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Sample records for all-cause mortality hazard

  1. Structural pluralism and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Young, F W; Lyson, T A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that "structural pluralism" reduces age-standardized mortality rates. Structural pluralism is defined as the potential for political competition in communities. METHODS: US counties were the units of analysis. Multiple regression techniques were used to test the hypothesis. RESULTS: Structural pluralism is a stronger determinant of lower mortality than any of the other variables examined--specifically, income, education, and medical facilities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the case for a new structural variable, pluralism, as a possible cause of lower mortality, and they indirectly support the significance of comparable ecologic dimensions, such as social trust. PMID:11189808

  2. Statin Use Reduces Prostate Cancer All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have suggested that statin use is related to cancer risk and prostate cancer mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether using statins in prostate cancer patients is associated with reduced all-cause mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5179 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who used statins for at least 6 months between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010. To form a comparison group, each patient was randomly frequency-matched (according to age and index date) with a prostate cancer patient who did not use any type of statin-based drugs during the study period. The study endpoint was mortality. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models. Among prostate cancer patients, statin use was associated with significantly decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.60–0.71). This phenomenon was observed among various types of statin, age groups, and treatment methods. Analyzing the defined daily dose of statins indicated that both low- and high-dose groups exhibited significantly decreased death rates compared with nonusers, suggesting a dose–response relationship. The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that using statins reduces all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients, and a dose–response relationship may exist. PMID:26426656

  3. Suicidal Ideation is Associated With All-Cause Mortality.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Brian; Riblet, Natalie; Westgate, Christine Leonard; Young-Xu, Yinong; Watts, Bradley V

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal ideation may be associated with all-cause mortality. Available research shows that treatment of depression reduces the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with suicidal ideation. However, this finding has not been replicated in a clinical population, where patients have various mental health conditions. We examined the association between suicidal ideation and all-cause mortality in a clinical cohort. We stratified patients presenting to a mental health clinic from January 2005 through December 2007 based upon their degree of suicidal ideation and obtained vital status information through June 2015. We compared groups using survival analysis, adjusting for patient characteristics and treatment receipt. Among 1,869 patients who completed the initial assessment, there were 363 deaths. Patients with the highest levels of suicidal ideation died at increased rates. Cause-of-death data in the year following the initial assessment indicates that the difference in mortality is not likely attributable to suicide. Accounting for patient characteristics and treatment, which included medical care and mental health care, did not meaningfully diminish the relationship between suicidal ideation and all-cause mortality. Additional research is needed to determine specific treatment elements that may moderate the relationship between suicidal ideation and all-cause mortality. PMID:27612350

  4. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  5. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism. PMID:23887883

  6. The Effect of Neurobehavioral Test Performance on the All-Cause Mortality among US Population.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Liang; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wang, Gia-Chi; Wang, Chung-Ching; Yang, Ya-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the association between global cognitive function and mortality is much, but whether specific cognitive function is related to mortality is unclear. To address the paucity of knowledge on younger populations in the US, we analyzed the association between specific cognitive function and mortality in young and middle-aged adults. We analyzed data from 5,144 men and women between 20 and 59 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-94) with mortality follow-up evaluation through 2006. Cognitive function tests, including assessments of executive function/processing speed (symbol digit substitution) and learning recall/short-term memory (serial digit learning), were performed. All-cause mortality was the outcome of interest. After adjusting for multiple variables, total mortality was significantly higher in males with poorer executive function/processing speed (hazard ratio (HR) 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 2.99) and poorer recall/short-term memory (HR 1.47; 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.12). After adjusting for multiple variables, the mortality risk did not significantly increase among the females in these two cognitive tests groups. In this sample of the US population, poorer executive function/processing speed and poorer learning recall/short-term memory were significantly associated with increased mortality rates, especially in males. This study highlights the notion that poorer specific cognitive function predicts all-cause mortality in young and middle-aged males. PMID:27595105

  7. The Effect of Neurobehavioral Test Performance on the All-Cause Mortality among US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wang, Gia-Chi; Wang, Chung-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the association between global cognitive function and mortality is much, but whether specific cognitive function is related to mortality is unclear. To address the paucity of knowledge on younger populations in the US, we analyzed the association between specific cognitive function and mortality in young and middle-aged adults. We analyzed data from 5,144 men and women between 20 and 59 years of age in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–94) with mortality follow-up evaluation through 2006. Cognitive function tests, including assessments of executive function/processing speed (symbol digit substitution) and learning recall/short-term memory (serial digit learning), were performed. All-cause mortality was the outcome of interest. After adjusting for multiple variables, total mortality was significantly higher in males with poorer executive function/processing speed (hazard ratio (HR) 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 2.99) and poorer recall/short-term memory (HR 1.47; 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.12). After adjusting for multiple variables, the mortality risk did not significantly increase among the females in these two cognitive tests groups. In this sample of the US population, poorer executive function/processing speed and poorer learning recall/short-term memory were significantly associated with increased mortality rates, especially in males. This study highlights the notion that poorer specific cognitive function predicts all-cause mortality in young and middle-aged males. PMID:27595105

  8. Meta-analysis of All-Cause Mortality According to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Kim, June Jiwon; Mohr, Sharif Burgette; Gorham, Edward Doerr; Grant, William B.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Baggerly, Leo; Hofflich, Heather; Ramsdell, Joe Wesley; Zeng, Kenneth; Heaney, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and all-cause mortality. We searched biomedical databases for articles that assessed 2 or more categories of 25(OH)D from January 1, 1966, to January 15, 2013. We identified 32 studies and pooled the data. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality comparing the lowest (0–9 nanograms per milliliter [ng/mL]) to the highest (> 30 ng/mL) category of 25(OH)D was 1.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.6, 2.2; P < .001). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations less than or equal to 30 ng/mL were associated with higher all-cause mortality than concentrations greater than 30 ng/mL (P < .01). Our findings agree with a National Academy of Sciences report, except the cutoff point for all-cause mortality reduction in this analysis was greater than 30 ng/mL rather than greater than 20 ng/mL. PMID:24922127

  9. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657

  10. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  11. Renal Function and All-Cause Mortality Risk Among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Li, Hui-yan; Zhou, Qian; Peng, Zhen-wei; An, Xin; Li, Wei; Xiong, Li-ping; Yu, Xue-qing; Jiang, Wen-qi; Mao, Hai-ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Renal dysfunction predicts all-cause mortality in general population. However, the prevalence of renal insufficiency and its relationship with mortality in cancer patients are unclear. We retrospectively studied 9465 patients with newly diagnosed cancer from January 2010 to December 2010. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality associated with baseline eGFR was assessed by Cox regression. Three thousand sixty-nine patients (32.4%) exhibited eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 3% had abnormal serum creatinine levels at the time of diagnosis. Over a median follow-up of 40.5 months, 2705 patients (28.6%) died. Compared with the reference group (eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), an elevated all-cause mortality was observed among patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 stratified by cancer stage in the entire cohort, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.87 (95% CI, 1.41–2.47) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01–1.62) for stage I to III and stage IV, respectively. However, this relationship was not observed after multivariate adjustment. Subgroup analysis found that eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 independently predicted death among patients with hematologic (adjusted HR 2.93, 95% CI [1.36–6.31]) and gynecological cancer (adjusted HR 2.82, 95% CI [1.19–6.70]), but not in those with other cancer. Five hundred fifty-seven patients (6%) had proteinuria. When controlled for potential confounding factors, proteinuria was a risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients in the entire cohort, regardless of cancer stage and eGFR values. When patients were categorized by specific cancer type, the risk of all-cause death was only significant in patients with digestive system cancer (adjusted HR, 1.85 [1.48–2.32]). The prevalence of renal dysfunction was common in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Patients

  12. Housework Reduces All-Cause and Cancer Mortality in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruby; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Leisure time physical activity has been extensively studied. However, the health benefits of non-leisure time physical activity, particular those undertaken at home on all-cause and cancer mortality are limited, particularly among the elderly. Methods We studied physical activity in relation to all-cause and cancer mortality in a cohort of 4,000 community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and older. Leisure time physical activity (sport/recreational activity and lawn work/yard care/gardening) and non-leisure time physical activity (housework, home repairs and caring for another person) were self-reported on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Subjects with heart diseases, stroke, cancer or diabetes at baseline were excluded (n = 1,133). Results Among the 2,867 subjects with a mean age of 72 years at baseline, 452 died from all-cause and 185 died from cancer during the follow-up period (2001–2012). With the adjustment for age, education level and lifestyle factors, we found an inverse association between risk of all-cause mortality and heavy housework among men, with the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.72 (95%CI = 0.57–0.92). Further adjustment for BMI, frailty index, living arrangement, and leisure time activity did not change the result (HR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.56–0.91). Among women, however, heavy housework was not associated with all-cause mortality. The risk of cancer mortality was significantly lower among men who participated in heavy housework (HR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.35–0.78), whereas among women the risk was not significant. Men participated in light housework also were at lower risk of cancer mortality than were their counterparts, however, the association was not significant. Leisure time physical activity was not related to all-cause or cancer mortality in either men or women. Conclusion Heavy housework is associated with reduced mortality and cancer deaths over a 9-year period. The underlying mechanism needs further

  13. Impact of acquired comorbidities on all-cause mortality rates among older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Thomas P.; Lash, Timothy L.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Silliman, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer survivors with higher numbers of comorbidities at the time of primary treatment suffer higher rates of all-cause mortality than comparatively healthier survivors. The effect of time-varying comorbidity status on mortality in breast cancer survivors, however, has not been well investigated. Objective We examined longitudinal comorbidity in a cohort of women treated for primary breast cancer to determine whether accounting for comorbidities acquired after baseline assessment influenced the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality compared with an analysis using only baseline comorbidity. Methods Cox proportional hazards adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and exercise habits were modeled using (1) only a baseline Charlson index; (2) four Charlson index values collected longitudinally and entered as time-varying covariates, with missing values addressed by carrying forward the prior observation; and (3) the four longitudinal Charlson scores entered as time-varying covariates, with missing values multiply imputed. Results The three modeling strategies yielded similar results; Model 1 HR: 1.4 per unit increase in Charlson index, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7; Model 2 HR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 and Model 3 HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.6. Conclusions Our findings indicate that a unit increase in the Charlson comorbidity index raises the hazard rate for all-cause mortality by approximately 1.4-fold in older women treated for primary breast cancer. The conclusion is essentially the same whether accounting only for baseline comorbidity or accounting for acquired comorbidity over a median follow-up period of 85 months. PMID:19106734

  14. Hemoglobin Screening Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality.

    PubMed

    Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Stout, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Objective .- Determine if the addition of hemoglobin testing improves risk prediction for life insurance applicants. Method .- Hemoglobin results for insurance applicants tested from 1993 to 2007, with vital status determined by Social Security Death Master File follow-up in 2011, were analyzed by age and sex with and without accounting for the contribution of other test results. Results .- Hemoglobin values ≤12.0 g/dL (and possibly ≤13.0 g/dL) in females age 50+ (but not age <50) and hemoglobin values ≤13.0 g/dL in all males are associated with progressively increasing mortality risk independent of the contribution of other test values. Increased risk is also noted for hemoglobin values >15.0 g/dL (and possibly >14.0 g/dL) for all females and for hemoglobin values >16.0 g/dL for males. Conclusion .- Hemoglobin testing can add additional independent risk assessment to that obtained from other laboratory testing, BP and build in this relatively healthy insurance applicant population. Multiple studies support this finding at older ages, but data (and the prevalence of diseases impacting hemoglobin levels) are limited at younger ages. PMID:27584842

  15. Does cytomegalovirus infection contribute to socioeconomic disparities in all-cause mortality?

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Douglas, Christian E; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Pawelec, Graham; Simanek, Amanda M; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-09-01

    The social patterning of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and its implication in aging suggest that the virus may partially contribute to socioeconomic disparities in mortality. We used Cox regression and inverse odds ratio weighting to quantify the proportion of the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause mortality that was attributable to mediation by CMV seropositivity. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), with mortality follow-up through December 2011. SES was assessed as household income (income-to-poverty ratio ≤1.30;>1.30 to≤1.85;>1.85 to≤3.50;>3.50) and education (high school). We found strong associations between low SES and increased mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 2.06 comparing the lowest versus highest income groups and HR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.48 comparing high school education. 65% of individuals were CMV seropositive, accounting for 6-15% of the SES-mortality associations. Age modified the associations between SES, CMV, and mortality, with CMV more strongly associated with mortality in older individuals. Our findings suggest that cytomegalovirus may partially contribute to persistent socioeconomic disparities in mortality, particularly among older individuals. PMID:27268074

  16. Associations of Posthemodialysis Weights above and below Target Weight with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Falk, Ronald J.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Fluid removal via ultrafiltration is a primary function of hemodialysis, and inadequate volume control is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among chronic dialysis patients. Treatment-to-treatment fluid removal goals are typically calculated on the basis of interdialytic weight gain and prescribed target weight. The clinical effect of frequent missed target weights is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the associations of postdialysis weights above and below the prescribed target weight (separately) and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were taken from a national cohort of 10,785 prevalent, thrice-weekly, in-center hemodialysis patients dialyzing from 2005 to 2008 (median time at risk, 2.1 [25th percentile, 75th percentile] years) at a single dialysis organization. Patients were characterized as having an above target weight miss if their postdialysis weight was >2 kg above target weight in at least 30% of baseline treatments (14.6% of cohort), or they were characterized as control otherwise. Below target weight miss characterization was analogous for patients with postdialysis weight >2 kg below target weight (6.6% of cohort). Coprimary endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results Above target weight miss in at least 30% of treatments (versus not) was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.43); and below target weight miss in at least 30% of treatments (versus not) was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.40). Both above and below target weight misses were also significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. Secondary analyses demonstrated dose-response relationships between target weight misses and mortality. Results from sensitivity analyses considering the difference in postdialysis and target weights as a

  17. Fatty liver disease: Disparate predictive ability for cardiometabolic risk and all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Kaya, Ayşem; Akbaş, Tuğba; Özpamuk-Karadeniz, Fatma; Şimşek, Barış; Çakır, Hakan; Yüksel, Hüsniye

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the association of a surrogate of fatty liver disease (FLD) with incident type-2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: In a prospective population-based study on 1822 middle-aged adults, stratified to gender, we used an algorithm of fatty liver index (FLI) to identify associations with outcomes. An index ≥ 60 indicated the presence of FLD. In Cox regression models, adjusted for age, smoking status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, we assessed the predictive value of FLI for incident diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At a mean 8 year follow-up, 218 and 285 incident cases of diabetes and CHD, respectively, and 193 deaths were recorded. FLD was significantly associated in each gender with blood pressure, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, uric acid, and C-reactive protein; weakly with fasting glucose; and inversely with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and sex hormone-binding globulin. In adjusted Cox models, FLD was (with a 5-fold HR) the major determinant of diabetes development. Analyses further disclosed significant independent prediction of CHD by FLD in combined gender [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-2.53] and men (HR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.25-4.43). Similarly-adjusted models for all-cause mortality proved, however, not to confer risk, except for a tendency in prediabetics and diabetic women. CONCLUSION: A surrogate of FLD conferred significant high risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease, independent of some metabolic syndrome traits. All-cause mortality was not associated with FLD, except likely in the prediabetic state. Such a FLI may reliably be used in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26730168

  18. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men. PMID:26467937

  19. Plasma Biomarkers of Inflammation, the Kynurenine Pathway, and Risks of All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M.; Ulvik, Arve; Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein E.; Nygård, Ottar; Midttun, Øivind; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Meyer, Klaus; Tell, Grethe S.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate 10 biomarkers related to inflammation and the kynurenine pathway, including neopterin, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio, C-reactive protein, tryptophan, and 6 kynurenines, as potential predictors of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a general population sample. The study cohort was participants involved in a community-based Norwegian study, the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of the biomarkers with all-cause mortality and competing-risk models for cause-specific mortality. Of the 7,015 participants, 1,496 deaths were recorded after a median follow-up time of 14 years (1998–2012). Plasma levels of inflammatory markers (neopterin, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio, and C-reactive protein), anthranilic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine were positively associated with all-cause mortality, and tryptophan and xanthurenic acid were inversely associated. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of the biomarkers were 1.19–1.60 for positive associations and 0.73–0.87 for negative associations. All of the inflammatory markers and most kynurenines, except kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, were associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In this general population, plasma biomarkers of inflammation and kynurenines were associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality. Associations were stronger for CVD mortality than for mortality due to cancer or other causes. PMID:26823439

  20. Association between physical performance and all-cause mortality in CKD.

    PubMed

    Roshanravan, Baback; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Patel, Kushang V; Ayers, Ernest; Littman, Alyson J; de Boer, Ian H; Ikizler, T Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Katzel, Leslie I; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Seliger, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    In older adults, measurements of physical performance assess physical function and associate with mortality and disability. Muscle wasting and diminished physical performance often accompany CKD, resembling physiologic aging, but whether physical performance associates with clinical outcome in CKD is unknown. We evaluated 385 ambulatory, stroke-free participants with stage 2-4 CKD enrolled in clinic-based cohorts at the University of Washington and University of Maryland and Veterans Affairs Maryland Healthcare systems. We compared handgrip strength, usual gait speed, timed up and go (TUAG), and 6-minute walking distance with normative values and constructed Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic curves to test associations with all-cause mortality. Mean age was 61 years and the mean estimated GFR was 41 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Measures of lower extremity performance were at least 30% lower than predicted, but handgrip strength was relatively preserved. Fifty deaths occurred during the median 3-year follow-up period. After adjustment, each 0.1-m/s decrement in gait speed associated with a 26% higher risk for death, and each 1-second longer TUAG associated with an 8% higher risk for death. On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic analysis, gait speed and TUAG more strongly predicted 3-year mortality than kidney function or commonly measured serum biomarkers. Adding gait speed to a model that included estimated GFR significantly improved the prediction of 3-year mortality. In summary, impaired physical performance of the lower extremities is common in CKD and strongly associates with all-cause mortality. PMID:23599380

  1. Resveratrol levels and all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bartali, Benedetta; Urpí-Sarda, Mireia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sun, Kai; Cherubini, Antonio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Importance Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, red wine, chocolate, and certain berries and roots, is considered to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects in humans and is related to longevity in some lower organisms. Objective To determine whether resveratrol levels achieved with diet are associated with inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in humans. Design Prospective cohort study, the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) Study (“Aging in the Chianti Region”), 1998-2009. Setting Two villages in the Chianti area, Tuscany region of Italy. Participants Population-based sample of 783 community-dwelling men and women, ≥65 y Exposure 24-h urinary resveratrol metabolites Main outcomes and measures Primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were markers of inflammation (serum C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), and prevalent and incident cancer and cardiovascular disease Results Mean (95% Confidence Interval) log total urinary resveratrol metabolite concentrations were 7.08 (6.69, 7.48) nmol/g creatinine. During nine years of follow-up, 268 (34.3%) of the participants died. From the lowest to the highest quartile of baseline total urinary resveratrol metabolites, the proportion of participants who died from all causes was 34.4, 31.6, 33.5, and 37.4%, respectively (P = 0.67). Participants in the lowest quartile had a hazards ratio for mortality of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.54, 1.17) when compared with those in the highest quartile of total urinary resveratrol in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for potential confounders. Resveratrol levels were not significantly associated with serum CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, prevalent or incident cardiovascular disease or cancer. Conclusions: In older community-dwelling adults, total urinary resveratrol metabolite concentration was not associated with inflammatory

  2. Osteoarthritis and all-cause mortality in worldwide populations: grading the evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Dan; Xu, Yuankun; Liu, Qiang; Ke, Yan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhichang; Lin, Jianhao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association between osteoarthritis (OA) and all-cause mortality in worldwide populations and to develop recommendations according to GRADE evidence levels. Literature search through Nov 2015 was performed using the electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO and Cochrane library). The prospective cohort trials that investigated the association between the symptomatic OA (SxOA) or radiological OA (ROA) and all-cause mortality were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause mortality in patients with RxOA or ROA were pooled respectively. The evidence quality was evaluated using the GRADE system, while the recommendations were taken according to the quality. Nine of the published literature met the eligible criteria. Meta-analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the association between SxOA and all-cause mortality (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.68–1.23) and between ROA and all-cause mortality (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95–1.35). The overall GARDE evidence quality was very low, which will lower our confidence in taking recommendations. To summarize, there was no reliable and confident evidence existed currently in respect of the association between OA and all-cause mortality. Due to the very low level of evidence quality currently, high-quality studies are still required. PMID:27087682

  3. Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States✩

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Chaoyang; Capewell, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States. Method We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 who were followed through 2006. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%–70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively. Conclusion Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death. PMID:22564893

  4. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Syed Ashiqur; Adjeroh, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI) is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved (“U-shaped”) relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI) that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality. Methods and Findings We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18–85), from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA), vertical trunk circumference (VTC), height (H) and waist circumference (WC). The surface-based body shape index (SBSI) is defined as follows: SBSI=(H7/4)(WC5/6)BSAVTC(1) SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), A Body Shape Index (ABSI)) in

  5. Relation of Adiponectin to All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Witberg, Guy; Ayers, Colby R; Turer, Aslan T; Lev, Eli; Kornowski, Ran; de Lemos, James; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-02-15

    Adiponectin is a key component in multiple metabolic pathways. Studies evaluating associations of adiponectin with clinical outcomes in older adults have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association of adiponectin with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in a young, multiethnic adult population. We analyzed data from participants in the Dallas Heart Study without baseline CVD who underwent assessment of total adiponectin from 2000 to 2002. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality was assessed over median 10.4 years of follow-up using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Secondary outcomes included CVD mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and heart failure (HF). The study cohort included 3,263 participants, mean age 43.4 years, 44% women, and 50% black. There were 184 deaths (63 CVD), 207 MACCE, and 46 HF events. In multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, hyperlipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and body mass index, increasing adiponectin quartiles were positively associated with all-cause mortality Q4 versus Q1 (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47, 3.50); CVD mortality Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 2.43; 95% CI 1.15, 5.15); MACCE Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.13, 2.60); and HF Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 2.95; 95% CI 1.14, 7.67). Findings were similar with adiponectin as a continuous variable and consistent across subgroups defined by age, gender, race, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, higher adiponectin was associated with increased mortality and CVD morbidity in a young, multiethnic population. These findings may have implications for strategies aimed at lowering adiponectin to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:26800774

  6. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; Kurozawa, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study. Methods A cohort study of 34,128 men and 49,282 women aged 40–79 years was conducted, to explore the association between lifestyle and cancer in Japan. Participants completed a baseline survey during 1988 to 1990 and were followed until the end of 2009. We classified participants into two groups according to dietary habits with respect to eating or skipping breakfast and carried out intergroup comparisons of lifestyle. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results There were 5,768 deaths from cancer and 5,133 cases of death owing to circulatory diseases and 17,112 cases for all causes of mortality during the median 19.4 years follow-up. Skipping breakfast was related to unhealthy lifestyle habits. After adjusting for confounding factors, skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42] and all causes (HR = 1.43) in men and all causes mortality (HR = 1.34) in women. Conclusion Our findings showed that skipping breakfast is associated with increasing risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes among men and all causes mortality among women in Japan. PMID:27046951

  7. Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

  8. Structural Stigma and All-Cause Mortality in Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma—operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice—increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

  9. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I² statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I² = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I² = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I² = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I² = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  10. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  11. The impact of prescription opioids on all-cause mortality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Sameer; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada. As this commentary highlights, the all-cause mortality shifts seen in the United States cannot be seen in Canada for either sex or age groups. The exact reasons for the differences between the two countries are not clear, but it is important for public health to further explore this question. PMID:27476513

  12. Association between various sedentary behaviours and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonju; Wilkens, Lynne R; Park, Song-Yi; Goodman, Marc T; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that time spent sitting increases all-cause mortality, but evidence to support this hypothesis, especially the relative effects of various sitting activities alone or in combination, is very limited. Methods The association between various sedentary behaviours (time spent: sitting watching television (TV); in other leisure activities; in a car/bus; at work; and at meals) and mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) was examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, which included 61 395 men and 73 201 women aged 45–75 years among five racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and White) from Hawaii and Los Angeles, USA. Results Median follow-up was 13.7 years and 19 143 deaths were recorded. Total daily sitting was not associated with mortality in men, whereas in women the longest sitting duration (≥10 h/day vs <5 h/day) was associated with increased all-cause (11%) and cardiovascular (19%) mortality. Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) for ≥5 h/day vs <1 h/day of sitting watching TV were 1.19 in men (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.29) and 1.32 in women (95% CI 1.21–1.44) for all-cause mortality. This association was consistent across four racial/ethnic groups, but was not seen in Japanese Americans. Sitting watching TV was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, but not for cancer mortality. Time spent sitting in a car/bus and at work was not related to mortality. Conclusions Leisure time spent sitting, particularly watching television, may increase overall and cardiovascular mortality. Sitting at work or during transportation was not related to mortality. PMID:24062293

  13. Leisure-Time Running Reduces All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Duck-chul; Pate, Russell R.; Lavie, Carl J.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although running is a popular leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the long-term effects of running on mortality. The dose-response relations between running, as well as the change in running behaviors over time and mortality remain uncertain. Objectives We examined the associations of running with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in 55,137 adults, aged 18 to 100 years (mean age, 44). Methods Running was assessed on the medical history questionnaire by leisure-time activity. Results During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 3,413 all-cause and 1,217 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Approximately, 24% of adults participated in running in this population. Compared with non-runners, runners had 30% and 45% lower adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, with a 3-year life expectancy benefit. In dose-response analyses, the mortality benefits in runners were similar across quintiles of running time, distance, frequency, amount, and speed, compared with non-runners. Weekly running even <51 minutes, <6 miles, 1-2 times, <506 metabolic equivalent-minutes, or <6 mph was sufficient to reduce risk of mortality, compared with not running. In the analyses of change in running behaviors and mortality, persistent runners had the most significant benefits with 29% and 50% lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with never-runners. Conclusions Running, even 5-10 minutes per day and slow speeds <6 mph, is associated with markedly reduced risks of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. This study may motivate healthy but sedentary individuals to begin and continue running for substantial and attainable mortality benefits. PMID:25082581

  14. Cognitive Function and All-Cause Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, David A.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Scott, Tammy; Lou, Kristina; Kantor, Amy; Fan, Li; Strom, James A.; Singh, Ajay K.; Sarnak, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is common in hemodialysis patients and associated with significant morbidity. Limited information exists on whether cognitive impairment is associated with survival, and whether type of cognitive impairment is important. Study Design Longitudinal cohort. Setting & Participants Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and yearly using a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests in 292 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Predictor Using principal component analysis, individual test results were reduced into 2 domain scores, representing memory and executive function. By definition, each score carried a mean of 0 and SD of 1. Outcomes Association of each score with all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics as well as dialysis and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Results Mean age of participants was 63 years, 53% were male, 23% were African American and 90% had at least a high school education. During median follow up of 2.1 (IQR, 1.1–3.7) years, 145 deaths occurred. Each 1-SD better executive function score was associated with 35% lower hazard of mortality (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55–0.76). In models adjusting for demographics and dialysis-related factors, this relationship was partially attenuated but remained significant (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.98), while adjustment for CV disease and heart failure further attenuated it (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72–1.06). Use of time-dependent models showed a similar unadjusted association (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.54–0.72), with the relationship remaining significant after adjustment for demographics, dialysis, and CV risk factors (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66–0.94). Better memory was associated with lower mortality in univariate analysis (HR per 1 SD, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69–0.96]), but not when adjusting for demographics (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83–1.19). Limitations Patients with dementia were excluded from the full battery, perhaps underestimating

  15. Kidney Function, Albuminuria, and All-Cause Mortality in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, David G.; Muntner, Paul; McCullough, Peter A.; Zhang, Xiao; McClure, Leslie A.; Zakai, Neil; Cushman, Mary; Newsome, Britt B.; Kewalramani, Reshma; Steffes, Michael W.; Howard, George; McClellan, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and albuminuria are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Study Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting and Participants 17,393 participants (mean age, 64.3 ± 9.6 years) in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study. Predictor Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcome All-cause mortality (710 deaths); median duration of follow-up: 3.6 years. Measurements and Analysis Categories of eGFR (90– <120, 60–<90, 45–<60, 30–<45, and 15–<30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary ACR (<10 mg/g or normal, 10–<30 mg/g or high normal, 30–300 mg/g or high, and >300 mg/g or very high). Cox’s proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographic factors, cardiovascular covariates, and hemoglobin. Results The background all-cause mortality rate for participants with normal ACR, eGFR of 90–<120 mL/min/1.73 m2 and no CHD was 4.3 deaths/1,000 person-years. Higher ACR was associated with an increased multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality within each eGFR category. Reduced eGFR was associated with higher adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for participants with high normal (P value = 0.01) and high (P value <0.001) ACR values, but not for those with normal or very high ACR values. Limitations Only one laboratory assessment for serum creatinine and ACR was available Conclusions Increased albuminuria was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. Reduced eGFR was associated with increased mortality risk among those with high normal and high ACR. The mortality rate was low in the normal ACR group and increased in the very high ACR group but did not vary with eGFR in these groups. PMID:20692752

  16. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance but not skeletal muscle dysfunction or all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Recent work has found that older adults with obesity and systemic inflammation have associated metabolic dysfunction but do not have associated lower lean mass or strength. However, this lean mass estimate may be inflated with obesity, given that 15 % of adipose tissue is composed of fat-free tissue. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate, in a nationally representative sample of adults, whether obese adults with chronic systemic inflammation (unhealthy) have differences in lean mass, muscle strength, and insulin resistance when compared to normal weight individuals without elevated levels of systemic inflammation (healthy). A secondary objective was to determine whether these potential differences were moderated by physical activity and to determine if these groups had a differential risk for all-cause mortality. Our findings suggests that the unhealthy group was associated with higher upper body lean mass (β = 823; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 637-1010; P < 0.001), lower body lean mass (β = 2724; 95 % CI 2291-3158; P < 0.001), and strength (β = 34.6; 95 % CI 13.5-55.7; P = 0.003) compared to the healthy group despite having systemic inflammation and correcting for fat-free adipose tissue. However, the unhealthy group was associated with insulin resistance (odds ratio (OR) = 16.1; 95 % CI 2.7-96.1; P = 0.005) although this finding was attenuated in those physically active (OR = 8.5; 95 % CI 2.43-30.15; P = 0.003). Despite this metabolic dysfunction, there was no difference in all-cause mortality risk between groups (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16 (95 % CI 0.69-1.96; P = 0.54)) suggesting that higher amounts of lean mass and strength may be protective of premature mortality. PMID:26698153

  17. Effects of Running on Chronic Diseases and Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Arena, Ross; O'Keefe, James H; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence has established the link between high levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality. Running is a popular form of vigorous PA that has been associated with better overall survival, but there is debate about the dose-response relationship between running and CVD and all-cause survival. In this review, we specifically reviewed studies published in PubMed since 2000 that included at least 500 runners and 5-year follow-up so as to analyze the relationship between vigorous aerobic PA, specifically running, and major health consequences, especially CVD and all-cause mortality. We also made recommendations on the optimal dose of running associated with protection against CVD and premature mortality, as well as briefly discuss the potential cardiotoxicity of a high dose of aerobic exercise, including running (eg, marathons). PMID:26362561

  18. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality. PMID:26787402

  19. Associations between antioxidants and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B

    2014-11-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterised by oxidative stress, but little is known about the associations between antioxidant status and all-cause mortality in adults with this disease. The objective of the present study was to examine the prospective associations between concentrations of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, Se, vitamin C and α-tocopherol and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function. Data collected from 1492 adults aged 20-79 years with obstructive lung function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-94) were used. Through 2006, 629 deaths were identified during a median follow-up period of 14 years. After adjustment for demographic variables, the concentrations of the following antioxidants modelled as continuous variables were found to be inversely associated with all-cause mortality among adults with obstructive lung function: α-carotene (P= 0·037); β-carotene (P= 0·022); cryptoxanthin (P= 0·022); lutein/zeaxanthin (P= 0·004); total carotenoids (P= 0·001); vitamin C (P< 0·001). In maximally adjusted models, only the concentrations of lycopene (P= 0·013) and vitamin C (P= 0·046) were found to be significantly and inversely associated with all-cause mortality. No effect modification by sex was detected, but the association between lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations and all-cause mortality varied by smoking status (P interaction= 0·048). The concentrations of lycopene and vitamin C were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in this cohort of adults with obstructive lung function. PMID:25315508

  20. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level. PMID:26362812

  1. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Edward; Goodwin, Guy M; Fazel, Seena

    2014-06-01

    A meta-review, or review of systematic reviews, was conducted to explore the risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in major mental disorders. A systematic search generated 407 relevant reviews, of which 20 reported mortality risks in 20 different mental disorders and included over 1.7 million patients and over a quarter of a million deaths. All disorders had an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with the general population, and many had mortality risks larger than or comparable to heavy smoking. Those with the highest all-cause mortality ratios were substance use disorders and anorexia nervosa. These higher mortality risks translate into substantial (10-20 years) reductions in life expectancy. Borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, depression and bipolar disorder had the highest suicide risks. Notable gaps were identified in the review literature, and the quality of the included reviews was typically low. The excess risks of mortality and suicide in all mental disorders justify a higher priority for the research, prevention, and treatment of the determinants of premature death in psychiatric patients. PMID:24890068

  2. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, Edward; Goodwin, Guy M; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    A meta-review, or review of systematic reviews, was conducted to explore the risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in major mental disorders. A systematic search generated 407 relevant reviews, of which 20 reported mortality risks in 20 different mental disorders and included over 1.7 million patients and over a quarter of a million deaths. All disorders had an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with the general population, and many had mortality risks larger than or comparable to heavy smoking. Those with the highest all-cause mortality ratios were substance use disorders and anorexia nervosa. These higher mortality risks translate into substantial (10-20 years) reductions in life expectancy. Borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, depression and bipolar disorder had the highest suicide risks. Notable gaps were identified in the review literature, and the quality of the included reviews was typically low. The excess risks of mortality and suicide in all mental disorders justify a higher priority for the research, prevention, and treatment of the determinants of premature death in psychiatric patients. PMID:24890068

  3. Excessive Access Cannulation Site Bleeding Predicts Long-Term All-Cause Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Lin, Chi-Lin; Huang, Shu-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Chiu, Yen-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Our group has previously reported that excessive vascular access bleeding during dialysis treatment in stable hemodialysis (HD) patients was associated with anemia and may indicate poorer health. The association between excessive blood loss from access cannulation site and clinical outcomes was unknown. We hypothesized that excessive access bleeding may have an impact on all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in this population. We prospectively conducted an observational, longitudinal study of 360 HD patients. Excessive access bleeding was defined as at least an occurrence of blood loss greater than 4 mL per HD session during a study period of one month. During a median follow-up of 83 months, all-cause mortality and CV mortality were registered. Outcomes were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. A total of 118 (32.8%) participants died and 54 of these were from CV death. Using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, access bleeding was found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 1.67, 95% CI 0.96-2.91, P = 0.070) but not for CV death (HR 1.53, 95% CI 0.88-2.68, P = 0.135). Our study identified that excessive access cannulation site bleeding could be a novel marker for increased risk of death in HD patients. PMID:25944488

  4. Reduction of drinking in problem drinkers and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Roerecke, M

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been linked with considerable mortality, and reduction of drinking, especially of heavy drinking, has been suggested as one of the main measures to reduce alcohol-attributable mortality. Aggregate-level studies including but not limited to natural experiments support this suggestion; however, causality cannot be established in ecological analysis. The results of individual-level cohort studies are ambiguous. On the other hand, randomized clinical trials with problem drinkers show that brief interventions leading to a reduction of average drinking also led to a reduction of all-cause mortality within 1 year. The results of these studies were pooled and a model for reduction of drinking in heavy drinkers and its consequences for all-cause mortality risk was estimated. Ceteris paribus, the higher the level of drinking, the stronger the effects of a given reduction. Implications for interventions and public health are discussed. PMID:23531718

  5. Diabetes treatments and risk of heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and all cause mortality: cohort study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Coupland, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between risks of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality and different diabetes drugs in people with type 2 diabetes, particularly newer agents, including gliptins and thiazolidinediones (glitazones). Design Open cohort study. Setting 1243 general practices contributing data to the QResearch database in England. Participants 469 688 people with type 2 diabetes aged 25-84 years between 1 April 2007 and 31 January 2015. Exposures Diabetes drugs (glitazones, gliptins, metformin, sulphonylureas, insulin, other) alone and in combination. Main outcome measure First recorded diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality recorded on the patients’ primary care, mortality, or hospital record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes treatments, adjusting for potential confounders. Results During follow-up, 21 308 patients (4.5%) received prescriptions for glitazones and 32 533 (6.9%) received prescriptions for gliptins. Compared with non-use, gliptins were significantly associated with an 18% decreased risk of all cause mortality, a 14% decreased risk of heart failure, and no significant change in risk of cardiovascular disease; corresponding values for glitazones were significantly decreased risks of 23% for all cause mortality, 26% for heart failure, and 25% for cardiovascular disease. Compared with no current treatment, there were no significant associations between monotherapy with gliptins and risk of any complications. Dual treatment with gliptins and metformin was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 38% for heart failure, 33% for cardiovascular disease, and 48% for all cause mortality). Triple treatment with metformin, sulphonylureas, and gliptins was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 40% for heart failure, 30% for cardiovascular disease, and 51% for all cause

  6. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  7. Income distribution, public services expenditures, and all cause mortality in US states

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, J.; Burgess, B.; Ross, N.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this paper is to investigate the relation between state and local government expenditures on public services and all cause mortality in 48 US states in 1987, and determine if the relation between income inequality and mortality is conditioned on levels of public services available in these jurisdictions. Methods: Per capita public expenditures and a needs adjusted index of public services were examined for their association with age and sex specific mortality rates. OLS regression models estimated the contribution of public services to mortality, controlling for median income and income inequality. Results: Total per capita expenditures on public services were significantly associated with all mortality measures, as were expenditures for primary and secondary education, higher education, and environment and housing. A hypothetical increase of $100 per capita spent on higher education, for example, was associated with 65.6 fewer deaths per 100 000 for working age men (p<0.01). The positive relation between income inequality and mortality was partly attenuated by controls for public services. Discussion: Public service expenditures by state and local governments (especially for education) are strongly related to all cause mortality. Only part of the relation between income inequality and mortality may be attributable to public service levels. PMID:16100315

  8. Symptoms of depression and all-cause mortality in farmers, a cohort study: the HUNT study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Letnes, Jon Magne; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore all-cause mortality and the association between symptoms of depression and all-cause mortality in farmers compared with other occupational groups, using a prospective cohort design. Methods We included adult participants with a known occupation from the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag 2 (HUNT2) 1995–1997), Norway. Complete information on emigration and death from all causes was obtained from the National Registries. We used the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of depression. We compared farmers to 4 other occupational groups. Our baseline study population comprised 32 618 participants. Statistical analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards models. Results The estimated mortality risk in farmers was lower than in all other occupations combined, with a sex and age-adjusted HR (0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). However, farmers had an 11% increased age-adjusted and sex-adjusted mortality risk compared with the highest ranked socioeconomic group (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.25). In farmers, symptoms of depression were associated with a 13% increase in sex-adjusted and age-adjusted mortality risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.45). Compared with other occupations this was the lowest HR, also after adjusting for education, marital status, long-lasting limiting somatic illness and lifestyle factors (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.39). Conclusions Farmers had lower all-cause mortality compared with the other occupational groups combined. Symptoms of depression were associated with an increased mortality risk in farmers, but the risk increase was smaller compared with the other occupational groups. PMID:27188811

  9. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter Is an Independent Predictor of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Yoo, Dong Eun; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Kim, Chan Ho; Doh, Fa Mee; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Visceral fat has a crucial role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as an index of visceral fat, significantly correlated with mortality in the general population, the impact of SAD on clinical outcomes has never been explored in ESRD patients. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the prognostic value of SAD in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods We prospectively determined SAD by lateral abdominal X-ray at PD initiation, and evaluated the association of SAD with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 418 incident PD patients. Results The mean SAD was 24.5±4.3 cm, and during a mean follow-up of 39.4 months, 97 patients (23.2%) died, and 49.4% of them died due to cardiovascular disease. SAD was a significant independent predictor of all-cause [3rd versus 1st tertile, HR (hazard ratio): 3.333, 95% CI (confidence interval): 1.514–7.388, P = 0.01; per 1 cm increase, HR: 1.071, 95% CI: 1.005–1.141, P = 0.03] and cardiovascular mortality (3rd versus 1st tertile, HR: 8.021, 95% CI: 1.994–32.273, P = 0.01; per 1 cm increase, HR: 1.106, 95% CI: 1.007–1.214, P = 0.03). Multivariate fractional polynomial analysis also showed that all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk increased steadily with higher SAD values. In addition, SAD provided higher predictive value for all-cause (AUC: 0.691 vs. 0.547, P<0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (AUC: 0.644 vs. 0.483, P<0.001) than body mass index (BMI). Subgroup analysis revealed higher SAD (≥24.2 cm) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in men, women, younger patients (<65 years), and patients with lower BMI (<22.3 kg/m2). Conclusions SAD determined by lateral abdominal X-ray at PD initiation was a significant independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in incident PD patients. Estimating visceral fat by

  10. Depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality in adults with atrial fibrillation - A cohort study in Swedish primary care.

