hexoses, glucose and fructose, and disaccharides composed thereof, sucrose, was also attempted. For instance, conversion of sucrose with the bifunctional composite catalyst yields 45% methyl lactate in

  6. Research on imidazo(1,2-a)benzimidazole derivatives. 22. Synthesis of 2,3-dihydroimidazo(1,2-a)benzimidazoles starting from 2-imino-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzimidazolines

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimova, V.A.; Levchenko, M.V.; Pozharskii, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    A US -elimination reaction with the formation of 2-imino-3-vinylbenzimidazolines occurs simultaneously with intramolecular alkylation and the formation of an imidazoline ring in the action of alcoholic alkali on 2-imino-3-(2-chloroethyl)benzimidazolines. The thermolysis of 3-chloroethyl-substituted imines without a solvent or in an inert solvent leads exclusively to 2,3-dihydroimidazo(1,2-a)benzimidazoles. An attempt to obtain the latter directly from 2-imino-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzimidazolines by the action of a mixture of thionyl chloride and acetic anhydride on them also leads to ambiguous results.

  7. Bis(imino)pyridine cobalt-catalyzed alkene isomerization-hydroboration: a strategy for remote hydrofunctionalization with terminal selectivity.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-12-26

    Bis(imino)pyridine cobalt methyl complexes are active for the catalytic hydroboration of terminal, geminal, disubstituted internal, tri- and tetrasubstituted alkenes using pinacolborane (HBPin). The most active cobalt catalyst was obtained by introducing a pyrrolidinyl substituent into the 4-position of the bis(imino)pyridine chelate, enabling the facile hydroboration of sterically hindered substrates such as 1-methylcyclohexene, α-pinene, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene. Notably, these hydroboration reactions proceed with high activity and anti-Markovnikov selectivity in neat substrates at 23 °C. With internal olefins, the cobalt catalyst places the boron substituent exclusively at the terminal positions of an alkyl chain, providing a convenient method for hydrofunctionalization of remote C-H bonds.

  8. 40 CFR 721.5930 - Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section 721.5930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  9. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester (generic). 721.987 Section 721.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Recent advances in chiral imino-containing ligands for metal-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Lu, Zhan

    2017-03-21

    In this review, the recent applications of a variety of chiral imino-containing ligands classified by different types of metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions are summarized. The progress made in this area would encourage us to design and synthesize more novel chiral imino-containing ligands, and explore their applications in metal-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  15. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  16. RNA-PAIRS: RNA probabilistic assignment of imino resonance shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Arash; Clos, Lawrence J.; Markley, John L.; Butcher, Samuel E.

    2012-01-01

    The significant biological role of RNA has further highlighted the need for improving the accuracy, efficiency and the reach of methods for investigating RNA structure and function. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is vital to furthering the goals of RNA structural biology because of its distinctive capabilities. However, the dispersion pattern in the NMR spectra of RNA makes automated resonance assignment, a key step in NMR investigation of biomolecules, remarkably challenging. Herein we present RNA Probabilistic Assignment of Imino Resonance Shifts (RNA-PAIRS), a method for the automated assignment of RNA imino resonances with synchronized verification and correction of predicted secondary structure. RNA-PAIRS represents an advance in modeling the assignment paradigm because it seeds the probabilistic network for assignment with experimental NMR data, and predicted RNA secondary structure, simultaneously and from the start. Subsequently, RNA-PAIRS sets in motion a dynamic network that reverberates between predictions and experimental evidence in order to reconcile and rectify resonance assignments and secondary structure information. The procedure is halted when assignments and base-parings are deemed to be most consistent with observed crosspeaks. The current implementation of RNA-PAIRS uses an initial peak list derived from proton-nitrogen heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (1H–15N 2D HMQC) and proton–proton nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (1H–1H 2D NOESY) experiments. We have evaluated the performance of RNA-PAIRS by using it to analyze NMR datasets from 26 previously studied RNAs, including a 111-nucleotide complex. For moderately sized RNA molecules, and over a range of comparatively complex structural motifs, the average assignment accuracy exceeds 90%, while the average base pair prediction accuracy exceeded 93%. RNA-PAIRS yielded accurate assignments and base pairings consistent with imino resonances for a majority

  17. Glucocerebrosidase enhancers for selected Gaucher disease genotypes by modification of α-1-C-substituted imino-D-xylitols (DIXs) by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Díaz, Lucía; Casas, Josefina; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Michelakakis, Helen; Mavridou, Irene; Aerts, Johannes M F G; Decroocq, Camille; Compain, Philippe; Delgado, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    A series of hybrid analogues was designed by combination of the iminoxylitol scaffold of parent 1C9-DIX with triazolylalkyl side chains. The resulting compounds were considered potential pharmacological chaperones in Gaucher disease. The DIX analogues reported here were synthesized by CuAAC click chemistry from scaffold 1 (α-1-C-propargyl-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-xylitol) and screened as imiglucerase inhibitors. A set of selected compounds were tested as β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) enhancers in fibroblasts from Gaucher patients bearing different genotypes. A number of these DIX compounds were revealed as potent GBA1 enhancers in genotypes containing the G202R mutation, particularly compound DIX-28 (α-1-C-[(1-(3-trimethylsilyl)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl]-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-xylitol), bearing the 3-trimethylsilylpropyl group as a new surrogate of a long alkyl chain, with approximately threefold activity enhancement at 10 nM. Despite their structural similarities with isofagomine and with our previously reported aminocyclitols, the present DIX compounds behaved as non-competitive inhibitors, with the exception of the mixed-type inhibitor DIX-28.

  18. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  19. Imino Acids in the Murchison Meteorite: Evidence of Strecker Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Cooper, G. W.

    2003-01-01

    Both alpha-amino acids and alpha-hydroxy acids occur in aqueous extracts of the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite. The Strecker-cyanohydrin reaction, the reaction of carbonyl compounds, cyanide, and ammonia to produce amino and hydroxy acids, has been proposed as a source of such organic acids in meteorites. Such syntheses are consistent with the suggestion that interstellar precursors of meteoritic organic compounds accreted on the meteorite parent body together with other ices. Subsequent internal heating of the parent body melted these ices and led to the formation of larger compounds in synthetic reactions during aqueous alteration, which probably occurred at temperatures between 273K and 298K. In the laboratory, imino acids are observed as important by-products of the Strecker synthesis.

  20. Synthesis Of Alkyl Hydroperoxides Via Alkylation Of gem-Dihydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Kyasa, ShivaKumar; Puffer, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Two-fold alkylation of 1,1-dihydroperoxides, followed by hydrolysis of the resulting bisperoxyacetals, provides a convenient method for synthesis of primary and secondary alkyl hydroperoxides. PMID:23469994

  1. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10334 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[(3-[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]pentyl]imino]bis-].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- pentyl]imino]bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10334 Ethanol, 2,2′- pentyl]imino]bis-]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′-...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10334 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[(3-[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]pentyl]imino]bis-].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- pentyl]imino]bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10334 Ethanol, 2,2′- pentyl]imino]bis-]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′-...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10334 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[(3-[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]pentyl]imino]bis-].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- pentyl]imino]bis... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10334 Ethanol, 2,2′- pentyl]imino]bis-]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′-...

  5. Sugar 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart area Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  6. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... problems. Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( ...

  7. Hepatitis B virus direct repeat sequence: imino proton exchange rates and distance and torsion angle restraints from NMR.

    PubMed

    Bishop, K D; Blocker, F J; Egan, W; James, T L

    1994-01-18

    Structural features of a trisdecamer duplex, [d(GGCAGAGGTGAAA).d(TTTCACCTCTGCC)], in solution are being investigated by proton one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. This DNA sequence is comprised of the 11-base-pair direct repeat sequence found in the hepatitis B viral genome with an additional base pair from the genome included on each end to minimize end effects on the 11-bp sequence of interest. The direct repeat sequence occurs twice in the viral genome; both are essential for initiation of DNA synthesis. The critical nature of this sequence suggests it may be a target to control replication of the virus. Elucidation of the structure of the direct repeat sequence could prove to be beneficial in targeting efforts. Structural determination via restrained molecular dynamics requires experimentally derived distance restraints. The ability to determine solution structures of biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy is limited by the quality and quantity of distance and torsion angle restraints that can be extracted from the NMR data. Techniques used to establish these restraints are constantly evolving and improving. Modifications in procedure are applied to the trisdecamer duplex to yield improvements in the determination of sugar conformations from COSY data and a substantial increase in the number of distance restraints typically garnered from 2D NOE intensity data. This increase in the number of distance restraints normally obtained from 2D NOE intensities was accomplished by utilizing a new version of the iterative complete relaxation matrix program MARDIGRAS with intensities extracted from a 2D NOE data set acquired in 90% H2O. The exchange rate of the imino and amino protons with the solvent water protons can now be included in the relaxation matrix calculations, thereby providing more accurate distances when utilizing the 2D NOE cross-peaks involving at least one exchangeable proton. In this lab, analysis of two-quantum-filtered correlation

  8. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  9. Highly selective bis(imino)pyridine iron-catalyzed alkene hydroboration.

    PubMed

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-06-07

    Bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes have been shown to promote the anti-Markovnikov catalytic hydroboration of terminal, internal, and geminal alkenes with high activity and selectivity. The isolated iron dinitrogen compounds offer distinct advantages in substrate scope and overall performance over known precious metal catalysts and previously reported in situ generated iron species.

  10. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  11. A new class of organosuperbases, N-alkyl- and N-aryl-1,3-dialkyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene amines: synthesis, structure, pK(BH+) measurements, and properties.

    PubMed

    Kunetskiy, Roman A; Polyakova, Svetlana M; Vavřík, Jiří; Císařová, Ivana; Saame, Jaan; Nerut, Eva Roos; Koppel, Ivar; Koppel, Ilmar A; Kütt, Agnes; Leito, Ivo; Lyapkalo, Ilya M

    2012-03-19

    A series of stable organosuperbases, N-alkyl- and N-aryl-1,3-dialkyl-4,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene amines, were efficiently synthesized from N,N'-dialkylthioureas and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and their basicities were measured in acetonitrile. The derivatives with tert-alkyl groups on the imino nitrogen were found to be more basic than the tBuP(1) (pyrr) phosphazene base in acetonitrile. The origin of the high basicity of these compounds is discussed. In acetonitrile and in the gas phase, the basicity of the alkylimino derivatives depends on the size of the substituent at the imino group, which influences the degree of aromatization of the imidazole ring, as measured by (13)C NMR chemical shifts or by the calculated ΔNICS(1) aromaticity parameters, as well as on solvation effects. If a wider range of imino-substituents, including electron-acceptor substituents, is treated in the analysis then the influence of aromatization is less predominant and the gas-phase basicity becomes more dependent on the field-inductive effect, polarizability, and resonance effects of the substituent.

  12. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  17. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  18. Conversion of cellulosic materials to sugar

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Mitra, Gautam

    1976-08-03

    A process for the production of sugar, mainly glucose, by the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials, particularly cellulosic wastes, which comprises hydrolyzing the cellulosic material in the presence of cellulase enzyme to produce a sugar solution and recovering from the hydrolysis products a major proportion of the cellulase enzyme used in the hydrolysis reaction for re-use. At least a portion of the required makeup cellulase enzyme is produced in a two-stage operation wherein, in the first stage, a portion of the output sugar solution is utilized to grow a cellulase-secreting microorganism, and, in the second stage, cellulase enzyme formation is induced in the microorganism-containing culture medium by the addition of an appropriate inducer, such as a cellulosic material. Cellulase enzyme is precipitated from the culture liquid by the addition of an organic solvent material, such as a low molecular weight alkyl ketone or alcohol, and the cellulase precipitate is then fed to the hydrolysis reaction.

  19. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a ...

  20. Theoretical study of a novel imino bridged pillar[5]arene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ju; Zuo, Tongfei; Huang, Zhiling; Huan, Long; Gu, Qixin; Gao, Chenxi; Shao, Jingjing

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report a novel imino bridged pillar[5]arene derivative (P5N) for the first time. Four conformers (P5N0, P5N1, P5N12, and P5N13, arising due to the different orientation of Nsbnd H bond of imino bridging group) are obtained by quantum chemical calculations at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) level of theory. The geometries, energies, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of P5N conformers as well as pillar[5]arene (P5) are discussed in detail. The inclusion complexes of paraquat (Pq) with P5N and P5, respectively, are also obtained at the same level of theory. Compared to P5, P5N exhibits better performance in inclusion complexation toward Pq.

  1. Imino-chitosan biopolymeric films. Obtaining, self-assembling, surface and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Marin, Luminita; Ailincai, Daniela; Mares, Mihai; Paslaru, Elena; Cristea, Mariana; Nica, Valentin; Simionescu, Bogdan C

    2015-03-06

    The paper reports the preparation of twelve imino-chitosan biopolymer films by acid condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with various aldehydes, in aqueous medium, followed by slow water removal. FTIR spectroscopy has shown drastic conformation changes of chitosan macromolecular chains—from a stiff coil to a straight one, while wide angle X-ray diffraction evidenced a layered morphology of the biopolymer films. Contact angle and surface free energy determination indicated a higher biocompatibility of the new biopolymers as compared to the chitosan parent, while the microbiological screening demonstrated their self-defense properties against common and virulent pathogen agents. It was concluded that the reversibility of imine forming promotes the self-assembling of imino-chitosan biopolymer films into a lamellar morphology and, on the other hand, the slow release of the antimicrobial aldehyde in the microbiological culture. The obtained results demonstrate that chitosan polyamine is a challenging workbench to functional biodynamic materials.

  2. Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Chikara; Konno, Kotaro; Wasano, Naoya; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2007-12-01

    Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both larvae diets containing different sugar sources (sucrose, glucose or none) with or without sugar-mimic alkaloids from mulberry latex. In S. ricini, addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the sucrose (the major sugar in mulberry leaves) diet reduced both growth and the absorption ratio of sugar, but it reduced neither in B. mori. The midgut soluble sucrase activity of S. ricini was low and inhibited by very low concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids (IC(50)=0.9-8.2microM), but that of B. mori was high and not inhibited even by very high concentrations (IC(50)>1000microM) of sugar-mimic alkaloids. In S. ricini, the addition of sugar-mimic alkaloids to the glucose diet still had considerable negative effects on growth, although it did not reduce the absorption ratio of glucose. The hemolymph of S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids contained sugar-mimic alkaloids. The trehalose concentration in the hemolymph increased significantly in S. ricini fed sugar-mimic alkaloids, but not in B. mori. The trehalase activities of S. ricini were lower and inhibited by lower concentrations of sugar-mimic alkaloids than those of B. mori. These results suggest that sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex exert toxicity to S. ricini larvae first by inhibiting midgut sucrase and digestion of sucrose, and secondly, after being absorbed into hemolymph, by inhibiting trehalase and utilization of trehalose, the major blood sugar. Further, our results reveal that B. mori larvae evolved enzymatic adaptation to mulberry defense by developing sucrase and

  3. Intramolecular hydrogen bond in 3-imino-propenylamine isomers: AIM and NBO studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, H.; Jalbout, Abraham F.; Abbasi, B.; Fazli, F.; Farzad, F.; Nadim, E.; Leon, Aned De

    The molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bond energy of 18 conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were investigated at MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using the standard 6-311++G** basis set. The atom in molecules or AIM theory of Bader, which is based on the topological properties of the electron density (rho), was used additionally and the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was also carried out. Furthermore calculations for all possible conformations of 3-imino-propenyl-amin in water solution were also carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels of theory. The calculated geometrical parameters and conformational analyses in gas phase and water solution show that the imine-amine conformers of this compound are more stable than the other conformers. B3LYP method predicts the IMA-1 as global minimum. This stability is mainly due to the formation of a strong N bond H···N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which is assisted by pi-electrons resonance, and this pi-electrons are established by NH2 functional group. Hydrogen bond energies for all conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were obtained from the related rotamers methods.

  4. Syntheses, structures and magnetic properties of four-spin Mn-Imino nitroxide radical complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xue-Hui; Yang, Shuai-Liang; Li, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Chen-Xi; Wang, Qing-Lun

    2017-04-01

    Based on the nitroxide radicals, four-spin complexes [Mn(hfac)2(IMpPhCl)]2·NITpPhCl (1) and [Mn(hfac)2(IMmPhCl)]2·NITmPhCl (2) (IMpPhCl = 2-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl, IMmPhCl = 2-(3'-chlorophenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl, hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate) have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the structures of the two compounds are similar and the imino nitroxide radical ligand acts as a bridge ligand linking two Mn(II) ions through the oxygen atom of the N-O group to form a four-spin system. Two kinds of nitroxide radicals: nitronyl nitroxide and imino nitroxide radicals coexist in the cyclic Mn(II) complexes. The magnetic studies show that there exists an antiferromagnetic interaction between Mn(II) ions and the imino nitroxide radical ligands, which is explained by spin polarization mechanism. The antiferromagnetic interaction of Mn-Rad in complex 2 (J1 = -9.36 cm-1) is stronger than that in complex 1 (J1 = -9.19 cm-1), which is consistent with crystal structure of complexes (The bond length of the shortest Mn-O in complex 2 (2.1625 Å) is smaller than complex 1 (2.1898 Å)).

  5. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride

  6. Ferromagnetic interactions between imino nitroxides through diamagnetic metal ions: Crystal structures, magnetism, and electronic properties of [M{sup I}(imino nitroxide){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}) (M = Cu{sup I} and Ag{sup I})

    SciTech Connect

    Oshio, Hiroki; Watanabe, Takashi; Ohto, Akihiro

    1997-07-02

    Ferromagnetic interactions between imino nitroxides through Diamagnetic Metal Ions: Crystal Structures, Magnetism, and Electronic Properties of [M{sup I}(imino nitroxide){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}) (M = Cu{sup I} and Ag{sup I}) Cu(I) and Ag(I) complexes with imino nitroxides, [Cu{sup I}-(immepy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}) and [Ag{sup I}(impy){sub 2}](PF{sub 6}), were structurally and magnetically characterized. Magnetic susceptibility and EPR measurements revealed that the magnetic interaction in the Cu(I) complex is ferromagnetic with a J value of 55.1(6) cm{sup -1} (g = 2.0 and H = -JS{sub 1}{center_dot}S{sub 2}), while the Ag(I) complex shows a very weak ferromagnetic interaction. The magnetic behaviors were discussed in terms of orthogonality of magnetic orbitals and metal to ligand charge-transfer interactions.

  7. Unprecedented head-to-head right-handed cross-links between the antitumor bis(mu-N,N'-di-p-tolylformamidinate) dirhodium(II,II) core and the dinucleotide d(ApA) with the adenine bases in the rare imino form.

    PubMed

    Chifotides, Helen T; Dunbar, Kim R

    2007-10-17

    Reactions of the anticancer active compound cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(CH3CN)6](BF4)2 with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtAdeH) or the dinucleotide d(ApA) proceed with bridging adenine bases in the rare imino form (A*), spanning the Rh-Rh bond at equatorial positions via N7/N6. The inflection points for the pH-dependent H2 and H8 NMR resonance curves of cis-[Rh2(DTolF)2(9-EtAdeH)2](BF4)2 correspond to N1H deprotonation of the metal-stabilized rare imino tautomer, which takes place at pKa approximately 7.5 in CD3CN-d3, a considerably reduced value as compared to that of the imino form of 9-EtAdeH. Similarly, coordination of the metal atoms to the N7/N6 adenine sites in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} induces formation of the rare imino tautomer of the bases with a concomitant substantial decrease in the basicity of the N1H sites (pKa approximately 7.0 in CD3CN-d3), as compared to the imino form of the free dinucleotide. The presence of the adenine bases in the rare imino form, due to bidentate metalation of the N6/N7 sites, is further corroborated by DQF-COSY H2/N1H and ROE N1H/N6H cross-peaks in the 2D NMR spectra of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} in CD3CN-d3 at -38 degrees C. Due to the N7/N6 bridging mode of the adenine bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)}, only the anti orientation of the imino tautomer is possible. The imino form A* of adenine in DNA may result in AT-->CG transversions or AT-->GC transitions, which can eventually lead to lethal mutations. The HH arrangement of the bases in Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} is indicated by the H8/H8 NOE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectrum, whereas the formamidinate bridging groups dictate the presence of one right-handed conformer HH1R in solution. Complete characterization of Rh2(DTolF)2{d(ApA)} by 2D NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling supports the presence of the HH1R conformer, anti orientation of both sugar residues about the glycosyl bonds, and N-type conformation for the 5'-A base.

  8. Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.

    PubMed

    Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1987-08-01

    Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients.

  9. Bis{μ-2-meth-oxy-6-[(methyl-imino)-meth-yl]phenolato}bis-({2-meth-oxy-6-[(methyl-imino)-meth-yl]phenolato}copper(II)).