    PubMed

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Gasevic, Danijela; Wahlström, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our aim was to study depression and anxiety in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients as risk factors for all-cause mortality in a primary care setting. Methods The study population included adults (n = 12 283) of 45 years and older diagnosed with AF in 75 primary care centres in Sweden. The association between depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality was explored using Cox regression analysis, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were conducted in men and women, adjusted for age, educational level, marital status, neighborhood socio-economic status (SES), change of neighborhood status and anxiety or depression, respectively, and cardiovascular co-morbidities. As a secondary analysis, background factors and their association with depression or anxiety were explored. Results The risk of all-cause mortality was higher among men with depression compared to their counterparts without depression even after full adjustment (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.53). For anxiety among men and anxiety or depression among women with AF, no associations were found. Cerebrovascular disease was more common among depressed AF patients. Conclusions Increased awareness of the higher mortality among men with AF and subsequent depression is called for. We suggest a tight follow-up and treatment of both ailments in clinical practice. PMID:26758363

  11. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate < 200 g of fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13–1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11–1.42) for mortality from all causes. Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:22950554

  12. Maximum bite force at age 70 years predicts all-cause mortality during the following 13 years in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Sato, N; Sato, M; Taylor, G W; Ansai, T; Ono, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information on the impact of oral function on mortality among older adults. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine whether an objective measure of oral function, maximum bite force (MBF), is associated with mortality in older adults during a 13-year follow-up period. Five hundred and fifty-nine community-dwelling Japanese (282 men and 277 women) aged 70 years at baseline were included in the study. Medical and dental examinations and a questionnaire survey were conducted at baseline. Maximum bite force was measured using an electronic recording device (Occlusal Force-Meter GM10). Follow-up investigation to ascertain vital status was conducted 13 years after baseline examinations. Survival rates among MBF tertiles were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by sex. There were a total of 111 deaths (82 events for men and 29 for women). Univariable analysis revealed that male participants in the lower MBF tertile had increased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1·94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·13-3·34] compared with those in the upper MBF tertile. This association remained significant after adjustment for confounders (adjusted HR = 1·84, 95% CI = 1·07-3·19). Conversely, no association between MBF and all-cause mortality was observed in female participants. Maximum bite force was independently associated with all-cause mortality in older Japanese male adults. These data provide additional evidence for the association between oral function and geriatric health. PMID:27084614

  13. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III123

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. Objective: We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998–1994). Design: Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20–80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Results: Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823–1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48–0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At <1400 mg/d, there was no association. A similar association was seen between higher phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At <0.35 mg/kcal (approximately the fifth percentile), lower phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of

  14. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001), May (r = 0.77, p<0.001), and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03–2.21] applying reference periods (May 12–18, 2010) from various years. Conclusion The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot

  15. Association Between Tooth Loss, Body Mass Index, and All-Cause Mortality Among Elderly Patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Lee, Ya-Ling; Lin, Shu-Yi; Chou, Yi-Chang; Chung, Debbie; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Wu, Chen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To date, the effect of tooth loss on all-cause mortality among elderly patients with a different weight group has not been assessed. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the data obtained from a government-sponsored, annual physical examination program for elderly citizens residing in Taipei City during 2005 to 2007, and follow-up to December 31, 2010. We recruited 55,651 eligible citizens of Taipei City aged ≥65 years, including 29,572 men and 26,079 women, in our study. Their mortality data were ascertained based on the national death files. The number of missing teeth was used as a representative of oral health status. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to determine the association between tooth loss and all-cause mortality. After adjustment for all confounders, the hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality in participants with no teeth, 1 to 9 teeth, and 10 to 19 teeth were 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–1.61], 1.24 (95% CI: 1.08–1.42), and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09–1.31), respectively, compared with participants with 20 or more teeth. A significant positive correlation of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause mortality was found in underweight and overweight elderly patients and was represented as a U-shaped curve. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant positive correlation in underweight (no teeth: HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.21–1.83; 1–9 teeth: HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03–1.47; 10–19 teeth: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06–1.36) and overweight participants (no teeth: HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05–1.79; 1–9 teeth: HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07–1.52). The number of teeth lost is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for participants with underweight and overweight. PMID:26426618

  16. Neighborhood racial composition, social capital and black all-cause mortality in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Rebbeca N; Putt, Mary A; Dean, Lorraine T; Long, Judith A; Montagnet, Chantal A; Armstrong, Katrina

    2009-05-01

    Neighborhood characteristics such as racial composition and social capital have been widely linked to health outcomes, but the direction of the relationship between these characteristics and health of minority populations is controversial. Given this uncertainty, we examined the relationship between neighborhood racial composition, social capital, and black all-cause mortality between 1997 and 2000 in 68 Philadelphia neighborhoods. Data from the U.S. Census, the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's 2004 Southeast Pennsylvania Community Health Survey, and city vital statistics were linked by census tract and then aggregated into neighborhoods, which served as the unit of analysis. Neighborhood social capital was measured by a summative score of respondent assessments of: the livability of their community, the likelihood of neighbors helping one another, their sense of belonging, and the trustworthiness of their neighbors. After adjustment for the sociodemographic characteristics of neighborhood residents, black age-adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly higher in neighborhoods that had lower proportion of black residents. Neighborhood social capital was also associated with lower black mortality, with the strongest relationship seen for neighborhoods in the top half of social capital scores. There was a significant interaction between racial composition and social capital, so that the effect of social capital on mortality was greatest in neighborhoods with a higher proportion of black residents and the effect of racial composition was greatest in neighborhoods with high social capital. These results demonstrate that age-adjusted all-cause black mortality is lowest in mostly black neighborhoods with high levels of social capital in Philadelphia. PMID:19324485

  17. Prediabetes, elevated iron and all-cause mortality: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Coates, Thomas D; Baker, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Data have indicated low to non-existent increased mortality risk for individuals with prediabetes, but it is unclear if the risk is increased when the patient has elevated iron markers. Our purpose was to examine the mortality risk among adults with prediabetes in the context of coexisting elevated transferrin saturation (TS) or serum ferritin. Setting Data collected by the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–1994 (NHANES III) in the USA and by the National Center for Health Statistics for the National Death Index from 1988 to 2006. Participants Individuals age 40 and older who participated in the NHANES and provided a blood sample. Primary outcome variable Mortality was measured as all-cause mortality. Results Adjusted analyses show that prediabetes has a small increased mortality risk (HR=1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08). Persons who had prediabetes and elevated serum ferritin had an increased HR for death (HR=1.14; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.24) compared with those who had normal ferritin and normal glucose. Among persons with prediabetes who had elevated TS, they had an increased mortality risk (HR=1.88; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.30) compared with those with normal TS levels and normal glucose. Conclusions The mortality risk of prediabetes is low. However, among individuals who have coexisting elevated iron markers, particularly TS, the risk rises substantially. PMID:25500370

  18. Associations of sitting behaviours with all-cause mortality over a 16-year follow-up: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Pulsford, Richard M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Britton, Annie R; Brunner, Eric J; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitting behaviours have been linked with increased risk of all-cause mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Previous studies have tended to examine single indicators of sitting or all sitting behaviours combined. This study aims to enhance the evidence base by examining the type-specific prospective associations of four different sitting behaviours as well as total sitting with the risk of all-cause mortality. Methods: Participants (3720 men and 1412 women) from the Whitehall II cohort study who were free from cardiovascular disease provided information on weekly sitting time (at work, during leisure time, while watching TV, during leisure time excluding TV, and at work and during leisure time combined) and covariates in 1997–99. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate prospective associations between sitting time (h/week) and mortality risk. Follow-up was from date of measurement until (the earliest of) death, date of censor or July 31 2014. Results: Over 81 373 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up time 15.7 ± 2.2 years) a total of 450 deaths were recorded. No associations were observed between any of the five sitting indicators and mortality risk, either in unadjusted models or models adjusted for covariates including MVPA. Conclusions: Sitting time was not associated with all-cause mortality risk. The results of this study suggest that policy makers and clinicians should be cautious about placing emphasis on sitting behaviour as a risk factor for mortality that is distinct from the effect of physical activity. PMID:26454871

  19. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-attributable mortality compared with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Factors underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are not well understood. This study contributes to our understanding of potential pathways to result in socioeconomic inequalities, by examining alcohol consumption as one potential explanation via comparing socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-attributable mortality and all-cause mortality. Methods: Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ETOH were searched systematically from their inception to second week of February 2013 for articles reporting alcohol-attributable mortality by socioeconomic status, operationalized by using information on education, occupation, employment status or income. The sex-specific ratios of relative risks (RRRs) of alcohol-attributable mortality to all-cause mortality were pooled for different operationalizations of socioeconomic status using inverse-variance weighted random effects models. These RRRs were then combined to a single estimate. Results: We identified 15 unique papers suitable for a meta-analysis; capturing about 133 million people, 3 741 334 deaths from all causes and 167 652 alcohol-attributable deaths. The overall RRRs amounted to RRR = 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 2.22) and RRR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.31), for women and men, respectively. In other words: lower socioeconomic status leads to 1.5–2-fold higher mortality for alcohol-attributable causes compared with all causes. Conclusions: Alcohol was identified as a factor underlying higher mortality risks in more disadvantaged populations. All alcohol-attributable mortality is in principle avoidable, and future alcohol policies must take into consideration any differential effect on socioeconomic groups. PMID:24618188

  20. Development and Validation of a Clinical Risk-Assessment Tool Predictive of All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Ghalib A; Dumancas, Gerard G; Gennings, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In clinical settings, the diagnosis of medical conditions is often aided by measurement of various serum biomarkers through the use of laboratory tests. These biomarkers provide information about different aspects of a patient’s health and overall function of multiple organ systems. We have developed a statistical procedure that condenses the information from a variety of health biomarkers into a composite index, which could be used as a risk score for predicting all-cause mortality. It could also be viewed as a holistic measure of overall physiological health status. This health status metric is computed as a function of standardized values of each biomarker measurement, weighted according to their empirically determined relative strength of association with mortality. The underlying risk model was developed using the biomonitoring and mortality data of a large sample of US residents obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the National Death Index (NDI). Biomarker concentration levels were standardized using spline-based Cox regression models, and optimization algorithms were used to estimate the weights. The predictive accuracy of the tool was optimized by bootstrap aggregation. We also demonstrate how stacked generalization, a machine learning technique, can be used for further enhancement of the prediction power. The index was shown to be highly predictive of all-cause mortality and long-term outcomes for specific health conditions. It also exhibited a robust association with concurrent chronic conditions, recent hospital utilization, and current health status as assessed by self-rated health. PMID:26380550

  1. Body mass index before and after breast cancer diagnosis: Associations with all-cause, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Egan, Kathleen M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Holmes, Michelle D.; Bersch, Andrew J.; Holick, Crystal N.; Hampton, John M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Factors related to improving outcomes in breast cancer survivors are of increasing public health significance. We examined post-diagnosis weight change in relation to mortality risk in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 3,993 women aged 20−79 living in New Hampshire, Massachusetts or Wisconsin with invasive, nonmetastatic breast cancers diagnosed in 1988−1999 identified through state registries. Participants completed a structured telephone interview 1−2 years after diagnosis and returned a mailed follow-up questionnaire in 1998−2001 that addressed post-diagnosis weight and other factors. Vital status information was obtained from the National Death Index through December 2005. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for pre-diagnosis weight, age, stage, smoking, physical activity and other important covariates. Results During an average 6.3 years of follow-up from the post-diagnosis questionnaire, we identified 421 total deaths, including 121 deaths from breast cancer and 95 deaths from cardiovascular disease. Increasing post-diagnosis weight gain and weight loss were each associated with greater all-cause mortality. Among women who gained weight after breast cancer diagnosis, each 5 kg gain was associated with a 12% increase in all-cause mortality (p=0.004), a 13% increase in breast cancer-specific mortality (p=0.01), and a 19% increase in cardiovascular disease mortality (p=0.04). Associations with breast cancer mortality were not modified by pre-diagnosis menopausal status, cigarette smoking, or body mass index. Conclusion These findings suggest that efforts to minimize weight gain after a breast cancer diagnosis may improve survival. PMID:19366908

  2. Health behaviors and all-cause mortality in African American men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Bowie, Janice V; Coa, Kisha; Clay, Olivio J; LaVeist, Thomas A; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-07-01

    Because of the excess burden of preventable chronic diseases and premature death among African American men, identifying health behaviors to enhance longevity is needed. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and the NHANES III Linked Mortality Public-use File to determine the association between health behaviors and all-cause mortality and if these behaviors varied by age in 2029 African American men. Health behaviors included smoking, drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, and a healthy eating index score. Age was categorized as 25-44 years (n = 1,045), 45-64 years (n = 544), and 65 years and older (n = 440). Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between health behaviors and mortality within each age-group. All models were adjusted for marital status, education, poverty-to-income ratio, insurance status, and number of health conditions. Being a current smoker was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the 25- to 44-year age-group, whereas being physically inactive was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the 45- to 64-year age-group. For the 65 years and older age-group, being overweight or obese was associated with decreased mortality risk. Efforts to improve longevity should focus on developing age-tailored health promoting strategies and interventions aimed at smoking cessation and increasing physical activity in young and middle-aged African American men. PMID:23649171

  3. To Flourish or Not: Positive Mental Health and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, Eduardo J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether positive mental health predicts all-cause mortality. Methods. Data were from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (n = 3032), which at baseline in 1995 measured positive mental health (flourishing and not) and past-year mental illness (major depressive episode, panic attacks, and generalized anxiety disorders), and linked respondents with National Death Index records in a 10-year follow-up ending in 2005. Covariates were age, gender, race, education, any past-year mental illness, smoking, physical inactivity, physical diseases, and physical disease risk factors. Results. A total of 6.3% of participants died during the study period. The final and fully adjusted odds ratio of mortality was 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 2.62; P = .05) for adults who were not flourishing, relative to participants with flourishing mental health. Age, gender, race, education, smoking, physical inactivity, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDS were significant predictors of death during the study period. Conclusions. The absence of positive mental health increased the probability of all-cause mortality for men and women at all ages after adjustment for known causes of death. PMID:22994191

  4. Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

  5. Predicting all-cause mortality from basic physiology in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William B; Pincus, Zachary

    2016-02-01

    Using longitudinal data from a cohort of 1349 participants in the Framingham Heart Study, we show that as early as 28-38 years of age, almost 10% of variation in future lifespan can be predicted from simple clinical parameters. Specifically, we found diastolic and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to be relevant to lifespan. These and similar parameters have been well-characterized as risk factors in the relatively narrow context of cardiovascular disease and mortality in middle to old age. In contrast, we demonstrate here that such measures can be used to predict all-cause mortality from mid-adulthood onward. Further, we find that different clinical measurements are predictive of lifespan in different age regimes. Specifically, blood pressure and BMI are predictive of all-cause mortality from ages 35 to 60, while blood glucose is predictive from ages 57 to 73. Moreover, we find that several of these parameters are best considered as measures of a rate of 'damage accrual', such that total historical exposure, rather than current measurement values, is the most relevant risk factor (as with pack-years of cigarette smoking). In short, we show that simple physiological measurements have broader lifespan-predictive value than indicated by previous work and that incorporating information from multiple time points can significantly increase that predictive capacity. In general, our results apply equally to both men and women, although some differences exist. PMID:26446764

  6. Weight Change and All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feon W; Gao, Xiang; Jensen, Gordon L

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used Pub Med (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in English from inception to November 2014. Seventeen prospective studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Higher all-cause mortality risks were noted with weight change: weight loss (pooled RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.51-1.85; p < 0.001 for heterogeneity), weight gain (pooled RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33; p = 0.03 for heterogeneity), and weight fluctuation (pooled RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.36-1.72; p = 0.43 for heterogeneity). Similar results were observed with stricter criteria for sensitivity analyses. None of the study characteristics had statistically significant effects on the pooled RR, except for study quality on weight loss. Weight change is associated with higher mortality risk among community-dwelling adults 60 years and older. PMID:26571354

  7. Longitudinal Patterns of Blood Pressure, Incident Cardiovascular Events, and All-Cause Mortality in Normotensive Diabetic People.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijun; Jin, Cheng; Vaidya, Anand; Jin, Wei; Huang, Zhe; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Lower blood pressure (BP) within the normotensive range has been suggested to be deleterious in diabetic people using antihypertensive drugs. We hypothesized that BP <120/80 mm Hg and BP trajectories may predict further risk of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular events in normotensive diabetic individuals. We included 3159 diabetic adults, free of hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, or cancer in 2006 (baseline), from a community-based cohort including 101 510 participants. A total of 831 participants with BP <120/80 mm Hg and 2328 participants with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg were included. BP and other clinical covariates were repeatedly measured every 2 years. During 7 years of follow-up, we documented 247 deaths and 177 cardiovascular events. Diabetic people with BP <120/80 mm Hg had a 46% increased risk of all-cause mortality (95% confidence interval, 10%-93%) compared with those with BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg at baseline. We then estimated the association between BP trajectories from 2006 to 2008 and adverse events among 2311 diabetic people who had both BP measures at 2006 and 2008. Relative to stable BP of 120 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, having persistently BP <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.01) or a spontaneous decrease in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to <120/80 mm Hg (hazard ratio: 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.92) was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality during 2008 to 2014. A rise in BP from 120 to 139/80 to 89 to ≥140/90 mm Hg conferred a high risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-3.17). In normotensive diabetic people having a low BP or a decline in BP was both associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, whereas development of incident hypertension increased the risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:27217407

  8. Psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral associations on all-cause mortality: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of psychological,socioeconomic, biological and behavioral parameters on mortality. Methods: A prospective design was employed. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (analyzed in 2015); follow-up mortality status evaluated in 2011. Psychological function was assessed from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as a measure of depression. Socioeconomic risk was assessed from poverty level, education, minority status, and social living status. Biological parameters included cholesterol, weight status, diabetes, hypertension and systemic inflammation. Behavioral parameters assessed included physical activity (accelerometry), dietary behavior, smoking status (cotinine) and sleep. These 14 psycho-socioeconomic bio-behavioral (PSBB) parameters allowed for the calculation of an overall PSBB Index, ranging from 0-14. Results: Among the evaluated 2530 participants, 161 died over the unweighted median follow-up period of 70.0 months. After adjustment, for every 1 increase in the overall PSBB index score,participants had a 15% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After adjustment, the Behavioral Index (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) and the Socioeconomic Index(HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99) were significant, but the Psychological Index (HR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.29-1.51) and the Biological Index (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.89-1.18) were not. Conclusion: Those with a worse PSBB score had an increased risk of all-cause mortality.Promotion of concurrent health behaviors may help to promote overall well-being and prolong survival. PMID:27386420

  9. Geographic Inequalities in All-Cause Mortality in Japan: Compositional or Contextual?

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture. Methods We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs), with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value  = 1). Results Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation) in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa) to 1.190 (Aomori) for men and from 0.864 (Shimane) to 1.132 (Aichi) for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori), adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita). We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo). No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex. Conclusions Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution

  10. Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor on All-Cause Mortality and Coronary Revascularization in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Eun; Jeon, Jooyeong; Hwang, In-Chang; Sung, Jidong; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-atherosclerotic effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors has been suggested from previous studies, and yet, its association with cardiovascular outcome has not been demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing mortality and coronary revascularization, in association with baseline coronary computed tomography (CT). Methods The current study was performed as a multi-center, retrospective observational cohort study. All subjects with diabetes mellitus who had diagnostic CT during 2007-2011 were included, and 1866 DPP-4 inhibitor users and 5179 non-users were compared for outcome. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcome included any coronary revascularization therapy after 90 days of CT in addition to all-cause mortality. Results DPP-4 inhibitors users had significantly less adverse events [0.8% vs. 4.4% in users vs. non-users, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 0.220, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.102-0.474, p = 0.0001 for primary outcome, 4.1% vs. 7.6% in users vs. non-users, HR 0.517, 95% CI 0.363-0.735, p = 0.0002 for secondary outcome, adjusted variables were age, sex, presence of hypertension, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, statin use, coronary artery calcium score and degree of stenosis]. Interestingly, DPP-4 inhibitor seemed to be beneficial only in subjects without significant stenosis (adjusted HR 0.148, p = 0.0013 and adjusted HR 0.525, p = 0.0081 for primary and secondary outcome). Conclusion DPP-4 inhibitor is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. Such beneficial effect was significant only in those without significant coronary stenosis, which implies that DPP-4 inhibitor may have beneficial effect in earlier stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:26755932

  11. Increased All-Cause, Liver, and Cardiac Mortality among Hepatitis C Virus-seropositive Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Guiltinan, Anne M.; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Custer, Brian; Orland, Jennie; Strollo, Angela; Cyrus, Sherri; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Hospital-based studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes frequent cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and mortality, but epidemiologic studies have shown less morbidity and mortality. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 10,259 recombinant immunoblot assay-confirmed, HCV antibody-positive (HCV+), allogeneic blood donors from 1991 to 2002 and 10,259 HCV antibody-negative (HCV−) donors matched for year of donation, age, gender, and Zone Improvement Plan Code (ZIP Code). Vital status through 2003 was obtained from the US National Death Index, and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by survival analysis. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, there were 601 (2.92%) deaths: 453 HCV+ and 148 HCV− (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.60, 3.76). Excess mortality in the HCV+ group was greatest in liver-related (HR = 45.99, 95% CI: 11.32, 186.74), drug- or alcohol-related (HR = 10.81, 95% CI: 4.68, 24.96), and trauma/suicide (HR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.05, 4.36) causes. There was also an unexpected increase in cardiovascular mortality among the HCV+ donors (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.46). HCV infection is associated with a significant, threefold increase in overall mortality among former blood donors, including significantly increased mortality from liver and cardiovascular causes. High rates of mortality from drug/alcohol and trauma/suicide causes are likely due to lifestyle factors and may be at least partially preventable. PMID:18203734

  12. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Tom; Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a strong association between unemployment and mortality but whether this relationship is causal remains debated. This study utilises population level administrative data from Scotland within a propensity score framework to explore whether the association between unemployment and mortality may be causal. Methods The study examined a sample of working men and women aged 25 to 54 in 1991. Subsequent employment status in 2001 was observed (in work or unemployed) and the relative all-cause mortality risk of unemployment between 2001 and 2010 was estimated. To account for potential selection into unemployment of those in poor health, a propensity score matching approach was used. Matching variables were observed prior to unemployment and included health status up to the year of unemployment (hospital admissions and self-reported limiting long term illness) as well as measures of socio-economic position. Results Unemployment was associated with a significant all-cause mortality risk relative to employment for men (hazard ratio 1.85 95% CI 1.33-2.55). This effect was robust to controlling for prior health and socio-demographic characteristics. Effects for women were smaller and statistically insignificant (HR 1.51 95% CI 0.68-3.37). Conclusion For men, the findings support the notion that the often observed association between unemployment and mortality may contain a significant causal component though for women there is less support for this conclusion. However, female employment status, as recorded in the census, is more complex than for men and may have served to under-estimate any mortality effect of unemployment. Future work should examine this issue further. PMID:25161201

  13. Relationship between alkaline phosphatase and all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fein, Paul A; Asadi, Sara; Singh, Priyanka; Hartman, William; Stuto, Steven; Chattopadhyay, Jyotiprakas; Avram, Morrell M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (AlkPhos) have been reported to be associated with increased mortality risk in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the association of serum AlkPhos with all-cause mortality in our PD patients. The study enrolled 90 PD patients beginning in 1995. On enrollment, demographics and clinical and biochemical data were recorded. Patients were followed to September 2011. Mean age of the enrollees was 52 years, with 61% being women, and most (81%) being of African descent. Mean and median AlkPhos were 135 U/L and 113 U/L respectively. Mean and maximum follow-up were 2.61 and 16 years respectively. As expected, AlkPhos correlated directly with serum intact parathyroid hormone (r = 0.36, p = 0.003). In a Cox multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for confounding variables, AlkPhos as a continuous (relative risk: 1.016; p = 0.004) anda categorical variable [> 120 U/L and < or = 120 U/L (relative risk: 6.0; p = 0.03)] remained a significant independent predictor of mortality. For each unit increase in enrollment AlkPhos, there was a 1.6% increase in the relative risk of death. Elevated serum AlkPhos is significantly and independently associated with increased mortality risk in our PD patients followed for up to 16 years. AlkPhos should be evaluated prospectively as a potential therapeutic target in clinical practice. PMID:24344494

  14. Birth characteristics and all-cause mortality: a sibling analysis using the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Juárez, S; Goodman, A; De Stavola, B; Koupil, I

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the association between perinatal health and all-cause mortality for specific age intervals, assessing the contribution of maternal socioeconomic characteristics and the presence of maternal-level confounding. Our study is based on a cohort of 12,564 singletons born between 1915 and 1929 at the Uppsala University Hospital. We fitted Cox regression models to estimate age-varying hazard ratios of all-cause mortality for absolute and relative birth weight and for gestational age. We found that associations with mortality vary by age and according to the measure under scrutiny, with effects being concentrated in infancy, childhood or early adult life. For example, the effect of low birth weight was greatest in the first year of life and then continued up to 44 years of age (HR between 2.82 and 1.51). These associations were confirmed in within-family analyses, which provided no evidence of residual confounding by maternal characteristics. Our findings support the interpretation that policies oriented towards improving population health should invest in birth outcomes and hence in maternal health. PMID:27138055

  15. Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Hansell, Anna L.; Gulliver, John; Morley, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Fecht, Daniela; Toledano, Mireille B.; Beevers, Sean D.; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Kelly, Frank J.; Tonne, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Aims Road traffic noise has been associated with hypertension but evidence for the long-term effects on hospital admissions and mortality is limited. We examined the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on hospital admissions and mortality in the general population. Methods and results The study population consisted of 8.6 million inhabitants of London, one of Europe's largest cities. We assessed small-area-level associations of day- (7:00–22:59) and nighttime (23:00–06:59) road traffic noise with cardiovascular hospital admissions and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in all adults (≥25 years) and elderly (≥75 years) through Poisson regression models. We adjusted models for age, sex, area-level socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, air pollution, and neighbourhood spatial structure. Median daytime exposure to road traffic noise was 55.6 dB. Daytime road traffic noise increased the risk of hospital admission for stroke with relative risk (RR) 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.09] in adults, and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04–1.14) in the elderly in areas >60 vs. <55 dB. Nighttime noise was associated with stroke admissions only among the elderly. Daytime noise was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in adults [RR 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00–1.07) in areas >60 vs. <55 dB]. Positive but non-significant associations were seen with mortality for cardiovascular and ischaemic heart disease, and stroke. Results were similar for the elderly. Conclusions Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was associated with small increased risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, particularly for stroke in the elderly. PMID:26104392

  16. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the mortality risk was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.03, P = 0.01) whereas the mortality risk was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 4 (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71, P < 0.01) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, mortality risk of group 3 was significantly higher than in group 2 (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.22-6.81, P = 0.02); there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The changes in nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first

  17. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H.; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the mortality risk was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–6.03, P = 0.01) whereas the mortality risk was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 4 (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71, P < 0.01) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, mortality risk of group 3 was significantly higher than in group 2 (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.22–6.81, P = 0.02); there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The changes in nutritional status assessed by SGA

  18. Independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause mortality: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Nguyen, Binh T; Njike, Valentine Y; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) on all-cause mortality. Design, setting, participants A prospective study of 3141 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants. Participants provided information on television (TV) viewing and car time in 1982 and completed a maximal exercise test during a 1-year time frame; they were then followed until mortality or through 2010. TV viewing, car time, total sedentary time and fitness were the primary exposures and all-cause mortality was the outcome. The relationship between the exposures and outcome was examined utilising Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 581 deaths occurred over a median follow-up period of 28.7 years (SD=4.4). At baseline, participants’ mean age was 45.0 years (SD=9.6), 86.5% were men and their mean body mass index was 24.6 (SD=3.0). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant linear relationship between increased fitness and lower mortality risk, even while adjusting for total sedentary time and covariates (p=0.02). The effects of total sedentary time on increased mortality risk did not quite reach statistical significance once fitness and covariates were adjusted for (p=0.05). When examining this relationship categorically, in comparison to the reference category (≤10 h/week), being sedentary for ≥23 h weekly increased mortality risk by 29% without controlling for fitness (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63); however, once fitness and covariates were taken into account this relationship did not reach statistical significance (HR=1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51). Moreover, spending >10 h in the car weekly significantly increased mortality risk by 27% in the fully adjusted model. The association between TV viewing and mortality was not significant. Conclusions The relationship between total sedentary time and higher mortality risk is less pronounced when fitness is taken into account. Increased car time, but

  19. Parity and All-cause Mortality in Women and Men: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yun; Ni, Ze-min; Liu, Shu-yun; Gu, Xue; Huang, Qin; Liu, Jun-an; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the association between parity and all-cause mortality, we conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Relevant reports were identified from PubMed and Embase databases. Cohort studies with relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality in three or more categories of parity were eligible. Eighteen articles with 2,813,418 participants were included. Results showed that participants with no live birth had higher risk of all-cause mortality (RR= 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03–1.38; I2 = 96.7%, P < 0.001) compared with participants with one or more live births. Nonlinear dose-response association was found between parity and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that moderate-level parity is inversely associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:26758416

  20. High diet quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-05-01

    Although diet quality is implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, few studies have investigated the relation between diet quality and the risks of CVD and mortality in older adults. This study examined the prospective associations between dietary scores and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in older British men. A total of 3328 men (aged 60-79 y) from the British Regional Heart Study, free from CVD at baseline, were followed up for 11.3 y for CVD and mortality. Baseline food-frequency questionnaire data were used to generate 2 dietary scores: the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), based on WHO dietary guidelines, and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), based on a Mediterranean-style dietary intake, with higher scores indicating greater compliance with dietary recommendations. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses assessed associations between quartiles of HDI and EDI and risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CVD events, and coronary heart disease (CHD) events. During follow-up, 933 deaths, 327 CVD deaths, 582 CVD events, and 307 CHD events occurred. Men in the highest compared with the lowest EDI quartile had significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), CVD mortality (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), and CHD events (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97; P-trend = 0.05) but not CVD events (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.05; P-trend = 0.16) after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular risk factors. The HDI was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. The EDI appears to be more useful than the HDI for assessing diet quality in relation to CVD and morality risk in older men. Encouraging older adults to adhere to the guidelines inherent in the EDI criteria may have public health benefits. PMID:24572037

  1. Soy and Soy Products Intake, All-Cause Mortality, and Cause-Specific Mortality in Japan: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kyoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2015-07-01

    Soy and soy products are popular ingredients in the Japanese diet. This study aimed to determine whether soy or soy products intake was associated with all-cause mortality in a community-based cohort in Japan. A total of 11 066 participants were obtained from an annual community-based health examination program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning soy and soy products intake and potential confounding factors. Associations between soy and soy products intake and all-cause mortality were assessed using hazard ratios (HRs). After adjusting for all factors, morality was significantly higher in men with infrequent soy intake (HR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.07) and with almost daily intake (HR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.19-2.03) compared with intake 1 to 2 times per week. Cancer mortality was higher among men who reported rarely eating soy (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.08-2.79). Soy products intake was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality in both sexes. PMID:24958613

  2. Serum Calcification Propensity Is a Strong and Independent Determinant of Cardiac and All-Cause Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Dahle, D O; Åsberg, A; Hartmann, A; Holdaas, H; Bachtler, M; Jenssen, T G; Dionisi, M; Pasch, A

    2016-01-01

    Calcification of the vasculature is associated with cardiovascular disease and death in kidney transplant recipients. A novel functional blood test measures calcification propensity by quantifying the transformation time (T50 ) from primary to secondary calciprotein particles. Accelerated T50 indicates a diminished ability of serum to resist calcification. We measured T50 in 1435 patients 10 weeks after kidney transplantation during 2000-2003 (first era) and 2009-2012 (second era). Aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV) was measured at week 10 and after 1 year in 589 patients from the second era. Accelerated T50 was associated with diabetes, deceased donor, first transplant, rejection, stronger immunosuppression, first era, higher serum phosphate and lower albumin. T50 was not associated with progression of APWV. During a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 283 patients died, 70 from myocardial infarction, cardiac failure or sudden death. In Cox regression models, accelerated T50 was strongly and independently associated with both all-cause and cardiac mortality, low versus high T50 quartile: hazard ratio 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-2.57), ptrend   = 0.03, and 3.60 (95% CI 1.10-11.83), ptrend   = 0.02, respectively. In conclusion, calcification propensity (T50 ) was strongly associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality of kidney transplant recipients, potentially via a cardiac nonAPWV-related pathway. Whether therapeutic improvement of T50 improves outcome awaits clarification in a randomized trial. PMID:26375609

  3. Losing Life and Livelihood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Unemployment and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment rates in the United States remain near a 25-year high and global unemployment is rising. Previous studies have shown that unemployed persons have an increased risk of death, but the magnitude of the risk and moderating factors have not been explored. The study is a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression designed to assess the association between unemployment and all-cause mortality among working-age persons. We extracted 235 mortality risk estimates from 42 studies, providing data on more than 20 million persons. The mean hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.63 among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates. The mean effect was higher for men than for women. Unemployment was associated with an increased mortality risk for those in their early and middle careers, but less for those in their late-career. The risk of death was highest during the first 10 years of follow up, but decreased subsequently. The mean HR was 24% lower among the subset of studies controlling for health-related behaviors. Public health initiatives could target unemployed persons for more aggressive cardiovascular screening and interventions aimed at reducing risk-taking behaviors. PMID:21330027