    PubMed

    Sydoruk, Tetyana V; Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C9H10NO2)4], is built of discrete centrosymmetric dimers. The Cu(II) atoms are each five coordinated by two deprotonated Schiff base ligands that are bonded differently to the metal atoms. Of the two phenolate O atoms, one is coordinated to one Cu(II) atom, whereas another bridges the two metal atoms. The basal plane of the square pyramid around Cu(II) atoms is formed by the imino N and phenolate O atoms of the bidentate and the monodentate/bidentate Schiff base ligands. The bridging phenolate oxygen occupies the apical position of the coordination sphere with a considerably longer Cu-O bond length. In the crystal, the dimeric mol-ecules pack relative to each other in such a way that the Cu2O2 planes of adjacent dimers are orthogonal.

  10. rac-2-{[1-(1-Adamant-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}-5-meth-oxy-phenol.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xu-Dong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Jin, Yue-Hong

    2011-09-01

    A novel Schiff base compound, C(20)H(27)NO(2), was obtained by a condensation of rimantadine and 2-hy-droxy-4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond supports the phenol-imine tautomeric form. The adamantane and imino-methyl-4-meth-oxy-phenol units are arranged in a folded conformation [C-N-C-C torsion angle = 110.9 (3)°]. In the crystal, highly hydro-phobic adamantane moieties are inserted between the imino-methyl-4-meth-oxy-phenol units in a sandwich-like arrangement along the c axis.

  11. Outlook for the U. S. alkylation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, J.R.; Bradshaw, T.; McCarthy, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Alkylation has long been recognized in the refining industry as one of the best options to convert refinery olefins into valuable, clean, high octane blending components. In fact, refinery alkylation is a preferred source of blending stocks for reformulated gasoline. However, the hydrofluoric acid (HF) alkylation process and, to a lesser extent, the sulfuric acid (SA) process have come under increasing pressure in the US due to safety and environmental concerns. This paper examines the current outlook for the US alkylation industry including: key trends and driving forces in the industry, the impact of environmental issues on both HF and SA alkylation, US alkylation supply/demand forecast including the outlook for oxygenates, how US refines will respond to the increased demand and restricted supply for alkylates, and the outlook for new solid acid alkylation (SAC) technology.

  12. Total synthesis of alkyl citrate natural products.

    PubMed

    Rizzacasa, Mark A; Sturgess, Dayna

    2014-03-07

    This review highlights the synthesis of members of the alkyl citrate family of natural products. The focus is on the stereoselective construction of the alkyl citrate moiety common to these compounds.

  13. Bis[(E)-4-(hydroxy-imino-meth-yl)pyridinium] oxalate.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Rüdiger W; Winter, Manuela V; Oppel, Iris M

    2007-12-06

    The formula unit of the title compound, 2C(6)H(7)N(2)O(+)·C(2)O(4) (2-), comprises two symmetry-equivalent 4-(hydroxy-imino-meth-yl)-pyridinium cations on general positions, linked through hydrogen bonding via an oxalate anion that resides on a crystallographic centre of symmetry. The crystal structure consists of infinite chains of cations and oxalate anions directed by O-H⋯O and multicentre N-H⋯O inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.

  14. Anomeric Anhydro Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

    Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (Černý epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

  15. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  16. High blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  17. Chichibabin-type direct alkylation of pyridyl alcohols with alkyl lithium reagents.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jenna L; Sarpong, Richmond

    2012-11-02

    Direct C(6) alkylation of pyridyl alcohols can be achieved following an initial deprotonation of the hydroxy group. This transformation, which is believed to occur by a Chichibabin-type alkylation, avoids lateral deprotonation prior to pyridine ring alkylation and gives increased regioselectivity for C(6) over C(4) alkylation.

  18. Refiners discuss HF alkylation process and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    Safety and oxygenate operations made HF alkylation a hot topic of discussion at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. This paper provides answers to a variety of questions regarding the mechanical, process, and safety aspects of the HF alkylation process. Among the issues discussed were mitigation techniques, removal of oxygenates from alkylation unit feed, and amylene alkylation.

  19. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  20. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under...

  1. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ...

  2. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  3. Organometallic mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate using bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mitchell R; Allan, Laura E N; Decken, Andreas; Shaver, Michael P

    2013-07-07

    The synthesis and characterization of one novel proligand and six novel vanadium(III) trichloride complexes is described. The controlled radical polymerization activity towards vinyl acetate of these, and eight other bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes previously reported, is investigated. Those complexes possessing variation at the N-aryl para-position with no steric protection offered by ortho-substituents (4 examples) result in poor control over poly(vinyl acetate) polymerization. Control is improved with increasing steric bulk at the ortho-position of the N-aryl substituent (4 examples) although attempts to increase steric bulk past isopropyl were unsuccessful. Synthesizing bis(imino)pyridine vanadium trichloride complexes with substituted imine backbones restores polymerization control when aliphatic substituents are used (4 examples) but ceases to make any drastic improvements on catalyst lifetime. Modification of the polymerization conditions is also investigated, in an attempt to improve the catalyst lifetime. Expansion of the monomer scope to include other vinyl esters, particularly those derived from renewable resources, shows promising results.

  4. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  5. Methods of making alkyl esters

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  6. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  7. Iron-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Alkyl Etherification of Vinylarenes with Aliphatic Acids as the Alkyl Source.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wujun; Ge, Liang; Jiao, Yihang; Qian, Bo; Bao, Hongli

    2017-03-20

    Because of the lack of effective alkylating reagents, alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups has not been previously reported. In this work, a variety of alkyl diacyl peroxides and peresters generated from aliphatic acids have been found to enable the first iron-catalyzed alkyl etherification of olefins with general alkyl groups. Primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic acids are suitable for this reaction, delivering products with yields up to 97 %. Primary and secondary alcohols react well, affording products in up to 91 % yield.

  8. Identification of an imino group indispensable for cleavage by a small ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Heller, Moriah G; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-05-06

    The hairpin ribozyme is a small, noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that catalyzes a site-specific phosphodiester bond cleavage reaction. Prior biochemical and structural analyses pinpointed the amidine moiety of base Ade38 as a key functional group in catalysis, but base changes designed to probe function resulted in localized misfolding of the active site. To define the requirements for chemical activity using a conservative modification, we synthesized and incorporated N1-deazaadenosine into the full-length ribozyme construct. This single-atom variant severely impairs activity, although the active-site fold remains intact in the accompanying crystal structures. The results demonstrate the essentiality of the imino moiety as well as the importance of its interaction with the substrate in the precatalytic and transition-state conformations. This work demonstrates the efficacy of single-atom approaches in the analysis of ncRNA structure-function relationships.

  9. Diaquabis-[3-(hydroxy-imino-)butanoato]nickel(II): a triclinic polymorph.

    PubMed

    Kalibabchuk, Valentina A; Dudarenko, Nikolay M; Iskenderov, Turganbay S; Malysheva, Maria L; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta

    2010-02-20

    The title centrosymmetric mononuclear complex, [Ni(C(4)H(6)NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], is a polymorph of the previously reported complex [Dudarenko et al. (2010 ▶). Acta Cryst. E66, m277-m278]. The Ni(II) atom, lying on an inversion center, is six-coordinated by two carboxyl-ate O atoms and two oxime N atoms from two trans-disposed chelating 3-hydroxy-imino-butanoate ligands and two axial water mol-ecules in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The hydr-oxy group forms an intra-molecular hydrogen bond with the coordinated carboxyl-ate O atom. The complex mol-ecules are linked in stacks along [010] by a hydrogen bond between the water O atom and the carboxyl-ate O atom of a neighboring mol-ecule. The stacks are further linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a layer parallel to (001).

  10. Direct synthesis of imino-C-nucleoside analogues and other biologically active iminosugars

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; Meanwell, Michael; Britton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Iminosugars have attracted increasing attention as chemical probes, chaperones and leads for drug discovery. Despite several clinical successes, their de novo synthesis remains a significant challenge that also limits their integration with modern high-throughput screening technologies. Herein, we describe a unique synthetic strategy that converts a wide range of acetaldehyde derivatives into iminosugars and imino-C-nucleoside analogues in two or three straightforward transformations. We also show that this strategy can be readily applied to the rapid production of indolizidine and pyrrolizidine iminosugars. The high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity, excellent overall yields, convenience and broad substrate scope make this an appealing process for diversity-oriented synthesis, and should enable drug discovery efforts. PMID:25903019

  11. Bimetallic oxidative addition involving radical intermediates in nickel-catalyzed alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, Jan; Ruiz, Jesus; Wodrich, Matthew D; Hu, Xile

    2013-08-14

    Many nickel-based catalysts have been reported for cross-coupling reactions of nonactivated alkyl halides. The mechanistic understanding of these reactions is still primitive. Here we report a mechanistic study of alkyl-alkyl Kumada coupling catalyzed by a preformed nickel(II) pincer complex ([(N2N)Ni-Cl]). The coupling proceeds through a radical process, involving two nickel centers for the oxidative addition of alkyl halide. The catalysis is second-order in Grignard reagent, first-order in catalyst, and zero-order in alkyl halide. A transient species, [(N2N)Ni-alkyl(2)](alkyl(2)-MgCl), is identified as the key intermediate responsible for the activation of alkyl halide, the formation of which is the turnover-determining step of the catalysis.

  12. Reactions of Tributylstannyl Anioniods with Alkyl Bromides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-28

    g (12 mmol) of cesium tert-butoxide was added to the reaction vessel before the addition of n-butyllithium. Alkylation of Tributylstannyl Anionoids...Dry reaction vessels were purged with argon. The desired alkyl halide (1.0 mmol unless noted) and any desired additive were added to the reaction ...OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-79-C-0584 Task No. NR 053-714 TECHNICAL REPORT No. 2 Reactions of Tributylstannyl Anionoids with Alkyl

  13. Photoinduced amino-imino tautomerization reaction in 2-aminopyrimidine and its methyl derivatives with acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Teruyoshi; Hikita, Atushi; Ishikawa, Hironori; Fujimoto, Akira

    2005-12-01

    The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of 2-aminopyrimidine (2APM), 2-amino-4-methylpyrimidine (2A4MPM), and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (2ADMPM) with acetic acid (AcOH) were measured in isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) at room temperature. From the absorption spectra, a hydrogen-bonded complex formation of the 2APM/AcOH, 2A4MPM/AcOH, and 2ADMPM/AcOH systems was recognized in isooctane. The enthalpy changes (-Δ H) for the complex formation were estimated to be ca. 41.2-45.1 kJ mol -1 and increased in proportion to the numbers of the methyl group introduced into the 2APM. The -Δ H values refer to the formation of the hydrogen-bonded 1:1 complex between the ring nitrogen atom and NH 2 group of the aminopyrimidine and the OH and C dbnd O groups of AcOH, respectively. In the 2A4MPM/AcOH double hydrogen-bonded complex the OH group of AcOH is thought to be linked to the ring nitrogen at the 1-postion of 2A4MPM. The fluorescence spectral results indicate that the double proton transfer reaction takes place during the excited state, and gives rise to an imino-tautomer vibration emission, from analogy with the fluorescences of 1-methyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinimine (MPMI), 1,4-dimethyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinimine (DMPMI), and 1,4,6-trimethyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinimine (TMPMI). The fluorescence quantum yields of the imino-tautomers also increased in proportion to the numbers of the methyl group introduced into the 2APM.

  14. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  15. Inhibitory properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) derivatives acting on glycogen metabolising enzymes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Concia, Alda Lisa; Gómez, Livia; Clapés, Pere; Fita, Ignacio; Guinovart, Joan J; Ferrer, Joan C

    2016-09-26

    Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP. We studied the inhibitory effect of DAB, its enantiomer LAB, and 29 DAB derivatives on the activity of rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase (RMGP) and E. coli glycogen synthase (EcGS). The isoform 4 of sucrose synthase (SuSy4) from Solanum tuberosum L. was also included in the study for comparative purposes. Although these three enzymes possess highly conserved catalytic site architectures, the DAB derivatives analysed showed extremely diverse inhibitory potential. Subtle changes in the positions of crucial residues in their active sites are sufficient to discriminate among the structural differences of the tested inhibitors. For the two Leloir-type enzymes, EcGS and SuSy4, which use sugar nucleotides as donors, the inhibitory potency of the compounds analysed was synergistically enhanced by more than three orders of magnitude in the presence of ADP and UDP, respectively. Our results are consistent with a model in which these compounds bind to the subsite in the active centre of the enzymes that is normally occupied by the glucosyl residue which is transferred between donor and acceptor substrates. The ability to selectively inhibit the catalytic activity of the key enzymes of the glycogen metabolism may represent a new approach for the treatment of disorders of the glycogen metabolism.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl esters (generic name). 721.1875 Section 721.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  1. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  2. Sugar-oligoamides: synthesis of DNA minor groove binders.

    PubMed

    Badía, Concepción; Souard, Florence; Vicent, Cristina

    2012-12-07

    Sugar-oligoamides have been designed and synthesized as structurally simple carbohydrate-based ligands to study carbohydrate-minor groove DNA interactions. Here we report an efficient solution-phase synthetic strategy to obtain two broad families of sugar-oligoamides. The first type, structure vector A (-Py[Me]-γ-Py-Ind), has a methyl group present as a substituent on the nitrogen of pyrrole B, connected to the C terminal of the oligoamide fragment. The second type, structure vector B (-Py[(CH(2))(11)OH]-γ-Py-Ind), has an alkyl chain present on the nitrogen of pyrrole B connected to the C terminal of the oligoamide fragment and has been designed to access to di- and multivalent sugar-oligoamides. By using sequential DIPC/HOBt coupling reactions, the oligoamide fragment -Py[R]-γ-Py-Ind has been constructed. The last coupling reaction between the anomeric amino sugar and the oligoamide fragment was carried out by activating the acid derivative as a BtO- ester, which has been performed by using TFFH. The isolated esters (BtO-Py[R]-γ-Py-Ind) were coupled with selected amino sugars using DIEA in DMF. The synthesis of two different selective model vectors (vector A (1) and vector B (2)) and two types of water-soluble sugar-oligoamide ligands, with vector A structure (compounds 3-7) and with vector B structure (compound 8), was carried out.

  3. Regioselective synthesis of novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole and 2,2‧-(1,3-phenylene)bis(3-substituted-2-imino-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole) derivatives as antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Shiran, Jafar; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Rassa, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    Several novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of allyl-thioureas and 2-bromoacetophenone. We also report the synthesis of bis-allyl-3H thiazoles using the reaction of various isothiocyanates and 1,3-phenylenediamine. The structures of all compounds were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited efficient antibacterial activities against Salmonella enterica, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes supported by indolyl ligands in μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) hapticities and their high catalytic activity for isoprene 1,4-cis-polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangchao; Wei, Yun; Guo, Liping; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu; Zhou, Shuangliu; Mu, Xiaolong

    2015-02-02

    Two series of new dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes supported by indolyl ligands in novel μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) hapticities are synthesized and characterized. Treatment of [RE(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 ] with 1 equivalent of 3-(tBuN=CH)C8 H5 NH (L1 ) in THF gives the dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes trans-[(μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) -3-{tBuNCH(CH2 SiMe3 )}Ind)RE(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (Ind=indolyl, RE=Y, Dy, or Yb) in good yields. In the process, the indole unit of L1 is deprotonated by the metal alkyl species and the imino C=N group is transferred to the amido group by alkyl CH2 SiMe3 insertion, affording a new dianionic ligand that bridges two metal alkyl units in μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) bonding modes, forming the dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes. When L1 is reduced to 3-(tBuNHCH2 )C8 H5 NH (L2 ), the reaction of [Yb(CH2 SiMe3 )3 (thf)2 ] with 1 equivalent of L2 in THF, interestingly, generated the trans-[(μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) -3-{tBuNCH2 }Ind)Yb(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (major) and cis-[(μ-η(2) :η(1) :η(1) -3-{tBuNCH2 }Ind)Yb(thf)(CH2 SiMe3 )]2 (minor) complexes. The catalytic activities of these dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes for isoprene polymerization were investigated; the yttrium and dysprosium complexes exhibited high catalytic activities and high regio- and stereoselectivities for isoprene 1,4-cis-polymerization.

  5. Fungitoxic effects of nonprotein imino acids on growth of saprophytic fungi isolated from the leaf surface of Calliandra haematocephala.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, S A; Romeo, J T

    1986-01-01

    Four saprophytic and pathogenic fungi were isolated from the leaf surface of Calliandra haematocephala, a tropical legume known to contain large amounts of rare nonprotein imino acids in its leaves and seeds. The fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sp., Curvularia sp., and Penicillium sp. were cultured in the laboratory and tested for susceptibility to leaf extracts of the host plant and to proline, pipecolic acid, cis-5-hydroxypipecolic acid, and 2,4-trans-4,5-cis-4,5-dihydroxypipecolic acid. Fungal spore germination and germ tube growth were measured. Aspergillus sp. was inhibited by plant extracts and by pipecolic acid and cis-5-hydroxypipecolic acid. Curvularia sp. growth was stimulated by plant extracts and by pipecolic acid. The other two fungi were unaffected by any of the treatments. The data indicate that imino acids may play a role in the specific resistance of Calliandra spp. to Aspergillus sp. PMID:3707119

  6. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  7. Antitumor activity of phenylene bridged binuclear bis(imino-quinolyl)palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Motswainyana, William M; Onani, Martin O; Madiehe, Abram M; Saibu, Morounke

    2014-04-01

    Antitumor effects of a known bis(imino-quinolyl)palladium(II) complex 1 and its newly synthesized platinum(II) analogue 2 were evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines. The complexes gave cytotoxicity profiles that were better than the reference drug cisplatin. The highest cytotoxic activities were pronounced in complex 2 across the two examined cancer cell lines. Both compounds represent potential active drugs based on bimetallic complexes.

  8. S-alkylation of soft scorpionates.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan-Nair, Rajeev; Moore, Dean; Chalmers, Kirsten; Wallace, Dawn; Diamond, Louise M; Darby, Lisa; Armstrong, David R; Reglinski, John; Spicer, Mark D

    2013-02-11

    The alkylation reactions of soft scorpionates are reported. The hydrotris(S-alkyl-methimazolyl)borate dications (alkyl = methyl, allyl, benzyl), which were prepared by the reaction of Tm(Me) anion and primary alkyl halides, have been isolated and structurally characterised. The reaction is, however, not universally successful. DFT analysis of these alkylation reactions (C=S versus B-H alkylation) indicates that the observed outcome is driven by kinetic factors. Extending the study to incorporate alternative imine thiones (mercaptobenzothiazole, bz; thiazoline, tz) led to the structural characterisation of di[aquo-μ-aquohydrotris(mercaptobenzothiazolyl)boratosodium], which contains sodium atoms in the κ(3)-S,S,S coordination mode. Alkylation of Na[Tbz] and Na[tzTtz] leads to decomposition resulting in the formation of the simple S-alkylated heterocycles. The analysis of the species involved in these reactions shows an inherent weakness in the B-N bond in soft scorpionates, which has implications for their use in more advanced chemistry.

  9. Occupational asthma due to alkyl cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, T. )

    1990-08-01

    A case of bronchial asthma induced by occupational exposure to alkyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive, occurred in an assembly operation. Provocative exposure testing induced immediate and delayed asthmatic responses. Alkyl cyanoacrylate seemed to act as an allergen or as an irritant, resulting in the development of asthma.

  10. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  11. The imino amino tautomeric equilibrium in cyanoguanidine dissolved in several aprotic solvents; an FT-Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alía, J. M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; García Navarro, F. J.

    2001-10-01

    The FT-Raman spectra of cyanoguanidine solutions in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPA), in a range of concentrations between R=3 and R=10 ( R=solvent/solute mole ratio), are studied. The intense doublet that appears in the spectral region of the nitrile stretching fundamental is attributed to the presence of the imino (2147 cm -1) and amino (2186 cm -1) tautomeric forms. Furthermore, a shoulder located in the higher frequency wing that could arise from cyanoguanidine molecules associated through hydrogen bonds affecting the nitrogen atom of the nitrile group. When the solute concentration is increased, the relative intensity of that band arising from the imino tautomer increases and a further increase of the associated species can also be observed. These observations are common for the three solvents studied. The concentration of the imino form strongly depends on the solvent, increasing in the order DMF

  12. Hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (PIEEK) for fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guanjun; Shang, Zhenfang; Yang, Li

    2015-05-01

    A new diamine monomer, 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine, is prepared by the palladium catalyzed C-N coupling reaction and the following reduction reaction of 3-bromoanisole and m-anisidine. A series of novel hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (SPIEEK) are obtained by the copolymerization of sodium 5,5‧-carbonylbis(2-fluorobenzene sulfonate), 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone with 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine. The structures of resulting polymers are characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis; the results show an agreement with the proposed structure. The resulting SPIEEK membranes display much better resistance to swelling than these without imino groups due to the strong interchain interaction through imino and sulfonic acid groups. The SPIEEK-60 and SPIEEK-80 membrane show the proton conductivity of 0.118 and 0.154 S cm-1 at 80 °C which is higher than Nafion 117 (0.082 S cm-1 at 80 °C). Moreover, the SPIEEK membranes exhibit good mechanical properties and lower methanol permeability due to the hydrogen bondings between the polymer chains.

  13. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  15. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  16. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  17. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  18. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  19. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  1. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  2. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Regioselectivity of Birch reductive alkylation of biaryls.

    PubMed

    Lebeuf, Raphaël; Robert, Frédéric; Landais, Yannick

    2005-10-13

    [reaction: see text] The regioselectivity of the Birch reductive alkylation of polysubstituted biaryls has been investigated. Results indicate that regioselectivity is affected by the electronic nature of substituents on both aromatic rings. The electron-rich 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl moiety is selectively reduced and then alkylated, while phenols and aniline are not dearomatized under these conditions. Biaryls possessing a phenol moiety are alkylated on the second ring, providing that the acidic proton has been removed prior to the Li/NH3 reduction.

  4. Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 μM, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced.

  5. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  6. 21 CFR 176.120 - Alkyl ketene dimers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alkyl ketene dimers. 176.120 Section 176.120 Food... Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.120 Alkyl ketene dimers. Alkyl ketene dimers may... section. (a) The alkyl ketene dimers are manufactured by the dehydrohalogenation of the acyl...

  7. Ruthenium-catalyzed meta/ortho-selective C-H alkylation of azoarenes using alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Ma, Xingxing; Jia, Chunqi; Han, Qingqing; Wang, Ya; Wang, Junjie; Yu, Liuyang; Yang, Suling

    2017-01-19

    meta/ortho-Selective CAr-H (di)alkylation reactions of azoarenes have been achieved via [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2 catalyzed ortho-metalation using various types of alkyl bromides. Particularly, dual meta-alkylation of azoarene and reduction offer an attractive strategy for the synthesis of meta-alkylanilines, which are difficult to access via traditional aniline functionalization methods.

  8. Alkylation of Staurosporine to Derive a Kinase Probe for Fluorescence Applications

    PubMed Central

    Disney, Alexander J. M.; Kellam, Barrie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The natural product staurosporine is a high‐affinity inhibitor of nearly all mammalian protein kinases. The labelling of staurosporine has proven effective as a means of generating protein kinase research tools. Most tools have been generated by acylation of the 4′‐methylamine of the sugar moiety of staurosporine. Herein we describe the alkylation of this group as a first step to generate a fluorescently labelled staurosporine. Following alkylation, a polyethylene glycol linker was installed, allowing subsequent attachment of fluorescein. We report that this fluorescein–staurosporine conjugate binds to cAMP‐dependent protein kinase in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, its binding can be antagonised with unmodified staurosporine as well as ATP, indicating it targets the ATP binding site in a similar fashion to native staurosporine. This reagent has potential application as a screening tool for protein kinases of interest. PMID:27008372

  9. Alkylation of Staurosporine to Derive a Kinase Probe for Fluorescence Applications.

    PubMed

    Disney, Alexander J M; Kellam, Barrie; Dekker, Lodewijk V

    2016-05-06

    The natural product staurosporine is a high-affinity inhibitor of nearly all mammalian protein kinases. The labelling of staurosporine has proven effective as a means of generating protein kinase research tools. Most tools have been generated by acylation of the 4'-methylamine of the sugar moiety of staurosporine. Herein we describe the alkylation of this group as a first step to generate a fluorescently labelled staurosporine. Following alkylation, a polyethylene glycol linker was installed, allowing subsequent attachment of fluorescein. We report that this fluorescein-staurosporine conjugate binds to cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, its binding can be antagonised with unmodified staurosporine as well as ATP, indicating it targets the ATP binding site in a similar fashion to native staurosporine. This reagent has potential application as a screening tool for protein kinases of interest.

  10. Carboxylate-Assisted Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Amination of Arenes with Biologically Relevant Alkyl Azides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Tiantian; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Lu, Hongjian

    2016-02-24

    An iridium-catalyzed C-H amination of arenes with a wide substrate scope is reported. Benzamides with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups and linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl azides are all applicable. Cesium carboxylate is crucial for both reactivity and regioselectivity of the reactions. Many biologically relevant molecules, such as amino acid, peptide, steroid, sugar, and thymidine derivatives can be introduced to arenes with high yields and 100 % chiral retention.

  11. [Sugar and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Gómez Morales, Luis; Beltrán Romero, Luis Matías; García Puig, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Spanish population and may be a relationship between the prevalence of these and excessive sugar consumption. In recent years, researchers have focused on the properties of these nutrients. Although there are many studies examining this association, the results are not unanimous. In any case there is sufficient basis for designing public health strategies in order to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the question we address is: sugar intake in abundant amounts, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease? We use as the focus of the discussion SAFO analysis model.

  12. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  13. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

  14. N-Alkylation by Hydrogen Autotransfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiantao; Su, Chenliang; Xu, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the importance of amine/amide derivatives in all fields of chemistry, and also the green and environmentally benign features of using alcohols as alkylating reagents, the relatively high atom economic dehydrative N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols through hydrogen autotransfer processes have received much attention and have developed rapidly in recent decades. Various efficient homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal catalysts, nano materials, electrochemical methods, biomimetic methods, asymmetric N-alkylation reactions, aerobic oxidative methods, and even certain transition metal-free, catalyst-free, or autocatalyzed methods, have also been developed in recent years. With a brief introduction to the background and developments in this area of research, this chapter focuses mainly on recent progress and technical and conceptual advances contributing to the development of this research in the last decade. In addition to mainstream research on homogeneous and heterogeneous transition metal-catalyzed reactions, possible mechanistic routes for hydrogen transfer and alcohol activation, which are key processes in N-alkylation reactions but seldom discussed in the past, the recent reports on computational mechanistic studies of the N-alkylation reactions, and the newly emerged N-alkylation methods based on novel alcohol activation protocols such as air-promoted reactions and transition metal-free methods, are also reviewed in this chapter. Problems and bottlenecks that remained to be solved in the field, and promising new research that deserves greater future attention and effort, are also reviewed and discussed.

  15. The Liquid Glass Transition in Sugars and Sugar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The liquid-glass transition in sugars and sugar mixtures was studied with calorimetry, Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. Sugars are particular interest among other glass forming materials because sugars are main constitution of the biological system and sugar glasses play an important role in preservation and protection of biological cells. We studied a number of sugars and sugar mixtures including glucose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, glucose/sucrose, sucrose/trehalose, using calorimetry (DTA and DSC), Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. We found the following: (1) Brillouin scattering technique can be used to determine the glass transition temperature. (2) In sugar mixtures, the volume compression effect from the molecule size and shape played an important role in the glass transition temperature. (3) The origin of the secondary relaxation in glucose-water mixtures maybe relate to the rotation-translation coupling constant in the schematic mode coupling theory.

  16. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Heterocycles and Related Substances Based on α-Imino Rhodium Carbene Complexes Derived from N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Sun, Run; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, α-imino rhodium carbene complexes derived by ring-opening of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles have attracted much attention from organic chemists. Many transformations of these species have been reported that involve, in most cases, nucleophilic attack at the carbene center of the α-imino rhodium carbene, facilitating the synthesis of a wide range of novel and useful compounds, particularly heterocycles. This Minireview mainly focuses on advances in the transformation of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles during the past two years.

  17. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  19. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  20. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  1. Bis(6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)-meth-yl]-imino-meth-yl}phenolato)-copper(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiutang; Wei, Peihai; Dou, Jianmin; Li, Bin; Hu, Bo

    2009-01-08

    In the title compound, [Cu(C(12)H(16)NO(5))(2)]·2H(2)O, the Cu(II) ion adopts a trans-CuN(2)O(4) octa-hedral geometry arising from two N,O,O'-tridentate 6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]-imino-meth-yl}phenolate ligands. The Jahn-Teller distortion of the copper centre is unusally small. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, some of which are bifurcated, link the component species.

  2. (Z)-Ethyl 2-hydroxy­imino-2-(4-nitro­benz­yl)ethanoate

    PubMed Central

    Caracelli, Ignez; Trindade, Antonio C.; Moran, Paulo J. S.; Hinoue, Luciana; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C11H10N2O6, has a Z conformation about the C=N bond of the oxime unit. There are significant twists from planarity throughout the mol­ecule, the most significant being between the hydroxy­imino and ester groups which are effectively orthogonal with an N—C—C—Ocarbon­yl torsion angle of 91.4 (2)°. The crystal packing features oxime–benzoyl O—H⋯O contacts that lead to chains along [010] and C—H⋯O interactions also occur. PMID:21580028

  3. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  4. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Ligand-Accelerated ortho-C–H Alkylation of Arylcarboxylic Acids Using Alkyl Boron Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Thuy-Boun, Peter S.; Villa, Giorgio; Dang, Devin; Richardson, Paul; Su, Shun; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    A protocol for the Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H alkylation of phenylacetic and benzoic acids using alkylboron reagents is disclosed. Mono-protected amino acid ligands (MPAA) were found to significantly promote reactivity. Both potassium alkyltrifluoroborates and alkylboronic acids were compatible coupling partners. The possibility of a radical alkyl transfer to Pd(II) was also investigated. PMID:24124892

  6. DNA adducts of antitumor trans-[PtCl2 (E-imino ether)2].

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, V; Vrána, O; Nováková, O; Kleinwächter, V; Intini, F P; Coluccia, M; Natile, G

    1996-01-01

    It has been shown recently that some analogues of clinically ineffective trans-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (transplatin) exhibit antitumor activity. This finding has inverted the empirical structure-antitumor activity relationships delineated for platinum(II) complexes, according to which only the cis geometry of leaving ligands in the bifunctional platinum complexes is therapeutically active. As a result, interactions of trans platinum compounds with DNA, which is the main pharmacological target of platinum anticancer drugs, are of great interest. The present paper describes the DNA binding of antitumor trans-[PtCl(2)(E-imino ether)(2)] complex (trans-EE) in a cell-free medium, which has been investigated using three experimental approaches. They involve thiourea as a probe of monofunctional DNA adducts of platinum (II) complexes with two leaving ligands in the trans configuration, ethidium bromide as a probe for distinguishing between monofunctional and bifunctional DNA adducts of platinum complexes and HPLC analysis of the platinated DNA enzymatically digested to nucleosides. The results show that bifunctional trans-EE preferentially forms monofunctional adducts at guanine residues in double-helical DNA even when DNA is incubated with the platinum complex for a relatively long time (48 h at 37 degrees C in 10 mM NaCIO(4). It implies that antitumor trans-EE modifies DNA in a different way than clinically ineffective transplatin, which forms prevalent amount of bifunctional DNA adducts after 48 h. This result has been interpreted to mean that the major adduct of trans-EE, occurring in DNA even after long reaction times, is a monofunctional adduct in which the reactivity of the second leaving group is markedly reduced. It has been suggested that the different properties of the adducts formed on DNA by transplatin and trans-EE are relevant to their distinct clinical efficacy. PMID:8628659

  7. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often blame candies ... children get unruly. Some insist that sugar triggers hyperactivity . However, when put to the test, the sugar- ...

  8. Alkylation of isobutane with light olefins: Yields of alkylates for different olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.; Kranz, K.E.; Masters, K.R.

    1993-12-01

    For alkylation of isobutane with C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} olefins using sulfuric acid as the catalyst, the yields of alkylates with different olefins are compared as the operating conditions are changed. The results of recent pilot plant experiments with propylene, C{sub 4} olefins, and C{sub 5} olefins permit such comparisons. The yields expressed as weight of alkylate produced per 100 wt of olefin consumed varied from about 201:100 to 220:100. Weight ratios of the isobutane consumed per olefin consumed vary from about 101:100 to 120:100. differences of yield values are explained by the changes in the overall chemistry. The procedure employed to calculate yields with good accuracy is based on the analysis of the alkylate and the amount of conjunct polymers produced. Based on literature data, yields are also reported for alkylations using HF as the catalyst.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Alkyl Sulfenate Anions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tiezheng; Zhang, Mengnan; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Carol Y; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-11-04

    A unique palladium-catalyzed arylation of alkyl sulfenate anions is introduced that affords aryl alkyl sulfoxides in high yields. Due to the base sensitivity of the starting sulfoxides, sulfenate anion intermediates, and alkyl aryl sulfoxide products, the use of a mild method to generate alkyl sulfenate anions was crucial to the success of this process. Thus, a fluoride triggered elimination strategy was employed with alkyl 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl sulfoxides to liberate the requisite alkyl sulfenate anion intermediates. In the presence of palladium catalysts with bulky monodentate phosphines (SPhos and Cy-CarPhos) and aryl bromides or chlorides, alkyl sulfenate anions were readily arylated. Moreover, the thermal fragmentation and the base promoted elimination of alkyl sulfoxides was overridden. The alkyl sulfenate anion arylation exhibited excellent chemoselectivity in the presence of functional groups, such as anilines and phenols, which are also known to undergo palladium catalyzed arylation reactions.

  10. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  11. DNA alkylation lesions and their repair in human cells: modification of the comet assay with 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD).

    PubMed

    Hašplová, Katarína; Hudecová, Alexandra; Magdolénová, Zuzana; Bjøras, Magnar; Gálová, Eliška; Miadoková, Eva; Dušinská, Mária

    2012-01-05

    3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD) belongs to a new family of DNA glycosylases; it initiates repair of cytotoxic and promutagenic alkylated bases (its main substrates being 3-methyladenine and 7-methylguanine). The modification of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) using AlkD enzyme thus allows assessment of specific DNA alkylation lesions. The resulting baseless sugars are alkali-labile, and under the conditions of the alkaline comet assay they appear as DNA strand breaks. The alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) was used to induce alkylation lesions and to optimize conditions for the modified comet assay method with AlkD on human lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells. We also studied cellular and in vitro DNA repair of alkylated bases in DNA in TK6 cells after treatment with MMS. Results from cellular repair indicate that 50% of DNA alkylation is repaired in the first 60 min. The in vitro repair assay shows that while AlkD recognises most alkylation lesions after 60 min, a cell extract from TK6 cells recognises most of the MMS-induced DNA adducts already in the first 15 min of incubation, with maximum detection of lesions after 60 min' incubation. Additionally, we tested the in vitro repair capacity of human lymphocyte extracts from 5 individuals and found them to be able to incise DNA alkylations in the same range as AlkD. The modification of the comet assay with AlkD can be useful for in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies to detect alkylation damage and repair and also for human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  12. [Sugar's introduction in apothecary].

    PubMed

    Plouvier, L

    1999-01-01

    In ancient times, the medicaments used to be sweetened with honey. Subsequently, the Arab apothecaries progressively replaced it by sugar, as witnessed by their formularies, that were known as grabadins. These were introduced to the West as from the XIth century A.D. The latin world also produced its very own formularies, of which the Antidotarium magnum (circa 1100) and the Antidotarium Mesuae (appearing at around the same period) are the most famous. The latter accords to sugar a place of honour and has recourse to it for the best part of the formulae intended for internal usage (namely syrops, julebs, electuaries, loochs, aromatic powders, condita, conservae, etc.) whilst not abandoning the use of honey.

  13. Chiral Alkyl Halides: Underexplored Motifs in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gál, Bálint; Bucher, Cyril; Burns, Noah Z.

    2016-01-01

    While alkyl halides are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry, their use as bioactive motifs in drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is rare in comparison. This is likely attributable to the common misconception that these compounds are merely non-specific alkylators in biological systems. A number of chlorinated compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries, as well as a growing number of halogenated marine natural products showing unique bioactivity, illustrate the role that chiral alkyl halides can play in drug discovery. Through a series of case studies, we demonstrate in this review that these motifs can indeed be stable under physiological conditions, and that halogenation can enhance bioactivity through both steric and electronic effects. Our hope is that, by placing such compounds in the minds of the chemical community, they may gain more traction in drug discovery and inspire more synthetic chemists to develop methods for selective halogenation. PMID:27827902

  14. Pyrolysis of table sugar.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Adnan; Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro- α -d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  15. Transition metal-free decarboxylative alkylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guanghui; Sun, Peipei

    2016-11-22

    This review summarizes advances in the decarboxylative alkylation of carboxylic acids and their derivatives under transition metal-free conditions in recent years. Unlike most transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reactions which tend to undergo catalytic cycles, the mechanisms of reactions under metal-free conditions are usually diverse and even ambiguous in some cases. This article offers an overview of reaction types and their corresponding mechanisms, highlights some of the advantages and limitations, and focuses on introducing UV and visible light-induced, organocatalyst and peroxide promoted radical processes for decarboxylative alkylation and the formation of C-C bonds.

  16. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1992-10-01

    Seven ferulic acid esters of 1-alkanols ranging in carbon length from C16 to C28 were synthesized and an HPLC protocol for their separation developed. Extracts prepared from wound healing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and analysed by HPLC indicated that alkyl ferulate esters begin to accumulate 3-7 days after wound treatment. Of the nine esters identified by EIMS, (including two esters of odd chain length alkanols) hexadecyl and octadecyl ferulates were predominant. Alkyl ferulate esters were restricted to the wound periderm.

  17. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  18. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  19. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  20. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  4. IONIC LIQUID-CATALYZED ALKYLATION OF ISOBUTANE WITH 2-BUTENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed study of the alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene in ionic liquid media has been conducted using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium halides?aluminum chloride encompassing various alkyl groups (butyl-, hexyl-, and octyl-) and halides (Cl, Br, and I) on its cations and anions,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10233 - Linear alkyl epoxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10233 Linear alkyl epoxide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as linear alkyl epoxide (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4136 - Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4136 Alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkyl heteropolycyclic-aniline (PMN P-00-0067) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5769 - Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols... Substances § 721.5769 Mixture of nitrated alkylated phenols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a mixture of nitrated alkylated...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10699 - Polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10699 Polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyfluorinated alkyl thio acrylamide (PMN P-11-529) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2420 - Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salt. 721.2420 Section 721.2420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2420 Alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt. (a... generically as an alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salt (PMN P-91-288) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2410 - Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkyl sulfate salts. 721.2410 Section 721.2410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2410 Alkoxylated alkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts. (a... generically as alkoxylated dialkyldiethylenetriamine, alkyl sulfate salts (PMN P-94-325, 326, and 327)...

  6. Copper-catalyzed radical carbooxygenation: alkylation and alkoxylation of styrenes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhixiong; Yi, Hong; Li, Zheng; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Deng, Zixin; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    A simple copper-catalyzed direct radical carbooxygenation of styrenes is developed utilizing alkyl bromides as radical resources. This catalytic radical difunctionalization accomplishes both alkylation and alkoxylation of styrenes in one pot. A broad range of styrenes and alcohols are well tolerated in this transformation. The EPR experiment shows that alkyl halides could oxidize Cu(I) to Cu(II) in this transformation.

  7. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation

    DOEpatents

    Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Li, Yan; Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2015-04-21

    A new and efficient method of functionalizing high molecular weight polymers through alkylation using a metal amide base is described. This novel procedure can also be used to synthesize polymer-based macro-initiators containing radical initiating groups at the chain-ends for synthesis of block copolymers.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan alkyl urea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jiang, Ji-Zhou; Chen, Wei; Bai, Zheng-Wu

    2016-07-10

    Chitosan is a versatile material employed for various purposes in many fields including the development of chiral stationary phases for enantioseparation. Chitosan alkyl urea is a kind of intermediate used to prepare enantioseparation materials. In order to synthesize the intermediates, in the present work, a new way to prepare chitosan alkyl urea has been established: chitosan was first reacted with methyl chloroformate yielding N-methoxyformylated chitosan, which was then converted to chitosan alkyl urea through amine-ester exchange reaction. With a large excess of methyl chloroformate and primary amine of low stereohindrance, the amino group in chitosan could be almost completely converted to ureido group. The as-prepared chitosan alkyl urea derivatives were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR,(1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra. The chemical shifts of hydrogen and carbon atoms of glucose unit were assigned. It was found that the degree of substitution was obviously lower if cyclopropyl amine, aniline, tert-butyl amine and diethyl amine were used as reactants for the amine-ester exchange reaction. The reason was explained with the aid of theoretical calculations.

  14. 77 FR 72747 - Alkyl(C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers.../reproductive screening test (OECD 422) toxicity study on a representative N- alkyl(C 8 -C 18... in the reproductive or developmental parameters examined. No systemic toxicity was observed in...

  15. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review.

  16. Oxidation and reduction of bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes: evidence for formation of a chelate trianion.