  4. Relationship between body mass index reference and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large cohort of Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Banwell, Cathy; Zhao, Jiaying; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI) reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: "normal" (≥18.5 to <23), "lower normal" (≥18.5 to <20.75), "upper normal" (≥20.75 to <23), and "narrow Western normal" (≥23 to <25). We report hazard ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35-65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30) were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01-5.70). For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26-7.22). However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25) were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34-0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28-0.84) when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23) and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23) as reference bands. Use of different "normal" reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data. PMID:25485146

  5. Association of resting heart rate and hypertension stages on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Koreans: the Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Mikyung; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Kimm, Heejin; Nam, Chung Mo; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated resting heart rate and hypertension independently increase the risk of mortality. However, their combined effect on mortality in stages of hypertension according to updated clinical guidelines among elderly population is unclear. Methods We followed a cohort of 6100 residents (2600 males and 3500 females) of Kangwha County, Korea, ranging from 55 to 99 year-olds as of March 1985, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for 20.8 years until December 31, 2005. Mortality data were collected through telephone calls and visits (to 1991), and were confirmed by death record matching with the National Statistical Office (1992−2005). Hazard ratios were calculated for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by resting heart rate and hypertension defined by Eighth Joint National Committee criteria using the Cox proportional hazard model after controlling for confounding factors. Results The hazard ratios associated with resting heart rate > 80 beats/min were higher in hypertensive men compared with normotensives with heart rate of 61–79 beats/min, with hazard ratios values of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.00−1.92) on all-cause mortality for prehypertension, 3.01 (95% CI: 1.07–8.28) on cardiovascular mortality for prehypertension, and 8.34 (95% CI: 2.52−28.19) for stage 2 hypertension. Increased risk (HR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.16–9.21) was observed among those with both a resting heart rate ≥ 80 beats/min and prehypertension on cardiovascular mortality in women. Conclusions Individuals with coexisting elevated resting heart rate and hypertension, even in prehypertension, have a greater risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to those with elevated resting heart rate or hypertension alone. These findings suggest that elevated resting heart rate should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:27605937

  6. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality. The OPENTHYRO Register Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration and mortality. Methods Register-based follow-up study of 239,768 individuals with a serum TSH measurement from hospitals and/or general practice in Funen, Denmark. Measurements were performed at a single laboratory from January 1st 1995 to January 1st 2011. Cox regression was used for mortality analyses and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used as comorbidity score. Results Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality with decreased (<0.3 mIU/L) or elevated (>4.0 mIU/L) levels of TSH were 2.22; 2.14–2.30; P<0.0001 and 1.28; 1.22–1.35; P<0.0001, respectively. Adjusting for age, gender, CCI and diagnostic setting attenuated the risk estimates (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.19–1.28; P<0.0001, mean follow-up time 7.7 years, and HR 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.13; P = 0.004, mean follow-up time 7.2 years) for decreased and elevated values of TSH, respectively. Mortality risk increased by a factor 1.09; 95% CI: 1.08–1.10; P<0.0001 or by a factor 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02–1.04; P<0.0001 for each six months a patient suffered from decreased or elevated TSH, respectively. Subdividing according to degree of thyroid dysfunction, overt hyperthyroidism (HRovert 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.19; P<0.0001), subclinical hyperthyroidism (HRsubclinical 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02–1.17; P = 0.02) and overt hypothyroidism (HRovert 1.57; 95% CI: 1.34–1.83; P<0.0001), but not subclinical hypothyroidism (HRsubclinical 1.03; 95% CI: 0.97–1.09; P = 0.4) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions and Relevance In a large-scale, population-based cohort with long-term follow-up (median 7.4 years), overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt but not subclinical hypothyroidism

  7. Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 Allele Interacts with Sex and Cognitive Status to Influence All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among US Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Kaufman, Jay S.; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M.; O'Brien, Richard; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4 carrier) status, sex and cognitive impairment may interact to affect all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Objectives To confirm associations of ApoE4 carrier status, sex and time-dependent cognitive status with mortality risk, and investigate these associations' joint effects in a cohort of community-dwelling US adults. Design & Setting Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were used. Participants Of n=3,047 (First-visit Age:17–98y, 60.1% men), we selected a sample with complete genetic data and with ≥1 visit at age≥50y (n=1,461). Measurements Time-to-death from all, cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular causes. Results Survival probability was lower for ApoE4 carriers, particularly at oldest ages. Cox proportional hazards model for all-cause mortality yielded a hazard ratio (HR) for ApoE4 carrier vs. non-carriers of 1.31,95%CI:1.02–1.68. This association was also found for cardiovascular mortality. Time-dependent all-cause dementia (HR=1.73, 95%CI:1.33–2.26) and mild cognitive impairment (HR=1.95,95%CI:1.42–2.67) increased all-cause mortality risk, associations also detected for non-cardiovascular mortality. When individuals were free of cognitive impairment, a dose-response relationship with ε4 alleles was found for all-cause mortality (HR=1.40,95%CI:0.94–2.07 for 1 ε4, and HR=2.61; 95%CI:1.12–6.07 for 2 ε4). After Alzheimer's Disease-type (AD) dementia onset, carrying only 1 ε4 allele increased all-cause mortality risk by ~77% compared to non-carriers. ApoE4 carrier status increased all-cause mortality risk in men and interacted with time-dependent AD to increase the risk of this outcome (RERI=2.15; 95% CI:1.22–3.07). Conclusion We found that ApoE4 carrier status increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks, while interacting with sex and time-dependent AD status to affect all-cause mortality. PMID:23581910

  8. Oxidative Stress Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Masiá, Mar; Padilla, Sergio; Fernández, Marta; Rodríguez, Carmen; Moreno, Ana; Oteo, Jose A.; Antela, Antonio; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether oxidative stress is a predictor of mortality in HIV-infected patients. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in CoRIS, a contemporary, multicentre cohort of HIV-infected patients, antiretroviral-naïve at entry, launched in 2004. Cases were patients who died with available stored plasma samples collected. Two age and sex-matched controls for each case were selected. We measured F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma levels in the first blood sample obtained after cohort engagement. Results 54 cases and 93 controls were included. Median F2-IsoPs and MDA levels were significantly higher in cases than in controls. When adjustment was performed for age, HIV-transmission category, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load at cohort entry, and subclinical inflammation measured with highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), the association of F2-IsoPs with mortality remained significant (adjusted OR per 1 log10 increase, 2.34 [1.23–4.47], P = 0.009). The association of MDA with mortality was attenuated after adjustment: adjusted OR (95% CI) per 1 log10 increase, 2.05 [0.91–4.59], P = 0.080. Median hsCRP was also higher in cases, and it also proved to be an independent predictor of mortality in the adjusted analysis: OR (95% CI) per 1 log10 increase, 1.39 (1.01–1.91), P = 0.043; and OR (95% CI) per 1 log10 increase, 1.46 (1.07–1.99), P = 0.014, respectively, when adjustment included F2-IsoPs and MDA. Conclusion Oxidative stress is a predictor of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected patients. For plasma F2-IsoPs, this association is independent of HIV-related factors and subclinical inflammation. PMID:27111769

  9. Intelligence in youth and all-cause-mortality: systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Catherine M; Deary, Ian J; Fenton, Candida; Roberts, Beverly A; Der, Geoff; Leckenby, Nicola; Batty, G David

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of prospective cohort studies have examined the association between intelligence in childhood or youth and life expectancy in adulthood; however, the effect size of this association is yet to be quantified and previous reviews require updating. Methods The systematic review included an electronic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE and PSYCHINFO databases. This yielded 16 unrelated studies that met inclusion criteria, comprising 22 453 deaths among 1 107 022 participants. Heterogeneity was assessed, and fixed effects models were applied to the aggregate data. Publication bias was evaluated, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results A 1-standard deviation (SD) advantage in cognitive test scores was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval 23–25) lower risk of death, during a 17- to 69-year follow-up. There was little evidence of publication bias (Egger’s intercept = 0.10, P = 0.81), and the intelligence–mortality association was similar for men and women. Adjustment for childhood socio-economic status (SES) in the nine studies containing these data had almost no impact on this relationship, suggesting that this is not a confounder of the intelligence–mortality association. Controlling for adult SES in five studies and for education in six studies attenuated the intelligence–mortality hazard ratios by 34 and 54%, respectively. Conclusions Future investigations should address the extent to which attenuation of the intelligence–mortality link by adult SES indicators is due to mediation, over-adjustment and/or confounding. The explanation(s) for association between higher early-life intelligence and lower risk of adult mortality require further elucidation. PMID:21037248

  10. Modeling the sssociation between 25[OH]D and all-cause mortality in a representative US population sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D has been identified as a potential key risk factor for several chronic diseases and mortality. The association between all-cause mortality and circulating levels of 25-ydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) has been described as non-monotonic with excess mortality at both low and high levels (1). Howev...

  11. Associations Between the Serum Metabolome and All-Cause Mortality Among African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Heiss, Gerardo; Alexander, Danny; Grams, Morgan E; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Early and accurate identification of people at high risk of premature death may assist in the targeting of preventive therapies in order to improve overall health. To identify novel biomarkers for all-cause mortality, we performed untargeted metabolomics in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We included 1,887 eligible ARIC African Americans, and 671 deaths occurred during a median follow-up period of 22.5 years (1987-2011). Chromatography and mass spectroscopy identified and quantitated 204 serum metabolites, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the longitudinal associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Nine metabolites, including cotinine, mannose, glycocholate, pregnendiol disulfate, α-hydroxyisovalerate, N-acetylalanine, andro-steroid monosulfate 2, uridine, and γ-glutamyl-leucine, showed independent associations with all-cause mortality, with an average risk change of 18% per standard-deviation increase in metabolite level (P < 1.23 × 10(-4)). A metabolite risk score, created on the basis of the weighted levels of the identified metabolites, improved the predictive ability of all-cause mortality over traditional risk factors (bias-corrected Harrell's C statistic 0.752 vs. 0.730). Mannose and glycocholate were associated with cardiovascular mortality (P < 1.23 × 10(-4)), but predictive ability was not improved beyond the traditional risk factors. This metabolomic analysis revealed potential novel biomarkers for all-cause mortality beyond the traditional risk factors. PMID:26956554

  12. The association of clinical indication for exercise stress testing with all-cause mortality: the FIT Project

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonseok; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Juraschek, Stephen P.; Brawner, Clinton; Keteyian, Steve J.; Nasir, Khurram; Dardari, Zeina A.; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that the indication for stress testing provided by the referring physician would be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Material and methods We studied 48,914 patients from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (The FIT Project) without known congestive heart failure who were referred for a clinical treadmill stress test and followed for 11 ±4.7 years. The reason for stress test referral was abstracted from the clinical test order, and should be considered the primary concerning symptom or indication as stated by the ordering clinician. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, after controlling for potential confounders including demographics, risk factors, and medication use as well as additional adjustment for exercise capacity in the final model. Results A total of 67% of the patients were referred for chest pain, 12% for shortness of breath (SOB), 4% for palpitations, 3% for pre-operative evaluation, 6% for abnormal prior testing, and 7% for risk factors only. There were 6,211 total deaths during follow-up. Compared to chest pain, those referred for palpitations (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60–0.86) and risk factors only (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those referred for SOB (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.23) and pre-operative evaluation (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.94–2.30) had an increased risk. In subgroup analysis, referral for palpitations was protective only in those without coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62–0.90), while SOB increased mortality risk only in those with established CAD (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10–1.44). Conclusions The indication for stress testing is an independent predictor of mortality, showing an interaction with CAD status. Importantly, SOB may be associated with higher mortality risk than chest pain, particularly in patients with CAD. PMID:27186173

  13. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. PMID:23871889

  14. Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Chau, Josephine Y.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Bauman, Adrian; Macniven, Rona; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts. Methods The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education. Results In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.89) and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43–0.85) mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity. Conclusions Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women. PMID:24086292

  15. The Pretreatment Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Black and White Patients with Non-metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rimando, Joseph; Campbell, Jeff; Kim, Jae Hee; Tang, Shou-Ching; Kim, Sangmi

    2016-01-01

    The pretreatment neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived from differential white blood cell counts, has been previously associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Little data exist, however, concerning this association in Black patients, who are known to have lower neutrophil counts than other racial groups. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 236 Black and 225 non-Hispanic White breast cancer patients treated at a single institution. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were obtained from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality in relation to pretreatment NLR. Overall, there were no associations between an elevated pretreatment NLR (NLR ≥3.7) and all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality. Among patients without metastasis at the time of diagnosis, an elevated pretreatment NLR was independently associated with all-cause mortality, with a multivariable HR of 2.31 (95% CI: 1.10–4.86). Black patients had significantly lower NLR values than White patients, but there was no evidence suggesting racial heterogeneity of the prognostic utility of NLR. Pretreatment NLR was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality but not breast cancer-specific mortality in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:27064712

  16. Investigation of Gender Heterogeneity in the Associations of Serum Phosphorus with Incident Coronary Artery Disease and All-Cause Mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum phosphorus levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. We examined whether serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality and incident myocardial infarction in the general population using 13,998 middle age subjects from the At...

  17. Serum Anion Gap Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Woo; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Cha, Ran-hui; Kang, Shin Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kim, Sung Gyun; Yoon, Sun Ae; Han, Sang Youb; Park, Jung Hwan; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality rates are poor in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Novel risk factors related to clinical outcomes should be identified. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled study was performed in 440 CKD patients aged > 18 years, with estimated glomerular filtration rate 15–60 mL/min/1.73m2. Clinical data were available, and the albumin-adjusted serum anion gap (A-SAG) could be calculated. The outcome analyzed was all-cause mortality. Results Of 440 participants, the median (interquartile range, IQR) follow-up duration was 5.1 (3.0–5.5) years. During the follow-up duration, 29 participants died (all-cause mortality 6.6%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 0.616 (95% CI 0.520–0.712, P = 0.037). The best threshold of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 9.48 mmol/L, with sensitivity 0.793 and specificity 0.431. After adjusting for confounders, A-SAG above 9.48 mmol/L was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, with hazard ratio 2.968 (95% CI 1.143–7.708, P = 0.025). In our study, serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were positively associated with A-SAG. Conclusions A-SAG is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in advanced CKD patients. The positive correlation between A-SAG and serum beta-2 microglobulin or BUN might be a potential reason. Future study is needed. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00860431 PMID:27249416

  18. Associations of All-Cause Mortality with Census-Based Neighbourhood Deprivation and Population Density in Japan: A Multilevel Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Honjo, Kaori; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that neighbourhood conditions affect residents' health, no prospective studies of the association between neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and all-cause mortality have been conducted in non-Western societies. Thus, we examined the effects of areal deprivation and population density on all-cause mortality in Japan. Methods We employed census and survival data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Cohort I (n = 37,455), consisting of middle-aged residents (40 to 59 years at the baseline in 1990) living in four public health centre districts. Data spanned between 1990 and 2010. A multilevel parametric proportional-hazard regression model was applied to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality by two census-based areal variables —areal deprivation index and population density—as well as individualistic variables such as socioeconomic status and various risk factors. Results We found that areal deprivation and population density had moderate associations with all-cause mortality at the neighbourhood level based on the survival data with 21 years of follow-ups. Even when controlling for individualistic socio-economic status and behavioural factors, the HRs of the two areal factors (using quartile categorical variables) significantly predicted mortality. Further, this analysis indicated an interaction effect of the two factors: areal deprivation prominently affects the health of residents in neighbourhoods with high population density. Conclusions We confirmed that neighbourhood socio-demographic factors are significant predictors of all-cause death in Japanese non-metropolitan settings. Although further study is needed to clarify the cause-effect relationship of this association, the present findings suggest that health promotion policies should consider health disparities between neighbourhoods and possibly direct interventions towards reducing mortality in densely populated and highly

  19. Usual walking speed and all-cause mortality risk in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Hu, Xinhua; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Yichuan; Li, Jun; Zou, Rui; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xiuqi; Wang, Junpeng

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between slow usual walking speed and all-cause mortality risk in older people by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched through the Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library database up to March 2015. Only prospective observational studies that investigating the usual walking speed and all-cause mortality risk in older adulthood approaching age 65 years or more were included. Walking speed should be specifically assessed as a single-item tool over a short distance. Pooled adjusted risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed for the lowest versus the highest usual walking speed category. A total of 9 studies involving 12,901 participants were included. Meta-analysis with random effect model showed that the pooled adjusted RR of all-cause mortality was 1.89 (95% CI 1.46-2.46) comparing the lowest to the highest usual walk speed. Subgroup analyses indicated that risk of all-cause mortality for slow usual walking speed appeared to be not significant among women (RR 1.45; 95% CI 0.95-2.20). Slow usual walking speed is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in men but not in women among older adulthood approaching age 65 years or more. PMID:27004653

  20. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  1. Sexual Orientation and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Mays, Vickie M

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether sexual minorities have an earlier mortality than do heterosexuals, we investigated associations between sexual orientation assessed in the 2001 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and mortality in the 2011 NHANES-linked mortality file. Mortality follow-up time averaged 69.6 months after NHANES. By 2011, 338 individuals had died. Sexual minorities evidenced greater all-cause mortality than did heterosexuals after adjusting for demographic confounding. These effects generally disappeared with further adjustment for NHANES-detected health and behavioral differences. PMID:26985610

  2. Sexual Orientation and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Mays, Vickie M.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether sexual minorities have an earlier mortality than do heterosexuals, we investigated associations between sexual orientation assessed in the 2001 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and mortality in the 2011 NHANES-linked mortality file. Mortality follow-up time averaged 69.6 months after NHANES. By 2011, 338 individuals had died. Sexual minorities evidenced greater all-cause mortality than did heterosexuals after adjusting for demographic confounding. These effects generally disappeared with further adjustment for NHANES-detected health and behavioral differences. PMID:26985610

  3. All-Cause Mortality of Low Birthweight Infants in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence: Population Study of England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with increased mortality in infancy, but its association with mortality in later childhood and adolescence is less clear. We investigated the association between birthweight and all-cause mortality and identified major causes of mortality for different birthweight groups. Methods and Findings We conducted a population study of all live births occurring in England and Wales between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2011. Following exclusions, the 12,355,251 live births were classified by birthweight: 500–1,499 g (very LBW [VLBW], n = 139,608), 1,500–2,499 g (LBW, n = 759,283), 2,500–3,499 g (n = 6,511,411), and ≥3,500 g (n = 4,944,949). The association of birthweight group with mortality in infancy (<1 y of age) and childhood/adolescence (1–18 y of age) was quantified, with and without covariates, through hazard ratios using Cox regression. International Classification of Diseases codes identified causes of death. In all, 74,890 (0.61%) individuals died between birth and 18 y of age, with 23% of deaths occurring after infancy. Adjusted hazard ratios for infant deaths were 145 (95% CI 141, 149) and 9.8 (95% CI 9.5, 10.1) for the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively, compared to the ≥3,500 g group. The respective hazard ratios for death occurring at age 1–18 y were 6.6 (95% CI 6.1, 7.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.8, 3.1). Male gender, the youngest and oldest maternal age bands, multiple births, and deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation score) also contributed to increased deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups in both age ranges. In infancy, perinatal factors, particularly respiratory issues and infections, explained 84% and 31% of deaths in the VLBW and LBW groups, respectively; congenital malformations explained 36% and 23% in the LBW group and ≥2,500 g groups (2,500–3,499 g and ≥3,500 g groups combined), respectively. Central nervous system conditions explained 20% of deaths in childhood/adolescence in the VLBW

  4. Dietary, circulating beta-carotene and risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Zhang, Qing-Li; Zheng, Jia-Li; Li, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Wei-Guo; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies evaluating the relation between dietary or circulating level of beta-carotene and risk of total mortality yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive search on publications of PubMed and EMBASE up to 31 March 2016. Random effect models were used to combine the results. Potential publication bias was assessed using Egger's and Begg's test. Seven studies that evaluated dietary beta-carotene intake in relation to overall mortality, indicated that a higher intake of beta-carotene was related to a significant lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR for highest vs. lowest group = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.78-0.88) with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 1.0%, P = 0.416). A random-effect analysis comprising seven studies showed high beta-carotene level in serum or plasma was associated with a significant lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR for highest vs. lowest group = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59-0.80) with low heterogeneity (I(2) = 37.1%, P = 0.145). No evidence of publication bias was detected by Begg's and Egger's regression tests. In conclusion, dietary or circulating beta-carotene was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. More studies should be conducted to clarify the dose-response relationship between beta-carotene and all-cause mortality. PMID:27243945

  5. All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality Rates in Postmenopausal White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian Women With and Without Diabetes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunsheng; Hébert, James R.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Wedick, Nicole M.; Howard, Barbara V.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Liu, Simin; Bird, Chloe E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Phillips, Lawrence S.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Garcia, Lorena; Ockene, Ira S.; Merriam, Philip A.; Sepavich, Deidre M.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Women's Health Initiative (1993–2009; n = 158,833 participants, of whom 84.1% were white, 9.2% were black, 4.1% were Hispanic, and 2.6% were Asian), we compared all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality rates in white, black, Hispanic, and Asian postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. Cox proportional hazard models were used for the comparison from which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Within each racial/ethnic subgroup, women with diabetes had an approximately 2–3 times higher risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality than did those without diabetes. However, the hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups. Population attributable risk percentages (PARPs) take into account both the prevalence of diabetes and hazard ratios. For all-cause mortality, whites had the lowest PARP (11.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.1, 12.1), followed by Asians (12.9, 95% CI: 4.7, 20.9), blacks (19.4, 95% CI: 15.0, 23.7), and Hispanics (23.2, 95% CI: 14.8, 31.2). To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were not significantly different between racial/ethnic subgroups when stratified by diabetes status. Because of the “amplifying” effect of diabetes prevalence, efforts to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the rate of death from diabetes should focus on prevention of diabetes. PMID:24045960

  6. Pooling European all-cause mortality: methodology and findings for the seasons 2008/2009 to 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Mazick, A; Andrews, N; Detsis, M; Fenech, T M; Flores, V M; Foulliet, A; Gergonne, B; Green, H K; Junker, C; Nunes, B; O'Donnell, J; Oza, A; Paldy, A; Pebody, R; Reynolds, A; Sideroglou, T; Snijders, B E; Simon-Soria, F; Uphoff, H; VAN Asten, L; Virtanen, M J; Wuillaume, F; Mølbak, K

    2013-09-01

    Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe. PMID:23182146

  7. Cereal fibre intake and risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hajishafiee, Maryam; Saneei, Parvane; Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Dietary fibre intake has been associated with a lower risk of mortality; however, findings on the association of different sources of dietary fibre with mortality are conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prospective cohort studies to assess the relation between cereal fibre intake and cause-specific mortality. Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, ISI web of Science and Google scholar were searched up to April 2015. Eligible prospective cohort studies were included if they provided hazard ratios (HR) or relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95 % CI for the association of cereal fibre intake and mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases. The study-specific HR were pooled by using the random-effects model. In total, fourteen prospective studies that examined the association of cereal fibre intake with mortality from all causes (n 48 052 death), CVD (n 16 882 death), cancer (n 19 489 death) and inflammatory diseases (n 1092 death) were included. The pooled adjusted HR of all-cause mortality for the highest v. the lowest category of cereal fibre intake was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·79, 0·83). Consumption of cereal fibre intake was associated with an 18 % lower risk of CVD mortality (RR 0·82; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·86). Moreover, an inverse significant association was observed between cereal fibre intake and risk of death from cancer (RR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·89). However, no significant association was seen between cereal fibre intake and inflammation-related mortality. This meta-analysis provides further evidence that cereal fibre intake was protectively associated with mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. PMID:27193606

  8. Relationships between cold-temperature indices and all causes and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in a subtropical island.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Pay-Liam; Li, Ming-Hsu; Ho, Tsung-Jung

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to identify optimal cold-temperature indices that are associated with the elevated risks of mortality from, and outpatient visits for all causes and cardiopulmonary diseases during the cold seasons (November to April) from 2000 to 2008 in Northern, Central and Southern Taiwan. Eight cold-temperature indices, average, maximum, and minimum temperatures, and the temperature humidity index, wind chill index, apparent temperature, effective temperature (ET), and net effective temperature and their standardized Z scores were applied to distributed lag non-linear models. Index-specific cumulative 26-day (lag 0-25) mortality risk, cumulative 8-day (lag 0-7) outpatient visit risk, and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated at 1 and 2 standardized deviations below the median temperature, comparing with the Z score of the lowest risks for mortality and outpatient visits. The average temperature was adequate to evaluate the mortality risk from all causes and circulatory diseases. Excess all-cause mortality increased for 17-24% when average temperature was at Z=-1, and for 27-41% at Z=-2 among study areas. The cold-temperature indices were inconsistent in estimating risk of outpatient visits. Average temperature and THI were appropriate indices for measuring risk for all-cause outpatient visits. Relative risk of all-cause outpatient visits increased slightly by 2-7% when average temperature was at Z=-1, but no significant risk at Z=-2. Minimum temperature estimated the strongest risk associated with outpatient visits of respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the relationships between cold temperatures and health varied among study areas, types of health event, and the cold-temperature indices applied. Mortality from all causes and circulatory diseases and outpatient visits of respiratory diseases has a strong association with cold temperatures in the subtropical island, Taiwan. PMID:23764675

  9. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chuang; Wang, Jing; Ying, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC) for cardiovascular (CV) diseases and all-cause mortality. Background Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear. Methods A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed. Results Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06–1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects), 1.09 (1.01–1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects) and 1.65 (1.15–2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects), respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively. Conclusions Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases

  10. Unpacking the 'black box' of total pathogen burden: is number or type of pathogens most predictive of all-cause mortality in the United States?

    PubMed

    Simanek, A M; Dowd, J B; Zajacova, A; Aiello, A E

    2015-09-01

    A 'black box' paradigm has prevailed in which researchers have focused on the association between the total number of pathogens for which individuals are seropositive (i.e. total pathogen burden) and various chronic diseases, while largely ignoring the role that seropositivity for specific combinations of pathogens may play in the aetiology of such outcomes and consequently mortality. We examined the association between total pathogen burden as well as specific pathogen combinations and all-cause mortality in the United States. Data were from individuals aged ⩾25 years tested for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2 and Helicobacter pylori, with mortality follow-up to 31 December 2006 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (N = 6522). We did not observe a statistically significant graded relationship between total pathogen burden level and all-cause mortality. Furthermore, compared to those seronegative for all four pathogens, the greatest statistically significant rate of all-cause mortality was for those CMV+/HSV-2+ (hazard ratio 1·95, 95% confidence interval 1·13-3·35) adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, body mass index (kg/m2) and smoking status. Interventions targeting prevention or treatment of particular pathogens may be more effective for reducing mortality than those focused solely on reducing overall pathogen burden. PMID:25518978

  11. Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hyperuricemic Patients without Gout: A Case-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tsay, Gregory J; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increased risk of mortality in patients with hyperuricemia has been reported. We examined (1) the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in untreated hyperuricemic patients who did not receive urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and (2) the impact of ULT on mortality risk in patients with hyperuricemia. Methods In this retrospective case-matched cohort study during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 40,118 Taiwanese individuals aged ≥17 years who had never used ULT and who had never had gout were examined. The mortality rate was compared between 3,088 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT and reference subjects (no hyperuricemia, no gout, no ULT) matched for age and sex (1:3 hyperuricemic patients/reference subjects), and between 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who received ULT and 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT (matched 1:1 based on their propensity score and the index date of ULT prescription). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate the respective risk of all-cause and CVD (ICD-9 code 390–459) mortality. Results After adjustment, hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT had increased risks of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–1.59) and CVD (2.13; 1.34–3.39) mortality relative to the matched reference subjects. Hyperuricemic patients treated with ULT had a lower risk of all-cause death (0.60; 0.41–0.88) relative to hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT. Conclusion Under-treatment of hyperuricemia has serious negative consequences. Hyperuricemic patients who received ULT had potentially better survival than patients who did not. PMID:26683302

  12. Incidence of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Predicted by Symmetric Dimethylarginine in the Population-Based Study of Health in Pomerania

    PubMed Central

    Schwedhelm, Edzard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Atzler, Dorothee; Dörr, Marcus; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völzke, Henry; Böger, Rainer H.; Friedrich, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Background L-Arginine and its dimethylated derivatives asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) have been associated with cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in populations at risk. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of L-arginine and its derivatives in the general population. Methods and Results We evaluated 3,952 individuals (1,936 men and 2,016 women) aged 20–81 (median (IQR) 51 (37; 64) years) from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Associations of continuous [per standard deviation (SD) increase] and categorized (age- and sex-specific tertiles) serum L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were analysed. During a median (IQR) follow-up period of 10.1 (9.3; 10.8) years (38,476 person-years), 426 deaths (10.8%) were observed, including 139 CV deaths (3.5%), and 150 cancer deaths (3.8%). After multivariable adjustment, we revealed a positive association of SDMA with all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.25] and CV mortality [HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.35]. In contrast, we did not observe any association of SDMA with cancer mortality. Neither L-arginine nor ADMA were associated with all-cause or CV mortality. Conclusion SDMA, but not ADMA, is an independent predictor of all-cause and CV mortality in a large population-based cohort of European ancestry. PMID:24819070

  13. Risk of All-Cause and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy in Men With Small Prostate Size

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming H.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Ross, Rudi; Salenius, Sharon A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-04-01

    Background: Brachytherapy for prostate cancer can be technically challenging in men with small prostates ({<=}20 cc), but it is unknown whether their outcomes are different than those of men with larger prostates. Methods and Materials: We studied 6,416 men treated with brachytherapy in one of 21 community-based practices. Cox regression and Fine and Gray's regression were used to determine whether volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), respectively, after adjustment for other known prognostic factors. Results: 443 patients (6.9%) had a prostate volume {<=}20 cc. After a median follow-up of 2.91 years (interquartile range, 1.06-4.79), volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a significantly higher risk of ACM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.65], p = 0.0085) with 3-year estimates of ACM for {<=}20 cc vs. >20 cc of 13.0% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.028). Only 23 men (0.36%) have died of prostate cancer, and no difference was seen in PCSM by volume (p = 0.4). Conclusion: Men with small prostates at the time of implant had a 33% higher risk of ACM, and the underlying cause of this remains uncertain. No increase in PCSM was observed in men with volume {<=}20cc, suggesting that a small prostate should not in itself be a contraindication for brachytherapy, but inasmuch as absolute rates of PCSM were small, further follow-up will be needed to confirm this finding.

  14. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  15. All-Cause Mortality for Diabetics or Individuals with Hyperglycemia Applying for Life Insurance.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetics and individuals with lab results consistent with a diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia were extracted from data covering US residents who applied for life insurance between January 2007 and January 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) and another commercially available death source file to determine vital status. Due to the inconsistencies of reporting within the death files, there were two cohorts of death cases, one including the imputed year of birth (full cohort of deaths), and the second where the date of birth was known (reduced cohort of deaths). The study had approximately 8.5 million person-years of exposure. Actual to expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT) select table, age last birthday and the 2010 US population as expected mortality rates. With the 2008VBT as an expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 3.15 for the full cohort of deaths and 2.56 for the reduced cohort of deaths. Using the US population as the expected basis, the overall A/E mortality ratio was 0.98 for the full cohort of deaths and 0.79 for the reduced cohort. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. A/E mortality ratios varied by disease treatment category and were considerably higher in individuals using insulin. A/E mortality ratios decreased with increasing age and took on a J-shaped distribution with increasing BMI (Body Mass Index). The lowest mortality ratios were observed for overweight and obese individuals. The A/E mortality ratio based on the 2008VBT decreased with the increase in applicant duration, which was defined as the time since initial life insurance application. PMID:27562107

  16. Association of blood pressure with all-cause mortality and stroke in Japanese hemodialysis patients: the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Karaboyas, Angelo; Akiba, Takashi; Akizawa, Tadao; Saito, Akira; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Combe, Christian; Robinson, Bruce M

    2014-07-01

    The association of low blood pressure (BP) with high mortality is a characteristic for hemodialysis patients. This analysis clarifies the association of BP with mortality and stroke in Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients and examines the association separately for patients with and without antihypertensive medication (BP meds). We analyzed 9134 patients from Japan in phases 1-4 (1999-2011) of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), a prospective cohort study of in-center HD patients. The association of patient systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed using adjusted Cox regression. A U-shaped association between BP and all-cause mortality was observed, with lowest mortality for baseline SBP 140-159 mmHg and DBP 65-74 mmHg. Both SBP and DBP were positively and monotonically associated with stroke-related death: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.24 (1.01-1.53) per 20 mmHg higher SBP and 1.23 (1.05-1.44) per 10 mmHg higher DBP. No evidence of interaction was found between SBP and use of BP meds regarding all-cause mortality (P for interaction = 0.97); the association between SBP and stroke-related death was slightly stronger among patients not on BP meds than patients on BP meds (P for interaction = 0.09). In Japanese HD patients, both low and high BP are associated with all-cause mortality. This analysis also documents a positive and monotonic association of BP with stroke-related deaths. Although our analysis indicates that the prescription of BP meds to hypertensive patients might protect against stroke-related death, additional study is warranted. PMID:24629041

  17. Past recreational physical activity, body size, and all-cause mortality following breast cancer diagnosis: results from the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Milne, Roger L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Chang, Ellen T.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Giles, Graham G.; Goodwin, Pamela J.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Whittemore, Alice S.; John, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have considered the joint association of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, two modifiable factors, with all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (n=4,153) between 1991 and 2000 were enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 725 deaths occurred. Baseline questionnaires assessed moderate and vigorous recreational physical activity and BMI prior to diagnosis. Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for established prognostic factors. Compared with no physical activity, any recreational activity during the three years prior to diagnosis was associated with a 34% lower risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.85) for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors, but not those with ER-negative tumors; this association did not appear to differ by race/ethnicity or BMI. Lifetime physical activity was not associated with all-cause mortality. BMI was positively associated with all-cause mortality for women diagnosed at age ≥50 years with ER-positive tumors (compared with normal-weight women, HR for overweight = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.90-2.15; HR for obese = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11-2.82). BMI associations did not appear to differ by race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that physical activity and BMI exert independent effects on overall mortality after breast cancer. PMID:20140702

  18. Dietary, circulating beta-carotene and risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis from prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Zhang, Qing-Li; Zheng, Jia-Li; Li, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Wei-Guo; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies evaluating the relation between dietary or circulating level of beta-carotene and risk of total mortality yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive search on publications of PubMed and EMBASE up to 31 March 2016. Random effect models were used to combine the results. Potential publication bias was assessed using Egger’s and Begg’s test. Seven studies that evaluated dietary beta-carotene intake in relation to overall mortality, indicated that a higher intake of beta-carotene was related to a significant lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR for highest vs. lowest group = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.78–0.88) with no evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 1.0%, P = 0.416). A random-effect analysis comprising seven studies showed high beta-carotene level in serum or plasma was associated with a significant lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR for highest vs. lowest group = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59–0.80) with low heterogeneity (I2 = 37.1%, P = 0.145). No evidence of publication bias was detected by Begg’s and Egger’s regression tests. In conclusion, dietary or circulating beta-carotene was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. More studies should be conducted to clarify the dose-response relationship between beta-carotene and all-cause mortality. PMID:27243945

  19. Association of sarcopenic obesity with the risk of all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Xu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Many prospective studies have investigated the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and risk of mortality. However, the results have been controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between SO and all-cause mortality in adults by a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. A systematic literature search was carried out through electronic databases up to September 2014. A total of nine articles with 12 prospective cohort studies, including 35 287 participants and 14 306 deaths, were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with healthy subjects, subjects with SO had a significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.37, P < 0.001), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2)  = 53.18%, P = 0.0188), but no indication for publication bias (P = 0.7373). Heterogeneity became low and no longer significant in the subgroup analyses by three SO definitions. More importantly, SO, defined by mid-arm muscle circumference and muscle strength criteria, significantly increased the risk of mortality (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.23-1.73 and 1.23, 1.09-1.38, respectively). The risk of all-cause mortality did not appreciably change considering the geography (USA cohorts and non-USA cohorts) or the duration of follow up (≥10 years and <10 years). However, the risk estimate was only significant in men (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41, P = 0.0017), not in women (HR 1.16, P = 0.1332). The results of the present study show that subjects with SO are associated with a 24% increase risk of all-cause mortality, compared with those without SO, in particular in men; the significant association was found independent of geographical location and duration of follow up. PMID:26271226