    PubMed

    Tondreau, Aaron M; Stieber, S Chantal E; Milsmann, Carsten; Lobkovsky, Emil; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-01-18

    Oxidation and reduction of the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen compound, ((iPr)PDI)FeN(2) ((iPr)PDI = 2,6-(2,6-(i)Pr(2)-C(6)H(3)-N═CMe)(2)C(5)H(3)N) has been examined to determine whether the redox events are metal or ligand based. Treatment of ((iPr)PDI)FeN(2) with [Cp(2)Fe][BAr(F)(4)] (BAr(F)(4) = B(3,5-(CF(3))(2)-C(6)H(3))(4)) in diethyl ether solution resulted in N(2) loss and isolation of [((iPr)PDI)Fe(OEt(2))][BAr(F)(4)]. The electronic structure of the compound was studied by SQUID magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, EPR and zero-field (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. These data, supported by computational studies, established that the overall quartet ground state arises from a high spin iron(II) center (S(Fe) = 2) antiferromagnetically coupled to a bis(imino)pyridine radical anion (S(PDI) = 1/2). Thus, the oxidation event is principally ligand based. The one electron reduction product, [Na(15-crown-5)][((iPr)PDI)FeN(2)], was isolated following addition of sodium naphthalenide to ((iPr)PDI)FeN(2) in THF followed by treatment with the crown ether. Magnetic, spectroscopic, and computational studies established a doublet ground state with a principally iron-centered SOMO arising from an intermediate spin iron center and a rare example of trianionic bis(imino)pyridine chelate. Reduction of the iron dinitrogen complex where the imine methyl groups have been replaced by phenyl substituents, ((iPr)BPDI)Fe(N(2))(2) resulted in isolation of both the mono- and dianionic iron dinitrogen compounds, [((iPr)BPDI)FeN(2)](-) and [((iPr)BPDI)FeN(2)](2-), highlighting the ability of this class of chelate to serve as an effective electron reservoir to support neutral ligand complexes over four redox states.

  17. Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Dinitrogen Compounds Revisited: Differences in Electronic Structure Between Four- and Five-Coordinate Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    E. Stieber, S. Chantal; Milsmann, Carsten; Hoyt, Jordan M.; Turner, Zoë R.; Finkelstein, Kenneth D.; Wieghardt, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of the four- and five-coordinate aryl-substituted bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrPDI)FeN2 and (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2 (iPrPDI = 2,6-(2,6-iPr2-C6H3-N=CMe)2C5H3N), have been investigated by a combination of spectroscopic techniques (NMR, Mössbauer, X-ray Absorption and X-ray Emission) and DFT calculations. Homologation of the imine methyl backbone to ethyl or isopropyl groups resulted in the preparation of the new bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrRPDI)FeN2 (iPrRPDI = 2,6-(2,6-iPr2-C6H3-N=CR)2C5H3N; R = Et, iPr), that are exclusively four coordinate both in the solid state and in solution. The spectroscopic and computational data establish that the (iPrRPDI)FeN2 compounds are intermediate spin ferrous derivatives (SFe = 1) antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine triplet diradical dianions (SPDI = 1). While this ground state description is identical to that previously reported for (iPrPDI)Fe(DMAP) (DMAP = 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridine) and other four-coordinate iron compounds with principally σ-donating ligands, the d-orbital energetics determine the degree of coupling of the metal-chelate magnetic orbitals resulting in different NMR spectroscopic behavior. For (iPrRPDI)Fe(DMAP) and related compounds, this coupling is strong and results in temperature independent paramagnetism where a triplet excited state mixes with the singlet ground state via spin orbit coupling. In the (iPrRPDI)FeN2 family, one of the iron SOMOs is essentially dz2 in character resulting in poor overlap with the magnetic orbitals of the chelate, leading to thermal population of the triplet state and hence temperature dependent NMR behavior. The electronic structures of (iPrRPDI)FeN2 and (iPrPDI)Fe(DMAP) differ from (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2, a highly covalent molecule with a redox non-innocent chelate that is best described as a resonance hybrid between iron(0) and iron(II) canonical forms as originally proposed in 2004. PMID:22675236

  18. Why do sugars taste good?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1990-01-01

    The preference humans and animals show for sweet solutions has been the subject of hundreds of publications. Nevertheless, the evolutionary origin of sweet preference remains enigmatic because of the relatively low nutritional value of sugars and the absence of specific tastes for other, more essential, nutrients. Moderate concentrations of sugars are found in most plant foods because sugars play an important role in plant physiology. Widespread occurrence of sugars in plants is paralleled by widespread preference for sugar solutions in mammals. These observations suggest that preference for sugars evolved because they are common in plants and easy to detect rather than because of any special nutritional merits they offer. Perception of sweetness cannot be used to accurately meter the metabolizable energy or nutritive value of a food.

  19. Effects of alkyl chain length on properties of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium fluorohydrogenate ionic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika

    2010-11-15

    A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium fluorohydrogenate salts (C(x)MIm(FH)(2)F, x=8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) have been characterized by thermal analysis, polarized optical microscopy, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and anisotropic ionic conductivity measurements. Liquid crystalline mesophases with a smectic A interdigitated bilayer structure are observed from C(10) to C(18), showing a fan-like or focal conic texture. The temperature range of the mesophase increases with the increase in the alkyl chain length (from 10.1 °C for C(10)MIm(FH)(2)F to 123.1 °C for C(18)MIm(FH)(2)F). The distance between the two layers in the smectic structure gradually increases with increasing alkyl chain length and decreases with increasing temperature. Conductivity parallel to the smectic layers is around 10 mS cm(-1) regardless of the alkyl chain length, whereas that perpendicular to the smectic layers decreases with increasing alkyl chain length because of the thicker insulating sheet with the longer alkyl chain.

  20. Corrosion abatement in sulfuric acid alkylation unit horizontal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, H.U.

    1997-09-01

    The need to increase throughput in alkylation plants has resulted in higher operating temperatures and higher water levels in alkylation acids than projected by design. Combined with higher flow rates, the more severe process environment causes carbon steel to corrode at increased rates. Carbon steel is the main material of construction for horizontal contactors (Stratco reactors). A leak to the atmosphere in the hydraulic end cone of one contactor and the realization that basic corrosion data are not available for high throughput process conditions in alkylation units prompted a laboratory study to develop the lacking expertise. Corrosion in alkylation unit horizontal contactors is successfully mitigated by saturating fresh alkylation acid with ferrous sulfate.

  1. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR...

  2. Structural analysis of pyridine-imino boronic esters involving secondary interactions on solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Portillo, Paola; Arenaza-Corona, Antonino; Hernández-Ahuactzi, Irán F.; Barba, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Twelve boronic esters (1a-1l) synthesized from 4-halo- substituted arylboronic acids (halo = F, Cl, Br, I and CF3) with 2-amino-2- alkyl (H, Me) -1,3-propanediol in presence of (3- or 4)-pyridine carboxaldehyde are described. A solvent mixture toluene/methanol 1:4 ratio was used. All compounds include both donor/acceptor functional groups, which are the necessary elements to self-assembly of the molecular species. Several secondary interactions as I⋯N, Br⋯Br, Br⋯B, F⋯B, Csbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Br⋯π and Csbnd H⋯π support the 1D and 2D polymeric frameworks in solid state. The coordination of the nitrogen atom from the pyridine moiety with the boron atom was not observed in either solution or solid state.

  3. Gallium and indium complexes containing the bis(imino)phenoxide ligand: synthesis, structural characterization and polymerization studies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Swarup; Gowda, Ravikumar R; Jagan, Rajamony; Chakraborty, Debashis

    2015-06-14

    A series of gallium and indium complexes containing a bis(imino)phenolate ligand framework were synthesized and completely characterized with different spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structures of a few complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were found to be extremely active towards the bulk ring opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides yielding polymers with high number average molecular weight (Mn) and controlled molecular weight distributions (MWDs). The neutral complexes produce isotactic enriched poly(lactic acid) (PLA) from rac-lactide (rac-LA) under melt conditions, whereas the ionic complex produces atactic PLA. The polymerizations are controlled, as evidenced by the narrow molecular distribution (MWDs) of the isolated polymers in addition to the linear nature of number average molecular weight (Mn) versus conversion plots with variations in monomer to catalyst ratios. The kinetic and mechanistic studies associated with these polymerizations have been performed.

  4. Bis[2,4-dibromo-6-(n-propyl-imino-methyl)phenolato-κN,O]cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Shufang

    2010-08-18

    In the title complex, [Co(C(10)H(10)Br(2)NO)(2)], the Co(II) atom lies on a twofold rotation axis, the N(2)O(2) units having distorted tetra-hedral coordination environments comprising two bidentate chelate 2,4-dibromo-6-(n-propyl-imino-meth-yl)phenolate Schiff base ligands [Co-N = 1.989 (3) Å, Co-O = 1.924 (2) Å and O/N-Co-O/N = 94.53 (10)-125.40 (15)°]. In the crystal structure, the mol-ecules are linked via weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds [3.334 (5) Å] and there are also short inversion-related intermolecular Br⋯Br contacts [3.4263 (6) Å].

  5. Searches for new alkylation catalysts, processes forge ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.

    1994-08-22

    As a result of the hazardous properties of hydrofluoric acid (HF), HF alkylation has been the subject of much recent controversy. The safety and environmental requirements associated with the HF alkylation processes continue to drive industry to develop new alkylation technologies. In fact, several major process licensors are well on their ways to bringing these new technologies to market. The new alkylation processes under development center around new, less-harmful catalysts. Although this work is progressing rapidly, an update of the status of some of these new processes will keep refiners abreast of the new options they may soon have for building new alkylation units or retrofitting existing ones. The process development and economics are described for a Topsoe/Kellogg fixed bed alkylation process and the Kerr-McGee homogeneous alkylation technology process.

  6. Sweeter future with fewer sugars.

    PubMed

    Winkler, J T

    1994-07-09

    Britain's food industry is entering a new phase. For as far ahead as we can see, manufacturers will be creating an expanding, ever more complex range of reduced sugar and sugar-free products. These innovations will vastly strengthen the structural approach to oral health promotion: improving food as well as educating people.

  7. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  8. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  9. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  10. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  11. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory.

  12. Soluble Alkyl Substituted Polygermanes. Thermochromic Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-17

    are strongly thermochromic . The effect is attributed to conformational locking of the backbone which is caused by the crystallization of the side groups...are strongly thermochromic . The effect is attributed to the conformational locking of the backbone which is caused by the crystallization of the side...SYMBOL. 02 &m A -- .- h.. .. .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. RJ 5008 (52258) 1/24/86 Chemis try SOLUBLE ALKYL SUBSTITUTED POLYGERMANES: THERMOCHROMIC

  13. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  14. CuAAC click chemistry with N-propargyl 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-gulitol and N-propargyl 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-imino-D-mannitol provides access to triazole-linked piperidine and azepane pseudo-disaccharide iminosugars displaying glycosidase inhibitory properties.

    PubMed

    Zamoner, Luís Otávio B; Aragão-Leoneti, Valquíria; Mantoani, Susimaire P; Rugen, Michael D; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Field, Robert A; Carvalho, Ivone

    2016-06-24

    Protecting group-free synthesis of 1,2:5,6-di-anhydro-D-mannitol, followed by ring opening with propargylamine and subsequent ring closure produced a separable mix of piperidine N-propargyl 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-gulitol and azepane N-propargyl 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-imino-D-mannitol. In O-acetylated form, these two building blocks were subjected to CuAAC click chemistry with a panel of three differently azide-substituted glucose building blocks, producing iminosugar pseudo-disaccharides in good yield. The overall panel of eight compounds, plus 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) as a benchmark, was evaluated as prospective inhibitors of almond β-glucosidase, yeast α-glucosidase and barley β-amylase. The iminosugar pseudo-disaccharides showed no inhibitory activity against almond β-glucosidase, while the parent N-propargyl 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-gulitol and N-propargyl 1,6-dideoxy-1,6-imino-D-mannitol likewise proved to be inactive against yeast α-glucosidase. Inhibitory activity could be reinstated in the former series by appropriate substitution on nitrogen. The greater activity of the piperidine could be rationalized based on docking studies. Further, potent inhibition of β-amylase was observed with compounds from both the piperidine and azepane series.

  15. The Scarlet Letter of Alkylation: A Mini Review of Selective Alkylating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Oronsky, Bryan T; Reid, Tony; Knox, Susan J; Scicinski, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    If there were a stigma scale for chemotherapy, alkylating agents would be ranked at the top of the list. The chemical term alkylation is associated with nonselective toxicity, an association that dates back to the use of nitrogen mustards during World War I as chemical warfare agents. That this stigma persists and extends to compounds that, through selectivity, attempt to “tame” the indiscriminate destructive potential of alkylation is the subject of this review. Selective alkylation, as it is referred to herein, constitutes an extremely nascent and dynamic field in oncology. The pharmacodynamic response to this selective strategy depends on a delicate kinetic balance between specificity and the rate and extent of binding. Three representative compounds are presented: RRx-001, 3-bromopyruvate, and TH-302. The main impetus for the development of these compounds has been the avoidance of the serious complications of traditional alkylating agents; therefore, it is the thesis of this review that they should not experience stigma by association. PMID:22937173

  16. Tetrahydrofurfuryloxide derivatives of alkyl aluminum species.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Avilucea, Gabriel; Bunge, Scott D.; Alam, Todd Michael; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Cherry, Brian Ray; Tissot, Ralph George, Jr.; Segall, Judith M.

    2004-12-01

    Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (H-OTHF) was successfully reacted with a series of aluminum alkyls (AlR{sub 3}) to yield compounds of the general formula [R{sub 2}Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where R = CH{sub 3} (1), CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3} (2), and CH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} (3). Further, reactivity studies showed that the alkyls for 1 were easily exchanged, forming compounds of the general formula [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF)]{sub 2} where OR = OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(Me){sub 2}-2,6 (4), OC{sub 6}H{sub 3}(CMe{sub 3}){sub 2}-2,6 (5a), and OSi(C{sub 6}H5){sub 3} (6). For 5a, reflux temperatures were required to get the full exchange; otherwise the asymmetric derivative [Me(OR)Al({mu}-OTHF){sub 2}AlMe{sub 2}] (5b) was isolated. The bulk powders of 1-6 were found to be in agreement with the crystal structures on the basis of elemental analyses and multinuclear solid state NMR studies. Multinuclear solution state NMR studies indicate that the alkyl OTHF derivatives have cis/trans isomers due to the chiral proton on the OTHF ligand.

  17. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Single-atom imino substitutions at A9 and A10 reveal distinct effects on the fold and function of the hairpin ribozyme catalytic core.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Mungillo, Michael V; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-08-25

    The hairpin ribozyme cleaves a phosphodiester bond within a cognate substrate. Structural and biochemical data indicate the conserved A9 and A10 bases reside close to the scissile bond but make distinct contributions to catalysis. To investigate these residues, we replaced the imino moiety of each base with N1-deazaadenosine. This single-atom change resulted in an 8-fold loss in k(obs) for A9 and displacement of the base from the active site; no effects were observed for A10. We propose that the imino moiety of A9 promotes a key water-mediated contact that favors transition-state formation, which suggests an enhanced chemical repertoire for RNA.

  3. Synthesis, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of methanesulfonamide and amidine derivatives of 3,4-diaryl-2-imino-4-thiazolines.

    PubMed

    Sondhi, Sham M; Rani, Reshma; Gupta, P P; Agrawal, S K; Saxena, A K

    2009-08-01

    Condensation of 3,4-diaryl-2-imino-4-thiazoli-nes 1a-j with methanesulfonyl chloride gave methanesulfonamide derivatives 2a-j. Condensation of 2-cyanopyrazine, 4-cyanopyridine, and 2-cyanopyridine with 3,4-diaryl-2- imino-4-thiazolines 1h-m in the presence of sodium methoxide afforded amidine derivatives 3a-j. Compounds 2a-j and 3a-j were screened against various human cancer cell lines (COLO-205, HEP-2, A-549, IMR-32) and their percentage growth inhibition profile determined at 1 x 10(-5)M. The anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Compound 2i exhibited 34.7% anti-inflammatory activity at 50 mg/kg p.o., which is comparable to standard care drug phenyl butazone (37% activity at 50 mg/kg p.o.).

  4. Spectrophotometric studies of 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)-hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid as a reagent for the determination of palladium.

    PubMed

    Lozynska, Lesya; Tymoshuk, Oleksandr; Chaban, Taras

    2015-01-01

    The spectrophotometric behavior of a new, first-time synthesized reagent - 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid (ITHBA), has been investigated. A simple, rapid, accurate, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of Pd(II) ions using this reagent was developed. The optimal conditions for the formation of the complexes were found. The molar absorptivity at λ = 438 nm is 7.5 × 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1), and Beer's law is observed for the concentrations ranging from 0.2-2.2 µg mL-1Pd(II). The effects of extraneous ions were investigated. The method proved to be successful in determination of palladium in the intermetallides and resistor. The accuracy of spectrophotometric palladium assay in real objects with 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)-hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid has been confirmed by voltammetric or atomic absorption spectroscopy method.

  5. Self-assembly via (N$ctdot;I) non-covalent bonds between 1,4-diiodo-tetrafluoro-benzene and a tetra-imino ferrocenophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syssa-Magalé, Jean-Laurent; Boubekeur, Kamal; Palvadeau, Pierre; Meerschaut, Alain; Schöllhorn, Bernd

    2004-03-01

    The tetra-imino ferrocenophane ( 1) was cocrystallized with 1,4-diiodo-tetrafluoro-benzene (TFDIB). In the resulting compound 2, two of the four ferrocenophane nitrogens show interactions with the iodine atoms of TFDIB leading to a polymeric structure with extended linear alternating electron donor ( 1) and acceptor (TFDIB) molecule chains. For the first time, imino nitrogens are involved in this type of halogen bonding. The N⋯I non-covalent bonds (N⋯I distances 2.879(5) and 2.896(5) Å; N⋯I-C angles 171.1(2) and 178.1(2)°) are the directing interactions responsible for the observed self-assembly. The ferrocene fragments of the macrocycle are in an almost perpendicular conformation. Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates the sole presence of low spin iron (II). The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is corresponding to a quasi-diamagnetic compound.

  6. (E)-2-{[(2-Amino­pyridin-3-yl)imino]­meth­yl}-4,6-di-tert-butyl­phenol

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Alexander; Ladeira, Sonia; Castel, Annie; Vega, Andres; Chavez, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H27N3O, the hy­droxy group forms an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond with the imino N atom. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 33.09 (9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules form centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving amino­pyridine fragments. PMID:22904946

  7. Molecular structures of antiviral agents, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and 4-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)imino]methyl-1,2-benzodiol

    SciTech Connect

    Gurskaya, G. V.; Zavodnik, V. E.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Kozlov, M. V.

    2008-07-15

    Two antiviral agents, namely, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone and 4-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)imino]methyl-1,2-benzodiol, are studied by X-ray diffraction. The stereochemical features of the molecular structures of the compounds under investigation are discussed, and the possible correlation between the structure and biological activity with respect to hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is analyzed.

  8. DNA-directed alkylating ligands as potential antitumor agents: sequence specificity of alkylation by intercalating aniline mustards.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A S; Denny, W A; Gourdie, T A; Valu, K K; Woodgate, P D; Wakelin, L P

    1990-10-23

    The sequence preferences for alkylation of a series of novel parasubstituted aniline mustards linked to the DNA-intercalating chromophore 9-aminoacridine by an alkyl chain of variable length were studied by using procedures analogous to Maxam-Gilbert reactions. The compounds alkylate DNA at both guanine and adenine sites. For mustards linked to the acridine by a short alkyl chain through a para O- or S-link group, 5'-GT sequences are the most preferred sites at which N7-guanine alkylation occurs. For analogues with longer chain lengths, the preference of 5'-GT sequences diminishes in favor of N7-adenine alkylation at the complementary 5'-AC sequence. Magnesium ions are shown to selectively inhibit alkylation at the N7 of adenine (in the major groove) by these compounds but not the alkylation at the N3 of adenine (in the minor groove) by the antitumor antibiotic CC-1065. Effects of chromophore variation were also studied by using aniline mustards linked to quinazoline and sterically hindered tert-butyl-9-aminoacridine chromophores. The results demonstrate that in this series of DNA-directed mustards the noncovalent interactions of the carrier chromophores with DNA significantly modify the sequence selectivity of alkylation by the mustard. Relationships between the DNA alkylation patterns of these compounds and their biological activities are discussed.

  9. 1-[(Imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]indazole. Highly alpha 2/I1 selective agonist: synthesis, X-ray structure, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Saczewski, Franciszek; Kornicka, Anita; Rybczyńska, Apolonia; Hudson, Alan L; Miao, Shu Sean; Gdaniec, Maria; Boblewski, Konrad; Lehmann, Artur

    2008-06-26

    Novel benzazole derivatives bearing a (imidazolidin-2-yl)imino moiety at position 1 or 2 were synthesized by reacting 1-amino- or 2-aminobenzazoles with N, N'-bis( tert-butoxycarbonyl)imidazolidine-2-thione in the presence of HgCl 2. Structures of 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]indazole (marsanidine, 13a) and free base of the 4-Cl derivative 12e were confirmed by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Compound 13a was found to be the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor ligand with alpha 2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline I 1 receptor selectivity ratio of 3879, while 1-[(imidazolidin-2-yl)imino]-7-methylindazole ( 13k) proved to be a mixed alpha 2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline I 1 receptor agonist with alpha 2/I 1 selectivity ratio of 7.2. Compound 13k when administered intravenously to male Wistar rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (ED50 = 0.6 microg/kg) and heart rate, which was attenuated following pretreatment with alpha 2A-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002. Compound 13a may find a variety of medical uses ascribed to alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, and its 7-methyl derivative 13k is a good candidate for development as a centrally acting antihypertensive drug.

  10. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yazawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Yasutaka; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2015-04-15

    Alkyl parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products. However, the mode of action of these chemicals has not been assessed thoroughly. In this study, we determined the effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi. All the fungi tested, were susceptible to parabens. The effect of linear alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi was related to the length of the alkyl chain. In addition, the antifungal activity was correlated with the paraben-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. The antifungal activity of linear alkyl parabens likely originates, at least in part, from their ability to inhibit the membrane respiratory chain, especially mitochondrial complex II. Additionally, we determined that some alkyl parabens inhibit Alternaria brassicicola infection of cabbage.

  12. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  13. Lithium perchlorate-nitromethane-promoted alkylation of anilines with arylmethanols.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Mao, Hai-Feng; Wang, Lu; Zou, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Wei

    2011-11-01

    A new application of lithium perchlorate-nitromethane (LPNM) for the formation of aromatic C-N and C-C bonds is introduced. LPNM-promoted reactions of anilines with diarylmethanols selectively generate N-alkylated anilines or mono and double Friedel-Crafts alkylation products under different conditions by changing the reaction time, reaction temperature, and the ratio of the reactants. This method does not require the use of transition metal catalysts to prepare alkylated aniline derivatives.

  14. Corrosion abatement in sulfuric acid alkylation unit horizontal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, H.U.

    1999-03-01

    A leak to the atmosphere in the hydraulic end cone of a horizontal contactor and the realization that basic corrosion data are not available for high-throughput process conditions in alkylation units prompted a laboratory study to develop the lacking expertise. Corrosion in the horizontal contractor of an alkylation unit was mitigated successfully by saturating fresh alkylation acid with ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}).

  15. Photochemical Production of Alkyl Nitrates in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2005-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are important to the tropospheric NOx/ozone cycle because they represent a significant fraction of the reactive nitrogen (NOy). Previous work has shown that there is an oceanic source of alkyl nitrates. A photochemical mechanism for the formation of alkyl nitrates in seawater has been proposed. This mechanism involves the reaction of ROO and NO, where ROO is an alkyl peroxy radical. ROO and NO radicals in seawater are derived from the photolysis of DOM and nitrite, respectively. In this study, the photochemical production of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates (C1-C3) was observed in shipboard incubation experiments in the tropical Pacific during the PHASE 1 cruise. Seawater samples from several regions, including high and low-chlorophyll areas, were collected and incubated. Alkyl nitrate production rates as high as 2 nM/hour were observed. The production rate of alkyl nitrates was clearly dependent upon the initial concentration of nitrite, most likely as the source for NO radicals. While the magnitude of production varied between sample locations, the ratios of the production rates of the various alkyl nitrates remained relatively constant. The observed production ratios of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl nitrate were 5.9:1.0:0.1:0.2. These ratios presumably reflect the speciation of peroxy radicals formed in seawater, and the yield of alkyl nitrates from the ROO+NO reaction. The observed production rate ratios are similar to the concentration ratios of alkyl nitrates observed in ambient seawater and the overlying atmosphere during the study. A comparison of the measured production rates and the observed concentrations, suggests that photochemically produced alkyl nitrates are a major source of atmospheric alkyl nitrates in the surface ocean and marine atmosphere.

  16. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nadas, Janos I; Vukovic, Sinisa; Hay, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  17. Determination of reaction rate constants for alkylation of 4-(p-nitrobenzyl) pyridine by different alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Walles, S A

    1980-02-01

    The rate constants have been determined for the reaction between some different alkylating agents and 4-(p-nitrobenzyl) pyridine (NBP) in methanol. These constants have been compared with those for alkylation of aniline in water. All the constants were lower in methanol than in water but in different degrees. The rate constants of the different alkylating agents have been calculated at a nucleophilic strength n=2. The genetic risk defined as the degree of alkylation of a nucleophile (n=2) is equivalent to the rate constant kn=2 and the target dose. The dependence of the genetic risk on the rate constant (kn=2) is discussed.

  18. The behavior of pyrrolyl ligands within the rare-earth metal alkyl complexes. Insertion of C=N and C=O double bonds into Ln-sigma-C bonds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Cui, Dongmei; Chen, Xuesi

    2010-04-28

    This paper presents some unusual reactions of lanthanide tris(alkyl)s or lanthanide mono-Cp' (Cp' = (C(5)Me(4))SiMe(3)) bis(alkyl)s with pyrrolyl ligands, and the eta(5)- or eta(1)-coordination mode of the pyrrolyl ring, as well as C=N and C=O double bonds insertion into Ln-sigma-C moities. N,N,O-tridentate ligand HL(1), 2-(2-CH(3)OC(6)H(3)N=CH)-C(4)H(3)NH, was prepared. Treatment of HL(1) with rare-earth metal tris(alkyl)s, Ln(CH(2)SiMe(3))(3)(THF)(2), generated centrosymmetric bimetallic (pyrrolylaldiminato)lanthanide mono(alkyl) complexes [{2-(2-CH(3)OC(6)H(3)NC(H)R)-C(4)H(3)N}LnR](2) (1a: Ln = Y; 1b: Ln = Lu) (R = CH(2)SiMe(3)). In this process, HL(1) was deprotonated by the metal alkyl and its imino C=N group was deactivated by the intramolecular alkylation, generating dianionic species that bridged the two metal alkyl units in eta(5)/eta(1):kappa(1) modes. When the reaction was carried out in dimethoxyethane (DME), asymmetric complex [2-(2-CH(3)OC(6)H(3)NC(H)R)-C(4)H(3)N](2)Y(2)R(2)(DME) (2) was given. Furthermore, the reaction of alkyl complex 1b and benzophenone (Ph(2)C=O) afforded alkyl-insertion product [{2-(2-CH(3)OC(6)H(3)NC(H)R)-C(4)H(3)N}LuOC(R)Ph(2)](2) (3). Both the intermolecular alkylation and the pyrrole's behavior as the hetero-cyclopentadienyl ligand were also observed in complexes 2 and 3. HL(1) reacted with (eta(5)-Cp')Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2)(THF) (E) to form a mixed ligands supported alkyl complex [(eta(5)-Cp')(L(1))]Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF) (4), whilst complex E was treated with 2-(2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)N=CH)-C(4)H(3)NH (HL(2)) to yield [(eta(5)-Cp')(L(2))]Y(CH(2)SiMe(3))(THF) (5). However, reaction of E and 2-(Me(2)NCH(2))-C(4)H(3)NH (HL(3)) afforded Y[(eta(5)-Cp')(L(3))(2)] (6), and ligand redistribution was found in this process. The molecular structures of complexes 5 and 6 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicated that the C=N double bond survived and the pyrrolyl ring coordinated to the metal center in eta(1)-mode.

  19. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  20. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  1. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  2. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  3. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10218 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-mehtyl-, C12-15-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-branched and linear alkyl esters, telomers with alkyl 2- thio]-2-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated (generic). 721.10218 Section 721.10218...-alkanoate, aminoalkyl methacrylate and alkyl methacrylate, tert-Bu 2-ethylhexanoperoxoate-initiated...

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  9. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  10. Dispersion of Vesicles Composed of Industrially Produced Alkyl (Oligo) Glucoside Using Diol-Boron Complexation.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tatsuo; Asano, Yuuka; Kondo, Takeshi; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Alkyl (oligo)glucosides (AOG) are known to be environmentally compatible amphiphiles whose commercial applicability should be broadened. The present paper describes the preparation of molecular assemblies of industrially produced AOG, which is a mixture composed of different length of alkyl chains (C9-C12) with oligoglucoside moiety with a few (1-3) of glucose units. It was also described that regulation of the dispersibility of the molecular assemblies prepared by diol-boron complexation between the sugar moiety on AOG and boric acid in a dispersion medium. The molecular assembly of AOG was successfully formed by mixing AOG and cholesterols (CH). When using a suitable amount of CH (20-40 mol% with respect to AOG), the molecular assembly formed a vesicle structure. The dispersion ability of the resulting vesicle was dependent on both the boric acid concentration and pH of the dispersion medium. The light-scattering and ζ-potential measurements revealed that high concentrations (≥10 mM) of boric acid improved dispersibility the vesicles. In contrast, the vesicle agglomerated at low concentrations of boric acid (1-7.5 mM). In the absence of boric acid in dispersion medium, the vesicles were completely agglomerated. The optimum pH range for vesicle dispersion was found to be from neutral to basic (7.4-10.1). The (11)B NMR study revealed that borate ester formation occurred between boric acid and the diol of the sugar moiety on AOG vesicle. The present data suggest that borate ester formation that occurred on the surface of the vesicle provided negative charge to the vesicles, contributing to their dispersion via repulsive forces.

  11. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  12. Microstructure of Hydrophobically Modified Alkyl Acrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Ho, Derek L.; Weiss, R. A.

    2004-03-01

    Hydrophobically modified water-soluble acrylamide polymers have a variety of applications, including viscosity thickeners, microencapsulation, biosensors and controlled drug delivery systems. The microstructure of copolymer hydrogels of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) or N-isopropylacrylamide(NIPA) modified with 2-(N-ethylfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate, FOSA, was studied by small angle x-ray (SAXS) and neutron scattering (SANS). Swelling and DSC measurements showed that FOSA/NIPA gels exhibited a volume phase transition (VPT), but that FOSA/DMA gels did not. A modified interacting core-shell model was used to explain the SAXS and SANS data for both gels. The crosslink junctions of the gel consisted of nanophase-separated FOSA domains as the core surrounded by a water-poor layer of the alkyl acrylamide. These nanodomains were dispersed in a matrix of water-swollen alkyl acrylamide that had large scale heterogeneities. The average spherical core radius ranged from 1 to 3 nm and the average shell thickness ranged from 1 to 1.5 nm; the aggregation number ranged from 10 to 200.

  13. ESCHERICHIA COLI Gene Induction by Alkylation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Michael R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Beard, K. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased β-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes. PMID:3080354

  14. Escherichia coli gene induction by alkylation treatment.

    PubMed

    Volkert, M R; Nguyen, D C; Beard, K C

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased beta-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes.

  15. Partial Crystallinity in Alkyl Side Chain Polymers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Vasav; Prasad, Shishir; Villate, Johanna; Jiang, Zhang; Sinha, Sunil; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-03-01

    Surface freezing is the formation of a crystalline monolayer at the free surface of a melt at a temperature Ts, a few degrees above the bulk freezing temperature, Tb. This effect, i.e. Ts> Tb, common to many chain molecules, is in marked contrast with the surface melting effect, i.e. Ts<=Tb, shown by almost all other materials. Various theoretical and experimental studies have been done to characterize the monolayer formed when the surface freezes before the bulk. We have studied the structure of a novel crystalline surface monolayer on top of a disordered melt of the same material (poly(n-alkyl acrylate)s) using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, surface tension, and bulk latent heat results show that there is partial side-chain crystallinity. Also, the surface tension results explain the trend of the difference between the surface order-to-disorder transition temperature and the bulk melting temperature (δT) as a function of side chain length. The behavior of the crystal length, crystal spacing and tilt with varying alkyl chain length and temperature was also studied.

  16. The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Giegerich, Jens; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-01-28

    The photodisscociation dynamics of the alkyl radicals i-propyl (CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) and t-butyl (C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) are investigated by H-atom photofragment imaging. While i-propyl is excited at 250 nm, the photodynamics of t-butyl are explored over a large energy range using excitation wavelengths between 347 nm and 233 nm. The results are compared to those obtained previously for ethyl, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}, and to those reported for t-butyl using 248 nm excitation. The translational energy (E{sub T}) distribution of the H-atom photofragments is bimodal and appears rather similar for all three radicals. The low E{sub T} part of the distribution shows an isotropic photofragment angular distribution, while the high E{sub T} part is associated with a considerable anisotropy. Thus, for t-butyl, two H-atom loss channels of roughly equal importance have been identified in addition to the CH{sub 3}-loss channel reported previously. A mechanism for the photodissociation of alkyl radicals is suggested that is based on interactions between Rydberg- and valence states.

  17. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  18. Redox-controlled polymerization of lactide catalyzed by bis(imino)pyridine iron bis(alkoxide) complexes.

    PubMed

    Biernesser, Ashley B; Li, Bo; Byers, Jeffery A

    2013-11-06

    Bis(imino)pyridine iron bis(alkoxide) complexes have been synthesized and utilized in the polymerization of (rac)-lactide. The activities of the catalysts were particularly sensitive to the identity of the initiating alkoxide with more electron-donating alkoxides resulting in faster polymerization rates. The reaction displayed characteristics of a living polymerization with production of polymers that exhibited low molecular weight distributions, linear relationships between molecular weight and conversion, and polymer growth observed for up to fifteen sequential additions of lactide monomer to the polymerization reaction. Mechanistic experiments revealed that iron bis(aryloxide) catalysts initiate polymerization with one alkoxide ligand, while iron bis(alkylalkoxide) catalysts initiate polymerization with both alkoxide ligands. Oxidation of an iron(II) catalyst precursor lead to a cationic iron(III) bis-alkoxide complex that was completely inactive toward lactide polymerization. When redox reactions were carried out during lactide polymerization, catalysis could be switched off and turned back on upon oxidation and reduction of the iron catalyst, respectively.

  19. Imino-phosphine palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes: synthesis, molecular structures and evaluation as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Motswainyana, William M; Onani, Martin O; Madiehe, Abram M; Saibu, Morounke; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Lalancette, Roger A

    2013-12-01

    The imino-phosphine ligands L1 and L2 were prepared via condensation reaction of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde with substituted anilines and obtained in very good yields. An equimolar reaction of L1 and L2 with either PdCl2(cod) or PtCl2(cod) gave new palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes 1-4. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of 2, 3 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. All the three molecular structures crystallized in monoclinic C2/c space system. The coordination geometry around the palladium and platinum atoms in respective structures exhibited distorted square planar geometry at the metal centers. The complexes were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human breast (MCF-7) and human colon (HT-29) cancer cells, and they exhibited growth inhibitory activities and selectivity that were superior to the standard compound cisplatin.

  20. Imino proton NMR guides the reprogramming of A•T specific minor groove binders for mixed base pair recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harika, Narinder K.; Paul, Ananya; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Chai, Yun; Boykin, David W.; Germann, Markus W.; Wilson, W. David

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-specific binding to DNA is crucial for targeting transcription factor-DNA complexes to modulate gene expression. The heterocyclic diamidine, DB2277, specifically recognizes a single G•C base pair in the minor groove of mixed base pair sequences of the type AAAGTTT. NMR spectroscopy reveals the presence of major and minor species of the bound compound. To understand the principles that determine the binding affinity and orientation in mixed sequences of DNA, over thirty DNA hairpin substrates were examined by NMR and thermal melting. The NMR exchange dynamics between major and minor species shows that the exchange is much faster than compound dissociation determined from biosensor–surface plasmon resonance. Extensive modifications of DNA sequences resulted in a unique DNA sequence with binding site AAGATA that binds DB2277 in a single orientation. A molecular docking result agrees with the model representing rapid flipping of DB2277 between major and minor species. Imino spectral analysis of a 15N-labeled central G clearly shows the crucial role of the exocyclic amino group of G in sequence-specific recognition. Our results suggest that this approach can be expanded to additional modules for recognition of more sequence-specific DNA complexes. This approach provides substantial information about the sequence-specific, highly efficient, dynamic nature of minor groove binding agents. PMID:27131382

  1. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  2. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2155 - Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic... Substances § 721.2155 Alkoxyamino-alkyl-coumarin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10317 - Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10317 Alkyl phosphate derivative (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... phosphate derivative (PMN P-02-1040) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. Organocatalytic enantioselective indole alkylations of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Du, Wei; Yue, Lei; Li, Rui; Wu, Yong; Ding, Li-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2007-03-07

    The C3-selective enantioselective Michael-type Friedel-Crafts alkylations of indoles with nonchelating alpha,beta-unsaturated alkyl ketones, catalysed by a chiral primary amine derived from natural cinchonine, were investigated. The reactions, in the presence of 30 mol% catalyst, were smoothly conducted at 0 to -20 degrees C. Moderate to good ee (47-89%) has been achieved.

  14. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  15. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. Degradable Polymer Composites Fabricated from Starch and Alkyl Cyanoacrylate Monomer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradable polymer composites are fabricated from alkyl cyanoacrylate monomer and starch without special equipment. Alkyl cyanoacrylate, which is a major component of “super glue”, is a monomer that polymerizes at room temperature in the presence of initiators. During the fabrication of polymer com...

  11. Deaminative and decarboxylative catalytic alkylation of amino acids with ketones.

    PubMed

    Kalutharage, Nishantha; Yi, Chae S

    2013-12-16

    It cuts two ways: The cationic [Ru-H] complex catalyzes selective coupling of α- and β-amino acids with ketones to form α-alkylated ketone products. The reaction involves CC and CN bond cleavage which result in regio- and stereoselective alkylation using amino acids. A broad substrate scope and high functional-group tolerance is demonstrated.

  12. Direct, Regioselective N-Alkylation of 1,3-Azoles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Graceffa, Russell F; Boezio, Alessandro A

    2016-01-04

    Regioselective N-alkylation of 1,3-azoles is a valuable transformation. Organomagnesium reagents were discovered to be competent bases to affect regioselective alkylation of various 1,3-azoles. Counterintuitively, substitution selectively occurred at the more sterically hindered nitrogen atom. Numerous examples are provided, on varying 1,3-azole scaffolds, with yields ranging from 25 to 95%.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10677 - Alkyl phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10677 Alkyl phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkyl phosphonate (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10711 - Alkyl substituted catechol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted catechol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10711 Alkyl substituted catechol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted catechol (PMN P-13-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  20. Polyimide characterization studies - Effect of pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  1. Alkylation of terminal alkynes with transient σ-alkylpalladium(II) complexes: a carboalkynylation route to alkyl-substituted alkynes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Bo; Huang, Xiao-Cheng; Liu, Yan-Yun; Song, Ren-Jie; Li, Jin-Heng

    2014-02-10

    A mild and general alkylation of terminal alkynes with transient σ-alkylpalladium(II) complexes for assembling alkyl-substituted alkynes is described. This method represents a new way to the use of transient σ-alkylpalladium(II) complexes in organic synthesis through 1,2-carboalkynylation of alkenes.

  2. Cu(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Indoles with 2-Aryl-N-sulfonylaziridines as Alkylating Agents.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chen; Liu, Ren-Rong; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia

    2016-07-01

    A highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with N-sulfonylaziridines as alkylating agents has been developed by utilizing the complex of Cu(CH3CN)4BF4/(S)-Segphos as a catalyst. A range of optically active tryptamine derivatives are obtained in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) via a kinetic resolution process.

  3. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  4. Materials performance in HF-alkylation units

    SciTech Connect

    Forsen, O.; Aromaa, J.; Somervuori, M.; Tavi, M.

    1995-11-01

    Materials selection in HF-alkylation units is mostly based on long time experience. The most widely used material in the Station units is standard carbon steel, because it is capable to form a thick protective FeF{sub 2} layer in concentrated or anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The corrosion resistance decreases, when the acid is dilute (less than 64% HF) or the temperature is above 160F (70 C). The composition and metallurgical state are also suspected to affect the corrosion resistance of carbon steel. The effect of composition appears more complicated than believed, especially the A-106 specification on the total amount of Cr+Ni+Cu+Mo+V < 1% should be studied more closely from the corrosion point of view. Laboratory tests showed that the uniform corrosion rate may be 100 times higher in galvanic contact of two dissimilar steels. The effect of galvanic contacts can neither be excluded in the process equipment corrosion cases.

  5. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  6. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  7. Bis(6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)methyl-κO]imino-meth-yl}phenolato-κN,O)nickel(II) dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Ru-Jin; An, Zhe

    2009-06-17

    In the title compound, [Ni(C(12)H(16)NO(5))(2)]·2H(2)O, the Ni(II) atom is coordinated by four O atoms and two N atoms from the two 6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complexes and uncoordinated water mol-ecules into two-dimensional networks parallel to (001).

  8. A stepwise retro-imino-ene as a key step in the mechanism of allene formation via the Crabbé acetylene homologation.

    PubMed

    González, Marta; Rodríguez, Roi Álvarez; Cid, Maria Magdalena; López, Carlos Silva

    2012-05-15

    The mechanism of the acetylene homologation procedure accidentally discovered and further developed by Crabbé and coworkers is unknown. Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments, however, suggest that an intramolecular hydrogen shift is the key step of the transformation. In this work, we present a computational study of this mechanism. We found that the reaction proceeds via an unexpected stepwise retro-imino-ene rearrangement. This mechanism justifies the role of Cu(I) as a reaction catalyst and is also compatible with the KIE experiments reported.