  20. Pericardial Fat is Associated with All-Cause Mortality but not Incident CVD: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Britta A.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Saad, Sarah D.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Allison, Matthew A.; Wassel, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pericardial and intra-thoracic fat are associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear if these fat depots predict incident CVD events and/or all-cause mortality. We examined prospective associations between areas of pericardial and intra-thoracic fat and incident CVD and mortality over a 12-year follow-up in a subset of participants without baseline clinical CVD from the Rancho Bernardo Study (RBS). Methods Participants were 343 community-dwelling older adults (mean baseline age=67) who completed a clinic visit in 2001–02, including a computed tomography scan of the chest. Incident CVD and mortality were recorded through January 2013. Results Over a 12.6-year median follow-up, there were 60 incident CVD events and 49 deaths. Pericardial fat was associated with all-cause mortality, such that each standard deviation increment predicted a 34% higher chance of death after adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and visceral fat (95% CI=1.01–1.78). When categorized by tertile, those in the middle tertile of pericardial fat showed no increased risk of mortality, while those in the highest tertile had 2.6 times the risk (95% CI=1.10–5.97) compared to the lowest tertile. There was a marginal association between intra-thoracic fat and mortality (p=0.06). Neither pericardial nor intra-thoracic fat was significantly associated with incident CVD. There were no significant interactions by sex. Conclusions Higher pericardial, but not intra-thoracic, fat was associated with earlier all-cause mortality in older adults over a 12-year follow-up. This association was primarily driven by a higher mortality rate in those in the highest tertile of pericardial fat. PMID:25702617

  1. Effect of Drinking on All-Cause Mortality in Women Compared with Men: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Xue, Haifeng; Wang, Qianqian; Hao, Yongchen; Li, Dianjiang; Gu, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Alcoholic beverages are consumed by humans for a variety of dietary, recreational, and other reasons. It is uncertain whether the drinking effect on risk of all-cause mortality is different between women and men. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of drinking on the risk of all-cause mortality in women compared with men. Methods: We selected cohort studies with measures of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for all-cause mortality for drinkers versus nondrinkers by sex. Sex-specific RR and 95% CI were used to estimate the female-to-male ratio of RR (RRR) and 95% CI. Pooled estimates of RRR across studies were obtained by the fixed-effects model or the random-effects model (if heterogeneity was detected). Second-order fractional polynomials and random effects meta-regression models were used for modeling the dose-risk relationship. Results: Twenty-four studies were considered eligible. A total of 2,424,964 participants (male: 1,473,899; female: 951,065) were enrolled and 123,878 deaths (male: 76,362; female: 47,516) were observed. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled female-to-male RRR for drinkers was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12). Subgroup analyses showed that the increased risk among female drinkers appeared to be consistent. J-shaped dose–response relationship was confirmed between alcohol and all-cause mortality in men and women, respectively. Moreover, the female-to-male RRR of all-cause mortality were 1.52 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.29), 1.95 (95% CI: 1.08, 3.49), and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.15, 4.88), respectively, for those who consumed 75, 90, and 100 g/day of alcohol. Conclusions: Females had an increased risk for all-cause mortality conferred by drinking compared with males, especially in heavy drinkers. The present study suggested that female drinkers, particularly heavy drinkers, should moderate or completely reduce their level of consumption to have a health benefit. PMID:24611563

  2. Depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality in adults with atrial fibrillation – A cohort study in Swedish primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Gasevic, Danijela; Wahlsträm, Lars; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to study depression and anxiety in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients as risk factors for all-cause mortality in a primary care setting. Methods The study population included adults (n = 12 283) of 45 years and older diagnosed with AF in 75 primary care centres in Sweden. The association between depression or anxiety and all-cause mortality was explored using Cox regression analysis, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were conducted in men and women, adjusted for age, educational level, marital status, neighborhood socio-economic status (SES), change of neighborhood status and anxiety or depression, respectively, and cardiovascular co-morbidities. As a secondary analysis, background factors and their association with depression or anxiety were explored. Results The risk of all-cause mortality was higher among men with depression compared to their counterparts without depression even after full adjustment (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.08–1.53). For anxiety among men and anxiety or depression among women with AF, no associations were found. Cerebrovascular disease was more common among depressed AF patients. Conclusions Increased awareness of the higher mortality among men with AF and subsequent depression is called for. We suggest a tight follow-up and treatment of both ailments in clinical practice. PMID:26758363

  3. Cooking Coal Use and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort Study of Women in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Bassig, Bryan A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chen, Bingshu E.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hosgood, H. Dean; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hu, Wei; Wen, Cuiju; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nearly 4.3 million deaths worldwide were attributable to exposure to household air pollution in 2012. However, household coal use remains widespread. Objectives: We investigated the association of cooking coal and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort of primarily never-smoking women in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cohort of 74,941 women were followed from 1996 through 2009 with annual linkage to the Shanghai vital statistics database. Cause-specific mortality was identified through 2009. Use of household coal for cooking was assessed through a residential history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality associated with household coal use. Results: In this cohort, 63% of the women ever used coal (n = 46,287). Compared with never coal use, ever use of coal was associated with mortality from all causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.21], cancer (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), and ischemic heart disease (overall HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.27; HR for myocardial infarction specifically = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.79). The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with increasing duration of coal use, compared with the risk in never users. The association between coal use and ischemic heart disease mortality diminished with increasing years since cessation of coal use. Conclusions: Evidence from this study suggests that past use of coal among women in Shanghai is associated with excess all-cause mortality, and from cardiovascular diseases in particular. The decreasing association with cardiovascular mortality as the time since last use of coal increased emphasizes the importance of reducing use of household coal where use is still widespread. Citation: Kim C, Seow WJ, Shu XO, Bassig BA, Rothman N, Chen BE, Xiang YB, Hosgood HD III, Ji BT, Hu W, Wen C, Chow WH, Cai Q, Yang G, Gao YT, Zheng W, Lan Q. 2016. Cooking coal use and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in

  4. Health Factors and Risk of All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE Studies in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Virviciute, Dalia; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45–64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke at baseline), 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. Results Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006–2008 than in 1983–1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09), although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5–6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–0.83) compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12–0.97) but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09–1.67). Conclusions An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly

  5. Antiplatelet Treatment Reduces All-Cause Mortality in COPD Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pavasini, Rita; Biscaglia, Simone; d'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Del Franco, Annamaria; Contoli, Marco; Zaraket, Fatima; Guerra, Federico; Ferrari, Roberto; Campo, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies clearly showed that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Platelet activation is significantly heightened in these patients, probably because of a chronic inflammatory status. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether antiplatelet treatment may contribute to reduce all-cause mortality in COPD patients. To clarify this issue, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis including patients with COPD (outpatients or admitted to hospital for acute exacerbation). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We considered studies stratifying the study population according the administration or not of antiplatelet therapy and reporting its relationship with the primary endpoint. Overall, 5 studies including 11117 COPD patients were considered (of those 3069 patients were with acute exacerbation of COPD). IHD was present in 33% of COPD patients [95%CI 31%-35%). Antiplatelet therapy administration was common (47%, 95%CI 46%-48%), ranging from 26% to 61%. Of note, IHD was considered as confounding factor at multivariable analysis in all studies. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in COPD patients receiving antiplatelet treatment (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.75-0.88). The data was consistent both in outpatients and in those with acute exacerbation of COPD. The pooled studies analysis showed a very low heterogeneity (I(2) : 8%). Additional analyses (meta-regression) showed that antiplatelet therapy administration was effective independently (to potential confounding factors as IHD, cardiovascular drugs and cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that antiplatelet therapy might significantly contribute to reduce all-cause mortality in COPD patients. PMID:26678708

  6. Relation of Periodontitis to Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality (from a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-08-15

    Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients compared with controls, for example, with adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.02 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.18) for cardiovascular death and 2.70 (95% CI 2.60 to 2.81) for all-cause mortality. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis have a high burden of co-morbidity and an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our results support that periodontitis may be an independent risk factor for CVD. PMID:27372888

  7. Spatial/Frontal QRS-T Angle Predicts All-Cause Mortality and Cardiac Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Huang, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have assessed the predictive effect of QRS-T angles in various populations since the last decade. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic value of spatial/frontal QRS-T angle on all-cause death and cardiac death. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from their inception until June 5, 2014. Studies reporting the predictive effect of spatial/frontal QRS-T angle on all-cause/cardiac death in all populations were included. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of effect. Results Twenty-two studies enrolling 164,171 individuals were included. In the combined analysis in all populations, a wide spatial QRS-T angle was associated with an increase in all-cause death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32 to 1.48) and cardiac death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.54 to 1.90), a wide frontal QRS-T angle also predicted a higher rate of all-cause death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.54 to 1.90). Largely similar results were found using different methods of categorizing for QRS-T angles, and similar in subgroup populations such as general population, populations with suspected coronary heart disease or heart failure. Other stratified analyses and meta-analyses using unadjusted data also generated consistent findings. Conclusions Spatial QRS-T angle held promising prognostic value on all-cause death and cardiac death. Frontal QRS-T angle was also a promising predictor of all-cause death. Given the good predictive value of QRS-T angle, a combined stratification strategy in which QRS-T angle is of vital importance might be expected. PMID:26284799

  8. Association of Versican Turnover with All-Cause Mortality in Patients on Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Federica; Karsdal, Morten A.; Leeming, Diana J.; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common causes of mortality in renal failure patients undergoing haemodialysis. A high turnover rate of the proteoglycan versican, represented by the increased presence of its fragmentation products in plasma, has previously been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of versican turnover assessed in plasma with survival in haemodialysis patients. Methods A specific matrix metalloproteinase-generated neo-epitope fragment of versican (VCANM) was measured in plasma of 364 haemodialysis patients with a 5-years follow-up, using a robust competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Association between VCANM plasma concentration and survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted Cox model. Results Haemodialysis patients with plasma VCANM concentrations in the lowest quartile had increased risk of death (odds ratio, as compared to the highest quartile: 7.1, p<0.001), with a reduced survival of 152 days compared to 1295 days for patients with plasma VCANM in the highest quartile. Multivariate analysis showed that low VCANM (p<0.001) and older age (p<0.001) predicted death in haemodialysis patients. Conclusions Low concentrations of the versican fragment VCANM in plasma were associated with higher risk of death among haemodialysis patients. A possible protective role for the examined versican fragment is suggested. PMID:25354390

  9. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Decrease All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mitnick, Carole D.; Franke, Molly F.; Rich, Michael L.; Alcantara Viru, Felix A.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Atwood, Sidney S.; Bayona, Jaime N.; Bonilla, Cesar A.; Chalco, Katiuska; Fraser, Hamish S. F.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Guerra, Dalia; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Joseph, Keith; Llaro, Karim; Mestanza, Lorena; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Muñoz, Maribel; Palacios, Eda; Sanchez, Epifanio; Seung, Kwonjune J.; Shin, Sonya S.; Sloutsky, Alexander; Tolman, Arielle W.; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen. Objectives This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen–one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable–on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death. Measurements and Main Results In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7) drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442) of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139). Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89), compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93). Conclusions The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB. PMID:23516529

  10. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Users of Basal Insulins NPH, Detemir, and Glargine

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Timo E.; Christopher, Solomon; Haukka, Jari; Korhonen, Pasi

    2016-01-01

    Background Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes may increase mortality and cancer incidence, but the impact of different types of basal insulins on these endpoints is unclear. Compared to the traditional NPH insulin, the newer, longer-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine have shown benefits in randomized controlled trials. Whether these advantages translate into lower mortality among users in real life is unknown. Objective To estimate the differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates between new users of basal insulins in a population-based study in Finland. Methods 23 751 individuals aged ≥40 with type 2 diabetes, who initiated basal insulin therapy in 2006–2009 were identified from national registers, with comprehensive data for mortality, causes of death, and background variables. Propensity score matching was performed on characteristics. Follow-up time was up to 4 years (median 1.7 years). Results 2078 deaths incurred. With NPH as reference, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30–0.50) for detemir, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.44–0.69) for glargine. As compared to glargine, the HR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54–0.93) among detemir users. Compared to NPH, the mortality risk for both cardiovascular causes as well as cancer were also significantly lower for glargine, and especially for detemir in adjusted analysis. Furthermore, the results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusion In real clinical practice, mortality was substantially higher among users of NPH insulin as compared to insulins detemir or glargine. Considering the large number of patients who require insulin therapy, this difference in risk may have major clinical and public health implications. Due to limitations of the observational study design, further investigation using an interventional study design is warranted. PMID:27031113

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data

    PubMed Central

    Oyebode, Oyinlola; Gordon-Dseagu, Vanessa; Walker, Alice; Mindell, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments worldwide recommend daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. We examine whether this benefits health in the general population of England. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CI for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for age, sex, social class, education, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity, in 65 226 participants aged 35+ years in the 2001–2008 Health Surveys for England, annual surveys of nationally representative random samples of the non-institutionalised population of England linked to mortality data (median follow-up: 7.7 years). Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR for 7+ portions 0.67 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.78), reference category <1 portion). This association was more pronounced when excluding deaths within a year of baseline (0.58 (0.46 to 0.71)). Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with reduced cancer (0.75 (0.59–0.96)) and cardiovascular mortality (0.69 (0.53 to 0.88)). Vegetables may have a stronger association with mortality than fruit (HR for 2 to 3 portions 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98), respectively). Consumption of vegetables (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89) per portion) or salad (0.87 (0.82 to 0.92) per portion) were most protective, while frozen/canned fruit consumption was apparently associated with increased mortality (1.17 (1.07 to 1.28) per portion). Conclusions A robust inverse association exists between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality, with benefits seen in up to 7+ portions daily. Further investigations into the effects of different types of fruit and vegetables are warranted. PMID:24687909

  12. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45-75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m²), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m²), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m²) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m²). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11-2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48-0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  13. Association between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Hypertensive Adults: Results from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Fang-Fang; Xu, Xi-Ping; Wang, Bin-Yan; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xian-Hui; Xing, Hou-Xun; Tang, Gen-Fu; Zhou, Zi-Yi; Gu, Dong-Feng; Zhao, Dong; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and risk of death has been reported in many studies. However, the association between BMI and all-cause mortality for hypertensive Chinese adults remains unclear. We conducted a post-hoc analysis using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up duration of 4.5 years, 622 deaths (3.0%) occurred among the 20,694 participants aged 45–75 years. A reversed J-shaped relationship was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios (HRs) for underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m2) were calculated relative to normal weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2). The summary HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.11–2.18) for underweight, 0.78 (95% CI 0.64–0.95) for overweight and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.48–0.85) for obesity. In sex-age-specific analyses, participants over 60 years of age had optimal BMI in the obesity classification and the results were consistent in both males and females. Relative to normal weight, underweight was associated with significantly higher mortality. Excessive weight was not associated with increased risk of mortality. Chinese hypertensive adults had the lowest mortality in grade 1 obesity. PMID:27338470

  14. Meta-analysis on the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in the early stage of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yue, Menglin; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Rong

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship among the early stage of hypertension, cardiovascular death, the mortality of coronary heart disease and stroke. Two researchers searched online data of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library databases and other related papers and manual retrieval conference papers. A prospective cohort study of relative risks and 95% CIs about the comparison with ideal blood pressure, the pre-hypertension and the all-cause mortality or the death of cardiovascular that corrected a variety of risk factors. Compared with ideal blood pressure, the corrected risk factors, the pre-hypertension couldn't increase the RR of the all caused mortality; but it could increase remarkably the mortality of cardiovascular, coronary heart disease and stroke, and there was a significant difference between the two later (P<0.001). Compared with the ideal blood pressure, the pre-hypertension still increased the risk of death of cardiovascular disease and the death rate of the stroke was higher than coronary heart disease. PMID:27592484

  15. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a risk factor for dialysis and all-cause mortality: a cohort study of chronic kidney disease patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Objective Impaired renal function is associated with higher risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with chronic kidney disease and not on dialysis (CKD-ND). It is unclear if UGIB increases risk of chronic dialysis. The aim of the study was to investigate risk of chronic dialysis in CKD-ND patients with UGIB. Setting All CKD-ND stage 3–5 patients of a CKD programme in one hospital between 2003 and 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until September 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Chronic dialysis (dialysis for more than 3 months) started and all-cause mortality. The risk of chronic dialysis was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustments for age, gender and renal function, followed by competing-risks analysis. Results We analysed 3126 CKD-ND patients with a mean age of 65±14 years for 2.8 years. Of 3126 patients, 387 (12.4%) patients developed UGIB, 989 (31.6%) patients started chronic dialysis and 197 (6.3%) patients died. UGIB increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR (aHR): 1.51, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.13) and the risk of chronic dialysis (aHR; 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50). The subdistribution HR (SHR) of UGIB for chronic dialysis (competing event: all-cause mortality) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.64) in competing-risks analysis with adjustments for age, renal function, gender, diabetes, haemoglobin, albumin and urine protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusions UGIB is associated with increased risk of chronic dialysis and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD-ND stages 3–5. This association is independent of age, gender, basal renal function, haemoglobin, albumin and urine protein levels. PMID:27150184

  16. Dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio as a risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Japan: the NIPPON DATA80 cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Akira; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yusuke; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Zaid, Maryam; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of dietary sodium and potassium (Na–K) ratio on mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes, using 24-year follow-up data of a representative sample of the Japanese population. Setting Prospective cohort study. Participants In the 1980 National Cardiovascular Survey, participants were followed for 24 years (NIPPON DATA80, National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged). Men and women aged 30–79 years without hypertensive treatment, history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction (n=8283) were divided into quintiles according to dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record at baseline. Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method and Cox proportional hazards model. Primary outcome measures Mortality from total and subtypes of stroke, CVD and all causes. Results A total of 1938 deaths from all causes were observed over 176 926 person-years. Na–K ratio was significantly and non-linearly related to mortality from all stroke (p=0.002), CVD (p=0.005) and total mortality (p=0.001). For stroke subtypes, mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was positively related to Na–K ratio (p=0.024). Similar relationships were observed for men and women. The observed relationships remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors. Quadratic non-linear multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) in the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of Na–K ratio were 1.42 (1.07 to 1.90) for ischaemic stroke, 1.57 (1.05 to 2.34) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.43 (1.17 to 1.76) for all stroke, 1.39 (1.20 to 1.61) for CVD and 1.16 (1.06 to 1.27) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions Dietary Na–K ratio assessed by a 3-day weighing dietary record was a significant risk factor for mortality from haemorrhagic stroke, all stroke, CVD and all causes among a Japanese population

  17. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  18. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  19. Associations of high HDL cholesterol level with all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure complicating coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Anping; Li, Xida; Zhong, Qi; Li, Minming; Wang, Rui; Liang, Yingcong; Chen, Wenzhong; Huang, Tehui; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yingling; Li, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause mortality in patients with ejection fraction reduced heart failure (EFrHF) complicating coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 323 patients were retrospectively recruited. Patients were divided into low and high HDL cholesterol groups. Between-group differences and associations between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause mortality were assessed. Patients in the high HDL cholesterol group had higher HDL cholesterol level and other lipid components (P <0.05 for all comparison). Lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and higher albumin (ALB) level were observed in the high HDL cholesterol group (P <0.05 for all comparison). Although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were comparable (28.8 ± 4.5% vs 28.4 ± 4.6%, P = 0.358), mean mortality rate in the high HDL cholesterol group was significantly lower (43.5% vs 59.1%, P = 0.007). HDL cholesterol level was positively correlated with ALB level, while inversely correlated with ALT, Hs-CRP, and NYHA classification. Logistic regression analysis revealed that after extensively adjusted for confounding variates, HDL cholesterol level remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality although the magnitude of association was gradually attenuated with odds ratio of 0.007 (95% confidence interval 0.001–0.327, P = 0.012). Higher HDL cholesterol level is associated with better survival in patients with EFrHF complicating CHD, and future studies are necessary to demonstrate whether increasing HDL cholesterol level will confer survival benefit in these populations of patients. PMID:27428188

  20. Abdominal obesity modifies the risk of hypertriglyceridemia for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the most prevalent lipid alteration in end-stage renal disease, and we studied the relationship between serum triglycerides and all-cause and cardiovascular death in these patients. Since abdominal fat modifies the effect of lipids on atherosclerosis, we analyzed the interaction between serum lipids and waist circumference (WC) as a metric of abdominal obesity. In a cohort of 537 hemodialysis patients, 182 died, 113 from cardiovascular causes, over an average follow-up of 29 months. In Cox models that included traditional and nontraditional risk factors, there were significant strong interactions between triglycerides and WC to both all-cause and cardiovascular death. A fixed (50 mg/dl) excess in triglycerides was associated with a progressive lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with threshold WC <95 cm but with a progressive increased risk in those above this threshold. A significant interaction between cholesterol and WC with all-cause and cardiovascular death emerged only in models excluding the triglycerides-WC interaction. Neither high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nor non-HDL cholesterol or their interaction terms with WC were associated with study outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of triglycerides and cholesterol for survival and atherosclerotic complications in hemodialysis patients is critically dependent on WC. Hence, intervention studies in end-stage renal disease should specifically target patients with abdominal obesity and hyperlipidemia. PMID:21178980

  1. Urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults With Obstructive Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict all-cause mortality, but whether these markers of kidney damage and function do so in adults with obstructive lung function (OLF) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between UACR and eGFR and all-cause mortality in adults with OLF. METHODS Data of 5,711 US adults aged 40 to 79 years, including 1,390 adults with any OLF who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–1994), were analyzed. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 2006. RESULTS During the median follow-up of 13.7 years, 650 adults with OLF died. After maximal adjustment, mean levels of UACR were higher in adults with moderate-severe OLF (7.5 mg/g; 95% CI, 6.7–8.5) than in adults with normal pulmonary function (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.8–6.6) (P = .003) and mild OLF (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.5–6.9) (P = .014). Adjusted mean levels of eGFR were lower in adults with moderate-severe OLF (87.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 86.0–89.1) than in adults with normal lung function (89.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 88.9–90.3) (P = .015). Among adults with OLF, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality increased as levels of UACR, modeled as categorical or continuous variables, increased (maximally adjusted hazard ratio for quintile 5 vs 1: 2.23; 95% CI, 1.56–3.18). eGFR, modeled as a continuous variable but not as quintiles, was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS UACR and eGFR, in continuous form, were associated with all-cause mortality among US adults with OLF. PMID:25079336

  2. Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Hospitalization Among Hurricane Katrina Survivors With End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Gamboa, Christopher; Cohen, Andrew; Anderson, Amanda H.; Kutner, Nancy; Kronish, Ian; Mills, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association of psychiatric symptoms in the year after Hurricane Katrina with subsequent hospitalization and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Methods. A prospective cohort of ESRD patients (n = 391) treated at 9 hemodialysis centers in the New Orleans, Louisiana, area in the weeks before Hurricane Katrina were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms via telephone interview 9 to 15 months later. Two combined outcomes through August 2009 (maximum 3.5-year follow-up) were analyzed: (1) all-cause and (2) cardiovascular-related hospitalization and mortality. Results. Twenty-four percent of participants screened positive for PTSD and 46% for depression; 158 participants died (79 cardiovascular deaths), and 280 participants were hospitalized (167 for cardiovascular-related causes). Positive depression screening was associated with 33% higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 1.66) and cardiovascular-related hospitalization and mortality (HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.76). PTSD was not significantly associated with either outcome. Conclusions. Depression in the year after Hurricane Katrina was associated with increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in ESRD patients, underscoring the long-term consequences of natural disasters for vulnerable populations. PMID:23409901

  3. DOT associated with reduced all-cause mortality among tuberculosis patients in Taipei, Taiwan, 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Y-F.; Rodwell, T. C.; Yen, M-Y.; Shih, H-C.; Hu, B-S.; Li, L-H.; Shie, Y-H.; Chuang, P.; Garfein, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients receiving directly observed treatment (DOT) had lower all-cause mortality than those treated with self-administered treatment (SAT) and to identify factors associated with mortality among tuberculosis (TB) patients. DESIGN All TB patients in Taipei, Taiwan, diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were included in a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS Among 3624 TB patients, 45.5% received DOT, which was disproptionately offered to older patients and those with more underlying illness and severe TB disease. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings and underlying comorbidities, the odds of death was 40% lower (aOR 0.60, 95%CI 0.5–0.8) among patients treated with DOT than those on SAT. After adjusting for DOT, independent predictors of death included non-Taiwan birth, increasing age, male, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilli smear positivity and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION DOT was associated with lower all-cause mortality after controlling for confounding factors. DOT should be expanded in Taiwan to improve critical treatment outcomes among TB patients. PMID:22236917

  4. High urinary homoarginine excretion is associated with low rates of all-cause mortality and graft failure in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Frenay, Anne-Roos S; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Beckmann, Bibiana; Soedamah-Muhtu, Sabita S; de Borst, Martin H; van den Berg, Else; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, Stephan J L; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) have an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Low levels of circulating homoarginine (hArg) are a novel risk factor for mortality and the progression of atherosclerosis. The kidney is known as a major source of hArg, suggesting that urinary excretion of hArg (UhArg) might be associated with mortality and graft failure in RTR. hArg was quantified by mass spectrometry in 24-h urine samples of 704 RTR (functioning graft ≥1 year) and 103 healthy subjects. UhArg determinants were identified with multivariable linear regression models. Associations of UhArg with all-cause mortality and graft failure were assessed using multivariable Cox regression analyses. UhArg excretion was significantly lower in RTR compared to healthy controls [1.62 (1.09-2.61) vs. 2.46 (1.65-4.06) µmol/24 h, P < 0.001]. In multivariable linear regression models, body surface area, diastolic blood pressure, eGFR, pre-emptive transplantation, serum albumin, albuminuria, urinary excretion of urea and uric acid and use of sirolimus were positively associated with UhArg, while donor age and serum phosphate were inversely associated (model R (2) = 0.43). During follow-up for 3.1 (2.7-3.9) years, 83 (12 %) patients died and 45 (7 %) developed graft failure. UhArg was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [hazard risk (HR) 0.52 (95 % CI 0.40-0.66), P < 0.001] and graft failure [HR 0.58 (0.42-0.81), P = 0.001]. These associations remained independent of potential confounders. High UhArg levels are associated with reduced all-cause mortality and graft failure in RTR. Kidney-derived hArg is likely to be of particular importance for proper maintenance of cardiovascular and renal systems. PMID:26142633

  5. Socioeconomic Status across the Life Course and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    We used high quality register based data to study the relationship between childhood and adult socio-demographic characteristics and all-cause and cause-specific mortality at ages 35–72 in Finland among cohorts born in 1936–1950. The analyses were based on a 10% sample of households drawn from the 1950 Finnish Census of Population with the follow-up of household members in subsequent censuses and death records beginning from the end of 1970 through the end of 2007. The strengths of these data come from the fact that neither childhood nor adult characteristics are self reported and thus are not subject to recall bias, misreporting and no loss to follow-up after age 35. In addition, the study population includes several families with at least two children enabling us to control for unobserved family characteristics. We documented significant associations between early life social and family conditions on all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality, with protective effects of higher childhood socio-demographic characteristics varying between 10% and 30%. These associations were mostly mediated through adult educational attainment and occupation, suggesting that the indirect effects of childhood conditions were more important than their direct effects. We further found that adult socioeconomic status was a significant predictor of mortality. The associations between adult characteristics and mortality were robust to controls for observed and unobserved childhood characteristics. The results imply that long-term adverse health consequences of disadvantaged early life social circumstances may be mitigated by investments in educational and employment opportunities in early adulthood. PMID:24369809

  6. Estimating the Time-Varying Joint Effects of Obesity and Smoking on All-Cause Mortality Using Marginal Structural Models.

    PubMed

    Banack, Hailey R; Kaufman, Jay S

    2016-01-15

    Obesity and smoking are independently associated with a higher mortality risk, but previous studies have reported conflicting results about the relationship between these 2 time-varying exposures. Using prospective longitudinal data (1987-2007) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, our objective in the present study was to estimate the joint effects of obesity and smoking on all-cause mortality and investigate whether there were additive or multiplicative interactions. We fit a joint marginal structural Poisson model to account for time-varying confounding affected by prior exposure to obesity and smoking. The incidence rate ratios from the joint model were 2.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79, 2.24) for the effect of smoking on mortality among nonobese persons, 1.31 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) for the effect of obesity on mortality among nonsmokers, and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.73, 2.22) for the joint effect of smoking and obesity on mortality. The negative product term from the exponential model revealed a submultiplicative interaction between obesity and smoking (β = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.11; P < 0.001). The relative excess risk of interaction was -0.34 (95% CI: -0.60, -0.07), indicating the presence of subadditive interaction. These results provide important information for epidemiologists, clinicians, and public health practitioners about the harmful impact of smoking and obesity. PMID:26656480

  7. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of general population cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; van der Velde, Marije; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Coresh, Josef; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-01-01

    Background A comprehensive evaluation of the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality is required for assessment of the impact of kidney function on risk in the general population, with implications for improving the definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A collaborative meta-analysis of general population cohorts was undertaken to pool standardized data for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The two kidney measures and potential confounders from 14 studies (105,872 participants; 730,577 person-years) with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) measurements and seven studies (1,128,310 participants; 4,732,110 person-years) with urine protein dipstick measurements were modeled. Findings In ACR studies, mortality risk was unrelated to eGFR between 75-105 ml/min/1·73 m2 and increased at lower eGFR. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality at eGFR 60, 45, and 15 (versus 95) ml/min/1·73 m2 were 1·18 (95% CI: 1·05-1·32), 1·57 (1·39-1·78), and 3·14 (2·39-4·13), respectively. ACR was associated with mortality risk linearly on the log-log scale without threshold effects. Adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality at ACR 10, 30, and 300 (versus 5) mg/g were 1·20 (1·15-1·26), 1·63 (1·50-1·77), and 2·22 (1·97-2·51). eGFR and ACR were multiplicatively associated with mortality without evidence of interaction. Similar findings were observed for cardiovascular mortality and in dipstick studies. Interpretation Lower eGFR (<60 ml/min/1·73 m2) and higher albuminuria (ACR ≥10 mg/g) were independent predictors of mortality risk in the general population. This study provides quantitative data for using both kidney measures for risk evaluation and CKD definition and staging. PMID:20483451

  8. Elevated AST-to-platelet ratio index is associated with increased all-cause mortality among HIV-infected adults in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vinikoor, Michael J.; Sinkala, Edford; Mweemba, Aggrey; Zanolini, Arianna; Mulenga, Lloyd; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Fried, Michael W.; Eron, Joseph J.; Wandeler, Gilles; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims We investigated the association between significant liver fibrosis, determined by AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and all-cause mortality among HIV-infected patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia Methods Among HIV-infected adults who initiated ART, we categorized baseline APRI scores according to established thresholds for significant hepatic fibrosis (APRI ≥1.5) and cirrhosis (APRI ≥2.0). Using multivariable logistic regression we identified risk factors for elevated APRI including demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), HIV clinical and immunologic status, and tuberculosis. In the subset tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), we investigated the association of hepatitis B virus co-infection with APRI score. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression we determined the association of elevated APRI with death during ART. Results Among 20,308 adults in the analysis cohort, 1,027 (5.1%) had significant liver fibrosis at ART initiation including 616 (3.0%) with cirrhosis. Risk factors for significant fibrosis or cirrhosis included male sex, BMI <18, WHO clinical stage 3 or 4, CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3, and tuberculosis. Among the 237 (1.2%) who were tested, HBsAg-positive patients had four times the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.71–10.04) of significant fibrosis compared HBsAg-negatives. Both significant fibrosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.41, 95% CI, 1.21–1.64) and cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.31–1.89) were associated with increased all-cause mortality. Conclusion Liver fibrosis may be a risk factor for mortality during ART among HIV-infected individuals in Africa. APRI is an inexpensive and potentially useful test for liver fibrosis in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25581487

  9. All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in Western Alaska Native People: Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH)

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Jesse S.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Jolly, Stacey E.; Asay, Elvin D.; Wang, Hong; Wolfe, Abbie W.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Kaufmann, Cristiane; Raymer, Terry W.; Trimble, Brian; Provost, Ellen M.; Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Austin, Melissa A.; Howard, William James; Umans, Jason G.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in western Alaska Native people and examined agreement between death certificate information and adjudicated cause of deaths. Methods. Data from 4 cohort studies were consolidated. Death certificates and medical records were reviewed and adjudicated according to standard criteria. We compared adjudicated CVD and cancer deaths with death certificates by calculating sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and κ statistics. Results. Men (n = 2116) and women (n = 2453), aged 18 to 95 years, were followed an average of 6.7 years. The major cause of death in men was trauma (25%), followed by CVD (19%) and cancer (13%). The major cause of death in women was CVD (24%), followed by cancer (19%) and trauma (8%). Stroke rates in both genders were higher than those of US Whites. Only 56% of deaths classified as CVD by death certificate were classified as CVD by standard criteria; discordance was higher among men (55%) than women (32%; κs = 0.4 and 0.7). Conclusions. We found lower rates for coronary heart disease death but high rates of stroke mortality. Death certificates overestimated CVD mortality; concordance between the 2 methods is better for cancer mortality. The results point to the importance of cohort studies in this population in providing data to assist in health care planning. PMID:24754623

  10. European Regional Differences in All-Cause Mortality and Length of Stay for Patients with Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Medin, Emma; Goude, Fanny; Melberg, Hans Olav; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Belicza, Eva; Peltola, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare healthcare performance for the surgical treatment of hip fractures across and within Finland, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Differences in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted 30-day and one-year all-cause mortality rates following hip fracture, as well as the length of stay of the first hospital episode in acute care and during a follow up of 365 days, were investigated, and associations between selected country-level and regional-level factors with mortality and length of stay were assessed. Hungary showed the highest one-year mortality rate (mean 39.7%) and the lowest length of stay in one year (12.7 days), whereas Italy had the lowest one-year mortality rate (mean 19.1 %) and the highest length of stay (23.3 days). The observed variations were largely explained by country-specific effects rather than by regional-level factors. The results show that there should still be room for efficiency gains in the acute treatment of hip fracture, and clinicians, healthcare managers, and politicians should learn from best practices. This study demonstrates that an international comparison of acute hospital care is possible using pooled individual-level administrative data. PMID:26633868

  11. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls: A population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate all-cause mortality of middle-aged and elderly subjects diagnosed with dementia and treated with psychotropic drugs as compared with controls subjects. Using data from the Danish National Patient Registry, n=26,821 adults with a diagnosis of dementia were included. They were compared with 44,286 control subjects with a minimum follow-up of four years and matched on age, gender, marital status, and community location. Information about psychotropic medication use (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics) was obtained from the Danish Medicinal Product Statistics. All-cause mortality was higher in patients with dementia as compared to control subjects. Mortality hazard ratios were increased for subjects prescribed serotonergic antidepressant drugs (respectively, HR=1.355 (SD=0.023), P=0.001 in patients; HR=1.808 (0.033), P<0.001 in controls), tricyclic antidepressants (HR=1.004 (0.046), P=0.925; HR=1.406 (0.061), P<0.001), benzodiazepines (HR=1.131 (0.039), P=0.060); HR=1.362 (0.028), P<0.001), benzodiazepine-like drugs (HR=1.108 (0.031), P=0.078; HR=1.564 (0.037, P<0.001), first-generation antipsychotics (HR=1.183 (0.074), P=0.022; HR=2.026 (0.114), P<0.001), and second-generation antipsychotics (HR=1.380 (0.042), P<0.001; HR=1.785 (0.088), P<0.001), as compared with no drug use. Interaction analysis suggested statistically significantly higher mortality hazard ratios for most classes of psychotropic drugs in controls than in dementia patients. We found that use of psychotropic drugs is associated with increased all-cause mortality in both patients with dementia and control subjects. Thus, the frequently reported increased mortality with antipsychotic drugs in dementia is not restricted to subjects with impaired cognition and is not restricted to only one class of psychotropic drugs. PMID:26342397

  12. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, S. S.; Zhao, J. H.; Chasman, D. I.; Fischer, K.; Qi, Q.; Smith, A. V.; Thinggaard, M.; Jarczok, M. N.; Nalls, M. A.; Trompet, S.; Timpson, N. J.; Schmidt, B.; Jackson, A. U.; Lyytikäinen, L. P.; Verweij, N.; Mueller-Nurasyid, M.; Vikström, M.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Wong, A.; Meidtner, K.; Middelberg, R. P.; Strawbridge, R. J.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K. O.; Hamsten, A.; Jääskeläinen, T.; Tjønneland, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Whitfield, J. B.; Boeing, H.; Hardy, R.; Vollenweider, P.; Leander, K.; Peters, A.; van der Harst, P.; Kumari, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jöckel, K.-H.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Sattar, N.; Baumeister, S. E.; Smith, G. Davey; Casas, J. P.; Houston, D. K.; März, W.; Christensen, K.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F. B.; Metspalu, A.; Ridker, P. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Loos, R. J. F.; Tiemeier, H.; Sonestedt, E.; Sørensen, T. I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m−2; 95% CI 0.28–0.32, P < 1 × 10−32), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68–0.84, P < 1 × 10−32) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m−2; 0.13–0.22, P = 1.0 × 10−13). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00–1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98–1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96–1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  13. Nondisease-Specific Problems and All-Cause Mortality in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, C. Barrett; Booth, John N.; Safford, Monika; Whitson, Heather E.; Ritchie, Christine; Wadley, Virginia G.; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia; Allman, Richard M.; Muntner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Problems that cross multiple domains of health are frequently assessed in older adults. We evaluated the association between six of these nondisease-specific problems and mortality among middle-aged and older adults. Design Prospective, observational cohort Setting U.S. population sample Participants Participants included 23,669 black and white US adults ≥ 45 years of age enrolled in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Measurements Nondisease-specific problems included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, falls, polypharmacy, impaired mobility and exhaustion. Age-stratified (<65, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years) hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were calculated for each problem individually and by number of problems. Results Among participants < 65, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old, one or more nondisease-specific problems occurred in 40%, 45% and 55% of participants, respectively. Compared to those with none of these problems the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality associated with each additional nondisease-specific problem was 1.34 (1.23–1.46), 1.24 (1.15–1.35) and 1.30 (1.21–1.39), among participants < 65, 65 – 74 years, ≥ 75 years of age, respectively. Conclusion Nondisease-specific problems were associated with mortality across a wide age spectrum. Future studies should determine if treating these problems will improve survival and identify innovative healthcare models to address multiple nondisease-specific problems simultaneously. PMID:23617688