  9. Crystal structure of di­chlorido­bis­(dimethyl N-cyano­dithio­imino­carbonate)zinc

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Mouhamadou Birame; Diop, Libasse; Oliver, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    The ZnII atom in the title complex, [ZnCl2(C4H6N2S2)2], is coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral manner by two Cl atoms and two terminal N atoms of two dimethyl N-cyano­dithio­imino­carbonate ligands. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are connected through C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and Cl⋯S contacts, leading to a two-dimensional structure extending parallel to the ab plane. PMID:27006820

  10. Chiral bis(imidazolidine)pyridine-Cu(OTf)2: catalytic asymmetric endo-selective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of imino esters with nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takayoshi; Mishiro, Asami; Yokoyama, Naota; Suzuki, Kuniko; Sato, Hiroyasu

    2010-04-21

    The novel C(2)-symmetric bis(imidazolidine)pyridine (PyBidine) ligand was easily synthesized in a single condensation of 2,6-pyridyl aldehyde and optically active (S,S)-diphenylethylenediamine. In the C(2)-symmetric PyBidine-Cu(OTf)(2) complex, imidazolidine rings act as "chiral fences" to shield the first and third quadrants. Use of the PyBidine-Cu(OTf)(2) complex as a catalyst enabled the highly endo-selective reaction of imino esters and nitroalkenes to give the adducts in up to 99% ee.

  11. Redox isomerism in the lanthanide complex [(dpp-Bian)Yb(DME)(mu-Br)]2 (dpp-Bian = 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene).

    PubMed

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Maslova, Olga V; Baranov, Eugeny V; Shavyrin, Andrei S

    2009-03-16

    Ytterbium reacts with 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (1, dpp-Bian) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) to give complex (dpp-Bian)Yb(DME)(2) (2). Oxidation of 2 with an 0.5 mol equivalent of dibromostilbene affords dimeric compound [(dpp-Bian)Yb(DME)(mu-Br)](2) (3). Molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. In complex 3 in a DME solution, a temperature-dependent reversible intramolecular electron transfer between the ligand and the metal takes place.

  12. Bis­{(E)-3-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propan­amido]-2,2-dimethyl­propan-1-aminium} bis[μ-(E)-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)-2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamido­(2−)]bis­{[(E)-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)-2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamide]­copper(II)} bis­((E)-{3-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamido]-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl}carbamate) acetonitrile disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Buvailo, Andrii I.; Pavlishchuk, Anna V.; Penkova, Larysa V.; Kotova, Natalia V.; Haukka, Matti

    2012-01-01

    The reaction between copper(II) nitrate and (E)-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)-2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamide led to the formation of the dinuclear centrosymmetric copper(II) title complex, (C8H18N3O2)2[Cu2(C8H15N3O2)2(C8H17N3O2)2](C9H16N3O4)2·2CH3CN, in which an inversion center is located at the midpoint of the Cu2 unit in the center of the neutral [Cu2(C8H15N3O2)2(C8H17N3O2)2] complex fragment. The Cu2+ ions are connected by two N—O bridging groups [Cu⋯Cu separation = 4.0608 (5) Å] while the CuII ions are five-coordinated in a square-pyramidal N4O coordination environment. The complex mol­ecule co-crystallizes with two mol­ecules of acetonitrile, two mol­ecules of the protonated ligand (E)-3-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamido]-2,2-dimethyl­propan-1-aminium and two negatively charged (E)-{3-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamido]-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl}carbamate anions, which were probably formed as a result of condensation between (E)-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl­prop­yl)-2-(hy­droxy­imino)­propanamide and hydro­gencarbonate anions. In the crystal, the complex fragment [Cu2(C8H15N3O2)2(C8H17N3O2)2] and the ion pair C8H18N3O2 +.C9H16N3O4 − are connected via an extended system of hydrogen bonds. PMID:23468704

  13. Alkylating potential of styrene oxide: reactions and factors involved in the alkylation process.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Marina; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Pérez-Prior, M Teresa; Arenas-Valgañón, Jorge; García-Santos, M Pilar; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2014-10-20

    The chemical reactivity of styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), an alkylating agent with high affinity for the guanine–N7 position and a probable carcinogen for humans, with 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP), a trap for alkylating agents with nucleophilic characteristics similar to those of DNA bases, was investigated kinetically in water/dioxane media. UV–vis spectrophotometry and ultrafast liquid chromatography were used to monitor the reactions involved. It was found that in the alkylation process four reactions occur simultaneously: (a) the formation of a β-NBP–SO adduct through an SN2 mechanism; (b) the acid-catalyzed formation of the stable α-NBP–SO adduct through an SN2′ mechanism; (c) the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the β-adduct, and (d) the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of SO. At 37.5 °C and pH = 7.0 (in 7:3 water/dioxane medium), the values of the respective reaction rate constants were as follows: kalkβ = (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10–4 M–1 s–1, kalkα = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10–4 M–1 s–1, khydAD = (3.06 ± 0.09) × 10–6 s–1, and khyd = (4.2 ± 0.9) × 10–6 s–1. These values show that, in order to determine the alkylating potential of SO, none of the four reactions involved can be neglected. Temperature and pH were found to exert a strong influence on the values of some parameters that may be useful to investigate possible chemicobiological correlations (e.g., in the pH 5.81–7.69 range, the fraction of total adducts formed increased from 24% to 90% of the initial SO, whereas the adduct lifetime of the unstable β-adduct, which gives an idea of the permanence of the adduct over time, decreased from 32358 to 13313 min). A consequence of these results is that the conclusions drawn in studies addressing alkylation reactions at temperatures and/or pH far from those of biological conditions should be considered with some reserve.

  14. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

  15. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  16. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  18. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  19. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweetened with artificial sweeteners, rather than with higher calorie table sugar, may be an attractive option. On ... means that sugar alcohols can be considered lower calorie sweeteners, and they may aid weight-control efforts. ...

  20. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... insulin therapy can help you achieve desired blood sugar control and what intensive insulin therapy requires of ... aggressive treatment approach designed to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy requires close monitoring of ...

  1. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  2. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoglycemia - self-care; Low blood glucose - self-care ... Talk with your health care provider about when you should check your blood sugar every day. People who have low blood sugar need to check ...

  3. Antihydrophobic cosolvent effects for alkylation reactions in water solution, particularly oxygen versus carbon alkylations of phenoxide ions.

    PubMed

    Breslow, Ronald; Groves, Kevin; Mayer, M Uljana

    2002-04-10

    Antihydrophobic cosolvents such as ethanol increase the solubility of hydrophobic molecules in water, and they also affect the rates of reactions involving hydrophobic surfaces. In simple reactions of hydrocarbons, such as the Diels-Alder dimerization of 1,3-cyclopentadiene, the rate and solubility data directly reflect the geometry of the transition state, in which some hydrophobic surface becomes hidden. In reactions involving polar groups, such as alkylations of phenoxide ions or S(N)1 ionizations of alkyl halides, cosolvents in water can have other effects as well. However, solvation of hydrophobic surfaces is still important. By the use of structure-reactivity relationships, and comparing the effects of ethanol and DMSO as solvents, it has been possible to sort out these effects. The conclusions are reinforced by an ab initio computer model for hydrophobic solvation. The result is a sensible transition state for phenoxide ion as a nucleophile, using its oxygen n electrons to avoid loss of conjugation. The geometry of alkylation of aniline is very different, involving packing (stacking) of the aniline ring onto the phenyl ring of a benzyl group in the benzylation reaction. The alkylation of phenoxide ions by benzylic chlorides can occur both at the phenoxide oxygen and on ortho and para positions of the ring. Carbon alkylation occurs in water, but not in nonpolar organic solvents, and it is observed only when the phenoxide has at least one methyl substituent ortho, meta, or para. The effects of phenol substituents and of antihydrophobic cosolvents on the rates of the competing alkylation processes indicate that in water the carbon alkylation involves a transition state with hydrophobic packing of the benzyl group onto the phenol ring. The results also support our conclusion that oxygen alkylation uses the n electrons of the phenoxide oxygen as the nucleophile and does not have hydrophobic overlap in the transition state. The mechanisms and explanations for

  4. Succinimide complexes of borated alkyl catechols and lubricating oil compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.V.

    1986-12-16

    A composition is described comprising a complex prepared by reacting a borated alkyl catechol and an oil soluble alkyl or alkenyl succinimide wherein the weight percent ratio of the alkyl or alkenyl succinimide to the borated alkyl catechol ranges from 3:1 to 16:1.

  5. Alkaline phosphatase revisited: hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Patrick J; Herschlag, Daniel

    2002-03-05

    Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the prototypical two metal ion catalyst with two divalent zinc ions bound approximately 4 A apart in the active site. Studies spanning half a century have elucidated many structural and mechanistic features of this enzyme, rendering it an attractive model for investigating the potent catalytic power of bimetallic centers. Unfortunately, fundamental mechanistic features have been obscured by limitations with the standard assays. These assays generate concentrations of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in excess of its inhibition constant (K(i) approximately 1 muM). This tight binding by P(i) has affected the majority of published kinetic constants. Furthermore, binding limits k(cat)/K(m) for reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the most commonly employed substrate. We describe a sensitive (32)P-based assay for hydrolysis of alkyl phosphates that avoids the complication of product inhibition. We have revisited basic mechanistic features of AP with these alkyl phosphate substrates. The results suggest that the chemical step for phosphorylation of the enzyme limits k(cat)/K(m). The pH-rate profile and additional results suggest that the serine nucleophile is active in its anionic form and has a pK(a) of < or = 5.5 in the free enzyme. An inactivating pK(a) of 8.0 is observed for binding of both substrates and inhibitors, and we suggest that this corresponds to ionization of a zinc-coordinated water molecule. Counter to previous suggestions, inorganic phosphate dianion appears to bind to the highly charged AP active site at least as strongly as the trianion. The dependence of k(cat)/K(m) on the pK(a) of the leaving group follows a Brønsted correlation with a slope of beta(lg) = -0.85 +/- 0.1, differing substantially from the previously reported value of -0.2 obtained from data with a less sensitive assay. This steep leaving group dependence is consistent with a largely dissociative transition state for AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of

  6. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted...

  7. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  8. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  11. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  12. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  14. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  15. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  17. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  19. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  20. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  1. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  2. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  3. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic

  4. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  5. Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    'Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates. Similar structure activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage allowed the available data of many of the alkyl benzoates to be extended to the entire group. Carcinogenicity data were not available, but available data indicated that these alkyl benzoate cosmetic ingredients are not genotoxic. Also benzoic acid and tested component alcohols were not reproductive or developmental toxicants, are not genotoxic in almost all assays, and are not carcinogenic. These ingredients were determined to be safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  6. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  7. Regeneration of a deactivated USY alkylation catalyst using supercritical isobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar; David N. Ghompson; Kyle C. Burch

    2005-01-01

    Off-line, in-situ alkylation activity recovery from a completely deactivated solid acid catalyst was examined in a continuous-flow reaction system employing supercritical isobutane. A USY zeolite catalyst was initially deactivated during the liquid phase alkylation of butene with isobutane in a single-pass reactor and then varying amounts of alkylation activity were recovered by passing supercritical isobutane over the catalyst bed at different reactivation conditions. Temperature, pressure and regeneration time were found to play important roles in the supercritical isobutane regeneration process when applied to a completely deactivated USY zeolite alkylation catalyst. Manipulation of the variables that influence solvent strength, diffusivity, surface desorption, hydride transfer rates, and coke aging, strongly influence regeneration effectiveness.

  8. Alkyl chains acting as entropy reservoir in liquid crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Sorai, Michio; Saito, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    The roles played by the conformational disordering of alkyl chains in determining the aggregation states of matter are reviewed for liquid crystalline materials from a thermodynamic perspective. Entropy, which is one of the most macroscopic concepts but which has a clear microscopic meaning, provides crucial microscopic information for complex systems for which a microscopic description is hard to establish. Starting from structural implication by absolute (third-law) entropy for crystalline solids, the existence of successive phase transitions caused by the successive conformational melting of alkyl chains in discotic mesogens is explained. An experimental basis is given for the "quasi-binary picture" of thermotropic liquid crystals, i.e., the highly disordered alkyl chains behave like a second component (solvent). A novel entropy transfer between the "components" of a molecule and the resulting "alkyl chains as entropy reservoir" mechanism are explained for cubic mesogens.

  9. Perfluorinated Alkyl Compounds: Challenges To Develop Robust And Reliable Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), some of which are known to be toxic in laboratory studies. Despite growing public concerns, environmental monitoring data are still limited...

  10. [Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above.

  11. Alkylation Induced DNA Repair and Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-23

    III (Gates and inn, 1977), Micrococcus luteus UV endo- nuclease (Grossman et al, 1978) and bacteriophage T UV endonuclease (Warner et al, 1980) have DNA...34, Garland Publishing, Inc. New York & London USA. Ather, A., Z. Ahmed and S. Riazxxddin, 1984. Adaptive response of Micrococcus luteus to alkylating...Laval, J., 3. Pierre and F. Laval. 1981. Release of 7-nmthylguanine residues frain alkylated ENA by extracts of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia

  12. Copper-catalyzed arylation of alkyl halides with arylaluminum reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bijay

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a Cu-catalyzed coupling between triarylaluminum reagents and alkyl halides to form arylalkanes. The reaction proceeds in the presence of N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl-o-phenylenediamine (NN-1) as a ligand in combination with CuI as a catalyst. This catalyst system enables the coupling of primary alkyl iodides and bromides with electron-neutral and electron-rich triarylaluminum reagents and affords the cross-coupled products in good to excellent yields. PMID:26734088

  13. Chemoselective Alkylations with N- and C-Metalated Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Nath, Dinesh; Fleming, Fraser F

    2015-10-02

    Metalated nitriles exhibit complementary chemoselectivities in electrophilic alkylations. N-Lithiated or C-magnesiated nitriles can be prepared from the same nitrile precursor and selectively reacted with a 1:1 mixture of methyl cyanoformate and benzyl bromide or bifunctional electrophiles through chemoselective attack onto either an alkyl halide or a carbonyl electrophile. A mechanistic explanation for the chemoselectivity preferences is provided that rests on the structural and complexation differences between N- and C-metalated nitriles.

  14. Final Technical Report [Development of Catalytic Alkylation and Fluoroalkylation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vicic, David A.

    2014-05-01

    In the early stages of this DOE-funded research project, we sought to prepare and study a well-defined nickel-alkyl complex containing tridentate nitrogen donor ligands. We found that reaction of (TMEDA)NiMe2 (1) with terpyridine ligand cleanly led to the formation of (terpyridyl)NiMe (2), which we also determined to be an active alkylation catalyst. The thermal stability of 2 was unlike that seen for any of the active pybox ligands, and enabled a number of key studies on alkyl transfer reactions to be performed, providing new insights into the mechanism of nickel-mediated alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. In addition to the mechanistic studies, we showed that the terpyridyl nickel compounds can catalytically cross-couple alkyl iodides in yields up to 98% and bromides in yields up to 46 %. The yields for the bromides can be increased up to 67 % when the new palladium catalyst [(tpy’)Pd-Ph]I is used. The best route to the targeted [(tpy)NiBr] (1) was found to involve the comproportionation reaction of [(dme)NiBr{sub 2}] and [Ni(COD){sub 2}] in the presence of two equivalents of terpyridine. This reaction was driven to high yields of product formation (72 % isolated) by the precipitation of 1 from THF solvent.

  15. Effects of alkyl substituents of xanthine on phosphodiesterase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Sakai, R; Kurita, M; Ohmae, S; Sanae, F; Sawanishi, H; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K

    1995-03-01

    The structure-activity relationships of a series of alkylxanthine derivatives were investigated. The partition coefficient of alkylxanthines enlarged with an elongation of the alkyl chain at the 1-, 3-, or 7-position of xanthine. There was a mild correlation between the apparent partition coefficient and the tracheal relaxant activity or the inhibitory activity on phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV isoenzyme, while the tracheal relaxant activity closely correlated with the PDE IV inhibitory activity. Regarding substituents at different positions, the alkylation at the 3-position increased the inhibitory activity on every PDE isoenzyme. The alkylation at the 1-position potentiated the inhibitory activity on PDE IV with the alkyl chain length, but decreased the activities on other PDE isoenzymes. The alkylation at the 7-position was characteristic in its decrease in inhibitory activity on PDE III. These results suggested that the potency of the inhibitory activity of xanthine derivatives on PDE isoenzymes is not dependent simply upon their hydrophobicity but upon change in the affinity for the active sites on PDE isoenzymes by the introduction of the alkyl group at particular positions of the xanthine skeleton.

  16. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  17. Benefits of the stirred, autorefrigerated reactor in sulfuric acid alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.; Lerner, H.; Zaczepinski, S.

    1996-12-01

    Alkylation is a process which combines propylenes, butylenes, and pentylenes with isobutane in the presence of an acid catalyst (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or HF) to produce a premium quality gasoline blendstock. The alkylation process was developed in the late 1930`s and processing capacity grew tremendously during World War II in response to demand for aviation gasoline. Since that time, alkylation capacity has steadily grown to supply an important motor gasoline component. Now, more than 50 years later, alkylation is in the spotlight again for reformulated gasoline. Alkylate is a high octane, low sensitivity, low RVP, totally paraffinic material which represents the ideal blendstock for modern gasoline manufacture. Two types of modern reactor systems are currently offered for license to the refining industry for sulfuric acid alkylation. These are the stirred, autorefrigerated system offered by Exxon Research and Engineering (ERE) and the indirect, or effluent refrigerated system offered by others. By means of a case study example, this paper discusses the autorefrigerated reaction system and its benefits.

  18. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C–H functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage1. One of the core principles that underlies DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimnation of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of ‘spin-center shift’ (SCS)2, during which an alcohol C–O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centered radical intermediate. While SCS is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underutilized by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylations using alcohols as radical precursors. Considering traditional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, elevated temperatures, or peroxides3–7, the development of a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have significant utility in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. In this manuscript, we describe the successful execution of this idea via the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysis. The utility of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone. PMID:26308895

  19. Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-09-01

    Redox processes and radical intermediates are found in many biochemical processes, including deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and oxidative DNA damage. One of the core principles underlying DNA biosynthesis is the radical-mediated elimination of H2O to deoxygenate ribonucleotides, an example of `spin-centre shift', during which an alcohol C-O bond is cleaved, resulting in a carbon-centred radical intermediate. Although spin-centre shift is a well-understood biochemical process, it is underused by the synthetic organic chemistry community. We wondered whether it would be possible to take advantage of this naturally occurring process to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors. Because conventional radical-based alkylation methods require the use of stoichiometric oxidants, increased temperatures or peroxides, a mild protocol using simple and abundant alkylating agents would have considerable use in the synthesis of diversely functionalized pharmacophores. Here we describe the development of a dual catalytic alkylation of heteroarenes, using alcohols as mild alkylating reagents. This method represents the first, to our knowledge, broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. The value of this multi-catalytic protocol has been demonstrated through the late-stage functionalization of the medicinal agents, fasudil and milrinone.

  20. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  1. [Sugar and diabetes: international recommendations].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, Alejandro; Boj Carceller, Diana; Melchor Lacleta, Isabel; Albero Gamboa, Ramón

    2013-07-01

    Nutrition in the diabetic patient is not just a mere nutrient but his treatment is based. In fact, international scientific societies have called "medical nutrition therapy" to give it the emphasis it deserves. Nutritional recommendations of scientific societies have been changing in recent years with evidence-based medicine. Regarding the consumption of sugar, most believe it does not affect metabolic control if it is replaced by other carbohydrates, but does not indicate a specific amount.

  2. Hexa-aqua-bis-[3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nido-κ(2) N (3),O (4)]barium tetrahydrate.

    PubMed

    Dinh Do, Nguyen; Kovalchukova, Olga; Stash, Adam; Strashnova, Svetlana

    2013-10-16

    In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O5)2(H2O)6]·4H2O, the Ba(2+) cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-n-ide oxo O atoms [Ba-O = 2.8715 (17) Å], two hy-droxy-imino N atoms [Ba-N = 3.036 (2) Å], and six water mol-ecules [Ba-O = 2.847 (2), 2.848 (2), and 2.880 (2) Å]. The 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hy-droxy-imino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water mol-ecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water mol-ecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  3. Crystal structure of bis-{μ2-[(2-imino-cyclo-pentyl-idene)methyl-idene]aza-nido-κ(2) N:N'}bis-[(η(5)-penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)zirconium(IV)] hexane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lisanne; Spannenberg, Anke; Arndt, Perdita; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, [Zr2(C10H15)4(C6H6N2)2]·C6H14, was obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of adipo-nitrile with [Zr(C10H15)2(η(2)-Me3SiC2SiMe3)]. Intra-molecular nitrile-nitrile couplings and deprotonation of the substrate produced the (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane ligand, which functions as a five-membered bridge between the two metal atoms. The Zr(IV) atom exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere defined by two penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands, by the imino unit of one (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane and by the enimino unit of the second (1-imino-2-enimino)-cyclo-pentane. The cyclo-pentane ring of the ligand shows an envelope conformation. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the complex and one half of the hexane solvent mol-ecule, both being completed by the application of inversion symmetry. One of the penta-methyl-cyclo-penta-dienyl ligands is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.8111 (3):0.189 (3). In the crystal, the complex mol-ecules are packed into rods extending along [100], with the solvent mol-ecules located in between. The rods are arranged in a distorted hexa-gonal packing.

  4. DNA minor groove targeted alkylating agents based on bisbenzimidazole carriers: synthesis, cytotoxicity and sequence-specificity of DNA alkylation.

    PubMed

    Smaill, J B; Fan, J Y; Denny, W A

    1998-12-01

    A series of bisbenzimidazoles bearing a variety of alkylating agents [ortho- and meta-mustards, imidazolebis(hydroxymethyl), imidazolebis(methylcarbamate) and pyrrolebis(hydroxymethyl)], appended by a propyl linker chain, were prepared and investigated for sequence-specificity of DNA alkylation and their cytotoxicity. Previous work has shown that, for para-aniline mustards, a propyl linker is optimal for cytotoxicity. Alkaline cleavage assays using a variety of different labelled oligonucleotides showed that the preferred sequences for adenine alkylation were 5'-TTTANANAANN and 5'-ATTANANAANN (underlined bases show the drug alkylation sites), with AT-rich sequences required on both the 5' and 3' sides of the alkylated adenine. The different aniline mustards showed little variation in alkylation pattern and similar efficiencies of DNA cross-link formation despite the changes in orientation and positioning of the mustard, suggesting that the propyl linker has some flexibility. The imidazole- and pyrrolebis(hydroxymethyl) alkylators showed no DNA strand cleavage following base treatment, indicating that no guanine or adenine N3 or N7 adducts were formed. Using the PCR-based polymerase stop assay, these alkylators showed PCR blocks at 5'-C*G sites (the * nucleotide indicates the blocked site), particularly at 5'-TAC*GA 5'-AGC*GGA, and 5'-AGCC*GGT sequences, caused by guanine 2-NH2 lesions on the opposite strand. Only the (more reactive) imidazolebis(methylcarbamoyl) and pyrrolebis(hydroxymethyl) alkylators demonstrated interstrand cross-linking ability. All of the bifunctional mustards showed large (approximately 100-fold) increases in cytotoxicity over chlorambucil, with the corresponding monofunctional mustards being 20- to 60-fold less cytotoxic. These results suggest that in the mustards the propyl linker provides sufficient flexibility to achieve delivery of the alkylator to favoured (adenine N3) sites in the minor groove, regardless of its exact geometry with

  5. Polymerization of Conducting Polymers Confined to Free Surfaces: A comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3-Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-19

    Confined to Free Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir-Blodgett Polymerization of 3- Alkyl Pyrroles and 2- Alkyl Anilines Submitted for Publication in...Surfaces: A Comparison of the Langmuir Blodgett Polymerizations of 3- alkyl pyrroles and 2- alkyl anilines R. S. Duran and H.C. Zhou Dept. of Chemistry...polymerization reactions in more detail and compare them. To do this, the polymerization reactions were run under two conditions. In the first case

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  12. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  13. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  14. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  15. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  16. Combustion Pathways of the Alkylated Heteroaromatics: Bond Dissociation Enthalpies and Alkyl Group Fragmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Carrigan J.; Hadad, Christopher M.

    2009-04-01

    The bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of the alkyl groups of the alkyl-substituted heterocycles have been studied and compiled using DFT methodology, with the intent of modeling the larger heterocyclic functionalities found in coal. DFT results were calibrated against CBS-QB3 calculations, and qualitative trends were reproduced between these methods. Loss of hydrogen at the benzylic position provided the most favorable route to radical formation, for both the azabenzenes and five-membered heterocycles. The ethyl derivatives had lower BDE values than the methyl derivatives due to increased stabilization of the corresponding radicals. Calculated spin densities correlated well with bond dissociation enthalpies for these compounds, while geometric effects were minimal with respect to the heterocycles themselves. Temperature effects on the bond dissociation enthalpies were minor, ranging by about 5 kcal/mol from 298 to 2000 K; the free energies of reaction dropped significantly over the same range due to entropic effects. Monocyclic heteroaromatic rings were seen to replicate the chemistry of multicyclic heteroaromatic systems.

  17. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  18. Early Transition Metal Alkyl and Tetrahydroborate Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, James Allen

    1988-06-01

    An investigation of early transition metal alkyl and tetrahydroborate complexes as catalytic models and ceramic precursors has been initiated. The compounds MX _2 (dmpe)_2, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane, for M = Ti, V, Cr, and X = Br, I, BH_4, have been prepared. These complexes are paramagnetic and have been shown by X-ray crystallography to have trans-octahedral structures. The BH_4^{-} groups in Ti(BH_4)_2(dmpe) _2 bond to the metal in a bidentate manner. This structure is in marked contrast to the structure of the vanadium analogue, V(BH_4)_2 (dmpe)_2, which displays two unidentate BH_4^{-} groups. Alkylation of Ti(BH_4)_2 (dmpe)_2 with LiMe results in the complex TiMe_2(dmpe) _2 which is diamagnetic in both solution and solid state. Single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction studies show that there may be strong Ti-C pi -bonding. A tetragonal compression along the C -Ti-C bond vector accounts for the observed diamegnetism. A series of complexes of the formula Ti(BH _4)_3(PR_3)_2 has been prepared where PR_3 = PMe_3, PEt_3, PMe_3Ph, and P(OMe)_3 . The X-ray crystal structure of Ti(BH _4)_3(PMe_3)_2 reveals a pseudo trigonal bipyramidal geometry in which two BH_4^{-} groups display an unusual "side-on" bonding mode. The "side-on" ligation mode has been attributed to a Jahn-Teller distortion of the orbitally degenerate d^1 ground state. In contrast, the non-Jahn-Teller susceptible vanadium analogue, V(BH_4)_3 (PMe_3)_2, possesses a nearly ideal D_{rm 3h} >=ometry with three bidentate tetrahydroborate groups. Addition of excess PMe_3 to V(BH_4)_3(PMe _3)_2<=ads to the vanadium(II) hydride -bridged dimer (V(H)(BH_4)(PMe _3)_2]_2, while addition of PMe_3 and water forms the vanadium(III) oxo dimer (V(BH_4)_2 (PMe_3)_2]_2 [mu-O) which has been structurally characterized. The compound Ti(CH_2CMe _3)_4 can be prepared by addition of Ti(OEt)_4 to LiCH_2 CMe_3. Sublimation of Ti(CH _2CMe_3)_4 over a substrate heated to 250^ circC results in the chemical vapor

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  2. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  3. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  4. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  5. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  8. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  9. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  10. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  11. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  12. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  13. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  14. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  15. 78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods ] and sugar-containing products of Chile... quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products for which the United States...

  16. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  18. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  19. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile... quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products for which the United States...

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Bromides with a Nitrogen Nucleophile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new class of catalytic reaction: the thermal substitution of a secondary and or tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile. The alkylation of a nitrogen nucleophile with an alkyl halide is a classical method for the construction of C–N bonds, but traditional substitution reactions are challenging to achieve with a secondary and or tertiary alkyl electrophile due to competing elimination reactions. A catalytic process could address this limitation, but thermal, catalytic coupling of alkyl halides with a nitrogen nucleophile and any type of catalytic coupling of an unactivated tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile are unknown. We report the coupling of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides with benzophenone imines to produce protected primary amines in the presence of palladium ligated by the hindered trialkylphosphine Cy2t-BuP. Mechanistic studies indicate that this amination of alkyl halides occurs by a reversible reaction to form a free alkyl radical. PMID:27725963

  1. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  2. Interaction between alkyl radicals and single wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Denis, Pablo A

    2012-06-30

    The addition of primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl radicals to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied by means of dispersion corrected density functional theory. The PBE, B97-D, M06-L, and M06-2X functionals were used. Consideration of Van der Waals interactions is essential to obtain accurate addition energies. In effect, the enthalpy changes at 298 K, for the addition of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and tert-butyl radicals onto a (5,5) SWCNT are: -25.7, -25.1, -22.4, and -16.6 kcal/mol, at the M06-2X level, respectively, whereas at PBE/6-31G* level they are significantly lower: -25.0, -19.0, -16.7, and -5.0 kcal/mol respectively. Although the binding energies are small, the attached alkyl radicals are expected to be stable because of the large desorption barriers. The importance of nonbonded interactions was more noticeable as we moved from primary to tertiary alkyl radicals. Indeed, for the tert-butyl radical, physisorption onto the (11,0) SWCNT is preferred rather than chemisorption. The bond dissociation energies determined for alkyl radicals and SWCNT follow the trend suggested by the consideration of radical stabilization energies. However, they are in disagreement with some degrees of functionalization observed in recent experiments. This discrepancy would stem from the fact that for some HiPco nanotubes, nonbonded interactions with alkyl radicals are stronger than covalent bonds.

  3. Effects of alkyl substitutions of xanthine skeleton on bronchodilation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, R; Konno, K; Yamamoto, Y; Sanae, F; Takagi, K; Hasegawa, T; Iwasaki, N; Kakiuchi, M; Kato, H; Miyamoto, K

    1992-10-30

    Structure-activity relationships in a series of 1,3,7-trialkyl-xanthine were studied with guinea pigs. Relaxant actions in the tracheal muscle were increased with alkyl chain length at the 1- and 3-positions of the xanthine skeleton, but decreased by alkylation at the 7-position. Positive chronotropic actions in the right atrium were potentiated with 3-alkyl chain length but tended to decrease with 1-alkylation and diminish by 7-substitution. Consequently, while the 1- and 3-substitutions were equally important for the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation, the substitution at the 1-position was more important than the 3-substitution for bronchoselectivity. The 7-alkylation may be significant to cancel heart stimulation. There were good correlations between the smooth muscle relaxant action and the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity in 3-substituents and the affinity for adenosine (A1) receptors in 1-, 3-, and 7-substituents. This suggests that not only the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity but also the adenosine antagonistic activity is important in the bronchodilatory effects of alkylxanthines. Among these xanthine derivatives, 1-butyl-3-propylxanthine and its 7-methylated derivative showed high bronchoselectivity in the in vitro and in vivo experiments compared to theophylline and enprofylline and may be new candidates for bronchodilator.

  4. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  5. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  6. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  7. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-22

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  8. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and....1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly called D-glucose or dextrose... by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes, followed...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  14. A sugar-functionalized amphiphilic pillar[5]arene: synthesis, self-assembly in water, and application in bacterial cell agglutination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guocan; Ma, Yingjie; Han, Chengyou; Yao, Yong; Tang, Guping; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Huang, Feihe

    2013-07-17

    A novel sugar-functionalized amphiphilic pillar[5]arene containing galactose groups as the hydrophlic part and alkyl chains as the hydrophobic part was designed and synthesized. It self-assembles in water to produce nanotubes as confirmed by TEM, SEM, and fluorescence microscopy. These nanotubes, showing low toxicity to both cancer and normal cells, can be utilized as excellent cell glues to agglutinate E. coli. The existence of galactoses on these nanotubes provides multivalent ligands that have high affinity for carbohydrate receptors on E. coli.

  15. Selective N-Alkylation of Aniline by Micellar Catalysis

    PubMed

    Siswanto; Rathman

    1997-12-01

    Reactions of aniline with 1-bromobutane to form N-butylaniline and N,N-dibutylaniline were performed in single-phase aqueous surfactant systems. Reaction rate, yield, and selectivity of the N-alkyl product were monitored for different initial compositions, and much higher reaction rate, yield, and selectivity were observed in comparison to reactions of neat components. Excess aniline increased yield and selectivity, while excess 1-bromobutane had the opposite effect. The lipophilic reactant (1-bromobutane) and both products are solubilized almost entirely in the surfactant micelles. The formation of relatively small amounts of N,N-dibutylaniline effectively inhibited further alkylation of N-butylaniline, so that high selectivities (>20) of the N-alkyl were obtained. Added sodium hydroxide caused small decreases in yield and selectivity and showed that pH-dependent dissociation equilibria of the various amine species do not have a major influence on reaction characteristics. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  16. Electrophilic metal alkyl chemistry in new ligand environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Richard F.

    2002-09-11

    Cationic group 4 and actinide Cp{sub 2}MR{sup +} metallocenes, and isolobal neutral group 3 and lanthanide Cp{sub 2}MR analogs, are exceptionally reactive in insertion and {sigma}-bond metathesis processes, and have been exploited extensively in catalysis and synthesis, most notably single-site olefin polymerization. The objectives of recent work were to design new electrophilic metal alkyls based on non-Cp{sub 2}M structures, and to exploit these systems in fundamental and applied studies related to olefin polymerization and other catalytic reactions. Key results are reported in the following areas: discrete non-metallocene cationic group 4 alkyls, activation of non-metallocene compounds with methylalumoxane, and cationic aluminum alkyl compounds. Numerous structural formulas are included.

  17. Saturation anomalies of alkyl nitrates in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Elizabeth E.; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Saltzman, Eric S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the first measurements of the saturation state of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl nitrate) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. These compounds were supersaturated with saturation anomalies as high as 2000%. Air/sea flux estimates based on these measurements suggest that surface ocean emissions are sufficient to account for observed levels of tropospheric alkyl nitrates in this region. Model calculations suggest that atmospheric loss rates are faster than can be explained by photolysis and reaction with OH alone. The implication is that removal via transport is important, and there must be a net export of alkyl nitrates from the tropics to other regions of the atmosphere.

  18. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  19. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group.

  20. Tris(2-{[2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolato-κ(2)N,O(1))cobalt(III).

    PubMed

    Ourari, Ali; Ouennoughi, Yasmina; Bouacida, Sofiane

    2012-06-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C(16)H(16)NO(2))(3)], the Co(III) atom is six-coordinated in an irregular octa-hedral geometry by three N,O-chelating 2-{[2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolate groups. One of the three meth-oxy group is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.768 (5):0.232 (5). The crystal packing can be described by alternating zigzag layers of organic ligands and CoN(3)O(3) octa-hedra along the c axis. There are no classical hydrogen bonds in the structure, but C-H⋯π inter-actions occur.

  1. Novel N-allyl/propargyl tetrahydroquinolines: Synthesis via Three-component Cationic Imino Diels-Alder Reaction, Binding Prediction, and Evaluation as Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Yeray A; Gutiérrez, Margarita; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Bernal, Cristian C; Güiza, Fausto M; Romero Bohórquez, Arnold R

    2016-10-01

    New N-allyl/propargyl 4-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines derivatives were efficiently synthesized using acid-catalyzed three components cationic imino Diels-Alder reaction (70-95%). All compounds were tested in vitro as dual acetylcholinesterase and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitors and their potential binding modes, and affinity, were predicted by molecular docking and binding free energy calculations (∆G) respectively. The compound 4af (IC50 = 72 μm) presented the most effective inhibition against acetylcholinesterase despite its poor selectivity (SI = 2), while the best inhibitory activity on butyryl-cholinesterase was exhibited by compound 4ae (IC50 = 25.58 μm) with considerable selectivity (SI = 0.15). Molecular docking studies indicated that the most active compounds fit in the reported acetylcholinesterase and butyryl-cholinesterase active sites. Moreover, our computational data indicated a high correlation between the calculated ∆G and the experimental activity values in both targets.

  2. The Synthetic Elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) Triggers Strong Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Schroeder, Mercedes; Gomez, Adilene; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. They can protect plants from diseases by activating host immune responses and can serve as tools for the dissection of the plant immune system as well as leads for the development of environmentally-safe pesticide alternatives. By high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate expression of the pathogen-responsive CaBP22−333::GUS reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), 33 of which are [(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (PMP) derivatives or PMP-related compounds. Here we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol (DPMP). DPMP strongly triggers disease resistance of Arabidopsis against bacterial and oomycete pathogens. By mRNA-seq analysis we found transcriptional profiles triggered by DPMP to resemble typical defense-related responses. PMID:27412821

  3. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(hy­droxy­imino)-1-phenyl­propyl­idene]-N-phen­ylhydrazinecarbo­thio­amide

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Freedman, Michael B.; Millikan, Sean P.; Smolenski, Victoria A.; Jasinski, Jerry P.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H16N4OS, an intra­molecular C—H⋯S hydrogen bond is observed. With the exception of the phenyl ring of the phenyl­propyl­idene unit, the remainder of the mol­ecule has an almost planar skeleton with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.121 (5) Å from the plane through the remaining 16 atoms. In the crystal O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed between the terminal hy­droxy­imino groups, forming inverson dimers with R 2 2(6) graph-set motifs. Additional C—H⋯N contacts stack the dimers along [100]. While no π—π inter­actions are present, weak C—H⋯O and O—H⋯Cg inter­actions are also observed and help stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:26594484

  4. The Synthetic Elicitor DPMP (2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol) Triggers Strong Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana and Tomato.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Rodriguez-Salus, Melinda; Schroeder, Mercedes; Gomez, Adilene; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Eulgem, Thomas

    2016-07-14

    Synthetic elicitors are drug-like compounds that are structurally distinct from natural defense elicitors. They can protect plants from diseases by activating host immune responses and can serve as tools for the dissection of the plant immune system as well as leads for the development of environmentally-safe pesticide alternatives. By high-throughput screening, we previously identified 114 synthetic elicitors that activate expression of the pathogen-responsive CaBP22(-333)::GUS reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), 33 of which are [(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (PMP) derivatives or PMP-related compounds. Here we report on the characterization of one of these compounds, 2,4-dichloro-6-{(E)-[(3-methoxyphenyl)imino]methyl}phenol (DPMP). DPMP strongly triggers disease resistance of Arabidopsis against bacterial and oomycete pathogens. By mRNA-seq analysis we found transcriptional profiles triggered by DPMP to resemble typical defense-related responses.

  5. Solvent Dependency in the Quantum Efficiency of 4-[(4-Aminophenyl)-(4-imino-1-cyclohexa-2, 5- dienylidene) methyl] Aniline Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Pathrose, Bini; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P; Sahira, H; Mujeeb, A

    2015-05-01

    In the present work dual beam thermal lens technique is used for studying the solvent dependency on the quantum efficiency of a novel dye used for biomedical applications. The role of solvent in the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of 4-[(4-Aminophenyl)-(4-imino-1-cyclohexa-2, 5- dienylidene) methyl] aniline hydrochloride is studied using thermal lens technique. It is observed that the variation in solvents and its concentration results considerable variations in the fluorescence quantum yield. These variations are due to the non-radiative relaxation of the absorbed energy and because of the different solvent properties. The highest quantum yield of the dye is observed in the polar protic solvent-water.

  6. Photochemistry and photophysics of the amino and imino tautomers of 1-methylcytosine: tautomerisation as a side product of the radiationless decay.

    PubMed

    Li, Quansong; Blancafort, Lluís

    2013-08-01

    The photochemistry and photophysics of the amino-oxo (AO) and imino-oxo (IO) tautomers of 1-methylcytosine are investigated with ab initio calculations, using the CASPT2//CASSCF approach. Our aim is to rationalize recent experimental results which show that the AO tautomer has an excited state lifetime of about 1 ps, similar to cytosine (J.-W. Ho, H.-C. Yen, W.-K. Chou, C.-N. Weng, L.-H. Cheng, H.-Q. Shi, S.-H. Lai and P.-Y. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115, 8406-8418), and that irradiation with wavelengths shorter than 308 nm induces the AO→IO tautomerization (I. Reva, M. J. Nowak, L. Lapinski and R. Fausto, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2012, 116, 5703-5710). For the canonical AO tautomer we find two analogous decay mechanisms to those described previously for cytosine, involving a conical intersection of ethylenic type and one where the amino group is bent out of plane. Decay through these intersections provides an unreactive return path to the AO ground state species. More importantly, we have identified new decay paths that lead from the two intersections to the trans-IO tautomer, without a barrier. These paths provide the possibility of forming the IO tautomer, presumably in small yields, as a side product of the radiationless decay. Thus, we have established for the first time computationally the mechanism of the UV-induced tautomerization, which is compatible with the well-established decay mechanism for cytosine. For the IO tautomer, we also find a mechanism for the excited state interconversion of the cis and trans forms and for efficient radiationless decay through a conical intersection where the imino group is perpendicular to the ring and bent out of the plane. These results are likely to be valid also for cytosine.

  7. Alkyl phospholipid antihypertensive agents in method of lowering blood pressure

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.; Muirhead, Ernest E.; Leach, deceased, Byron E.; Byers, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of this invention is 1-O-alkyl-2-acetoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, having the ionic structural formula; ##STR1## wherein R is saturated alkyl having 9-21 carbon atoms, or salts or hydrates of the composition. Preferably R has 13-19 carbon atoms and most preferably R has 15 carbon atoms. The composition of this invention is useful for reducing hypertension in warm-blooded animals, including humans, when administered either orally or by injection or innoculation, e.g., intravenous injection. The composition can be prepared from naturally occurring lipids or synthetically from commercially available material.

  8. Solid-Phase S-Alkylation Promoted by Molecular Sieves.

    PubMed

    Calce, Enrica; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Monfregola, Luca; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-11-20

    A solid-phase S-alkylation procedure to introduce chemical modification on the cysteine sulfhydryl group of a peptidyl resin is reported. The reaction is promoted by activated molecular sieves and consists of a solid-solid process, since both the catalyst and the substrate are in a solid state. The procedure was revealed to be efficient and versatile, particularly when used in combination with the solution S-alkylation approach, allowing for the introduction of different molecular diversities on the same peptide molecule.