  14. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S; Zhao, J H; Chasman, D I; Fischer, K; Qi, Q; Smith, A V; Thinggaard, M; Jarczok, M N; Nalls, M A; Trompet, S; Timpson, N J; Schmidt, B; Jackson, A U; Lyytikäinen, L P; Verweij, N; Mueller-Nurasyid, M; Vikström, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Wong, A; Meidtner, K; Middelberg, R P; Strawbridge, R J; Christiansen, L; Kyvik, K O; Hamsten, A; Jääskeläinen, T; Tjønneland, A; Eriksson, J G; Whitfield, J B; Boeing, H; Hardy, R; Vollenweider, P; Leander, K; Peters, A; van der Harst, P; Kumari, M; Lehtimäki, T; Meirhaeghe, A; Tuomilehto, J; Jöckel, K-H; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Sattar, N; Baumeister, S E; Davey Smith, G; Casas, J P; Houston, D K; März, W; Christensen, K; Gudnason, V; Hu, F B; Metspalu, A; Ridker, P M; Wareham, N J; Loos, R J F; Tiemeier, H; Sonestedt, E; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-04-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow-up. Linear regression showed that the minor allele of the FTO SNP was associated with greater BMI (n = 169,551; 0.32 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI 0.28-0.32, P < 1 × 10(-32) ), WC (n = 152,631; 0.76 cm; 0.68-0.84, P < 1 × 10(-32) ) and FMI (n = 48,192; 0.17 kg m(-2) ; 0.13-0.22, P = 1.0 × 10(-13) ). Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for mortality showed that the hazards ratio (HR) for the minor allele of the FTO SNPs was 1.02 (1.00-1.04, P = 0.097), but the apparent excess risk was eliminated after adjustment for BMI and WC (HR: 1.00; 0.98-1.03, P = 0.662) and for FMI (HR: 1.00; 0.96-1.04, P = 0.932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes. PMID:25752329

  15. Whole-grain products and whole-grain types are associated with lower all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Nina F; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Christensen, Jane; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Landberg, Rikard; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena M; Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-08-28

    No study has yet investigated the intake of different types of whole grain (WG) in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a healthy population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intake of WG products and WG types in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large Scandinavian HELGA cohort that, in 1992-8, included 120 010 cohort members aged 30-64 years from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, and the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study. Participants filled in a FFQ from which data on the intake of WG products were extracted. The estimation of daily intake of WG cereal types was based on country-specific products and recipes. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95 % CI were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 3658 women and 4181 men died during the follow-up (end of follow-up was 15 April 2008 in the Danish sub-cohort, 15 December 2009 in the Norwegian sub-cohort and 15 February 2009 in the Swedish sub-cohort). In the analyses of continuous WG variables, we found lower all-cause mortality with higher intake of total WG products (women: MRR 0·89 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91); men: MRR 0·89 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91) for a doubling of intake). In particular, intake of breakfast cereals and non-white bread was associated with lower mortality. We also found lower all-cause mortality with total intake of different WG types (women: MRR 0·88 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·92); men: MRR 0·88 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·91) for a doubling of intake). In particular, WG oat, rye and wheat were associated with lower mortality. The associations were found in both women and men and for different causes of deaths. In the analyses of quartiles of WG intake in relation to all-cause mortality, we found lower mortality in the highest quartile compared with the lowest for breakfast cereals, non-white bread, total WG products, oat, rye (only men), wheat and total WG types. The MRR for highest v

  16. Association between Six Minute Walk Test and All-Cause Mortality, Coronary Heart Disease-Specific Mortality, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanyar, Ali; Aziz, Michael M; Enright, Paul L; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Boudreau, Robert; Sutton-Tyrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis; Newman, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between six-minute walk test (6 MWT) performance and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, and incident coronary heart disease in older adults. Methods We conducted a time-to-event analysis of 1,665 Cardiovascular Health Study participants with a 6 MWT and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Results During a mean follow-up of 8 years, there were 305 incident coronary heart disease events, 504 deaths of which 100 were coronary heart disease-related deaths. The 6 MWT performance in the shortest two distance quintiles was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (290-338 meters: HR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; <290 meters: HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.0). The adjusted risk of coronary heart disease mortality incident events among those with a 6 MWT <290 meters was not significant. Discussion Performance on the 6 MWT is independently associated with all-cause mortality and is of prognostic utility in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24695552

  17. All-cause and Cardiovascular mortality among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Becher, Heiko; Razum, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Background Migration is a phenomenon of particular Public Health importance. Since 1990, almost 2 million ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) have migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Germany. This study compares their overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality to that of Germany's general population. Because of high overall and CVD mortality in the FSU and low socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, we hypothesize that their mortality is higher. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study for 1990–2002 with data of 34,393 Aussiedler. We assessed vital status at population registries and causes of death at the state statistical office. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the whole cohort and substrata of covariables such as age, sex and family size. To assess multivariate effects, we used Poisson regression. Results 1657 cohort members died before December 31, 2002, and 680 deaths (41.03%) were due to CVD. The SMR for the whole cohort was 0.85 (95%-CI 0.81–0.89) for all causes of death and 0.79 (95%-CI 0.73–0.85) for CVD. SMRs were higher than one for younger Aussiedler and lower for older ones. There was no clear effect of duration of stay on SMRs. For 1990–93, SMRs were significantly lower than in subsequent years. In families comprising at least five members upon arrival in Germany, SMRs were significantly lower than in smaller families. Conclusion In contrast to our hypothesis on migrants' health, overall and CVD mortality among Aussiedler is lower than in Germany's general population. Possible explanations are a substantially better health status of Aussiedler in the FSU as compared to the local average, a higher perceived socio-economic status of Aussiedler in Germany, or selection effects. SMR differences between substrata need further exploration, and risk factor data are needed. PMID:16438727

  18. Traditional and Emerging Lifestyle Risk Behaviors and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from a Large Population-Based Australian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Rogers, Kris; van der Ploeg, Hidde; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle risk behaviors are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden worldwide. Behavioral risk factors, such as smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity, tend to cluster within populations and may have synergistic effects on health. As evidence continues to accumulate on emerging lifestyle risk factors, such as prolonged sitting and unhealthy sleep patterns, incorporating these new risk factors will provide clinically relevant information on combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Methods and Findings Using data from a large Australian cohort of middle-aged and older adults, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a lifestyle risk index incorporating sedentary behavior and sleep in relation to all-cause mortality. Baseline data (February 2006– April 2009) were linked to mortality registration data until June 15, 2014. Smoking, high alcohol intake, poor diet, physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and unhealthy (short/long) sleep duration were measured by questionnaires and summed into an index score. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used with the index score and each unique risk combination as exposure variables, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. During 6 y of follow-up of 231,048 participants for 1,409,591 person-years, 15,635 deaths were registered. Of all participants, 31.2%, 36.9%, 21.4%, and 10.6% reported 0, 1, 2, and 3+ risk factors, respectively. There was a strong relationship between the lifestyle risk index score and all-cause mortality. The index score had good predictive validity (c index = 0.763), and the partial population attributable risk was 31.3%. Out of all 96 possible risk combinations, the 30 most commonly occurring combinations accounted for more than 90% of the participants. Among those, combinations involving physical inactivity, prolonged sitting, and/or long sleep duration and combinations involving smoking and high alcohol intake had the strongest associations with all-cause

  19. Associations of Suboptimal Growth with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Children under Five Years: A Pooled Analysis of Ten Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Olofin, Ibironke; McDonald, Christine M.; Ezzati, Majid; Flaxman, Seth; Black, Robert E.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Danaei, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Background Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally. We investigated associations between suboptimal growth and mortality by pooling large studies. Methods Pooled analysis involving children 1 week to 59 months old in 10 prospective studies in Africa, Asia and South America. Utilizing most recent measurements, we calculated weight-for-age, height/length-for-age and weight-for-height/length Z scores, applying 2006 WHO Standards and the 1977 NCHS/WHO Reference. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality hazard ratios (HR) using proportional hazards models comparing children with mild (−2≤Z<−1), moderate (−3≤Z<−2), or severe (Z<−3) anthropometric deficits with the reference category (Z≥−1). Results 53 809 children were eligible for this re-analysis and contributed a total of 55 359 person-years, during which 1315 deaths were observed. All degrees of underweight, stunting and wasting were associated with significantly higher mortality. The strength of association increased monotonically as Z scores decreased. Pooled mortality HR was 1.52 (95% Confidence Interval 1.28, 1.81) for mild underweight; 2.63 (2.20, 3.14) for moderate underweight; and 9.40 (8.02, 11.03) for severe underweight. Wasting was a stronger determinant of mortality than stunting or underweight. Mortality HR for severe wasting was 11.63 (9.84, 13.76) compared with 5.48 (4.62, 6.50) for severe stunting. Using older NCHS standards resulted in larger HRs compared with WHO standards. In cause-specific analyses, all degrees of anthropometric deficits increased the hazards of dying from respiratory tract infections and diarrheal diseases. The study had insufficient power to precisely estimate effects of undernutrition on malaria mortality. Conclusions All degrees of anthropometric deficits are associated with increased risk of under-five mortality using the 2006 WHO Standards. Even mild deficits substantially increase mortality, especially from infectious diseases

  20. The Influence of Source of Social Support and Size of Social Network on All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Shook, Robin P.; Sui, Xuemei; Wilcox, Sara; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between relative, friend, and partner support, as well as size and source of weekly social network, on mortality risk in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Patients and Methods In a mail-back survey completed between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990, adult ACLS participants (n=12,709) answered questions regarding whether they received social support from relatives, friends, and spouse/partner (yes or no for each), and the number of friends and relatives they had contact with at least once per week. Participants were followed until December 31, 2003 or death. Cox proportional hazard regression evaluated the strength of the associations, controlling for covariates. Results Participants (25% women) averaged 53.0 years at baseline. During a median 13.5 years of follow-up, 1,139 deaths occurred. Receiving social support from relatives reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.95). Receiving spousal/partner support also reduced mortality risk 19% (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-.99). Receiving social support from friends was not associated with mortality risk (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.09), however, participants reporting social contact with 6 or 7 friends on a weekly basis had a 24% lower mortality risk than those in contact with ≤ 1 friend (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.98). Contact with 2–5 or ≥8 friends was not associated with mortality risk, nor was number of weekly relative contacts. Conclusions Receiving social support from one’s spouse/partner and relatives and maintaining weekly social interaction with 6–7 friends reduced mortality risk. Such data may inform interventions to improve long-term survival. PMID:26055526

  1. Examining Non-Linear Associations between Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and All-Cause Mortality Using Segmented Cox Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy adults are advised to perform at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity weekly, but this advice is based on studies using self-reports of questionable validity. This study examined the dose-response relationship of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality using segmented Cox regression to empirically determine the break-points of the dose-response relationship. Data from 7006 adult participants aged 18 or above in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included in the analysis and linked with death certificate data using a probabilistic matching approach in the National Death Index through December 31, 2011. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using ActiGraph model 7164 accelerometer over the right hip for 7 consecutive days. Each minute with accelerometer count <100; 1952–5724; and ≥5725 were classified as sedentary, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Segmented Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of time spent in sedentary behaviors, moderate-intensity physical activity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and all-cause mortality, adjusted for demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Data were analyzed in 2016. During 47,119 person-year of follow-up, 608 deaths occurred. Each additional hour per day of sedentary behaviors was associated with a HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.31) among participants who spend at least 10.9 h per day on sedentary behaviors, and each additional minute per day spent on moderate-intensity physical activity was associated with a HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91, 0.96) among participants with daily moderate-intensity physical activity ≤14.1 min. Associations of moderate physical activity and sedentary behaviors on all-cause mortality were independent of each other. To conclude, evidence from

  2. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  3. Association of body mass index with all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Yi-Hwei; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Liu, Pang-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Background The obesity paradox phenomenon has been found in different populations, such as heart failure and coronary heart disease, which suggest that patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and with normal weight had higher risk of mortality than those with overweight or obesity. However, the obesity paradox is controversial among patients with diabetes which has been considered as the coronary heart disease equivalent. The aim of our study was to summarize current findings on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes and make a meta-analysis. Methods We searched previous studies from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases using the keywords: BMI, mortality, diabetes, and obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology. Finally, sixteen studies were identified and 385,925 patients were included. Patients were divided into five groups based on BMI (kg/m2) levels: underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5–24.9), overweight (25–29.9), mild obesity (30–34.9), and morbid obesity (>35). A random effect meta-analysis was performed by the inverse variance method. Results As compared with the normal weight, the underweight had higher risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.91]. In contrast, the overweight and the mild obesity had lower risk of mortality than the normal weight (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.78–0.96, and 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78–1.00, respectively), but the morbid obesity did not (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84–1.16). In addition, the subgroup analysis by sex showed that the overweight had the lowest mortality as compared with the normal weight (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.90) and the obesity in males, but the risk of mortality did not differ among groups in females. Notably, the heterogeneity was significant in most of group comparisons. Conclusions Our meta-analysis showed a U-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes

  4. Sleep Apnea and 20-Year Follow-Up for All-Cause Mortality, Stroke, and Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Busselton Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Wong, Keith K.H.; Cullen, Stewart R.J.; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) independently increases the risk of all cause death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or cancer Design: Community-based cohort Setting and Participants: 400 residents of the Western Australian town of Busselton Measures: OSA severity was quantified via the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) as measured by a single night recording in November-December 1990 using the MESAM IV device, along with a range of other risk factors. Follow-up for deaths and hospitalizations was ascertained via record linkage to the end of 2010. Results: We had follow-up data in 397 people and then removed those with a previous stroke (n = 4) from the mortality/ CVD/CHD/stroke analyses and those with cancer history from the cancer analyses (n = 7). There were 77 deaths, 103 cardiovascular events (31 strokes, 59 CHD) and 125 incident cases of cancer (39 cancer fatalities) during 20 years follow-up. In fully adjusted models, moderate-severe OSA was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.9, 9.2), cancer mortality (3.4; 1.1, 10.2), incident cancer (2.5; 1.2, 5.0), and stroke (3.7; 1.2, 11.8), but not significantly with CVD (1.9; 0.75, 4.6) or CHD incidence (1.1; 0.24, 4.6). Mild sleep apnea was associated with a halving in mortality (0.5; 0.27, 0.99), but no other outcome, after control for leading risk factors. Conclusions: Moderate-to-severe sleep apnea is independently associated with a large increased risk of all-cause mortality, incident stroke, and cancer incidence and mortality in this community-based sample. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 363. Citation: Marshall NS; Wong KK; Cullen SR; Knuiman MW; Grunstein RR. Sleep apnea and 20-year follow-up for all-cause mortality, stroke, and cancer incidence and mortality in the Busselton health study cohort. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):355-362. PMID:24733978

  5. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Biddulph, Jane P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the suitability of age specific limits for alcohol consumption and to explore the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in different age groups. Design Population based data from Health Survey for England 1998-2008, linked to national mortality registration data and pooled for analysis using proportional hazards regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and age group (50-64 and ≥65 years). Setting Up to 10 waves of the Health Survey for England, which samples the non-institutionalised general population resident in England. Participants The derivation of two analytical samples was based on the availability of comparable alcohol consumption data, covariate data, and linked mortality data among adults aged 50 years or more. Two samples were used, each utilising a different variable for alcohol usage: self reported average weekly consumption over the past year and self reported consumption on the heaviest day in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the former sample comprised Health Survey for England years 1998-2002, 18 368 participants, and 4102 deaths over a median follow-up of 9.7 years, whereas the latter comprised Health Survey for England years 1999-2008, 34 523 participants, and 4220 deaths over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Main outcome measure All cause mortality, defined as any death recorded between the date of interview and the end of data linkage on 31 March 2011. Results In unadjusted models, protective effects were identified across a broad range of alcohol usage in all age-sex groups. These effects were attenuated across most use categories on adjustment for a range of personal, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. After the exclusion of former drinkers, these effects were further attenuated. Compared with self reported never drinkers, significant protective associations were limited to younger men (50-64 years) and older women (≥65 years). Among younger men, the range of protective effects was

  6. Factors Associated With Cancer Incidence and With All-Cause Mortality After Cancer Diagnosis Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons During the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pragna; Armon, Carl; Chmiel, Joan S.; Brooks, John T.; Buchacz, Kate; Wood, Kathy; Novak, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Little is known about survival and factors associated with mortality after cancer diagnosis among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods.  Using Poisson regression, we analyzed incidence rates of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers (ADC), non-AIDS-defining infection-related cancers (NADCI), and non-AIDS-defining noninfection-related cancers (NADCNI) among HIV Outpatient Study participants seen at least twice from 1996–2010. All-cause mortality within each cancer category and by calendar period (1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010) were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival methods and log-rank tests. We identified risk factors for all-cause mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Results.  Among 8350 patients, 627 were diagnosed with 664 cancers. Over the 3 time periods, the age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for ADC and NADCNI declined (both P < .001) and for NADCI did not change (P = .13). Five-year survival differed by cancer category (ADC, 54.5%; NADCI, 65.8%; NADCNI, 65.9%; P = .018), as did median CD4 cell count (107, 241, and 420 cells/mm3; P < .001) and median log10 viral load (4.1, 2.3, and 2.0 copies/mL; P < .001) at cancer diagnosis, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased mortality for ADC were lower nadir CD4 cell count (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–6.59) and detectable viral load (≥400 copies/mL; HR = 1.72 [95% CI, 1.01–2.94]) and for NADCNI, age (HR = 1.50 [95% CI, 1.16–1.94]), non-Hispanic black race (HR = 1.92 [95% CI, 1.15–3.24]), lower nadir CD4 cell count (HR = 1.77 [95% CI, 1.07–2.94]), detectable viral load (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.18–3.24]), and current or prior tobacco use (HR = 3.18 [95% CI, 1.77–5.74]). Conclusions.  Since 1996, ADC and NADCNI incidence rates have declined. Survival after cancer diagnosis has increased with concomitant increases in CD4 cell count in recent

  7. High sodium:potassium intake ratio increases the risk for all-cause mortality: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    PubMed

    Judd, Suzanne E; Aaron, Kristal J; Letter, Abraham J; Muntner, Paul; Jenny, Nancy S; Campbell, Ruth C; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Levitan, Emily B; Levine, Deborah A; Shikany, James M; Safford, Monika; Lackland, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    Increased dietary Na intake and decreased dietary K intake are associated with higher blood pressure. It is not known whether the dietary Na:K ratio is associated with all-cause mortality or stroke incidence and whether this relationship varies according to race. Between 2003 and 2007, the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort enrolled 30 239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Diet was assessed using the Block 98 FFQ and was available on 21 374 participants. The Na:K ratio was modelled in race- and sex-specific quintiles for all analyses, with the lowest quintile (Q1) as the reference group. Data on other covariates were collected using both an in-home assessment and telephone interviews. We identified 1779 deaths and 363 strokes over a mean of 4·9 years. We used Cox proportional hazards models to obtain multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). In the highest quintile (Q5), a high Na:K ratio was associated with all-cause mortality (Q5 v. Q1 for whites: HR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·47, P for trend = 0·084; for blacks: HR 1·36; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·77, P for trend = 0·028). A high Na:K ratio was not significantly associated with stroke in whites (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·90) or blacks (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 0·78, 2·48), partly because of the low number of stroke events. In the REGARDS study, a high Na:K ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and there was a suggestive association between the Na:K ratio and stroke. These data support the policies targeted at reduction of Na from the food supply and recommendations to increase K intake. PMID:25191561

  8. Low all-cause mortality despite high cardiovascular risk in elderly Greek-born Australians: attenuating potential of diet?

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Elderly Greek-born Australians (GA) consistently show lower rates of all-cause and CVD mortality compared with Australian-born. Paradoxically, however, this is in spite of a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors. This paper reviews the findings from the Food Habits in Later Life (FHILL) study, other studies on Greek migrants to Australia and clinical studies investigating dietary mechanisms which may explain the "morbidity mortality paradox". The FHILL study collected data between 1988 and 1991 on diet, health and psycho-social variables on 818 people aged 70 and over from Sweden, Greece, Australia (Greeks and Anglo-Celts), Japan and were followed up for 5-7 years to determine survival status. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5-7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, elderly GA had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other CVD risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). GA appeared to be "getting away" with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence in old age to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may, in part, be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors in GA by beneficially altering the gut microbiome and its metabolites. PMID:25516310

  9. Time Trends in Incidence and Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction, and All-Cause Mortality following a Cardiovascular Prevention Program in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Journath, Gunilla; Hammar, Niklas; Elofsson, Stig; Linnersjö, Anette; Vikström, Max; Walldius, Göran; Krakau, Ingvar; Lindgren, Peter; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1988, a cardiovascular prevention program which combined an individual and a population-based strategy was launched within primary health-care in Sollentuna, a municipality in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County during a period of two decades following the implementation of a cardiovascular prevention program. Materials and Methods The average population in Sollentuna was 56,589 (49% men) and in Stockholm County (Sollentuna included) 1,795,504 (49% men) during the study period of 1987–2010. Cases of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and death were obtained for the population of Sollentuna and the rest of Stockholm County using national registries of hospital discharges and deaths. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality were estimated using the average population of Sollentuna and Stockholm in 1987–2010. Results During the observation period, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreased more in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County in women (-22% vs. -7%; for difference in slope <0.05). There was a trend towards a greater decline in Sollentuna compared to the rest of Stockholm County in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (in men), acute myocardial mortality, and all-cause mortality but the differences were not significant. Conclusion During a period of steep decline in acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Stockholm County the municipality of Sollentuna showed a stronger trend in women possibly compatible with favorable influence of a cardiovascular prevention program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02212145 PMID:26580968

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Chang, Howard H; Christo, Dana K; Thuita, Lucy; Huang, Han Yao; Strickland, Paul; Ruczinski, Ingo; Clipp, Sandra; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the associations between 16 specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 obesity-related genes and overall and cause-specific mortality. We also examined the associations between the SNPs and body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI over time. Methods Data were analyzed from 9,919 individuals who participated in two large community-based cohort studies conducted in Washington County, Maryland in 1974 (CLUE I) and 1989 (CLUE II). DNA from blood collected in 1989 was genotyped for 16 SNPs in 8 obesity-related genes: monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), paraoxonase 1 and 2 (PON1 and PON2), leptin receptor (LEPR), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ and -δ (PPARG and PPARD). Data on height and weight in 1989 (CLUE II baseline) and at age 21 were collected from participants at the time of blood collection. All participants were followed from 1989 to the date of death or the end of follow-up in 2005. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain the relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP and mortality outcomes. Results The results showed no patterns of association for the selected SNPs and the all-cause and cause-specific mortality outcomes, although statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) were observed between PPARG rs4684847 and all-cause mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.89, 1.11; TT: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.93) and cancer-related mortality (CC: reference; CT: RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82, 1.25; TT: RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06, 0.90) and TNFα rs1799964 and cancer-related mortality (TT: reference; CT: RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03, 1.47; CC: RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.54, 1.28). Additional analyses showed significant associations between SNPs in LEPR with BMI (rs1137101) and change in BMI over time (rs1045895 and rs1137101). Conclusion Findings from this cohort study suggest that the selected SNPs are not

  11. Low Systolic Blood Pressure and Mortality From All Causes and Vascular Diseases Among Older Middle-aged Men: Korean Veterans Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, low systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to be associated with an increased risk of death from vascular diseases in a rural elderly population in Korea. However, evidence on the association between low SBP and vascular diseases is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between low SBP and mortality from all causes and vascular diseases in older middle-aged Korean men. Methods: From 2004 to 2010, 94 085 Korean Vietnam War veterans were followed-up for deaths. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A stratified analysis was conducted by age at enrollment. SBP was self-reported by a postal survey in 2004. Results: Among the participants aged 60 and older, the lowest SBP (<90 mmHg) category had an elevated aHR for mortality from all causes (aHR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1) and vascular diseases (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, I00-I99; aHR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.4) compared to those with an SBP of 100 to 119 mmHg. Those with an SBP below 80 mmHg (aHR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 18.8) and those with an SBP of 80 to 89 mmHg (aHR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 10.2) also had an increased risk of vascular mortality, compared to those with an SBP of 90 to 119 mmHg. This association was sustained when excluding the first two years of follow-up or preexisting vascular diseases. In men younger than 60 years, the association of low SBP was weaker than that in those aged 60 years or older. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low SBP (<90 mmHg) may increase vascular mortality in Korean men aged 60 years or older. PMID:25857648

  12. Association between Insulin Monotherapy versus Insulin plus Metformin and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Sarah E.; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; Currie, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine if concomitant metformin reduced the risk of death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and cancer in people with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Methods For this retrospective cohort study, people with type 2 diabetes who progressed to insulin with or without metformin from 2000 onwards were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (≈7% sample of the UK population). The risks of all-cause mortality, MACE and incident cancer were evaluated using multivariable Cox models comparing insulin monotherapy with insulin plus metformin. We accounted for insulin dose. Results 12,020 subjects treated with insulin were identified, including 6,484 treated with monotherapy. There were 1,486 deaths, 579 MACE (excluding those with a history of large vessel disease), and 680 cancer events (excluding those in patients with a history of cancer). Corresponding event rates were 41.5 (95% CI 39.4–43.6) deaths, 20.8 (19.2–22.5) MACE, and 21.6 (20.0–23.3) cancer events per 1,000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for people prescribed insulin plus metformin versus insulin monotherapy were 0.60 (95% CI 0.52–0.68) for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (0.62–0.91) for MACE, and 0.96 (0.80–1.15) for cancer. For patients who were propensity-score matched, the corresponding aHRs for all-cause mortality and cancer were 0.62 (0.52–0.75) and 0.99 (0.78–1.26), respectively. For MACE, the aHR was 1.06 (0.75–1.49) prior to 1,275 days and 1.87 (1.22–2.86) after 1,275 days post-index. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin plus concomitant metformin had a reduced risk of death and MACE compared with people treated with insulin monotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of cancer between people treated with insulin as monotherapy or in combination with metformin. PMID:27152598

  13. Association Between Physical Activity and Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Tanaka, Shiro; Heianza, Yoriko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Horikawa, Chika; Shimano, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazumi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Ohashi, Yasuo; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The association between habitual physical activity (PA) and lowered risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been suggested in patients with diabetes. This meta-analysis summarizes the risk reduction in relation to PA, focusing on clarifying dose-response associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Electronic literature searches were conducted for cohort studies that examined relative risk (RR) of ACM or CVD in relation to PA in patients with diabetes. For the qualitative assessment, RR for the highest versus the lowest PA category in each study was pooled with a random-effects model. We added linear and spline regression analyses to assess the quantitative relationship between increases in PA and ACM and CVD risk. RESULTS There were 17 eligible studies. Qualitatively, the highest PA category had a lower RR [95% CI] for ACM (0.61 [0.52–0.70]) and CVD (0.71 [0.60–0.84]) than the lowest PA category. The linear regression model indicated a high goodness of fit for the risk of ACM (adjusted R2 = 0.44, P = 0.001) and CVD (adjusted R2 = 0.51, P = 0.001), with the result that a 1 MET-h/day incrementally higher PA was associated with 9.5% (5.0–13.8%) and 7.9% (4.3–11.4%) reductions in ACM and CVD risk, respectively. The spline regression model was not significantly different from the linear model in goodness of fit (P = 0.14 for ACM risk; P = 0.60 for CVD risk). CONCLUSIONS More PA was associated with a larger reduction in future ACM and CVD risk in patients with diabetes. Nevertheless, any amount of habitual PA was better than inactivity. PMID:23349151

  14. All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Association with Achieved Hemoglobin A1c, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hou-Hsien; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun; See, Ting-Ting; Chen, Hua-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify the ranges of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels which are associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. Methods A retrospective cohort of 12,643 type 2 diabetic patients (aged ≥18 years) were generated from 2002 to 2010, in Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei city, Taiwan. Patients were identified to include any outpatient diabetes diagnosis (ICD-9: 250), and drug prescriptions that included any oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin prescribed during the 6 months following their first outpatient visit for diabetes. HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-C levels were assessed by the mean value of all available data, from index date to death or censor date. Deaths were ascertained by matching patient records with the Taiwan National Register of Deaths. Results Our results showed general U-shaped associations, where the lowest hazard ratios occurred at HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL. The risk of mortality gradually increases if the patient's mean HbA1c, SBP, or LDL-C during the follow-up period was higher or lower than these ranges. In comparison to the whole population, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for patients with HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL were 0.69 (0.62–0.77), 0.80 (0.72–0.90), and 0.68 (0.61–0.75), respectively. Conclusions In our type 2 diabetic cohort, the patients with HbA1c 7.0–8.0%, SBP 130–140 mmHg, or LDL-C 100–130 mg/dL had the lowest all-cause mortality. Additional research is needed to confirm these associations and to further investigate their detailed mechanisms. PMID:25347712

  15. Occupational Class Inequalities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Middle-Aged Men in 14 European Populations during the Early 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Eikemo, Terje A.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete C.; Bopp, Matthias; Esnaola, Santiago; Jasilionis, Domantas; Mäki, Netta; Martikainen, Pekka; Regidor, Enrique; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000–2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30–59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD), all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF). Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France) also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark). Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations. PMID:25268702

  16. Trajectory of body shape in early and middle life and all cause and cause specific mortality: results from two prospective US cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank B; Wu, Kana; Must, Aviva; Chan, Andrew T; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess body shape trajectories in early and middle life in relation to risk of mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Population 80 266 women and 36 622 men who recalled their body shape at ages 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years and provided body mass index at age 50, followed from age 60 over a median of 15-16 years for death. Main outcome measures All cause and cause specific mortality. Results Using a group based modeling approach, five distinct trajectories of body shape from age 5 to 50 were identified: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable/increase, and heavy-stable/increase. The lean-stable group was used as the reference. Among never smokers, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for death from any cause was 1.08 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.14) for women and 0.95 (0.88 to 1.03) for men in the lean-moderate increase group, 1.43 (1.33 to 1.54) for women and 1.11 (1.02 to 1.20) for men in the lean-marked increase group, 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) for women and 1.01 (0.94 to 1.09) for men in the medium-stable/increase group, and 1.64 (1.49 to 1.81) for women and 1.19 (1.08 to 1.32) for men in the heavy-stable/increase group. For cause specific mortality, participants in the heavy-stable/increase group had the highest risk, with a hazard ratio among never smokers of 2.30 (1.88 to 2.81) in women and 1.45 (1.23 to 1.72) in men for cardiovascular disease, 1.37 (1.14 to 1.65) in women and 1.07 (0.89 to 1.30) in men for cancer, and 1.59 (1.38 to 1.82) in women and 1.10 (0.95 to 1.29) in men for other causes. The trajectory-mortality association was generally weaker among ever smokers than among never smokers (for all cause mortality: P for interaction <0.001 in women and 0.06 in men). When participants were classified jointly according to trajectories and history of type 2 diabetes, the increased risk of death associated with heavier

  17. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M.; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and Results The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared to participants with eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and low OPG, participants with eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated OPG had a 61% and 75% increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality respectively (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.05; P < 0.001 and HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55; P = 0.003). This relationship with mortality was independent of decline in renal function (P<0.05). Specific causes of death in individuals with elevated OPG and stage III CKD highlighted an excess of coronary heart disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P < 0.05). Conclusion The association between elevated OPG levels with CVD and all-cause mortality was more evident in elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:26222774

  18. Association between resting heart rate across the life course and all-cause mortality: longitudinal findings from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD)

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Gill, Thomas M; Shah, Imran; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether elevations in childhood and mid-adulthood RHR, including changes over time, are associated with mortality later in life. We sought to evaluate the association between RHR across the life course, along with its changes and all-cause mortality. Methods We studied 4638 men and women from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) cohort born during 1 week in 1946. RHR was obtained during childhood at ages 6, 7 and 11, and in mid-adulthood at ages 36 and 43. Using multivariable Cox regression, we calculated the HR for incident mortality according to RHR measured at each time point, along with changes in mid-adulthood RHR. Results At age 11, those in the top fifth of the RHR distribution (≥97 bpm) had an increased adjusted hazard of 1.42 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.93) for all-cause mortality. A higher adjusted risk (HR, 95% CI 2.17, 1.40 to 3.36) of death was also observed for those in the highest fifth (≥81 bpm) at age 43. For a > 25 bpm increased change in the RHR over the course of 7 years (age 36–43), the adjusted hazard was elevated more than threefold (HR, 95% CI 3.26, 1.54 to 6.90). After adjustment, RHR at ages 6, 7 and 36 were not associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Elevated RHR during childhood and midlife, along with greater changes in mid-adulthood RHR, are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:24850484

  19. Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Thalib, Lukman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on short-term mortality in Kuwait. We analyzed respiratory and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality in relation to dust storm events over a 5-year study period, using data obtained through a population-based retrospective ecological time series study. Dust storm days were identified when the national daily average of PM10 exceeded 200 μg/m3. Generalized additive models with Poisson link were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of age-stratified daily mortality associated with dust events, after adjusting for potential confounders including weather variables and long-term trends. There was no significant association between dust storm events and same-day respiratory mortality (RR = 0.96; 95 %CI 0.88-1.04), cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.98; 95 %CI 0.96-1.012) or all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95 %CI 0.97-1.00). Overall our findings suggest that local dust, that most likely originates from crustal materials, has little impact on short-term respiratory, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

  20. Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Thalib, Lukman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on short-term mortality in Kuwait. We analyzed respiratory and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality in relation to dust storm events over a 5-year study period, using data obtained through a population-based retrospective ecological time series study. Dust storm days were identified when the national daily average of PM10 exceeded 200 μg/m(3). Generalized additive models with Poisson link were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of age-stratified daily mortality associated with dust events, after adjusting for potential confounders including weather variables and long-term trends. There was no significant association between dust storm events and same-day respiratory mortality (RR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.88-1.04), cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.96-1.012) or all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95%CI 0.97-1.00). Overall our findings suggest that local dust, that most likely originates from crustal materials, has little impact on short-term respiratory, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. PMID:23329278

  1. All-cause mortality in the cohorts of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) compared with the general population: 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has produced significant changes in mortality of HIV-infected persons. Our objective was to estimate mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortality rates of cohorts of the AIDS Research Network (RIS) (CoRIS-MD and CoRIS) compared to the general population. Methods We analysed data of CoRIS-MD and CoRIS cohorts from 1997 to 2010. We calculated: (i) all-cause mortality rates, (ii) standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and (iii) excess mortality rates for both cohort for 100 person-years (py) of follow-up, comparing all-cause mortality with that of the general population of similar age and gender. Results Between 1997 and 2010, 8,214 HIV positive subjects were included, 2,453 (29.9%) in CoRIS-MD and 5,761 (70.1%) in CoRIS and 294 deaths were registered. All-cause mortality rate was 1.02 (95% CI 0.91-1.15) per 100 py, SMR was 6.8 (95% CI 5.9-7.9) and excess mortality rate was 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9) per 100 py. Mortality was higher in patients with AIDS, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, and those from CoRIS-MD cohort (1997–2003). Conclusion Mortality among HIV-positive persons remains higher than that of the general population of similar age and sex, with significant differences depending on the history of AIDS or HCV coinfection. PMID:23961924

  2. Is poor oral health a risk marker for incident cardiovascular disease hospitalisation and all-cause mortality? Findings from 172 630 participants from the prospective 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Joshy, Grace; Arora, Manish; Korda, Rosemary J; Chalmers, John; Banks, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between oral health and incident hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), ischaemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and all-cause mortality. Design Prospective population-based study of Australian men and women aged 45 years or older, who were recruited to the 45 and Up Study between January 2006 and April 2009; baseline questionnaire data were linked to hospitalisations and deaths up to December 2011. Study exposures include tooth loss and self-rated health of teeth and gums at baseline. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants Individuals aged 45–75 years, excluding those with a history of cancer/cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline; n=172 630. Primary outcomes Incident hospitalisation for IHD, HF, ischaemic stroke and PVD and all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 3239 incident hospitalisations for IHD, 212 for HF, 283 for ischaemic stroke and 359 for PVD, and 1908 deaths, were observed. Cox proportional hazards models examined the relationship between oral health indicators and incident hospitalisation for CVD and all-cause mortality, adjusting for potential confounding factors. All-cause mortality and incident CVD hospitalisation risk increased significantly with increasing tooth loss for all outcomes except ischaemic stroke (ptrend<0.05). In those reporting no teeth versus ≥20 teeth left, risks were increased for HF (HR, 95% CI 1.97, 1.27 to 3.07), PVD (2.53, 1.81 to 3.52) and all-cause mortality (1.60, 1.37 to 1.87). The risk of IHD, PVD and all-cause mortality (but not HF or ischaemic stroke) increased significantly with worsening self-rated health of teeth and gums (ptrend<0.05). In those reporting poor versus very good health of teeth and gums, risks were increased for IHD (1.19, 1.03 to 1.38), PVD (1.66, 1.13 to 2.43) and all-cause mortality (1.76, 1.50 to 2.08). Conclusions Tooth loss and, to a lesser extent, self