  9. Alkyl Azides, Diazides, Haloazides and Bridged Polycyclic Diazides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-16

    temperature. Most of the methyl ether was removed during this process. The ehtyl ether was distilled from the reaction mixture using a water aspirator into a...Street PROGRAM IPROJECT ITASK IWORK li1111? ArliiqIoh, VA 22217-5000 EILIMENT NO I NO. I oACCESSION P10) Alkyl Azides, Dlazides, laloazides and...REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. ALKYL AZIDES, DIAZIDES, HALOAZIDES AND BRIDGED POLYCYCLIC DIAZIDES Final REPORTe July 1, 1989-November 14, 1990 A6jd.%4gi0 F’or

  10. Direct β-Alkylation of Aldehydes via Photoredox Organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Direct β-alkylation of saturated aldehydes has been accomplished by synergistically combining photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis. Photon-induced enamine oxidation provides an activated β-enaminyl radical intermediate, which readily combines with a wide range of Michael acceptors to produce β-alkyl aldehydes in a highly efficient manner. Furthermore, this redox-neutral, atom-economical C–H functionalization protocol can be achieved both inter- and intramolecularly. Mechanistic studies by various spectroscopic methods suggest that a reductive quenching pathway is operable. PMID:24754456

  11. The alkylation of 2′-deoxyguanosine and of thymidine with diazoalkanes. Some observations on O-alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P. B.; Foster, A. B.; Jarman, M.; Tisdale, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The reaction in ether–methanol between 2′-deoxyguanosine and diazomethane or its ethyl or n-butyl homologue gives 1-, O6- and 7-alkyl-2′-deoxyguanosine. N2,O6-Dimethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine was also detected. The hydrolysis of the methyl and the ethyl derivatives gives the corresponding alkylguanines: the O6-alkyl-2′-deoxyguanosines were sequentially hydrolysed, first to 2-amino-6-alkoxypurines, subsequently to guanine. The mass spectra of O6-alkyl-2′-deoxyguanosines (methyl and ethyl) and of the corresponding 2-amino-6-alkoxypurines were determined. The reaction of diazomethane with thymidine afforded O4-methylthymidine, in addition to the previously detected 3-methylthymidine. PMID:4776868

  12. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10058 - Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenol... Reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene, and formaldehyde... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenol, aromatic cyclicamine, alkyl diglycidyl...

  17. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435.603... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar seller, the sugar seller must...

  19. Chiral Brønsted Base-Promoted Nitroalkane Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis of sec-Alkyl-3-Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Dobish, Mark C.; Johnston, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    A Brønsted base-catalyzed reaction of nitroalkanes with alkyl electrophiles provides indole heterocycles substituted at C3 bearing a sec-alkyl group with good enantioselectivity (up to 90% ee). Denitration by hydrogenolysis provides a product with equally high ee. An indolenine intermediate is implicated in the addition step, and surprisingly, water cosolvent was found to have a beneficial effect in this step, leading to a one-pot protocol for elimination/enantioselective addition using PBAM, a bis(amidine) chiral nonracemic base. PMID:21090654

  20. Transition-Metal-Free Regioselective Alkylation of Pyridine N-Oxides Using 1,1-Diborylalkanes as Alkylating Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woohyun; Kim, Junghoon; Choi, Seoyoung; Cho, Seung Hwan

    2016-08-08

    Reported herein is an unprecedented base-promoted deborylative alkylation of pyridine N-oxides using 1,1-diborylalkanes as alkyl sources. The reaction proceeds efficiently for a wide range of pyridine N-oxides and 1,1-diborylalkanes with excellent regioselectivity. The utility of the developed method is demonstrated by the sequential C-H arylation and methylation of pyridine N-oxides. The reaction also can be applied for the direct introduction of a methyl group to 9-O-methylquinine N-oxide, thus it can serve as a powerful method for late-stage functionalization.

  1. A new strategy for site-specific alkylation of DNA using oligonucleotides containing an abasic site and alkylating probes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Norihiro; Tsuji, Genichiro; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Usami, Akira; Moki, Takuma; Onizuka, Kazumitsu; Yamada, Ken; Nagatsugi, Fumi

    2015-10-14

    Selective chemical reactions with DNA, such as its labelling, are very useful in many applications. In this paper, we discuss a new strategy for the selective alkylation of DNA using an oligonucleotide containing an abasic site and alkylating probes. We designed three probes consisting of 2-AVP as a reactive moiety and three kinds of binding moiety with high affinity to duplex DNA. Among these probes, Hoechst-AVP probe exhibited high selectivity and efficient reactivity to thymine bases at the site opposite an abasic site in DNA. Our method is potentially useful for inducing site-directed reactions aimed at inhibiting polymerase reactions.

  2. Iron-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation of Heterocyclic C-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Babu, Kaki Raveendra; Zhu, Nengbo; Bao, Hongli

    2017-01-06

    An efficient, iron-catalyzed C-H alkylation of benzothiazoles by using alkyl diacyl peroxides and alkyl tert-butyl peresters which are readily accessible from carboxylic acids to synthesize 2-alkylbenzothiazoles is developed. This reaction is environmentally benign and compatible with a broad range of functional groups. Various primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl groups can be efficiently incorporated into diverse benzothiazoles. The effectiveness of this method is illustrated by late-stage functionalization of biologically active heterocycles.

  3. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  4. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  5. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  7. Sugar proximity and human grip strength.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, A F; Hill, T V

    1988-12-01

    In a double-blind experiment with 90 undergraduate students the hypothesis was tested that proximity to sugar reduces human grip strength. An earlier study indicated that sugar proximity does indeed significantly reduce human grip strength. When additional controls were added to this design to reduce random sampling error, the hypothesis was not supported.

  8. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  9. Polysaccharides from Sugar - A Range of Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known for many years that bacteria, most notably Leuconostoc spp., can convert sugar into a high-molecular weight glucan known as dextran. While problematic in the sugar industry due to its potential for forming biofilms, viscous slimes and for interfering with massecuite boiling and su...

  10. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  11. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10548 - Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phosphate esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10548 Mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed alkyl phosphate esters alkoxylated (PMN P-04-624) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10359 - Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10359 Cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance... cardanol-based alkyl phosphate (PMN P-09-613) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides. 721.10479 Section 721.10479 Protection of Environment..., tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides (PMN P-04-335; CAS No. 308074-73-9) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10479 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides. 721.10479 Section 721.10479 Protection of Environment..., tris(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...(hydrogenated tallow alkyl)methyl, chlorides (PMN P-04-335; CAS No. 308074-73-9) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  12. The Escherichia coli AlkB protein protects human cells against alkylation-induced toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B J; Carroll, P; Samson, L

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli can ameliorate the toxic effects of alkylating agents either by preventing DNA alkylation or by repairing DNA alkylation damage. The alkylation-sensitive phenotype of E. coli alkB mutants marks the alkB pathway as an extremely effective defense mechanism against the cytotoxic effects of the SN2, but not the SN1, alkylating agents. Although it is clear that AlkB helps cells to better handle alkylated DNA, no DNA alkylation repair function could be assigned to the purified AlkB protein, suggesting that AlkB either acts as part of a complex or acts to regulate the expression of other genes whose products are directly responsible for alkylation resistance. However, here we present evidence that the provision of alkylation resistance is an intrinsic function of the AlkB protein per se. We expressed the E. coli AlkB protein in two human cell lines and found that it confers the same characteristic alkylation-resistant phenotype in this foreign environment as it does in E. coli. AlkB expression rendered human cells extremely resistant to cell killing by the SN2 but not the SN1 alkylating agents but did not affect the ability of dimethyl sulfate (an SN2 agent) to alkylate the genome. We infer that SN2 agents produce a class of DNA damage that is not efficiently produced by SN1 agents and that AlkB somehow prevents this damage from killing the cell. Images PMID:7928996

  13. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  1. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  4. Iridium-catalyzed selective α-alkylation of unactivated amides with primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Guo, Le; Liu, Yinghua; Yao, Wubing; Leng, Xuebing; Huang, Zheng

    2013-03-01

    The first α-alkylation of unactivated amides with primary alcohols is described. An effective and robust iridium pincer complex has been developed for selective α-alkylation of tertiary and secondary acetamides involving a "borrowing hydrogen" methodology. The method is compatible with alcohols bearing various functional groups. This presents a convenient and environmentally benign protocol for α-alkylation of amides.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10493 - Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10493 Tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as tris-alkyl-alkoxy melamine polymer (PMN P-05-417) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 76 FR 81005 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile, Morocco, Costa..., the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup...

  13. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of Chile, Morocco, Costa..., the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup...

  14. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  15. Ionic liquid containing hydroxamate and N-alkyl sulfamate ions

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2016-03-15

    Embodiments of the invention are related to ionic liquids and more specifically to ionic liquids used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the ionic liquid includes a cation and an anion selected from hydroxamate and/or N-alkyl sulfamate anions.

  16. Microbial degradation of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes found in petroleum.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, P M; Payzant, J D; Montgomery, D S; Westlake, D W

    1988-01-01

    Although n-alkyl-substituted tetrahydrothiophenes are found in nonbiodegraded petroleums, they are not found in petroleums which have undergone biodegradation in their reservoirs. These observations suggested that this group of compounds with alkyl chain lengths from approximately C10 to at least C30 is biodegradable. Two of these sulfides, 2-n-dodecyltetrahydrothiophene (DTHT) and 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene, were synthesized, and their biodegradabilities were tested by using five gram-positive, n-alkane-degrading bacterial isolates. The alkyl side chains of these compounds were oxidized, and the major intermediates found in 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene- and DTHT-metabolizing cultures were 2-tetrahydrothiophenecarboxylic acid (THTC) and 2-tetrahydrothiopheneacetic acid (THTA), respectively. Four n-alkane-degrading fungi were also shown to degrade DTHT, yielding both THTA and THTC. Quantitation of tetrahydrothiophene ring-containing products in 28-day-old bacterial and fungal cultures suggested that THTC and THTA were metabolized further to unidentified products. In addition, two of the bacterial isolates were shown to degrade a mixture of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes isolated from Bellshill Lake crude oil. PMID:3389816

  17. On the Boiling Points of the Alkyl Halides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, John

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the variety of explanations in organic chemistry textbooks of a physical property of organic compounds. Focuses on those concepts explaining attractive forces between molecules. Concludes that induction interactions play a major role in alkyl halides and other polar organic molecules and should be given wider exposure in chemistry texts.…

  18. A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B.

    2007-01-01

    An acutely less toxic 2-bromobutane is used to develop a simple graphite-promoted procedure of alkylation of p-xylene. It is further demonstrated that aluminum chloride is not required, the need for aqueous workup is eliminated, waste solutions are not produced and the multiple use of the catalyst is allowed.

  19. 40 CFR 721.8700 - Halogenated alkyl pyridine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8700 Halogenated alkyl pyridine. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9720 - Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9720 Disubstituted alkyl triazines (generic name). Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34638, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tertiary...

  2. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.

    PubMed

    Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

    2009-05-11

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  3. Residual Patterns of Alkyl Polyoxyethylene Surfactant Droplets after Water Evaporation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a nonionic, alkyl polyoxyethylene surfactant (X-77®) in aqueous solutions, sessile droplet spreading, pinning, evaporation, contraction, and post-evaporation deposits are characterized. X-77® is widely used in the agricultural field as a spreader/adherent, intended to optimize pathenogenic ag...

  4. Students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in undergraduate organic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is studied in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, establishing a robust understanding of the concepts and reactions related to them can be beneficial in assuring students' success in organic chemistry courses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate and describe students' understanding of alkyl halide reactions in an undergraduate organic chemistry course. Participants were interviewed using a think-aloud protocol in which they were given a set of exercises dealing with reactions and mechanisms of alkyl halide molecules in order to shed light on the students' understanding of these reactions and elucidate any gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants that may be present. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative inquiry approaches. In general, the findings from this study show that the students exhibited gaps in understanding and incorrect warrants dealing with: (1) classifying substances as bases and/or nucleophiles, (2) assessing the basic or nucleophilic strength of substances, (3) accurately describing the electron movement of the steps that take place during alkyl halide reaction mechanisms, and (4) assessing the viability of their proposed reactive intermediates and breakage of covalent bonds. In addition, implications for teaching and future research are proposed.

  5. Students' Understanding of Alkyl Halide Reactions in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ramirez de Arellano, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an essential subject for many undergraduate students completing degrees in science, engineering, and pre-professional programs. However, students often struggle with the concepts and skills required to successfully solve organic chemistry exercises. Since alkyl halides are traditionally the first functional group that is…

  6. Size Fractionation of Mechanochemical Synthesized Alkyl-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoni, Luigi; Mitchell, Brian

    2010-03-01

    A novel top-down procedure was employed for the synthesis of stable alkyl-passivated silicon nanoparticles using reactive high energy ball milling (HEBM) as described in Heintz et al., (Adv. Mater. 2007, 19). The method provides for the simultaneous production of photo luminescent silicon nanoparticles and the passivation of the particle surface with alkyl groups covalently linked through Si-C bonds. As fresh silicon surface is formed during HEBM by particle fracture, the surface Si atoms react in-situ with liquid alkyls, such as 1-octyne and 1-hexyne. We present a multistage size selective fractionation process to isolate and purify initial sample polydispersities ranging from microns down to single nanometers (1 um - 1 nm). This process employs centrifugation, inline nano-filtration, both normal phase gel permission (GPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by recursive size selective precipitation (SSP). Size evolutions of fractions are monitored via UV/VIS absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), and electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). Elemental impurities are quantified through atomic absorption (AAS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Stages are performed in series to isolate and investigate the influence of initial alkyl and silicon reactants on product yields, size dispersity, and optical behavior.

  7. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  8. A nuclear Overhauser enhancement study on the imino proton resonances of a DNA pentadecamer comprising the specific target site of the cyclic AMP receptor protein in the ara BAD operon.

    PubMed

    Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Jones, M B; Jiricny, J

    1984-01-09

    A 500 MHz 1H-NMR study on a synthetic DNA pentadecamer comprising the specific target site of the cAMP receptor protein in the ara BAD operon is presented. Using pre-steady state NOE measurements, unambiguous assignments of all the imino proton resonances and associated adenine (H2) resonances are obtained. From the NOE data interbase pair interproton distances involving the imino and adenine (H2) protons are determined. It is shown that these distances are very similar to those expected for classical B DNA (RMS difference of 0.5 A), but are significantly different from those expected for classical A DNA (RMS difference of 1.1 A).

  9. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  10. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  11. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  12. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  13. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. Aerobic oxidative cyclization of benzamides via meta-selective C-H tert-alkylation: rapid entry to 7-alkylated isoquinolinediones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi; Deng, You-Lin; Li, Jie; Wang, Wen-Xin; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Zeng-Zeng; Yuan, Li; Chen, Shi-Lu; Sheng, Rui-Long

    2016-03-25

    A novel copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cyclization of benzamides via meta-selective C-H tert-alkylation using AIBN and analogues as radical precursors was described. This strategy provides an elusive and rapid means to 7-tert-alkylated isoquinolinediones, as well as the construction of tertiary alkyl-aryl C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bonds with positional selectivity.

  15. 4-Alkyl radical extrusion in the cytochrome P-450-catalyzed oxidation of 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Jacobsen, N.E.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. )

    1988-10-04

    Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 oxidizes the 4-methyl, 4-ethyl (DDEP), and 4-isopropyl derivatives of 3,5-bis(carbethoxy)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4,-dihydropyridine to mixtures of the corresponding 4-alkyl and 4-dealkyl pyridines. A fraction of the total microsomal enzyme is destroyed in the process. The 4-dealkyl to 4-alkyl pyridine metabolite ratio, the extent of cytochrome P-450 destruction, and the rate of spin-trapped radical accumulation are correlated in a linear inverse manner with the homolytic or heterolytic bond energies of the 4-alkyl groups of the 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines. No isotope effects are observed on the pyridine matabolite ratio, the destruction of cytochrome P-450, or the formation of ethyl radicals when (4-{sup 2}H)DDEP is used instead of DDEP. N-Methyl- and N-ethyl-DDEP undergo N-dealkylation rather than aromatization but N-phenyl-DDEP is oxidized to a mixture of the 4-ethyl and 4-deethyl N-phenylpyridinium metabolites. In contrast to the absence of an isotope effect in the oxidation of DDEP, the 4-deethyl to 4-ethyl N-phenylpyridinium metabolite ratio increases 6-fold when N-phenyl(4-{sup 2}H)DDEP is used. The results support the hypothesis that cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the oxidation of dihydropyridines to radical cations and show that the radical cations decay to nonradical products by multiple, substituent-dependent, mechanisms.

  16. Sugar binding induces the same global conformational change in purified LacY as in the native bacterial membrane.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yiling; Kaback, H Ronald

    2010-05-25

    Many independent lines of evidence indicate that the lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) is highly dynamic and that sugar binding causes closing of a large inward-facing cavity with opening of a wide outward-facing hydrophilic cavity. Therefore, lactose/H(+) symport catalyzed by LacY very likely involves a global conformational change that allows alternating access of single sugar- and H(+)-binding sites to either side of the membrane (the alternating access model). The x-ray crystal structures of LacY, as well as the majority of spectroscopic studies, use purified protein in detergent micelles. By using site-directed alkylation, we now demonstrate that sugar binding induces virtually the same global conformational change in LacY whether the protein is in the native bacterial membrane or is solubilized and purified in detergent. The results also indicate that the x-ray crystal structure reflects the structure of wild-type LacY in the native membrane in the absence of sugar.

  17. Levels and pattern of alkyl nitrates, multifunctional alkyl nitrates, and halocarbons in the air over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Ralf G.; Kastler, Jürgen; Ballschmiter, Karlheinz

    2000-06-01

    The Albatross Campaign was a research cruise of the German research vessel RV Polarstern (cruise ANT XFV/1) in October and November 1996 across the Atlantic Ocean. The cruise started in Bremerhaven, Germany, reached the polar region at 67°N, followed the 30°W meridian longitude, crossed the equatorial region, and ended at 50°S at Punta Quilla, Argentina. A second cruise leg closer to the African continent started from Capetown, South Africa, passed the Canary Island, and ended through the English Channel at Bremerhaven, Germany, in May/June 1998. Measurements of atmospheric levels of C1-C13 alkyl mononitrates, 24 alkyl dinitrates (C3-C6), 19 hydroxy alkyl nitrates (C2-C6), and benzyl nitrate, as well as the halocarbons tetrachloroethene, hexachloroethane, and bromoform are presented in this work. The halocarbons are used to assess the origin of the air parcels analyzed. Levels and patterns of multifunctional alkyl nitrates in the marine air are described here for the first time. The air masses include polluted air from the northern Europe, as well as highly degraded air masses of the South Atlantic trade wind region that represent global baseline levels. Two independent analytical methods were used in combination to cover the whole range of organic nitrates. First, the low-volume adsorptive enrichment of organic traces on Tenax, followed by thermodesorption cold trap HRGC-ECD and thermodesorption cold trap HRGC-(EI)MSD was used. Second, high-volume adsorptive enrichment of organic traces on silica gel was applied followed by solvent desorption, NP-HPLC group separation, and HRGC-(EI)-MSD. Short-chain alkyl nitrates (C4-C6) showed mixing ratios in the range of 0.2-2.5 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), with a local minimum for the tropical regions and significantly lower ratios for the Southern Hemisphere. The mixing ratio of the sum of 36 long-chain alkyl mononitrates (C7-C13) ranged from 0.02-0.43 pptv, the mixing ratio of the sum of 23 alkyl dinitrates (C3-C

  18. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  19. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar.

  20. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification.

    PubMed

    Layrisse, M; Martinez-Torres, C; Renzi, M; Velez, F; González, M

    1976-01-01

    Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification presents several advantages over the other vehicles used in the last three decades. In vitro studies demonstrated that ferrous sulfate added to sugar in proportion of 1 mg to 1 g, respectively, is maintained in the ferrous form for a period of at least 1 year and does not induce adverse changes in the vehicle. Sugar, by itself, carries practically no inhibitors for the absorption of iron. Iron absorption from fortified sugar mixed with vegetals is the same as that of native vegetal iron. The absorption from fortified sugar is increased more than 50% over that observed from native vegetal when it is administered as a drink during the ingestion of a meal. A further increase in absorption was found when fortified sugar was administered with beverages. The mean absorption ratio of fortified sugar given with orange juice, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola to a reference dose of iron ascorbate was between 0.45 and 0.66, which is more than 3 times the absorption of this iron fortification mixed with vegetals. The mean absorption ratio from coffee was 0.30, and from coffee with milk, 0.15. These data indicate that the fortification of sugar with iron could be a better procedure for the prevention of iron deficiency than the iron fortification of bread and wheat products, from which iron is poorly absorbed. It could be used in developing countries where beverages are highly consumed by the low socioeconomic class. This program could be extended to all sugar consumption or be restricted to soft drinks.