  3. Whole-grain consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Honglei; Gao, Zong; Liang, Rui; Li, Zengqiang; Hao, Hong; Liu, Xu

    2016-08-01

    Results of the relationships between dietary whole-grain consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer-specific mortality are mixed. We summarised the evidence based on a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 20 January 2016 and by reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (SRR) and 95 % CI. In all, eleven prospective studies (ten publications) were included in the meta-analysis. There were a total of 816 599 subjects and 89 251 cases of all-cause mortality. On the basis of the highest v. the lowest categories of intake, whole grains may be associated with a lower risk of mortality from all causes (SRR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·90), CVD (SRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89) and all cancers (SRR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·96). For each 3 servings/d increase in whole-grain intake, there was a 19 % reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (SRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·85), a 26 % reduction in CVD mortality (SRR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·83) and a 9 % reduction in cancer mortality (SRR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·98). The current meta-analysis provides some evidence that high intake of whole grains was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer-specific mortality. Further well-designed studies, including clinical trials and in different populations, are required to confirm our findings. PMID:27215285

  4. The usefulness of age and sex to predict all-cause mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a single-center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoping; Cai, Chi; Luo, Rong; Jiang, Rongjian; Zeng, Jie; Tang, Yijia; Chen, Yang; Fu, Michael; He, Tao; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown that sex and age are associated with outcomes in patients with cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the all-cause mortality of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by age and sex. Methods and results The patients were divided into non-elderly (age <60 years, n=811) and elderly (age ≥60 years, n=331) groups. No difference in the all-cause mortality rate was observed between elderly and non-elderly patients (27.2% vs 22.2%, log-rank χ2=2.604, P=0.107). Furthermore, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the male and female patients (23.3% vs 24.5%, log-rank χ2=0.707, P=0.400). However, subgroup analysis revealed that elderly male patients exhibited a higher mortality rate than non-elderly male patients (29.4% vs 21.3%, log-rank χ2=5.898, P=0.015), while no difference was observed between the elderly female patients and non-elderly female patients. In the Cox analysis, neither age nor sex was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with DCM. Conclusion In conclusion, no significant difference in mortality between male and female patients or between the elderly and non-elderly patients was observed. Only among males was a difference in mortality observed; elderly male patients experienced greater mortality than that of non-elderly male patients. No effect of age or sex on all-cause mortality was observed in patients with DCM. PMID:26396507

  5. Daytime Napping and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To summarize evidence about the association between daytime napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation. Design: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods and Results: Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to December 2014 using the terms nap, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We selected well-adjusted prospective cohort studies reporting risk estimates for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality related to napping. Eleven prospective cohort studies were identified with 151,588 participants (1,625,012 person-years) and a mean follow-up period of 11 years (60% women, 5,276 cardiovascular events, and 18,966 all-cause deaths). Pooled analysis showed that a long daytime nap (≥ 60 min/day) was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (rate ratio [RR]: 1.82 [1.22–2.71], P = 0.003, I2 = 37%) compared with not napping. All-cause mortality was associated with napping for ≥ 60 min/day (RR: 1.27 [1.11–1.45], P < 0.001, I2 = 0%) compared with not napping. In contrast, napping for < 60 min/day was not associated with cardiovascular disease (P = 0.98) or all-cause mortality (P = 0.08). Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant J-curve dose-response relation between nap time and cardiovascular disease (P for nonlinearity = 0.01). The RR initially decreased from 0 to 30 min/day. Then it increased slightly until about 45 min/day, followed by a sharp increase at longer nap times. There was also a positive linear relation between nap time and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity = 0.97). Conclusions: Nap time and cardiovascular disease may be associated via a J-curve relation. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of a short nap. Citation: Yamada T, Hara K, Shojima N, Yamauchi T, Kadowaki T. Daytime napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a prospective study and

  6. Posttraumatic stress due to an acute coronary syndrome increases risk of 42-month major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Donald; Rieckmann, Nina; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Davidson, Karina W; Clemow, Lynn; Shimbo, Daichi; Kronish, Ian M

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 15% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to their ACS event. We assessed whether ACS-induced PTSD symptoms increase risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in an observational cohort study of 247 patients (aged 25-93 years; 45% women) hospitalized for an ACS at one of 3 academic medical centers in New York and Connecticut between November 2003 and June 2005. Within 1 week of admission, patient demographics, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, Charlson comorbidity index, left ventricular ejection fraction, and depression status were obtained. At 1-month follow-up, ACS-induced PTSD symptoms were assessed with the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. The primary endpoint was combined MACE (hospitalization for myocardial infarction, unstable angina or urgent/emergency coronary revascularization procedures) and ACM, which were actively surveyed for 42 months after index event. Thirty-six (15%) patients had elevated intrusion symptoms, 32 (13%) elevated avoidance symptoms, and 21 (9%) elevated hyperarousal symptoms. Study physicians adjudicated 21 MACEs and 15 deaths during the follow-up period. In unadjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, and analyses adjusted for sex, age, clinical characteristics and depression, high intrusion symptoms were associated with the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.02; p = .015). Avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were not associated with the primary endpoint. The presence of intrusion symptoms is a strong and independent predictor of elevated risk for MACE and ACM, and should be considered in the risk stratification of ACS patients. PMID:21807378

  7. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Raj Krishnamurthy, Vidya M.; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C.; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease. PMID:22012132

  8. Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer and a History of Congestive Heart Failure or Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Beckman, Joshua A.; Beard, Clair J.; Martin, Neil E.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hu, Jim C.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Salenius, Sharon A.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: It is unknown whether the excess risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) observed when androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is added to radiation for men with prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI) also applies to those with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Of 14,594 men with cT1c-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy-based radiation from 1991 through 2006, 1,378 (9.4%) with a history of CHF or MI comprised the study cohort. Of these, 22.6% received supplemental external beam radiation, and 42.9% received a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant ADT. Median age was 71.8 years. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Cox multivariable analysis tested for an association between ADT use and ACM within risk groups, after adjusting for treatment factors, prognostic factors, and propensity score for ADT. Results: ADT was associated with significantly increased ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.34; p = 0.0001), with 5-year estimates of 22.71% with ADT and 11.62% without ADT. The impact of ADT on ACM by risk group was as follows: high-risk AHR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.17-5.67; p = 0.019; intermediate-risk AHR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73; p = 0.012; low-risk AHR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.96-2.43; p = 0.075). Conclusions: Among patients with a history of CHF or MI treated with brachytherapy-based radiation, ADT was associated with increased all-cause mortality, even for patients with high-risk disease. Although ADT has been shown in Phase III studies to improve overall survival in high-risk disease, the small subgroup of high-risk patients with a history of CHF or MI, who represented about 9% of the patients, may be harmed by ADT.

  9. The reverse J shaped association between serum total 25- hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality: The impact of assay standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of standardizing the originally measured serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] values from Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) on the association between 25(OH)D and rate of all-cause mortality was evaluated. Values were standardized to gold ...

  10. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality among general populations: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Yang, Jing; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Prospective observational studies have shown inconsistent associations of dietary or circulating n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) with risk of all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the associations. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies involving 371 965 participants from general populations and 31 185 death events were included. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for high-versus-low n-3 LCPUFA intake was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98). The summary RR for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75–0.92) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.95), respectively. In the dose-response analysis, each 0.3 g/d increment in n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with 6% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99); and each 1% increment in the proportions of circulating EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in blood was associated with 20% (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.98) and 21% (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63–0.99) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across our anlayses. Our findings suggest that both dietary and circulating LCPUFA are inversely associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:27306836

  11. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality among general populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Yang, Jing; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Prospective observational studies have shown inconsistent associations of dietary or circulating n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) with risk of all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the associations. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies involving 371 965 participants from general populations and 31 185 death events were included. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for high-versus-low n-3 LCPUFA intake was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98). The summary RR for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95), respectively. In the dose-response analysis, each 0.3 g/d increment in n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with 6% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99); and each 1% increment in the proportions of circulating EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in blood was associated with 20% (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.98) and 21% (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across our anlayses. Our findings suggest that both dietary and circulating LCPUFA are inversely associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:27306836

  12. Vaccination and all-cause child mortality from 1985 to 2011: global evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David

    2015-11-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality. PMID:26453618

  13. Dose-Response Relationship of Physical Activity to Premature and Total All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Walkers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. Methods The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min), which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤1.07 MET-hours/d), category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d), category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d), and category 4 (≥3.6 MET-hours/d). Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. Results 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04), 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10−12) and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10−11) than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008), 35.2% (P<10−5), and 34.9% (P = 0.0001) for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18), 20.6% (P = 0.07), and 31.4% (P = 0.009) for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18), 63.8% (P = 0.005), and 90.6% (P = 0.002) for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined), the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22), 42.5% (P = 0.001), and 57.5% (P = 0.0001) for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56), 44.3% (P = 0.0004), and 33.5% (P = 0.02) for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38), 41.0% (P<10−4), and 35.5% (P = 0.001) for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13), 45.8% (P = 0.0002), and 41

  14. Examining the association between serum lactic dehydrogenase and all-cause mortality in patients with metabolic syndrome: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Lin, Chien-Ming; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wang, Chung-Ching; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence indicates that elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, but the mechanisms for this relationship remain uncertain. Since metabolic syndrome (MetS) is correlated with a higher risk of cardiovascular complications, we investigated the joint association between serum LDH levels and all-cause mortality in the US general population with MetS. Design Retrospective study. Setting The USA. Participants A retrospective observational study of 3872 adults with MetS and 7516 adults without MetS in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III was performed. Main outcome measures Participants with and without MetS were both divided into 3 groups according to their serum LDH level. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were used to jointly relate all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality risk to different serum LDH levels. Results For all-cause mortality in participants with MetS, multivariable adjusted HRs were 1.006 (95% CI 0.837 to 1.210; p=0.947) for serum LDH of 149–176 U/L compared with 65–149 U/L, and 1.273 (95% CI 1.049 to 1.547; p=0.015) for serum LDH of 176–668 U/L compared with 65–149 U/L. Conclusions Results support a positive association between higher level of serum LDH and mortality from all causes in individuals with MetS. PMID:27217285

  15. Effects of blood triglycerides on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of triglycerides (TG) to the risk of death remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between blood triglyceride levels and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality and all-cause mortality. Four databases were searched without language restriction for relevant studies: PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All prospective cohort studies reporting an association between TG and CVDs or all-cause mortality published before July 2013 were included. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled according to TG categories, unit TG, and logarithm of TG using a random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. We identified 61 eligible studies, containing 17,018 CVDs deaths in 726,030 participants and 58,419 all-cause deaths in 330,566 participants. Twelve and fourteen studies, respectively, reported the effects estimates of CVDs and total mortality by TG categories. Compared to the referent (90–149 mg/dL), the pooled RRs (95% CI) of CVDs mortality for the lowest (< 90 mg/dL), borderline-high (150–199 mg/dL), and high TG (≥ 200 mg/dL) groups were 0.83 (0.75 to 0.93), 1.15 (1.03 to 1.29), and 1.25 (1.05 to 1.50); for total mortality they were 0.94 (0.85 to 1.03), 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17), and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38), respectively. The risks of CVDs and all-cause deaths were increased by 13% and 12% (p < 0.001) per 1-mmol/L TG increment in twenty-two and twenty-two studies reported RRs per unit TG, respectively. In conclusion, elevated blood TG levels were dose-dependently associated with higher risks of CVDs and all-cause mortality. PMID:24164719

  16. Association of serum uric acid with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality and incident myocardial infarction in the MONICA Augsburg cohort. World Health Organization Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liese, A D; Hense, H W; Löwel, H; Döring, A; Tietze, M; Keil, U

    1999-07-01

    Because previous findings have been inconsistent, we explored the association of serum concentrations of uric acid with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality and myocardial infarction prospectively. We used data from 1,044 men who are members of the World Health Organization Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases (MONICA) Augsburg cohort. The men, 45-64 years of age in 1984-1985, were followed through 1992. There were 90 deaths, 44 of which were related to cardiovascular disease; 60 men developed incident nonfatal or fatal myocardial infarction. We estimated hazard rate ratios from Cox proportional hazard models. Uric acid levels > or =373 micromol/liter (fourth quartile) vs < or =319 micromol/liter (first and second quartile) independently predicted all-cause mortality [hazard rate ratio = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-5.0] after adjustment for alcohol, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, hypertension, use of diuretic drugs, smoking, body mass index, and education. The adjusted risk of cardiovascular disease mortality was 2.2 (95% CI = 1.0-4.8), and that of myocardial infarction was 1.7 (95% CI = 0.8-3.3). Although residual confounding cannot be excluded, our results are among the few, in men, demonstrating a strong positive association of elevated serum uric acid with all-cause mortality. Future investigations may be able to evaluate whether uric acid contributes independently to the development of cardiovascular disease or is simply a component of the atherogenic metabolic condition known as the insulin resistance syndrome. PMID:10401873

  17. All-cause, drug-related, and HIV-related mortality risk by trajectories of jail incarceration and homelessness among adults in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungwoo; Harris, Tiffany G; Nash, Denis; Lennon, Mary Clare; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2015-02-15

    We studied a cohort of 15,620 adults who had experienced at least 1 jail incarceration and 1 homeless shelter stay in 2001-2003 in New York City to identify trajectories of these events and tested whether a particular trajectory was associated with all-cause, drug-related, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality risk in 2004-2005. Using matched data on jail time, homeless shelter stays, and vital statistics, we performed sequence analysis and assessed mortality risk using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and marginal structural modeling. We identified 6 trajectories. Sixty percent of the cohort members had a temporary pattern, which was characterized by sporadic experiences of brief incarceration and homelessness, whereas the rest had the other 5 patterns, which reflected experiences of increasing, decreasing, or persistent jail or shelter stays. Mortality risk among individuals with a temporary pattern was significantly higher than those of adults who had not been incarcerated or stayed in a homeless shelter during the study period (all-cause SMR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.59; drug-related SMR: 4.60, 95% CI: 3.17, 6.46; HIV-related SMR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.21); all-cause and HIV-related SMRs in other patterns were not statistically significantly different. When we compared all 6 trajectories, the temporary pattern was more strongly associated with higher mortality risk than was the continuously homelessness pattern. Institutional interventions to reduce recurrent cycles of incarceration and homelessness are needed to augment behavioral interventions to reduce mortality risk. PMID:25660082

  18. Historical Trends and Regional Differences in All-Cause and Amenable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Since 1950

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated. PMID:24754651

  19. Cardiovascular recovery from psychological and physiological challenge and risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality

    PubMed Central

    Panaite, Vanessa; Salomon, Kristen; Jin, Alvin; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exaggerated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to laboratory challenge has been shown to predict future CV morbidity and mortality. CV recovery, has been less studied, and has yielded inconsistent findings, possibly due to presence of moderators. Reviews on the relationship between CV recovery and CV outcomes have been limited to cross-sectional studies and have not considered methodological factors. We performed a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the prospective literature investigating CV recovery to physical and psychological challenge and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We searched PsycINFO and PubMed for prospective studies investigating the relationship between CV recovery and adverse CV outcomes. Studies were coded for variables of interest and for effect sizes (ES). We conducted a random effects weighted meta-analysis. Moderators were examined with ANOVA-analog and meta-regression analyses. Results Thirty seven studies met inclusion criteria (N=125386). Impaired recovery from challenge predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes (summary effect, r = .17, p < .001). Physical challenge was associated with larger predictive effects than psychological challenge. Moderator analyses revealed that recovery measured at 1 minute post-exercise, passive recovery, use of mortality as an outcome measure, and older sample age were associated with larger effects. Conclusions Poor recovery from laboratory challenges predicts adverse CV outcomes, with recovery from exercise serving as a particularly strong predictor of CV outcomes. The overall ES for recovery and CV outcomes is similar to that observed for CV reactivity and suggests that the study of recovery may have incremental value for understanding adverse CV outcomes. PMID:25829236

  20. The Association between Sulfonylurea Use and All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Varvaki Rados, Dimitris; Catani Pinto, Lana; Reck Remonti, Luciana; Bauermann Leitão, Cristiane; Gross, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfonylureas are an effective and inexpensive treatment for type 2 diabetes. There is conflicting data about the safety of these drugs regarding mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of the sulfonylureas most frequently used and to use trial sequential analysis (TSA) to analyze whether the available sample was powered enough to support the results. Methods and Findings Electronic databases were reviewed from 1946 (Embase) or 1966 (MEDLINE) up to 31 December 2014. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of at least 52 wk in duration evaluating second- or third-generation sulfonylureas in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes and reporting outcomes of interest were included. Primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Additionally, myocardial infarction and stroke events were evaluated. Data were summarized with Peto odds ratios (ORs), and the reliability of the results was evaluated with TSA. Forty-seven RCTs with 37,650 patients and 890 deaths in total were included. Sulfonylureas were not associated with all-cause (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.30]) or cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.12 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.42]). Sulfonylureas were also not associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.12]) or stroke (OR 1.16 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.66]). TSA could discard an absolute difference of 0.5% between the treatments, which was considered the minimal clinically significant difference. The major limitation of this review was the inclusion of studies not designed to evaluate safety outcomes. Conclusions Sulfonylureas are not associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Current evidence supports the safety of sulfonylureas; an absolute risk of 0.5% could be firmly discarded. Review registration PROSPERO CRD42014004330 PMID:27071029

  1. Associations between number of sick-leave days and future all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the number of studies on the future situation of sickness absentees still is very limited, we aimed to investigate the association between number of sick-leave days and future all-cause and cause-specific mortality among women and men. Methods A cohort of 2 275 987 women and 2 393 248 men, aged 20–64 years in 1995 was followed 1996–2006 with regard to mortality. Data were obtained from linked authority-administered registers. The relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality with and without a 2-year wash-out period were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression analyses. All analyses were stratified by sex, adjusting for socio demographics and inpatient care. Results A gradually higher all-cause mortality risk occurred with increasing number of sick-leave days in 1995, among both women (RR 1.11; CI 1.07-1.15 for those with 1–15 sick-leave days to RR 2.45; CI 2.36-2.53 among those with 166–365 days) and men (RR 1.20; CI 1.17-1.24 to RR 1.91; CI 1.85-1.97). Multivariate risk estimates were comparable for the different causes of death (circulatory disease, cancer, and suicide). The two-year washout period had only a minor effect on the risk estimates. Conclusion Even a low number of sick-leave days was associated with a higher risk for premature death in the following 11 years, also when adjusting for morbidity. This was the case for both women and men and also for cause-specific mortality. More knowledge is warranted on the mechanisms leading to higher mortality risks among sickness absentees, as sickness certification is a common measure in health care, and most sick leave is due to diagnoses you do not die from. PMID:25037232

  2. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward; Fadnes, Lars T; Boffetta, Paolo; Greenwood, Darren C; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the dose-response relation between consumption of whole grain and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality. Data sources PubMed and Embase searched up to 3 April 2016. Study selection Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals calculated with a random effects model. Results 45 studies (64 publications) were included. The summary relative risks per 90 g/day increase in whole grain intake (90 g is equivalent to three servings—for example, two slices of bread and one bowl of cereal or one and a half pieces of pita bread made from whole grains) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.87; I2=9%, n=7 studies) for coronary heart disease, 0.88 (0.75 to 1.03; I2=56%, n=6) for stroke, and 0.78 (0.73 to 0.85; I2=40%, n=10) for cardiovascular disease, with similar results when studies were stratified by whether the outcome was incidence or mortality. The relative risks for morality were 0.85 (0.80 to 0.91; I2=37%, n=6) for total cancer, 0.83 (0.77 to 0.90; I2=83%, n=11) for all causes, 0.78 (0.70 to 0.87; I2=0%, n=4) for respiratory disease, 0.49 (0.23 to 1.05; I2=85%, n=4) for diabetes, 0.74 (0.56 to 0.96; I2=0%, n=3) for infectious diseases, 1.15 (0.66 to 2.02; I2=79%, n=2) for diseases of the nervous system disease, and 0.78 (0.75 to 0.82; I2=0%, n=5) for all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. Reductions in risk were observed up to an intake of 210-225 g/day (seven to seven and a half servings per day) for most of the outcomes. Intakes of specific types of whole grains including whole grain bread, whole grain breakfast cereals, and added bran, as well as total bread and total breakfast cereals were also associated

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  4. Association of Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality in the General Population: The Takahata Study

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hirayama, Atushi; Narumi, Taro; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Honda, Yuki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Konta, Tsuneo; Shibata, Yoko; Fukao, Akira; Daimon, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite many recent advances in medicine, preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases remains a challenge. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a marker of ongoing myocardial damage and has been reported to be a useful indicator for future cardiovascular events. However, it remains to be determined whether H-FABP can predict all-cause and cardiovascular deaths in the general population. Methods and Results This longitudinal cohort study included 3,503 subjects who participated in a community-based health checkup with a 7-year follow-up. Serum H-FABP was measured in registered subjects. The results demonstrated that higher H-FABP levels were associated with increasing numbers of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. There were 158 deaths during the follow-up period, including 50 cardiovascular deaths. Deceased subjects had higher H-FABP levels compared to surviving subjects. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that H-FABP is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths after adjustments for confounding factors. Subjects were divided into four quartiles according to H-FABP level, and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the highest H-FABP quartile was associated with the greatest risks for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index were significantly increased by addition of H-FABP to cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions H-FABP level was increased in association with greater numbers of cardiovascular risk factors and was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. H-FABP could be a useful indicator for the early identification of high-risk subjects in the general population. PMID:24847804

  5. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  6. Is Impact of Statin Therapy on All-Cause Mortality Different in HIV-Infected Individuals Compared to General Population? Results from the FHDH-ANRS CO4 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sylvie; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Partisani, Marialuisa; Bidegain, Frédéric; Cotte, Laurent; Aslangul, Elisabeth; Chéret, Antoine; Boccara, Franck; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Pradier, Christian; Roger, Pierre-Marie; Tattevin, Pierre; Costagliola, Dominique; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of statins on all-cause mortality in the general population has been estimated as 0.86 (95%CI 0.79-0.94) for primary prevention. Reported values in HIV-infected individuals have been discordant. We assessed the impact of statin-based primary prevention on all-cause mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Methods Patients were selected among controls from a multicentre nested case-control study on the risk of myocardial infarction. Patients with prior cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorders were not eligible. Potential confounders, including variables that were associated either with statin use and/or death occurrence and statin use were evaluated within the last 3 months prior to inclusion in the case-control study. Using an intention to continue approach, multiple imputation of missing data, Cox’s proportional hazard models or propensity based weighting, the impact of statins on the 7-year all-cause mortality was evaluated. Results Among 1,776 HIV-infected individuals, 138 (8%) were statins users. During a median follow-up of 53 months, 76 deaths occurred, including 6 in statin users. Statin users had more cardiovascular risk factors and a lower CD4 T cell nadir than statin non-users. In univariable analysis, the death rate was higher in statins users (11% vs 7%, HR 1.22, 95%CI 0.53-2.82). The confounders accounted for were age, HIV transmission group, current CD4 T cell count, haemoglobin level, body mass index, smoking status, anti-HCV antibodies positivity, HBs antigen positivity, diabetes and hypertension. In the Cox multivariable model the estimated hazard ratio of statin on all-cause mortality was estimated as 0.86 (95%CI 0.34-2.19) and it was 0.83 (95%CI 0.51-1.35) using inverse probability treatment weights. Conclusion The impact of statin for primary prevention appears similar in HIV-infected individuals and in the general population. PMID:26200661

  7. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Deguen, Séverine; Petit, Claire; Delbarre, Angélique; Kihal, Wahida; Padilla, Cindy; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1) socioeconomic status, 2) long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3) both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France). Methods A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866). Results The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER) was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001). Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution): ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02). Conclusion Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels

  8. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  9. Childhood Club Participation and All-cause Mortality in Adulthood: A 65-year Follow-up Study of a Population-representative Sample in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Catherine M.; Batty, G. David; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social participation in middle- and older-age is associated with lower mortality risk across many prospective cohort studies. However there is a paucity of evidence on social participation in youth in relation to mortality, which could help inform an understanding of the origin of the association, and give credence to causality. The present study investigates the relation of early life club membership—a proxy measure of social participation—with mortality risk in older age in a nationally representative sample. Methods We linked historical data collected on the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 during the period 1947-1963 with vital status records up to April 2014. Analyses were based on 1059 traced participants (446 deceased). Results Club membership at age 18 years was associated with lower mortality risk by age 78 years (hazard ratio=0.54, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.68, p<.001). Club membership remained a significant predictor in models that included early life health, socioeconomic status (SES), measured intelligence, and teachers’ ratings of dependability in personality. Conclusion In a study which circumvented the problem of reverse causality, a proxy indicator of social participation in youth was related to lower mortality risk. The association may be mediated by several behavioural and neurobiological factors, which prospective ageing cohort studies could address. PMID:26176775

  10. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Mortensen, L H; Boyle, S H; Barefoot, J; Grønbæk, M; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of potential mediating factors in explaining the IQ–mortality relation. Design, setting and participants A total of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ test results at entry into the service in late adolescence/early adulthood in the 1960/1970s (mean age at entry 20.4 years) participated in a telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985–6. They were then followed up for mortality experience for 15 years. Main results In age-adjusted analyses, higher IQ scores were associated with reduced rates of total mortality (hazard ratio (HR)per SD increase in IQ 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81). This relation did not appear to be heavily confounded by early socioeconomic position or ethnicity. The impact of adjusting for some potentially mediating risk indices measured in middle age on the IQ–mortality relation (marital status, alcohol consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, blood glucose, body mass index, psychiatric and somatic illness at medical examination) was negligible (<10% attenuation in risk). Controlling for others (cigarette smoking, lung function) had a modest impact (10–17%). Education (0.79; 0.69 to 0.92), occupational prestige (0.77; 0.68 to 0.88) and income (0.86; 0.75 to 0.98) yielded the greatest attenuation in the IQ–mortality gradient (21–52%); after their collective adjustment, the IQ–mortality link was effectively eliminated (0.92; 0.79 to 1.07). Conclusions In this cohort, socioeconomic position in middle age might lie on the pathway linking earlier IQ with later mortality risk but might also partly act as a surrogate for cognitive ability. PMID:18477751

  11. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Powers, John H.; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias. Results Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM. Conclusions Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:27490100

  12. Personality Facets and All-Cause Mortality Among Medicare Patients Aged 66 to 102: A Follow-on Study of Weiss and Costa (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Paul T.; Weiss, Alexander; Duberstein, Paul R.; Friedman, Bruce; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations between the personality factors and survival during 8 years follow-up. Methods Domains of personality and selected facet scores were assessed in 597 Medicare recipients (aged 66 to 102 years) who were followed up for approximately 8 years. Personality domains and factors were assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Using proportional hazards regression, the present study builds on a previous analysis of the NEO-PI-R domains and selected facet scores, which revealed that the Neuroticism facet Impulsiveness, Agreeableness facet Straightforwardness, and Conscientiousness facet Self-Discipline were related to longer life during 4 years of follow-up. In the present study, we extended the follow-up period by an additional 4 years, examining all 30 facets, and using accelerated failure time (AFT) modeling as an additional analytic approach. Unlike proportional hazards regression, AFT permits inferences about the median survival length conferred by predictors. Each facet was tested in a model that included health-related covariates and NEO-PI-R factor scores for dimensions that did not include that facet. Results Over the 8-year mortality surveillance period, Impulsiveness was not significant, but Straightforwardness and Self-Discipline remained significant predictors of longevity. When dichotomized, being high versus average or low on Self-Discipline was associated with an approximately 34% increase in median lifespan. Longer mortality surveillance also revealed that each standard deviation of Altruism, Compliance, Tender-Mindedness, and Openness to Fantasy was associated with an estimated 9–11% increase in median survival time. Conclusions After extending the follow-up period from 4 to 8 years, Self-Discipline remained a powerful predictor of survival. Facets associated with imagination, generosity, and higher quality interpersonal interactions become increasingly important when the follow-up period was

  13. Relationship of HbA1c variability, absolute changes in HbA1c, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes: a Danish population-based prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Skriver, Mette V; Sandbæk, Annelli; Kristensen, Jette K; Støvring, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the relationship of mortality with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability and with absolute change in HbA1c. Design A population-based prospective observational study with a median follow-up time of 6 years. Methods Based on a validated algorithm, 11 205 Danish individuals with type 2 diabetes during 2001–2006 were identified from public data files, with at least three HbA1c measurements: one index measure, one closing measure 22–26 months later, and one measurement in-between. Medium index HbA1c was 7.3%, median age was 63.9 years, and 48% were women. HbA1c variability was defined as the mean absolute residual around the line connecting index value with closing value. Cox proportional hazard models with restricted cubic splines were used, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Results Variability between 0 and 0.5 HbA1c percentage point was not associated with mortality, but for index HbA1c ≤8% (64 mmol/mol), a variability above 0.5 was associated with increased mortality (HR of 1 HbA1c percentage point variability was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for index HbA1c 6.6–7.4%). For index HbA1c≤8%, mortality increased when HbA1c declined, but was stable when HbA1c rose. For index HbA1c>8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, with the lowest mortality for greatest decline (HR=0.9 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.98) for a 2-percentage point decrease). Conclusions For individuals with an index HbA1c below 8%, both high HbA1c variability and a decline in HbA1c were associated with increased mortality. For individuals with index HbA1c above 8%, change in HbA1c was associated with mortality, whereas variability was not. PMID:25664182

  14. Interferon-Based Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: An 8-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yueh-Han; Hung, Peir-Haur; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The long-term survival of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who received interferon treatment has not been extensively evaluated.The HCV cohort was the ESRD patients with de novo HCV infection from 2004 to 2011; they were classified into treated and untreated groups according to interferon therapy records. Patients aged <20 years and those with a history of hepatitis B, kidney transplantation, or cancer were excluded. The control cohort included ESRD patients without HCV infection matched 4:1 to the HCV cohort by age, sex, and year of ESRD registration. We followed up all study participants until kidney transplantation, death, or the end of 2011, whichever came first. We assessed risk of all-cause mortality by using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate.In the HCV cohort, 134 patients (6.01%) received interferon treatment. Compared with the uninfected control cohort, the treated group had a lower risk of death (hazard ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.99). The untreated group had a 2.62-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.24-5.55) of death compared with the treated group. For the HCV cohort without cirrhosis or hepatoma, the risk of death in the treated group was further markedly reduced (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.68) compared with that in the control cohort.For ESRD patients with HCV infection, receiving interferon treatment is associated with a survival advantage. Such an advantage is more prominent in HCV patients without cirrhosis or hepatoma. PMID:26632730

  15. Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality in type 2 diabetes: A competing risk modeling of an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghpour, Sahar; Faghihimani, Elham; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Amini, Masoud; Mansourian, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Asian population, diabetes mellitus is increasing and has become an important health problem in recent decades. In Iran, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly 46% of the total costs spent for diabetes-associated diseases. Because individuals with diabetes have highly increased CVD risk compared with normal individuals, it is important to diagnosis factors that may increase CVD risk in diabetic patients. The study objective was to identify predictors associated with CVD mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to develop a prediction model for cardiovascular (CV)-death using a competing risk approach. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 2638 T2D (male = 1110, female = 1528) patients aged ≥35 years attending from Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center in Isfahan for a mean follow-up period of 12 years; predictors for different cause of death were evaluated using cause specific Cox proportional and subdistribution hazards models. Results: Based on competing modeling, the increase in blood pressure (BP) (spontaneously hypertensive rats [SHR]: 1.64), cholesterol (SHR: 1.55), and duration of diabetes (SHR: 2.03) were associated with CVD-death. Also, the increase in BP (SHR: 1.85), fasting blood sugar (SHR: 2.94), and duration of diabetes (SHR: 1.68) were associated with other death (consist of cerebrovascular accidents, cancer, infection, and diabetic nephropathy). Conclusions: This finding suggests that more attention should be paid to the management of CV risk in type 2 diabetic patients with high cholesterol, high BP, and long diabetes duration. PMID:27274497

  16. Computed Tomography-Derived Cardiovascular Risk Markers, Incident Cardiovascular Events, and All-Cause Mortality in Non- Diabetics. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeboah, Joseph; Carr, J. Jeffery; Terry, James G.; Ding, Jingzhong; Zeb, Irfan; Liu, Songtao; Nasir, Khurram; Post, Wendy; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    AIM We assess the improvement in discrimination afforded by the addition thoracic aorta calcium (TAC), aortic valve calcification (AVC), mitral annular calcification (MAC), pericardial adipose tissue volume (PAT) and liver attenuation (LA) to Framingham risk score(FRS) + coronary artery calcium (CAC) for incident CHD/CVD in a multi ethnic cohort. Methods and Results A total 5745(2710 were intermediate Framingham risk, 210 CVD and 155 CHD events) 251 had adjudicated CHD, 346 had CVD events, 321 died after 9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard, receiver operator curve (ROC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses. In the whole cohort and also when the analysis was restricted to only the intermediate risk participants: CAC, TAC, AVC and MAC were all significantly associated with incident CVD/CHD/ mortality; CAC had the strongest association. When added to the FRS, CAC had the highest area under the curve (AUC) for the prediction of incident CHD/CVD; LA had the least. The addition of TAC, AVC, MAC, PAT and LA to FRS + CAC all resulted in a significant reduction in AUC for incident CHD [0.712 vs. 0.646, 0.655, 0.652, 0.648 and 0.569; all p<0.01 respectively] in participants with intermediate FRS. The addition of CAC to FRS resulted in an NRI of 0.547 for incident CHD in the intermediate risk group. The NRI when TAC, AVC, MAC, PAT and LA were added to FRS + CAC were 0.024, 0.026, 0.019, 0.012 and 0.012 respectively, for incident CHD in the intermediate risk group. Similar results were obtained for incident CVD in the intermediate risk group and also when the whole cohort was used instead of the intermediate FRS group. Conclusion The addition of CAC to the FRS provides superior discrimination especially in intermediate risk individuals compared with the addition of TAC, AVC, MAC, PAT or LA for incident CHD/CVD. Compared with FRS + CAC, the addition of TAC, AVC, MAC, PAT or LA individually to FRS + CAC worsens the discrimination for incident CHD

  17. Small area-level socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality within 10 years in a population-based cohort of women: Data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L.; Williams, Lana J.; Holloway, Kara L.; Hosking, Sarah M.; Stuart, Amanda L.; Dobbins, Amelia G.; Pasco, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The social gradient of health and mortality is well-documented. However, data are scarce regarding whether differences in mortality are observed across socio-economic status (SES) measured at the small area-level. We investigated associations between area-level SES and all-cause mortality in Australian women aged ≥ 20 years. Methods We examined SES, obesity, hypertension, lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality within 10 years post-baseline (1994), for 1494 randomly-selected women. Participants' residential addresses were matched to Australian Bureau of Statistics Census data to identify area-level SES, and deaths were ascertained from the Australian National Deaths Index. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, and subsequent adjustments made for measures of weight status and lifestyle behaviors. Results We observed 243 (16.3%) deaths within 10 years post-baseline. Females in SES quintiles 2–4 (less disadvantaged) had lower odds of mortality (0.49–0.59) compared to SES quintile 1 (most disadvantaged) under the best model, after adjusting for age, smoking status and low mobility. Conclusions Compared to the lowest SES quintile (most disadvantaged), females in quintiles 2 to 5 (less disadvantaged) had significantly lower odds ratio of all-cause mortality within 10 years. Associations between extreme social disadvantage and mortality warrant further attention from research, public health and policy arenas. PMID:26844110

  18. Fish, omega-3 long-chain fatty acids, and all-cause mortality in a low-income US population: results from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, R; Takata, Y; Murff, H; Blot, WJ

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined associations between fish and n-3 LCFA and mortality in a prospective study with a large proportion of blacks with low socio-economic status. Methods and Results We observed 6,914 deaths among 77,604 participants with dietary data (follow-up time 5.5 years). Of these, 77,100 participants had available time-to-event data. We investigated associations between mortality with fish and n-3 LCFA intake, adjusting for age, race, sex, kcals/day, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, education, chronic disease, insurance coverage, and meat intake. Intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower mortality among all participants. Analysis of trends in overall mortality by quintiles of intake showed that intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower risk of total mortality among all participants. When participants with chronic disease were excluded, the observed association remained only between intakes of baked/grilled fish, while fried fish was associated with lower risk of mortality in participants with prevalent chronic disease. The association between n-3 LCFA intake and lower risk of mortality was significant among those with diabetes at baseline. There was an inverse association of mortality with fried fish intake in men, but not women. Total fish and baked/grilled fish intakes were associated with lower mortality among blacks while fried fish intake was associated with lower mortality among whites. Effect modifications were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modest benefit of fish consumption on mortality. PMID:26026210

  19. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  20. Predictive Validity of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations in Predicting All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease-Specific Mortality in a National Prospective Cohort Study of Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-06-01

    The predictive validity of the Pooled Cohort risk (PCR) equations for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and all-cause mortality among a national sample of US adults has yet to be evaluated, which was this study's purpose. Data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed up through December 31, 2011, to ascertain mortality status via the National Death Index probabilistic algorithm. The analyzed sample included 11,171 CVD-free adults (40-79 years of age). The 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined from the PCR equations. For the entire sample encompassing 849,202 person-months, we found an incidence rate of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93-1.07) all-cause deaths per 1000 person-months and an incidence rate of 0.15 (95% CI, 0.12-0.17) CVD-specific deaths per 1000 person-months. The unweighted median follow-up duration was 72 months. For nearly all analyses (unadjusted and adjusted models with ASCVD expressed as a continuous variable as well as dichotomized at 7.5% and 20%), the ASCVD risk score was significantly associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality (P<.05). In the adjusted model, the increased all-cause mortality risk ranged from 47% to 77% based on an ASCVD risk of 20% or higher and 7.5% or higher, respectively. Those with an ASCVD score of 7.5% or higher had a 3-fold increased risk of CVD-specific mortality. The 10-year predicted risk of a first ASCVD event via the PCR equations was associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among those free of CVD at baseline. In this American adult sample, the PCR equations provide evidence of predictive validity. PMID:27180122

  1. Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide as a prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan; Papassotiriou, Jana; Hartmann, Oliver; Doehner, Wolfram; Stellos, Konstantinos; Geisler, Tobias; Wurster, Thomas; Schuster, Andreas; Botnar, Rene M; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bigalke, Boris

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the prognostic value of MR-proANP (mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide). We consecutively evaluated a catheterization laboratory cohort of 2700 patients with symptomatic CAD (coronary artery disease) [74.1% male; ACS (acute coronary syndrome), n=1316; SAP (stable angina pectoris), n=1384] presenting to the Cardiology Department of a large primary care hospital, all of whom underwent coronary angiography. Serum MR-proANP and other laboratory markers were sampled at the time of presentation or in the catheterization laboratory. Clinical outcome was assessed by hospital chart analysis and telephone interviews. The primary end point was all-cause death at 3 months after enrolment. Follow-up data were complete in 2621 patients (97.1%). Using ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, the AUC (area under the curve) of 0.73 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.67-0.79] for MR-proANP was significantly higher compared with 0.58 (95% CI, 0.55-0.62) for Tn-I (troponin-I; DeLong test, P=0.0024). According to ROC analysis, the optimal cut-off value of MR-proANP was at 236 pmol/l for all-cause death, which helped to find a significantly increased rate of all-cause death (n=76) at 3 months in patients with elevated baseline concentrations (≥236 pmol/l) compared with patients with a lower concentration level in Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log rank, P<0.001). The predictive performance of MR-proANP was independent of other clinical variables or cardiovascular risk factors, and superior to that of Tn-I or other cardiac biomarkers (all: P<0.0001). MR-proANP may help in the prediction of all-cause death in patients with symptomatic CAD. Further studies should verify its prognostic value and confirm the appropriate cut-off value. PMID:22690794

  2. Fluid Intelligence Is Independently Associated with All-Cause Mortality over 17 Years in an Elderly Community Sample: An Investigation of Potential Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterham, Philip J.; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term relationship between lower intelligence and mortality risk in later life is well established, even when controlling for a range of health and sociodemographic measures. However, there is some evidence for differential effects in various domains of cognitive performance. Specifically, tests of fluid intelligence may have a stronger…

  3. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, Adriana; Cozma, Adrian I; Kishibe, Teruko; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Budylowski, Patrick; Schünemann, Holger; Beyene, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliographies of retrieved articles and previous reviews. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. Multivariable relative risks were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Potential publication bias was assessed and subgroup analyses were undertaken. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate quality of evidence and certainty of conclusions. Results For saturated fat, three to 12 prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (five to 17 comparisons with 90 501-339 090 participants). Saturated fat intake was not associated with all cause mortality (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.09), CVD mortality (0.97, 0.84 to 1.12), total CHD (1.06, 0.95 to 1.17), ischemic stroke (1.02, 0.90 to 1.15), or type 2 diabetes (0.95, 0.88 to 1.03). There was no convincing lack of association between saturated fat and CHD mortality (1.15, 0.97 to 1.36; P=0.10). For trans fats, one to six prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (two to seven comparisons with 12 942-230 135 participants). Total trans fat intake was associated with all cause mortality (1.34, 1.16 to 1.56), CHD mortality

  4. The effect of statins on microalbuminuria, proteinuria, progression of kidney function, and all-cause mortality in patients with non-end stage chronic kidney disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhong; Wu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Jiping; Wang, Shunyin; Zhang, Gengxin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusive evidence regarding the effect of statins on non-end stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been reported previously. This meta-analysis evaluated the association between statins and microalbuminuria, proteinuria, progression, and all-cause mortality in patients with non-end stage CKD. Databases (e.g., PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with data on statins, microalbuminuria, proteinuria, renal health endpoints, and all-cause mortality patients with non-end stage CKD to perform this meta-analysis. The mean difference (MD) of the urine albumin excretion ratios (UAER), 24-h urine protein excretion, and risk ratios (RR) of all-cause mortality and renal health endpoints were calculated, and the results are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 23 RCTs with 39,419 participants were selected. The analysis demonstrated that statins statistically reduced UAER to 26.73μg/min [95%CI (-51.04, -2.43), Z=2.16, P<0.05], 24-h urine protein excretion to 682.68mg [95%CI (-886.72, -478.63), Z=6.56, P<0.01] and decreased all-cause mortality [RR=0.78, 95%CI (0.72, 0.84), Z=6.08, P<0.01]. However, the analysis results did not indicate that statins reduced the events of renal health endpoints [RR=0.96, 95%CI (0.91,1.01), Z=1.40, P>0.05]. In summary, our study indicates that statins statistically reduced microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and clinical deaths, but statins did not effectively slow the clinical progression of non-end stage CKD. PMID:26776964

  5. Marital status, intergenerational co-residence and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older men and women during wartime in Beirut: gains and liabilities.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Abla M; Yount, Kathryn M; Fletcher, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Studies from the West have shown an increased risk of mortality with various indicators of social isolation. In this study, we examine associations of marital status and intergenerational co-residence with mortality in Lebanon, a country that suffered wars and atrocities for almost 16 years. Using data from a retrospective 10-year follow-up study (1984-1994) among 1567 adults aged 50 years and older in Beirut, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rates (per 1000 person-years) were computed for men and women separately. Age-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, and associations were examined using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Most men (91.3%) were married at baseline, in contrast to only 55.4% of women. Compared to men, women were more likely to be living in one- and three-generation households and with a married child at baseline. While widowhood was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality among men only, being never married was associated with a higher CVD mortality risk among men and women. The presence of an adult married child was associated with a significantly higher mortality risk for men and women, even after adjusting for household socioeconomic indicators, marital status, lifestyle variables or pre-existing health-related conditions (hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes) at baseline. The popular belief that co-residence with adult children reflects greater support networks and an avenue for old age security may not be a valid presumption in the Lebanese context during times of war. PMID:17030373

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) TOF analysis identifies serum angiotensin II concentrations as a strong predictor of all-cause and breast cancer (BCa)-specific mortality following breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Boccardo, Francesco; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Argellati, Francesca; Savarino, Grazia; Romano, Paolo; Damonte, Gianluca; Rocco, Mattia; Profumo, Aldo

    2015-11-15

    MALDI-TOF MS was used to recognise serum peptidome profiles predictive of mortality in women affected by early BCa. Mortality was analysed based on signal profiling, and appropriate statistics were used. The results indicate that four signals were increased in deceased patients compared with living patients. Three of the four signals were individually associated with all-cause mortality, but only one having mass/charge ratio (m/z) 1,046.49 was associated with BCa-specific mortality and was the only peak to maintain an independent prognostic role after multivariate analysis. Two groups exhibiting different mortality probabilities were identified after clustering patients based on the expression of the four peptides, but m/z 1,046.49 was exclusively expressed in the cluster exhibiting the worst mortality outcome, thus confirming the crucial value of this peptide. The specific role of this peak was confirmed by competing risk analysis. MS findings were validated by ELISA analysis after demonstrating that m/z 1,046.49 structurally corresponded to Angiotensin II (ATII). In fact, mortality results obtained after arbitrarily dividing patients according to an ATII serum value of 255 pg/ml (which corresponds to the 66(th) percentile value) were approximately comparable to those previously demonstrated when the same patients were analysed according to the expression of signal m/z 1,046.49. Similarly, ATII levels were specifically correlated with BCa-related deaths after competing risk analysis. In conclusion, ATII levels were increased in women who exhibited worse mortality outcomes, reinforcing the evidence that this peptide potentially significantly affects the natural history of early BCa. Our findings also confirm that MALDI-TOF MS is an efficient screening tool to identify novel tumour markers and that MS findings can be rapidly validated through less complex techniques, such as ELISA. PMID:25994113

  7. Association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Type of Infectious Respiratory Disease and All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Villafuerte-García, Adriana; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Melchor-Romero, Ada; García-García, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Objective To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011. We included patients whose discharge diagnosis included HIV or AIDS and at least one infectious respiratory diagnosis. The information source was the clinical chart. We analyzed the association between HAART for 180 days or more and type of respiratory disease using polytomous logistic regression and all-cause hospital mortality by multiple logistic regressions. Results We studied 308 patients, of whom 206 (66.9%) had been diagnosed with HIV infection before admission to the hospital. The CD4+ lymphocyte median count was 68 cells/mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 30–150]. Seventy-five (24.4%) cases had received HAART for more than 180 days. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) (n = 142), tuberculosis (n = 63), and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 60) were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. Receiving HAART for more than 180 days was associated with a lower probability of PJP [Adjusted odd ratio (aOR): 0.245, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.08–0.8, p = 0.02], adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. HAART was independently associated with reduced odds (aOR 0.214, 95% CI 0.06–0.75) of all-cause in-hospital mortality, adjusting for HIV diagnosis previous to hospitalization, age, access to social security, low socioeconomic level, CD4 cell count, viral load, and discharge diagnoses. Conclusions HAART for 180 days or more was associated

  8. Variation in prescribing of lipid-lowering medication in primary care is associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in people with screen-detected diabetes: findings from the ADDITION-Denmark trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, R K; Carlsen, A H; Griffin, S J; Charles, M; Christiansen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbæk, A; Lauritzen, T

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine variation between general practices in the prescription of lipid-lowering treatment to people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, and associations with practice and participant characteristics and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Methods Observational cohort analysis of data from 1533 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes aged 40–69 years from the ADDITION-Denmark study. One hundred and seventy-four general practices were cluster randomized to receive: (1) routine diabetes care according to national guidelines (623 individuals), or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (910 individuals). Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the proportion of individuals in each practice who redeemed prescriptions for lipid-lowering medication in the two years following diabetes diagnosis and a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent chronic disease, baseline CVD risk factors, smoking and lipid-lowering medication, and follow-up time. Results The proportion of individuals treated with lipid-lowering medication varied widely between practices (0–100%). There were 118 CVD events over 9431 person-years of follow-up. For the whole trial cohort, the risk of CVD was significantly higher in practices in the lowest compared with the highest quartile for prescribing lipid-lowering medication [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–7.3]. Similar trends were found for all-cause mortality. Conclusions More frequent prescription of lipid-lowering treatment was associated with a lower incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality. Improved understanding of factors underlying practice variation in prescribing may enable more frequent use of lipid-lowering treatment. The results highlight the benefits of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 00237549). What's new Despite

  9. Estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcass searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. Para...

  10. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality among People with Insulin-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes: 17-Year Follow-Up of the Second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2), Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nefs, Giesje; Tell, Grethe S.; Espehaug, Birgitte; Midthjell, Kristian; Graue, Marit; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms are related to all-cause mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes, not using insulin. Methods 948 participants in the community-wide Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey conducted during 1995–97 completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale with subscales of anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Elevated symptoms were defined as HADS-A or HADS-D ≥8. Participants with type 2 diabetes, not using insulin, were followed until November 21, 2012 or death. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations between baseline elevated anxiety symptoms, elevated depressive symptoms and mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications. Results At baseline, 8% (n = 77/948) reported elevated anxiety symptoms, 9% (n = 87/948) elevated depressive symptoms and 10% (n = 93/948) reported both. After a mean follow-up of 12 years (SD 5.1, range 0–17), 541 participants (57%) had died. Participants with elevated anxiety symptoms only had a decreased mortality risk (unadjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46–0.96). Adjustment for HbA1c attenuated this relation (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50–1.07). Those with elevated depression symptoms alone had an increased mortality risk (fully adjusted model HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84). Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with increased mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.96–1.74). Conclusions Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with excess mortality risk in people with Type 2 diabetes not using insulin. No significant association with mortality was found among people with elevated anxiety symptoms. Having both elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms was not associated with mortality. The hypothesis that elevated levels of anxiety symptoms leads to behavior that counteracts the adverse health effects of Type 2 diabetes needs further investigation. PMID:27537359

  11. BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhijit; Prasad, Manya; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Tonstad, Serena; Romundstad, Pål; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease. Data sources PubMed and Embase databases searched up to 23 September 2015. Study selection Cohort studies that reported adjusted risk estimates for at least three categories of BMI in relation to all cause mortality. Data synthesis Summary relative risks were calculated with random effects models. Non-linear associations were explored with fractional polynomial models. Results 230 cohort studies (207 publications) were included. The analysis of never smokers included 53 cohort studies (44 risk estimates) with >738 144 deaths and >9 976 077 participants. The analysis of all participants included 228 cohort studies (198 risk estimates) with >3 744 722 deaths among 30 233 329 participants. The summary relative risk for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.21; I2=95%, n=44) among never smokers, 1.21 (1.18 to 1.25; I2=93%, n=25) among healthy never smokers, 1.27 (1.21 to 1.33; I2=89%, n=11) among healthy never smokers with exclusion of early follow-up, and 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07; I2=97%, n=198) among all participants. There was a J shaped dose-response relation in never smokers (Pnon-linearity <0.001), and the lowest risk was observed at BMI 23-24 in never smokers, 22-23 in healthy never smokers, and 20-22 in studies of never smokers with ≥20 years’ follow-up. In contrast there was a U shaped association between BMI and mortality in analyses with a greater potential for bias including all participants, current, former, or ever smokers, and in studies with a short duration of follow-up (<5 years or <10 years), or with moderate study quality scores. Conclusion Overweight and obesity is associated

  12. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age

  13. Risk assessment of mortality for all-cause, ischemic heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer due to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Pei-Hsuan; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hu, Suh-Woan; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Jeng-Lin; Tang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Guan-Jie; Ku, Kai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Based on recent understanding of PM2.5 health-related problems from fossil-fueled power plants emission inventories collected in Taiwan, we have determined the loss of life expectancy (LLE) and the lifetime (75-year) risks for PM2.5 health-related mortalities as attributed to the operation of the world's largest coal-fired power plant; the Taichung Power Plant (TCP), with an installed nominal electrical capacity of 5780 MW in 2013. Five plausible scenarios (combinations of emission controls, fuel switch, and relocation) and two risk factors were considered. It is estimated that the lifetime (75-y) risk for all-cause mortality was 0.3%-0.6% for males and 0.2%-0.4% for females, and LLE at 84 days in 1997 for the 23 million residents of Taiwan. The risk has been reduced to one-fourth at 0.05%-0.10% for males and 0.03%-0.06% for females, and LLE at 15 days in 2007, which was mainly attributed to the installation of desulfurization and de-NOx equipment. Moreover, additional improvements can be expected if we can relocate the power plant to a downwind site on Taiwan, and convert the fuel source from coal to natural gas. The risk can be significantly reduced further to one-fiftieth at 0.001%-0.002% for males and 0.001% for females, and LLE at 0.3 days. Nonetheless, it is still an order higher than the commonly accepted elevated-cancer risk at 0.0001% (10-6), indicating that the PM2.5 health-related risk for operating such a world-class power plant is not negligible. In addition, this study finds that a better-chosen site (involving moving the plant to the leeward side of Taiwan) can reduce the risk significantly as opposed to solely transitioning the fuel source to natural gas. Note that the fuel cost of using natural gas (0.11 USD/kWh in 2013) in Taiwan is about twice the price of using coal fuel (0.05 USD/kWh in 2013).

  14. Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Hannah Louise; Croft, Peter; Singh, Swaran; Crome, Ilana; Bashford, James; Frisher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that people taking anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs are at increased risk of premature mortality, using primary care prescription records and after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 273 UK primary care practices contributing data to the General Practice Research Database. Participants 34 727 patients aged 16 years and older first prescribed anxiolytic or hypnotic drugs, or both, between 1998 and 2001, and 69 418 patients with no prescriptions for such drugs (controls) matched by age, sex, and practice. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 7.6 years (range 0.1-13.4 years). Main outcome All cause mortality ascertained from practice records. Results Physical and psychiatric comorbidities and prescribing of non-study drugs were significantly more prevalent among those prescribed study drugs than among controls. The age adjusted hazard ratio for mortality during the whole follow-up period for use of any study drug in the first year after recruitment was 3.46 (95% confidence interval 3.34 to 3.59) and 3.32 (3.19 to 3.45) after adjusting for other potential confounders. Dose-response associations were found for all three classes of study drugs (benzodiazepines, Z drugs (zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone), and other drugs). After excluding deaths in the first year, there were approximately four excess deaths linked to drug use per 100 people followed for an average of 7.6 years after their first prescription. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients attending UK primary care, anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs were associated with significantly increased risk of mortality over a seven year period, after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. As with all observational findings, however, these results are prone to bias arising from unmeasured and residual confounding. PMID:24647164

  15. Comparison of three contemporary surgical scores for predicting all-cause mortality of patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system (from the multicenter GRASP-IT registry).

    PubMed

    Adamo, Marianna; Capodanno, Davide; Cannata, Stefano; Giannini, Cristina; Laudisa, Maria Luisa; Barbanti, Marco; Curello, Salvatore; Immè, Sebastiano; Maffeo, Diego; Grasso, Carmelo; Bedogni, Francesco; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Ettori, Federica; Tamburino, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the adaptability of 3 contemporary surgical scores (Logistic EuroSCORE [LES], EuroSCORE II [ESII], and Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality [STS-PROM]) for prediction of mortality after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system. A total of 304 patients from the multicenter Getting Reduction of mitrAl inSufficiency by Percutaneous clip implantation in ITaly registry (GRASP-IT) were stratified based on LES, ESII, and STS-PROM tertiles and analyzed by different measurements of discrimination, calibration, and global accuracy with focus on 30-day and 1-, 2-, and 3-year mortality. A statistically significant gradient in the distribution of mortality was observed at all time points with ESII, at 2 years with LES, and at 2 and 3 years with STS-PROM. ESII had the best discrimination at 30 days (C-statistic 0.80), which remained acceptable at later follow-up, being significantly superior to that of LES at each time point (p = 0.003 at 30 days, p = 0.005 at 1 year, p = 0.011 at 2 years, and p = 0.029 at 3 years). Compared with STS-PROM, ESII showed better discrimination at 30 days (C-statistic 0.80 vs 0.62, p = 0.023). All scores overpredicted the risk of mortality at 30 days and were miscalibrated at 2 and 3 years. At 1 year, there was a good agreement between the observed and predicted probabilities for ESII and STS-PROM, whereas LES remained overpredictive. ESII showed the best global accuracy at 30 days and 1 year, whereas no notable differences were noted versus LES and STS-PROM at 2 and 3 years. In conclusion, lacking specific tools for risk stratification of patients undergoing MitraClip implantation, ESII holds favorable prognostic characteristics, which makes it a valid surrogate. PMID:25456878

  16. Impact of a combined community and primary care prevention strategy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a cohort analysis based on 1 million person-years of follow-up in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 1990–2006

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Norberg, Margareta; Stenlund, Hans; Nyström, Lennarth; Lönnberg, Göran; Boman, Kurt; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) by comparing all eligible individuals (target group impact) according to the intention-to-treat principle and VIP participants with the general Swedish population. Design Dynamic cohort study. Setting/participants All individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years, residing in Västerbotten County, Sweden, between 1990 and 2006 (N=101 918) were followed from their first opportunity to participate in the VIP until age 75, study end point or prior death. Intervention The VIP is a systematic, long-term, county-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) intervention that is performed within the primary healthcare setting and combines individual and population approaches. The core component is a health dialogue based on a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years. Primary outcomes All-cause and CVD mortality. Results For the target group, there were 5646 deaths observed over 1 054 607 person-years. Compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 90.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 93.0%): for women 87.9% (95% CI 84.1% to 91.7%) and for men 92.2% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.3%). For CVD, the ratio was 95.0% (95% CI 90.7% to 99.4%): for women 90.4% (95% CI 82.6% to 98.7%) and for men 96.8% (95% CI 91.7 to 102.0). For participants, subject to further impact as well as selection, when compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 66.3% (95% CI 63.7% to 69.0%), whereas the CVD ratio was 68.9% (95% CI 64.2% to 73.9%). For the target group as well as for the participants, standardised mortality ratios for all-cause mortality were reduced within all educational strata. Conclusions The study suggests that the VIP model of CVD prevention is able to impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle. PMID:26685034

  17. Hidden Markov models for estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcasses searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. ...

  18. Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, F L; Ogston, S A; Lloyd, O L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, sex ratios, and mortality. RESULTS--Mortalities from all causes were consistently and significantly higher in the residential areas exposed to air pollution than in the non-exposed areas. A similar, but less consistently significant, excess of mortality from lung cancer in the exposed areas was also found. The associations between exposure to the general air pollution and abnormal sex ratios, and between abnormal sex ratios and mortality, were negligible. CONCLUSIONS--Sex ratios were not consistently affected when the concentrations or components of the air pollution were insufficiently toxic to cause substantially increased death rates. Monitoring of the sex ratio does not provide a reliable screening measure for detecting cryptic health hazards from industrial air pollution in the general residential environment. PMID:7735388

  19. A gender based analysis of predictors of all cause death after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Conrotto, Federico; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Salizzoni, Stefano; Presbitero, Patrizia; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Tamburino, Corrado; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Bedogni, Francesco; Nijhoff, Freek; Gasparetto, Valeria; Napodano, Massimo; Ferrante, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marco Luciano; Stella, Pieter; Brambilla, Nedy; Barbanti, Marco; Giordana, Francesca; Grasso, Costanza; Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Moretti, Claudio; D'Amico, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Marra, Sebastiano

    2014-10-15

    The impact of gender-related pathophysiologic features of severe aortic stenosis on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes remains to be determined, as does the consistency of predictors of mortality between the genders. All consecutive patients who underwent TAVI at 6 institutions were enrolled in this study and stratified according to gender. Midterm all-cause mortality was the primary end point, with events at 30 days and at midterm as secondary end points. All events were adjudicated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. Eight hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled, 464 (55.5%) of whom were female. At midterm follow-up (median 365 days, interquartile range 100 to 516) women had similar rates of all-cause mortality compared with men (18.1% vs 22.6%, p = 0.11) and similar incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. Gender did not affect mortality also on multivariate analysis. Among clinical and procedural features, glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 4.79) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure >50 mm Hg (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.26 to 4.02) independently predicted mortality in women, while insulin-treated diabetes (HR 3.45, 95% CI 1.47 to 8.09), previous stroke (HR 3.42, 95% CI 1.43 to 8.18), and an ejection fraction <30% (HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.41 to 10.37) were related to mortality in men. Postprocedural aortic regurgitation was independently related to midterm mortality in the 2 groups (HR 11.19, 95% CI 3.3 to 37.9). In conclusion, women and men had the same life expectancy after TAVI, but different predictors of adverse events stratified by gender were demonstrated. These findings underline the importance of a gender-tailored clinical risk assessment in TAVI patients. PMID:25159239

  20. A hazards-model analysis of the covariates of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Hammerslough, C

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to provide a complete self-contained exposition of estimating life tables with covariates through the use of hazards models, and (b) to illustrate this technique with a substantive analysis of child mortality in Sri Lanka, thereby demonstrating that World Fertility Survey data are a valuable source for the study of child mortality. We show that life tables with covariates can be easily estimated with standard computer packages designed for analysis of contingency tables. The substantive analysis confirms and supplements an earlier study of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka by Meegama. Those factors found to be strongly associated with mortality are mother's and father's education, time period of birth, urban/rural/estate residence, ethnicity, sex, birth order, age of the mother at the birth, and type of toilet facility. PMID:6832431

  1. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark: a competing risks proportional hazard model.

    PubMed

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death. This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic status and mortality is to a large degree absent among Danish women who die of cancer. In addition, for men the negative correlation between socio-economic status and mortality prevails for some diseases, but for women we find that factors such as being married, income, wealth and education are not significantly associated with higher life expectancy. Marriage increases the likelihood of dying from cancer for women, early retirement prolongs survival for men, and homeownership increases life expectancy in general. PMID:15722260

  2. Discharge Hospice Referral and Lower 30-Day All-Cause Readmission in Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kheirbek, Raya E.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Bakitas, Marie A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Parvataneni, Sridivya; Bearden, Donna; Bailey, F. Amos; Morgan, Charity J.; Singh, Steven; Blackman, Marc R.; Zile, Michael R.; Patel, Kanan; Ahmed, Momanna B.; Tucker, Rodney O.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Love, Thomas E.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Roseman, Jeffrey M.; Rich, Michael W.; Allman, Richard M.; Ahmed, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Hospice care may help palliate HF symptoms but its association with 30-day all-cause readmission remains unknown. Methods and Results Of the 8032 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF in 106 Alabama hospitals (1998–2001), 182 (2%) received discharge hospice referrals. Of the 7850 patients not receiving hospice referrals, 1608 (20%) died within 6 months post-discharge (the hospice-eligible group). Propensity scores for hospice referral were estimated for each of the 1790 (182+1608) patients and were used to match 179 hospice-referral patients with 179 hospice-eligible patients who were balanced on 28 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years, 58% women, 18% African American). Overall, 22% (1742/8032) died in 6 months, of whom 8% (134/1742) received hospice referrals. Among the 358 matched patients, 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 5% and 41% of hospice-referral and hospice-eligible patients, respectively (hazard ratio {HR} associated with hospice referral, 0.12; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.06–0.24). HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission associated with hospice referral among the 126 patients who died and 232 patients who survived 30-day post-discharge were 0.03 (0.04–0.21) and 0.17 (0.08–0.36), respectively. Although 30-day mortality was higher in the hospice referral group (43% vs. 27%), it was similar at 90 days (64% vs. 67% among hospice-eligible patients). Conclusions A discharge hospice referral was associated with lower 30-day all-cause readmission among hospitalized HF patients. However, most HF patients who died within 6 months of hospital discharge did not receive a discharge hospice referral. PMID:26019151

  3. Vascular Disease and Risk Stratification for Ischemic Stroke and All-Cause Death in Heart Failure Patients without Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Line; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke and mortality risk among heart failure patients previously diagnosed with different manifestations of vascular disease is poorly described. We conducted an observational study to evaluate the stroke and mortality risk among heart failure patients without diagnosed atrial fibrillation and with peripheral artery disease (PAD) or prior myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Population-based cohort study of patients diagnosed with incident heart failure during 2000–2012 and without atrial fibrillation, identified by record linkage between nationwide registries in Denmark. Hazard rate ratios of ischemic stroke and all-cause death after 1 year of follow-up were used to compare patients with either: a PAD diagnosis; a prior MI diagnosis; or no vascular disease. Results 39,357 heart failure patients were included. When compared to heart failure patients with no vascular disease, PAD was associated with a higher 1-year rate of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard rate ratio [HR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.65) and all-cause death (adjusted HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.35–1.59), whereas prior MI was not (adjusted HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.86–1.15 and 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–1.00, for ischemic stroke and all-cause death, respectively). When comparing patients with PAD to patients with prior MI, PAD was associated with a higher rate of both outcomes. Conclusions Among incident heart failure patients without diagnosed atrial fibrillation, a previous diagnosis of PAD was associated with a significantly higher rate of the ischemic stroke and all-cause death compared to patients with no vascular disease or prior MI. Prevention strategies may be particularly relevant among HF patients with PAD. PMID:27015524

  4. Change in alcohol consumption and risk of death from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, N B; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Leu, D J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between alcohol consumption and mortality from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease with a focus on differentiating between long term abstainers and more recent non-drinkers. DESIGN--Cohort study of changes in alcohol consumption from 1965 to 1974 and mortality from all causes and ischaemic heart disease during 1974-84. SETTING--Population based study of adult residents of Alameda County, California. SUBJECTS--2225 women and 1845 men aged 35 and over in 1965. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Alcohol consumption in 1964 and 1974 and mortality from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease during 1974-84. RESULTS--There was a significantly higher risk of death from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease in women who gave up drinking between 1965 and 1974 than in women who continued to drink (relative risk 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 2.66, and 2.75, 1.44 to 5.23, for all causes and ischaemic heart disease respectively). A significant increase in risk was not seen in men who gave up drinking (1.32, 0.87 to 2.01, and 0.95, 0.41 to 2.20, respectively). Among men, long term abstainers compared with drinkers were at increased risk of death from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease, though the associations were not significant (1.40, 0.98 to 2.00, and 1.40, 0.76 to 2.58, for all causes and ischaemic heart disease respectively). CONCLUSION--Some of the increased risk of death from all causes and from ischaemic heart disease associated with not drinking in women seems to be accounted for by higher risks among those who gave up drinking. Men who are long term abstainers may also be at an increased risk of death. The heterogeneity of the non-drinking group should be considered when comparisons are made with drinkers. PMID:1912885

  5. HbA1c and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Death in Subjects without Known Diabetes: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Ye, Ming-Xin; Cheng, Jia-Hao; Zhao, Yong; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Whether HbA1c levels are associated with mortality in subjects without known diabetes remains controversial. Moreover, the shape of the dose–response relationship on this topic is unclear. Therefore, a dose–response meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Twelve studies were included. The summary HR per 1% increase in HbA1c level was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.04] for all-cause mortality, 1.05 [95% CI = 1.02–1.07) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and 1.02 (95% CI = 0.99–1.07) for cancer mortality. After excluding subjects with undiagnosed diabetes, the aforementioned associations remained significant for CVD mortality only. After further excluding subjects with prediabetes, all aforementioned associations presented non-significance. Evidence of a non-linear association between HbA1c and mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer was found (all Pnon-linearity < 0.05). The dose–response curves were relatively flat for HbA1c less than around 5.7%, and rose steeply thereafter. In conclusion, higher HbA1c level is associated with increased mortality from all causes and CVD among subjects without known diabetes. However, this association is driven by those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. The results regarding cancer mortality should be treated with caution due to limited studies. PMID:27045572

  6. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account. PMID:20376521

  7. CANCER MORTALITY AMONG UNITED STATES COUNTIES WITH HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES AND SOLE SOURCE DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the late 1950's more than 750 million tons of toxic wastes have been discarded in an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 hazardous waste sies (HWS). he uncontrolled discarding of chemical wastes creates the potential for risks to human health. tilizing the National Priorities Listin...

  8. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors predicting all causes of death in an occupational population sample.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A; Seccareccia, F

    1988-12-01

    A group of 768 men aged 40-59 at entry examination and belonging to an occupational sample of railroad employees in Rome have been examined for the measurement of some risk factors and followed-up for 20 years. In all 676 men, free from life-threatening diseases and with all measurements available, produced 166 fatal events in 20 years. Out of the 27 different personal characteristics considered only six contributed significantly to the multivariate prediction of all causes of death in the Cox proportional hazards computed by the forward stepwise technique. The factors predicting all causes of death were age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, mother's vital status and being on a diet prescribed by a doctor. The relative risk of those located in the upper decile of the estimated risk as compared to the bottom decile was 8.2. The results do not differ much from those obtained in a demographic sample studied in the same way. PMID:3225084

  10. Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

  11. Revisiting the association between altitude and mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bryan B; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kheifets, Leeka; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2014-04-01

    It was recently reported that residential altitude is inversely associated with all-cause mortality among incident dialysis patients; however, no adjustment was made for key case-mix and laboratory variables. We re-examined this question in a contemporary patient database with comprehensive clinical and laboratory data. In a contemporary 8-year cohort of 144,892 maintenance dialysis patients from a large dialysis organization, we examined the relationship between residential altitude and all-cause mortality. Using data from the US Geological Survey, the average residential altitudes per approximately 43,000 US zip codes were compiled and linked to the residential zip codes of each patient. Mortality risks for these patients were estimated by Cox proportional hazard ratios. The study population's mean ± standard deviation age was 61 ± 15 years. Forty-five percent of patients were women, and 57% of patients had diabetes. In fully adjusted analysis, those residing in the highest altitude strata (≥ 6000 ft) had a lower all-cause mortality risk in fully adjusted analyses: death hazard ratio: 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.99), as compared with patients in the reference group (<250 ft). Residential altitude is inversely associated in all-cause mortality risk in maintenance dialysis patients notwithstanding the unknown and unmeasured confounders. PMID:24422763

  12. Beverage Habits and Mortality in Chinese Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk. Objective: This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods: A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and ≥2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Conclusions: Higher coffee and black tea intake was

  13. Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)–specific mortality risks among US adults and calculated the rate advancement period by which death is advanced among the exposed groups. Methods. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) linked to the National Death Index mortality file with follow-up to 2006 (n = 16 868). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the rate of dying and rate advancement period for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality for overweight and obese adults relative to their normal-weight counterparts. Results. Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD. These rates advanced death by 3.7 years (grades II and III obesity) for all-cause mortality and between 1.6 (grade I obesity) and 5.0 years (grade III obesity) for CVD-specific mortality. The burden of obesity was greatest among adults aged 45 to 64 years for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality and among women for all-cause mortality. Conclusions. These findings highlight the impact of the obesity epidemic on mortality risk and premature deaths among US adults. PMID:24432921

  14. The novel marker LTBP2 predicts all-cause and pulmonary death in patients with acute dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Breidthardt, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Griet; Potocki, Mihael; Mosimann, Tamina; Ziller, Ronny; Thomas, Gregoire; Laroy, Wouter; Moerman, Piet; Socrates, Thenral; Drexler, Beatrice; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Kas, Koen; Mueller, Christian

    2012-11-01

    The risk stratification in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea remains a challenge. We therefore conducted a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling 292 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea. A proteomic approach for antibody-free targeted protein quantification based on high-end MS was used to measure LTBP2 [latent TGF (transforming growth factor)-binding protein 2] levels. Final diagnosis and death during follow-up were adjudicated blinded to LTBP2 levels. AHF (acute heart failure) was the final diagnosis in 54% of patients. In both AHF (P<0.001) and non-AHF (P=0.015) patients, LTBP2 levels at presentation were significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors with differences on median levels being 2.2- and 1.5-fold respectively. When assessing the cause of death, LTBP2 levels were significantly higher in patients dying from pulmonary causes (P=0.0005). Overall, LTBP2 powerfully predicted early pulmonary death {AUC (area under the curve), 0.95 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.91-0.98]}. In ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analyses for the prediction of 1-year mortality LTBP2 achieved an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71-0.84); comparable with the predictive potential of NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuruetic peptide; 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72-0.82)]. Importantly, the predictive potential of LTBP2 persisted in patients with AHF as the cause of dypnea (AUC 0.78) and was independent of renal dysfunction (AUC 0.77). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, LTBP2 was the strongest independent predictor of death [HR (hazard ratio), 3.76 (95% CI, 2.13-6.64); P<0.0001]. In conclusion, plasma levels of LTBP2 present a novel and powerful predictor of all-cause mortality, and particularly pulmonary death. Cause-specific prediction of death would enable targeted prevention, e.g. with pre-emptive antibiotic therapy. PMID:22587491

  15. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  16. Multiple biomarkers for mortality prediction in peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Amrock, Stephen M; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have assessed which biomarkers influence mortality risk among those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We analyzed data from 556 individuals identified to have PAD (i.e. ankle-brachial index ⩽0.9) with available measurements of C-reactive protein, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), homocysteine, and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We investigated whether a combination of these biomarkers improved the prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality beyond conventional risk factors. During follow-up (median, 8.1 years), 277 of 556 participants died; 63 deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for conventional risk factors, Cox proportional-hazards models showed the following to be most strongly associated with all-cause mortality (each is followed by the adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per 1 standard deviation increment in the log values): homocysteine (1.31), UACR (1.21), and NLR (1.20). UACR alone significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality (1.53). Persons in the highest quintile of multimarker scores derived from regression coefficients of significant biomarkers had elevated risks of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.66-3.62; p for trend, <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.02-4.71; p for trend, 0.053) compared to those in the lowest two quintiles. The addition of continuous multimarker scores to conventional risk factors improved risk stratification of all-cause mortality (integrated discrimination improvement [IDI], 0.162; p<0.00001) and cardiovascular mortality (IDI, 0.058; p<0.00001). In conclusion, the addition of a continuous multimarker score to conventional risk factors improved mortality prediction among patients with PAD. PMID:26762418

  17. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Risk of Emergency Transport Attributable to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although several studies have estimated the associations between mortality or morbidity and extreme temperatures in terms of relative risk, few studies have investigated the risk of emergency transport attributable to the whole temperature range nationwide. We acquired data on daily emergency ambulance dispatches in all 47 prefectures of Japan from 2007 to 2010. We examined the relationship between emergency transport and temperature for each prefecture using a Poisson regression model in a distributed lag nonlinear model with adjustment for time trends. A random-effect multivariate meta-analysis was then applied to pool the estimates at the national level. Attributable morbidity was calculated for high and low temperatures, which were defined as those above or below the optimum temperature (ie, the minimum morbidity temperature) and for moderate and also extreme temperatures, which were defined using cutoffs at the 2.5th and 97.5th temperature percentiles. A total of 15,868,086 cases of emergency transport met the inclusion criteria. The emergency transport was attributable to nonoptimal temperature. The median minimum morbidity percentile was in the 79th percentile for all causes, the 96th percentile for cardiovascular disease, and the 92th percentile for respiratory disease. The fraction attributable to low temperature was 6.94% (95% eCI: 5.93–7.70) for all causes, 17.93% (95% eCI: 16.10–19.25) for cardiovascular disease, and 12.19% (95% eCI: 9.90–13.66) for respiratory disease, whereas the fraction attributable to high temperature was small (all causes = 1.01%, 95% eCI: 0.90–1.11; cardiovascular disease = 0.10%, 95% eCI: 0.04–0.14; respiratory disease = 0.29%, 95% eCI: 0.07–0.50). The all-cause morbidity risk that was attributable to temperature was related to moderate cold, with an overall estimate of 6.41% (95% eCI: 5.47–7.20). Extreme temperatures were responsible for a small fraction, which corresponded to 0.57% (95% e

  18. Late-Life Risk Factors for All-Cause Dementia and Differential Dementia Diagnoses in Women

    PubMed Central

    Neergaard, Jesper Skov; Dragsbæk, Katrine; Hansen, Henrik Bo; Henriksen, Kim; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Since the first evidence of a decline in dementia incidence was reported in 2011, the focus on modifiable risk factors has increased. The possibility of risk factor intervention as a prevention strategy has been widely discussed; however, further evidence in relation to risk factors is still needed. The Prospective Epidemiologic Risk Factor (PERF I) study was an observational prospective study of postmenopausal Danish women who were initially examined between 1999 and 2001 (n = 5855). Follow-up data on diagnosis and survival as of December 31, 2014 was retrieved from the National Danish Patient Registry and the National Danish Causes of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for selected risk factors for dementia. Of 5512 eligible subjects, 592 developed dementia within the follow-up period of maximum 15 years. The independent factors associated with increased risk of all-cause dementia were depression (HR = 1.75 [95% CI 1.32–2.34]) and impaired fasting glucose levels. A dose–response relationship was observed between fasting glucose level and risk of dementia with HRs of 1.25 [1.05–1.49] and 1.45 [1.03–2.06] for impaired (5.6–6.9 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (≥7.0 mmol/L) glucose levels, respectively. The factors associated with a decreased risk of dementia were overweight in late-life (HR = 0.75 [0. 62–0.89]) and physical activity at least once weekly (HR = 0.77 [0.61–0.96]). The identified risk factors for dementia in women in late-life are all considered modifiable. This supports the notion that prevention strategies may improve the poor future prospects for dementias in the ageing population. PMID:26986157

  19. Mortality following unemployment in Canada, 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the association between unemployment and cause-specific mortality for a cohort of working-age Canadians. Methods We conducted a cohort study over an 11-year period among a broadly representative 15% sample of the non-institutionalized population of Canada aged 30–69 at cohort inception in 1991 (888,000 men and 711,600 women who were occupationally active). We used cox proportional hazard models, for six cause of death categories, two consecutive multi-year periods and four age groups, to estimate mortality hazard ratios comparing unemployed to employed men and women. Results For persons unemployed at cohort inception, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.37 for men (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.41) and 1.27 for women (95% CI: 1.20-1.35). The age-adjusted hazard ratio for unemployed men and women was elevated for all six causes of death: malignant neoplasms, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, alcohol-related diseases, accidents and violence, and all other causes. For unemployed men and women, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were equivalently elevated in 1991–1996 and 1997–2001. For both men and women, the mortality hazard ratio associated with unemployment attenuated with age. Conclusions Consistent with results reported from other long-duration cohort studies, unemployed men and women in this cohort had an elevated risk of mortality for accidents and violence, as well as for chronic diseases. The persistence of elevated mortality risks over two consecutive multi-year periods suggests that exposure to unemployment in 1991 may have marked persons at risk of cumulative socioeconomic hardship. PMID:23642156

  20. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels Predict Mortality in Patients With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Yeong; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Kang, Shin Wook; Kim, Nam Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level has been considered marker of oxidative stress as well as liver function. Serum GGT level has been reported to be associated with the mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, it is not well established whether serum GGT level is associated with all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum GGT levels and all-cause mortality in PD patients. PD patients were included from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease cohort, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Patients were categorized into 3 groups by tertile of serum GGT levels as follows: tertile 1, GGT < 16 IU/L; tertile 2, GGT = 16 to 27 IU/L; and tertile 3, GGT > 27 IU/L. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 820 PD patients were included. The median follow-up period was 34 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the all-cause mortality rate was significantly different according to tertiles of GGT (P = 0.001, log-rank). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher tertiles significantly associated with higher risk for all-cause mortality (tertile 2: hazard ratio [HR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.72, P = 0.013; tertile 3: HR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.04–3.22, P = 0.035) in using tertile 1 as the reference group after adjusting for clinical variables. Our study demonstrated that high serum GGT levels were an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in PD patients. Our findings suggest that serum GGT levels might be a useful biomarker to predict all-cause mortality in PD patients. PMID:26252286

  1. Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population123

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D; Pereira, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited research has examined the association between dietary patterns and mortality, especially in non-Western populations. Objective: We examined the association of dietary patterns with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included a unique ethnic population with strong Western and South Asian cultural influences. Design: We conducted a prospective data analysis of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, which included 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. The following 2 major dietary patterns were identified by using a principal components analysis: a vegetable-, fruit-, and soy-rich (VFS) pattern and a dim sum– and meat-rich (DSM) dietary pattern. Pattern scores for each participant were calculated and examined with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks by using a Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The VFS pattern was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and each cause-specific category (CVD, cancer, and respiratory) of mortality during the follow-up period. Compared with the lowest quintile of the VFS pattern, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for all-cause mortality were 0.90, 0.79, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM pattern was positively associated with CVD mortality in the whole population (HR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P-trend = 0.001). Positive associations between the DSM pattern and cancer and all-cause mortality were only present in ever-smokers. In ever-smokers, relative to the first quintile, HRs for quintiles 2–5 of the DSM pattern for all-cause mortality were 1.04, 1.04, 1.13, and 1.24, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Similarly, HRs for quintiles 2–5 for cancer mortality were 1.08, 1.03, 1.25, and 1.34, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of mortality in COPD.

    PubMed

    Vutcovici, Maria; Bitton, Alain; Ernst, Pierre; Kezouh, Abbas; Suissa, Samy; Brassard, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have higher incidence and prevalence of other chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed whether IBD onset increases mortality risk in patients with COPD or asthma-associated COPD.Two population-based cohorts of COPD and asthma-COPD subjects were identified using the administrative health databases in Québec, Canada, 1990-2007. Death records were retrieved from the death certificate registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of newly developed IBD on mortality risk.The COPD and asthma-COPD cohorts included 273 208 and 26 575 patients, respectively, of which 697 and 119 developed IBD. IBD increased the risk of all-cause mortality in both COPD (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.09-1.4) and asthma-COPD (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.23-2.22). In asthma-COPD patients, IBD increased the risk of mortality from respiratory conditions (hazard ratio 2.18, 95% CI 1.31-3.64); in COPD patients, IBD increased the risk of death from digestive conditions (hazard ratio 4.45, 95% CI 2.39-8.30).IBD is a risk factor for mortality in patients with pre-existing COPD or asthma-COPD. IBD increased mortality by respiratory and digestive conditions in patients with asthma-COPD and COPD, respectively. PMID:26869671

  3. Digoxin Use to Control Ventricular Rate in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure Is Not Associated with Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dominic, Paari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Digoxin is used to control ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF). There is conflicting evidence regarding safety of digoxin. We aimed to evaluate the risk of mortality with digoxin use in patients with AF using meta-analyses. Methods. PubMed was searched for studies comparing outcomes of patients with AF taking digoxin versus no digoxin, with or without heart failure (HF). Studies were excluded if they reported only a point estimate of mortality, duplicated patient populations, and/or did not report adjusted hazard ratios (HR). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Adjusted HRs were combined using generic inverse variance and log hazard ratios. A multivariate metaregression model was used to explore heterogeneity in studies. Results. Twelve studies with 321,944 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In all AF patients, irrespective of heart failure status, digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.23], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.31). However, digoxin is not associated with increased mortality in patients with AF and HF (HR [1.08], 95% CI 0.99–1.18). In AF patients without HF digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.38], 95% CI 1.12–1.71). Conclusion. In patients with AF and HF, digoxin use is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality when used for rate control. PMID:26788401

  4. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Bloom, T.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures.

  5. Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status in Mortality After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M; Kurian, Allison W; Cheng, Iona; Leung, Rita; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R; Henderson, Brian E; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Kwan, Marilyn L; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Wu, Anna H; Keegan, Theresa H M; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2015-12-01

    We investigated social disparities in breast cancer (BC) mortality, leveraging data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium. The associations of race/ethnicity, education, and neighborhood SES (nSES) with all-cause and BC-specific mortality were assessed among 9372 women with BC (diagnosed 1993-2007 in California with follow-up through 2010) from four racial/ethnic groups [African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina (NL) White] using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to NL White women with high-education/high-nSES, higher all-cause mortality was observed among NL White women with high-education/low-nSES [hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval) 1.24 (1.08-1.43)], and African American women with low-nSES, regardless of education [high education HR 1.24 (1.03-1.49); low-education HR 1.19 (0.99-1.44)]. Latina women with low-education/high-nSES had lower all-cause mortality [HR 0.70 (0.54-0.90)] and non-significant lower mortality was observed for Asian American women, regardless of their education and nSES. Similar patterns were seen for BC-specific mortality. Individual- and neighborhood-level measures of SES interact with race/ethnicity to impact mortality after BC diagnosis. Considering the joint impacts of these social factors may offer insights to understanding inequalities by multiple social determinants of health. PMID:26072260

  6. Influence of Social Engagement on Mortality in Korea: Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of social engagement and patterns of change in social engagement over time on mortality in a large population, aged 45 years or older. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2006 and 2012 were assessed using longitudinal data analysis. We included 8,234 research subjects at baseline (2006). The primary analysis was based on Cox proportional hazards models to examine our hypothesis. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality for the lowest level of social engagement was 1.841-times higher (P < 0.001) compared with the highest level of social engagement. Subgroup analysis results by gender showed a similar trend. A six-class linear solution fit the data best, and class 1 (the lowest level of social engagement class, 7.6% of the sample) was significantly related to the highest mortality (HR: 4.780, P < 0.001). Our results provide scientific insight on the effects of the specificity of the level of social engagement and changes in social engagement on all-cause mortality in current practice, which are important for all-cause mortality risk. Therefore, protection from all-cause mortality may depend on avoidance of constant low-levels of social engagement. PMID:27365997

  7. Betel quid use and mortality in Bangladesh: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the potential effects of betel quid chewing on mortality. (A quid consists of betel nut, wrapped in betel leaves; tobacco is added to the quid by some users). Methods Prospective data were available on 20 033 individuals aged 18–75 years, living in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Demographic and exposure data were collected at baseline using a standardized questionnaire. Cause of death was defined by verbal autopsy questionnaires administered to next of kin. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between betel use and mortality from all causes and from specific causes, using Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment and tobacco smoking history. Findings There were 1072 deaths during an average of 10 years of follow-up. Participants who had ever used betel were significantly more likely to die from all causes (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09–1.44) and cancer (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.09–2.22); but not cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93–1.43). These findings were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. There was a dose–response relationship between mortality from all causes and both the duration and the intensity of betel use. The population attributable fraction for betel use was 14.1% for deaths from all causes and 24.2% for cancer. Conclusion Betel quid use was associated with mortality from all causes and from cancer in this cohort. PMID:26600610

  8. Is birth order associated with adult mortality?

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S R; Wingard, D L; Edelstein, S L; Criqui, M H; Tucker, J S; Friedman, H S

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether birth order is associated with total or cause-specific adult mortality and whether the association differed by sex, was confounded by age, number of siblings, or socioeconomic status, or was mediated by personality, education, or health behaviors. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on birth order was available on 1162 subjects (85% of cohort) who have since been followed for over 70 years. Cox proportional hazards models indicated that birth order was not associated with adult all-cause, cardiovascular, or cancer mortality. Among women, middle children were more likely than oldest children to die from causes of death other than cardiovascular disease or cancer, although the numbers in this category were small. This study did not provide evidence that birth order is associated with adult mortality in this highly intelligent, middle-class cohort. PMID:8680622

  9. Survival Extrapolation in the Presence of Cause Specific Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Benaglia, Tatiana; Jackson, Christopher H.; Sharples, Linda D.

    2016-01-01

    Health economic evaluations require estimates of expected survival from patients receiving different interventions, often over a lifetime. However, data on the patients of interest are typically only available for a much shorter follow-up time, from randomised trials or cohorts. Previous work showed how to use general population mortality to improve extrapolations of the short-term data, assuming a constant additive or multiplicative effect on the hazards for all-cause mortality for study patients relative to the general population. A more plausible assumption may be a constant effect on the hazard for the specific cause of death targeted by the treatments. To address this problem, we use independent parametric survival models for cause-specific mortality among the general population. Since causes of death are unobserved for the patients of interest, a polyhazard model is used to express their all-cause mortality as a sum of latent cause-specific hazards. Assuming proportional cause-specific hazards between the general and study populations then allows us to extrapolate mortality of the patients of interest to the long term. A Bayesian framework is used to jointly model all sources of data. By simulation we show that ignoring cause-specific hazards leads to biased estimates of mean survival when the proportion of deaths due to the cause of interest changes through time. The methods are applied to an evaluation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for the prevention of sudden cardiac death among patients with cardiac arrhythmia. After accounting for cause-specific mortality, substantial differences are seen in estimates of life years gained from ICD. PMID:25413028

  10. Early Life Origins of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Disability Pension: Findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    von Bondorff, Mikaela B.; Törmäkangas, Timo; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. Methods 10 682 people born in 1934–44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Results Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4) for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6) for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight). For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007). Conclusions Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial. PMID:25849578

  11. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60-120) (median [5-95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as "obese" (O) or "non-obese" (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m(2). People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered "metabolically unhealthy" (MU), while those with none were considered "metabolically healthy" (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63-2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74-0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57-0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  12. Blood-Borne Biomarkers of Mortality Risk: Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Evelyn; Lara, Jose; White, Martin; Mathers, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality. Aim To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline. Results From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033), N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001) and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001). There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor

  13. Smoking-attributable mortality in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhi; An, Qiang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Howard, Barbara V; Lee, Elisa T; Zhao, Jinying

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. American Indians have the highest proportion of smoking in the United States. However, few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on disease mortality in this ethnically important but traditionally understudied minority population. Here we estimated the association of cigarette smoking with cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 4549 American Indians (aged 45-74 years) followed for about 20 years (1989-2008). Hazard ratio and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with cigarette smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for sex, study site, age, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, lipids, renal function, hypertension or diabetes status at baseline, and interaction between current smoker and study site. We found that current smoking was significantly associated with cancer mortality (HR 5.0, [1.9-13.4]) in men, (HR 3.9 [1.6-9.7] in women) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, [1.2-2.6] in men, HR 1.6, [1.1-2.4] in women). PAR for cancer and all-cause mortality in men were 41.0 and 18.4 %, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers in women were 24.9 and 10.9 %, respectively. Current smoking also significantly increases the risk of CVD deaths in women (HR 2.2 [1.1, 4.4]), but not men (HR 1.2 [0.6-2.4]). PAR for CVD mortality in women was 14.9 %. In summary, current smoking significantly increases the risk of CVD (in women), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians, independent of known risk factors. Culturally specific smoking cessation programs are urgently needed to reduce smoking-related premature deaths. PMID:25968176

  14. Total and Cause-Specific Mortality of U.S. Nurses Working Rotating Night Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fangyi; Han, Jiali; Laden, Francine; Pan, An; Caporaso, Neil E.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Speizer, Frank; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotating night shift work imposes circadian strain and is linked to the risk of several chronic diseases. Purpose To examine associations between rotating night shift work and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort study of 74,862 registered U.S. nurses from the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods Lifetime rotating night shift work (defined as ≥3 nights/month) information was collected in 1988. During 22 years (1988–2010) of follow-up, 14,181 deaths were documented, including 3,062 CVD and 5,413 cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models (2013) estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results All-cause and CVD mortality were significantly increased among women with ≥5 years of rotating night shift work, compared to women who never worked night shifts. Specifically, for women with 6–14 and ≥15 years of rotating night shift work, the HRs were 1.11 (95% CI=1.06, 1.17) and 1.11 (95% CI=1.05, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI=1.07, 1.33) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.09, 1.38) for CVD mortality. There was no association between rotating night shift work and all-cancer mortality (HR≥15years=1.08, 95% CI=0.89, 1.19) or any other cancer, with the exception of lung cancer (HR≥15years=1.25, 95% CI=1.04, 1.51). Conclusions Women working rotating night shifts for ≥5 five years have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality; those working ≥15 years of rotating night shift work have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity. PMID:25576495

  15. Effect of Chronic Kidney Diseases on Mortality among Digoxin Users Treated for Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mascolo, Annamaria; Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of chronic kidney disease on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with digoxin. Methods All patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter as hospitalization diagnosis from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012 were identified in Danish nationwide administrative registries. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare the adjusted risk of all-causes and cardiovascular mortality among patients with and without chronic kidney disease and among patients with different chronic kidney disease stages within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. Results We identified 37,981 patients receiving digoxin; 1884 patients had the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Cox regression analysis showed no statistically significant differences in all-causes (Hazard Ratio, HR 0.89; 95% confident interval, CI 0.78–1.03) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.88; 95%CI 0.74–1.05) among patients with and without chronic kidney disease within 180 days of follow-up period. No statistically significant differences was found using a 2 years follow-up period neither for all causes mortality (HR 0.90; 95%CI 0.79–1.03), nor for cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.74–1.02). No statistically significant differences was found comparing patients with and without estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate <30ml/min/1.73m2 and patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease, for all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. Conclusions This study suggest no direct effect of chronic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease stages on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within both 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription in patients treatment-naïve with digoxin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation. PMID:27467520

  16. Mortality Benefit of Participation in BOOCS Program

    PubMed Central

    Odashiro, Keita; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Maruyama, Toru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Wakana, Chikako; Fukumitsu, Michiko; Fujino, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to demonstrate the protective effect on mortality among participants of a health education program, Brain-Oriented Obesity Control System (BOOCS). Methods: A quasi-experimentally designed, 15-year (1993 to 2007) follow-up study was conducted with a total of 13,835 male and 7791 female Japanese workers. They were divided into three groups: participants in the program (1565 males and 742 females), nonparticipant comparative obese controls (1230 males and 605 females), and nonparticipant reference subjects (11,012 males and 6426 females). Hazard ratios were calculated with survival curves drawn to evaluate the mortality effects by the program participation. Results: The male participants showed significantly lower mortality risk for all causes of death at hazard ratio = 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.31 to 0.94) with significantly different survival curves (P = 0.014 by log-rank test) than obese controls. Conclusions: The results support a protective effect on mortality by participating in BOOCS program. PMID:25634811

  17. Mortality Benefit of a Fourth-Generation Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Background We have shown that a fourth-generation telehealth program that analyzes and responds synchronously to data transferred from patients is associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower medical costs. Whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality has not yet been reported for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Objective We conducted a clinical epidemiology study retrospectively to determine whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Methods We enrolled 576 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 control patients. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to analyze the impact of risk predictors on all-cause mortality. The model adjusted for age, sex, and chronic comorbidities. Results There were 53 (9.3%) deaths in the telehealth group and 136 (11.54%) deaths in the control group. We found that the telehealth program violated the proportional hazards assumption by the Schoenfeld residual test. Thus, we fitted a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. The results showed an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.866 (95% CI 0.837-0.896, P<.001; number needed to treat at 1 year=55.6, 95% CI 43.2-75.7 based on HR of telehealth program) for the telehealth program on all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The time-varying interaction term in this analysis showed that the beneficial effect of telehealth would increase over time. Conclusions The results suggest that our fourth-generation telehealth program is associated with less all-cause mortality compared with usual care after adjusting for chronic comorbidities. PMID:27177497

  18. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Risk of Emergency Transport Attributable to Temperature: A Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-12-01

    Although several studies have estimated the associations between mortality or morbidity and extreme temperatures in terms of relative risk, few studies have investigated the risk of emergency transport attributable to the whole temperature range nationwide.We acquired data on daily emergency ambulance dispatches in all 47 prefectures of Japan from 2007 to 2010. We examined the relationship between emergency transport and temperature for each prefecture using a Poisson regression model in a distributed lag nonlinear model with adjustment for time trends. A random-effect multivariate meta-analysis was then applied to pool the estimates at the national level. Attributable morbidity was calculated for high and low temperatures, which were defined as those above or below the optimum temperature (ie, the minimum morbidity temperature) and for moderate and also extreme temperatures, which were defined using cutoffs at the 2.5th and 97.5th temperature percentiles.A total of 15,868,086 cases of emergency transport met the inclusion criteria. The emergency transport was attributable to nonoptimal temperature. The median minimum morbidity percentile was in the 79th percentile for all causes, the 96th percentile for cardiovascular disease, and the 92th percentile for respiratory disease. The fraction attributable to low temperature was 6.94% (95% eCI: 5.93-7.70) for all causes, 17.93% (95% eCI: 16.10-19.25) for cardiovascular disease, and 12.19% (95% eCI: 9.90-13.66) for respiratory disease, whereas the fraction attributable to high temperature was small (all causes = 1.01%, 95% eCI: 0.90-1.11; cardiovascular disease = 0.10%, 95% eCI: 0.04-0.14; respiratory disease = 0.29%, 95% eCI: 0.07-0.50). The all-cause morbidity risk that was attributable to temperature was related to moderate cold, with an overall estimate of 6.41% (95% eCI: 5.47-7.20). Extreme temperatures were responsible for a small fraction, which corresponded to 0.57% (95% eCI: 0.50-0.62) for extreme

  19. Hypomagnesemia Is Associated with Increased Mortality among Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhiwei; Zhu, Beixia; Fei, Jinping; Xue, Congping; Wu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypomagnesemia has been associated with an increase in mortality among the general population as well as patients with chronic kidney disease or those on hemodialysis. However, this association has not been thoroughly studied in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum magnesium concentrations and all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities in peritoneal dialysis patients. Methods This single-center retrospective study included 253 incident peritoneal dialysis patients enrolled between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014 and followed to June 30, 2015. Patient’s demographic characteristics as well as clinical and laboratory measurements were collected. Results Of 253 patients evaluated, 36 patients (14.2%) suffered from hypomagnesemia. During a median follow-up of 29 months (range: 4–120 months), 60 patients (23.7%) died, and 35 (58.3%) of these deaths were attributed to cardiovascular causes. Low serum magnesium was positively associated with peritoneal dialysis duration (r = 0.303, p < 0.001) as well as serum concentrations of albumin (r = 0.220, p < 0.001), triglycerides (r = 0.160, p = 0.011), potassium (r = 0.156, p = 0.013), calcium(r = 0.299, p < 0.001)and phosphate (r = 0.191, p = 0.002). Patients in the hypomagnesemia group had a lower survival rate than those in the normal magnesium groups (p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, serum magnesium was an independent negative predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.075, p = 0.011) and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.003, p < 0.001), especially in female patients. However, in univariate and multivariate Cox analysis, △Mg(difference between 1-year magnesium and baseline magnesium) was not an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia was common among peritoneal dialysis patients and was independently associated with all-cause

  20. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  1. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1988–1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01µmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.15—1.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75µmol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.29–0.58µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  2. Reflection magnitude as a predictor of mortality: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Payman; Jacobs, David R; Segers, Patrick; Duprez, Daniel A; Brumback, Lyndia; Kronmal, Richard A; Lilly, Scott M; Townsend, Raymond R; Budoff, Matthew; Lima, Joao A; Hannan, Peter; Chirinos, Julio A

    2014-11-01

    Arterial wave reflections have been associated with mortality in an ethnically homogenous Asian population. It is unknown whether this association is present in a multiethnic population or whether it is independent of subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that reflection magnitude (defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the backward wave [Pb] to that of the forward wave [Pf]) is associated with all-cause mortality in a large multiethnic adult community-based sample. We studied 5984 participants enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had analyzable arterial tonometry waveforms. During 9.8±1.7 years of follow-up, 617 deaths occurred, of which 134 (22%) were adjudicated cardiovascular deaths. In Cox proportional hazards models, each 10% increase in reflection magnitude was associated with a 31% increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-1.55; P=0.001). This relationship persisted after adjustment for various confounders and for markers of subclinical atherosclerosis (HR=1.23; 95% CI=1.01-1.51; P=0.04), including the coronary calcium score, ankle-brachial index, common carotid intima-media thickness, and ascending thoracic aortic Agatston score. Pb was independently associated with all-cause mortality in a similarly adjusted model (HR per 10 mm Hg increase in P(b)=2.18; 95% CI=1.21-3.92; P=0.009). Reflection magnitude (HR=1.71; 95% CI=1.06-2.77; P=0.03) and P(b) (HR=5.02; 95% CI=1.29-19.42; P=0.02) were mainly associated with cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, reflection magnitude is independently associated with all-cause mortality in a multiethnic population initially free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease. This relationship persists after adjustment for a comprehensive set of markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25259746

  3. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal

  4. A Higher Cardiothoracic Ratio Is Associated with 2-Year Mortality after Hemodialysis Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kiyonori; Ookawara, Susumu; Ueda, Yuichiro; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Yamada, Hodaka; Goto, Sawako; Ishii, Hiroki; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Kitano, Taisuke; Hirai, Keiji; Yoshida, Masashi; Kaku, Yoshio; Hoshino, Taro; Nabata, Aoi; Mori, Honami; Yoshida, Izumi; Kakei, Masafumi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Tabei, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    A high cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is indicative of a cardiac disorder. However, few reports have revealed an association between the CTR and mortality in patients starting hemodialysis (HD). Methods Patients with HD initiation (n = 387; mean age, 66.7 ± 12.7 years) were divided into the following three groups according to their CTR at HD initiation: CTR <50%, 50% ≤ CTR < 55%, and CTR ≥55%. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare 2-year all-cause mortality among these groups. Furthermore, we investigated the factors affecting their 2-year mortality using a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results Sixty-five patients (17%) died within 2 years after HD initiation. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with CTR ≥55% had a higher mortality rate than those in the other groups. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed using parameters with p values <0.1 among these three groups [sex, age, presence or absence of ischemic heart disease, hemoglobin levels, serum albumin levels, CTR, body mass index (BMI)] and confounding factors [presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)]. Age, eGFR, BMI, and CTR ≥55% at HD initiation were identified as factors influencing 2-year mortality. Conclusion CTR >55% is one of the most important independent factors to affect 2-year all-cause mortality. Thus, confirming the cardiac condition of patients at HD initiation with a CTR >55% may improve their survival. PMID:26951636

  5. Social Cohesion and Mortality: A Survival Analysis of Older Adults in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between social cohesion and mortality in a sample of older adults in Japan. Methods. Data were derived from a cohort study of elderly individuals (65–84 years) in Shizuoka Prefecture; 14 001 participants were enrolled at baseline (1999) and followed up in 2002, 2006, and 2009. Among the 11 092 participants for whom we had complete data, 1427 had died during follow-up. We examined the association between social cohesion (assessed at both the community and individual levels) and subsequent mortality after control for baseline and time-varying covariates. We used clustered proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Results. After control for individual characteristics, individual perceptions of community cohesion were associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.73, 0.84) as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.84), pulmonary disease (HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.75), and all other causes (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.89). However, no statistically significant relationship was found between community cohesion and mortality risk. Conclusions. Among the elderly in Japan, more positive individual perceptions of community cohesion are associated with reduced risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:24134379

  6. Blood pressure and mortality: using offspring blood pressure as an instrument for own blood pressure in the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Carslake, David; Ivar Nilsen, Tom; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Romundstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Given that observational associations may be inaccurate, we used offspring blood pressure (BP) to provide alternative estimates of the associations between own BP and mortality. Observational associations between BP and mortality, estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression, were compared to HRs obtained using offspring BP as an instrumental variable (IV) for own BP (N = 32,227 mother-offspring and 27,535 father-offspring pairs). Observationally, there were positive associations between own BP and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes. Point estimates of the associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD were amplified in magnitude when using offspring BP as an IV. For example, the HR for all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) increase in own systolic BP (SBP) obtained in conventional observational analyses increased from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.09–1.12; P < 0.0001) to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19–1.43; P < 0.0001). Additionally, SBP was positively associated with diabetes and cancer mortality (HRs: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.12–3.35; P = 0.02 and 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03, respectively), and diastolic BP (DBP) with stroke mortality (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02–1.66; P = 0.03). Results support positive associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD, and CHD, SBP on cancer mortality, and DBP on stroke mortality. PMID:26198310

  7. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Race, and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, David A.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Scott, Tammy; Kantor, Amy; Fan, Li; Artusi, Carlo; Plebani, Mario; Weiner, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are elevated in kidney disease and associated with mortality in white European hemodialysis populations. Nitric oxide production and degradation are partially genetically determined and differ by racial background. No studies have measured asymmetric dimethylarginine in African Americans on dialysis and assessed whether differences exist in its association with mortality by race. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Asymmetric dimethylarginine was measured in 259 patients on maintenance hemodialysis assembled from 2004 to 2012 in Boston area outpatient centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between asymmetric dimethylarginine and all-cause mortality, and an interaction with race was tested. Results Mean (SD) age was 63 (17) years, 46% were women, and 22% were African American. Mean asymmetric dimethylarginine in non–African Americans was 0.79 µmol/L (0.16) versus 0.70 µmol/L (0.11) in African Americans (P<0.001); 130 patients died over a median follow-up of 2.3 years. African Americans had lower mortality risk than non–African Americans (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.50) that was robust to adjustment for age, comorbidity, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.69). An interaction was noted between race and asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03), such that asymmetric dimethylarginine was associated with higher mortality in non–African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.57 per 1 SD higher asymmetric dimethylarginine) but not in African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 1.18). Additional adjustment for fibroblast growth factor 23 partially attenuated the association for non–African Americans (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1

  8. Late-Life Risk Factors for All-Cause Dementia and Differential Dementia Diagnoses in Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Neergaard, Jesper Skov; Dragsbæk, Katrine; Hansen, Henrik Bo; Henriksen, Kim; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2016-03-01

    Since the first evidence of a decline in dementia incidence was reported in 2011, the focus on modifiable risk factors has increased. The possibility of risk factor intervention as a prevention strategy has been widely discussed; however, further evidence in relation to risk factors is still needed. The Prospective Epidemiologic Risk Factor (PERF I) study was an observational prospective study of postmenopausal Danish women who were initially examined between 1999 and 2001 (n = 5855). Follow-up data on diagnosis and survival as of December 31, 2014 was retrieved from the National Danish Patient Registry and the National Danish Causes of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for selected risk factors for dementia. Of 5512 eligible subjects, 592 developed dementia within the follow-up period of maximum 15 years. The independent factors associated with increased risk of all-cause dementia were depression (HR = 1.75 [95% CI 1.32-2.34]) and impaired fasting glucose levels. A dose-response relationship was observed between fasting glucose level and risk of dementia with HRs of 1.25 [1.05-1.49] and 1.45 [1.03-2.06] for impaired (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (≥7.0 mmol/L) glucose levels, respectively. The factors associated with a decreased risk of dementia were overweight in late-life (HR = 0.75 [0. 62-0.89]) and physical activity at least once weekly (HR = 0.77 [0.61-0.96]). The identified risk factors for dementia in women in late-life are all considered modifiable. This supports the notion that prevention strategies may improve the poor future prospects for dementias in the ageing population. PMID:26986157

  9. Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K.; Franks, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SUBJECTS: A nationally representative sample of 14,407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey. SETTING: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until 1987. Complete follow up information was available for 92.2% of the sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between both household income and income inequality in community of residence and individual all cause mortality at follow up was examined with Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. RESULTS: Community income inequality showed a significant association with subsequent community mortality, and with individual mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and mean income in the community of residence. After adjustment for individual household income, however, the association with mortality was lost. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative American sample, family income, but not community income inequality, independently predicts mortality. Previously reported ecological associations between income inequality and mortality may reflect confounding between individual family income and mortality. PMID:9185498

  10. All-Cause Cost Differences Between Robotic, Vaginal, and Abdominal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Woelk, Joshua L.; Borah, Bijan J.; Trabuco, Emanuel C.; Gebhart, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the all-cause costs of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy with robotically assisted hysterectomy. Methods We identified all cases of robotically assisted hysterectomy, with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, treated at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009. Cases were propensity score–matched (1:1) to cases of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy, selected randomly from the 3 preceding years (before acquisition of the robotic surgical system). All-cause costs were abstracted through the sixth postoperative week from the Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database and compared between cohorts with a generalized linear modeling framework. Predicted costs were estimated with the recycled predictions method. Costs of operative complications also were compared. Results Predicted mean cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy was $2,253 more than that of vaginal hysterectomy ($13,619 vs $11,366; P<.001), although costs of complications were not significantly different. The predicted mean costs of robotically assisted vs abdominal hysterectomy were similar ($14,679 vs $15,588; P=.35), and the costs of complications were not significantly different. Conclusions Overall, vaginal hysterectomy was less costly than robotically assisted hysterectomy. Abdominal hysterectomy and robotically assisted hysterectomy had similar costs. PMID:24402586

  11. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1993-01-01

    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and 1987) and smoking habits were determined for all the subjects. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (SMR = 238, p < 0.001). It showed an excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 141, p < 0.001), overall cancers (SMR = 133, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 133, p < 0.05). A significant excess of deaths was found for subjects who worked near the ovens for all causes (145, p < 0.01), lung cancer (SMR = 252, p < 0.01), colon cancer (SMR = 381, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 155, p < 0.05). A significant excess mortality was also found from all causes (176, p < 0.05) and stomach cancer (SMR = 538, p < 0.01) in subjects who worked in byproducts, from lung cancer (SMR = 433, p < 0.001) in those in the workshops, and from cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism (SMR = 360, p < 0.01) in those underground; but, due to small numbers, these figures were not robust. An excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 163, p<001), lung cancer (SMR = 228, p<0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 179, p<0.01) was shown also for non-exposed or slightly exposed subjects. The fact that, on the whole, mortality of various exposed groups was similar to that of non-exposed or slightly exposed workers may be explained in part by the selection at hiring and the healthy worker effect. As an increased risk of lung cancer was noted among subjects who worked in the old generations of plant compared with the other workers (although the relative risk was not significant

  12. Historical cohort study of mortality among chemical researchers

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.

    1986-03-01

    This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.

  13. Oral contraceptive use and mortality after 36 years of follow-up in the Nurses’ Health Study: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Brittany M; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Colditz, Graham A; Missmer, Stacey A; Rosner, Bernard A; Hankinson, Susan E; Speizer, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of oral contraceptives is associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, data collected between 1976 and 2012. Population 121 701 participants were prospectively followed for 36 years; lifetime oral contraceptive use was recorded biennially from 1976 to 1982. Main outcome measures Overall and cause specific mortality, assessed throughout follow-up until 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks of all cause and cause specific mortality associated with use of oral contraceptives. Results In our population of 121 577 women with information on oral contraceptive use, 63 626 were never users (52%) and 57 951 were ever users (48%). After 3.6 million person years, we recorded 31 286 deaths. No association was observed between ever use of oral contraceptives and all cause mortality. However, violent or accidental deaths were more common among ever users (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.37). Longer duration of use was more strongly associated with certain causes of death, including premature mortality due to breast cancer (test for trend P<0.0001) and decreased mortality rates of ovarian cancer (P=0.002). Longer time since last use was also associated with certain outcomes, including a positive association with violent or accidental deaths (P=0.005). Conclusions All cause mortality did not differ significantly between women who had ever used oral contraceptives and never users. Oral contraceptive use was associated with certain causes of death, including increased rates of violent or accidental death and deaths due to breast cancer, whereas deaths due to ovarian cancer were less common among women who used oral contraceptives. These results pertain to earlier oral contraceptive formulations with higher hormone doses rather than the now more commonly used third and fourth generation formulations

  14. Reproductive factors and histologic subtype in relation to mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Warren Andersen, S; Newcomb, P A; Hampton, J M; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Egan, K M; Trentham-Dietz, A

    2011-12-01

    Evidence suggests that certain reproductive factors are more strongly associated with the incidence of lobular than of ductal breast cancer. The mechanisms influencing breast cancer incidence histology may also affect survival. Women with invasive breast cancer (N = 22,302) diagnosed during 1986-2005 were enrolled in a series of population-based studies in three US states. Participants completed telephone interviews regarding reproductive exposures and other breast cancer risk factors. Histologic subtype was obtained from state cancer registries. Vital status and cause of death were determined through December 2006 using the National Death Index. Women were followed for 9.8 years on average with 3,050 breast cancer deaths documented. Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Parity was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (P (Trend) = 0.002). Associations were similar though attenuated for all-cause mortality. In women diagnosed with ductal breast cancer, a 15% reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality was observed in women with five or more children when compared to those with no children (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73-1.00). A similar inverse though non-significant association was observed in women with lobular subtype (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43-1.14). The trend did not extend to mixed ductal-lobular breast cancer. Age at first birth had no consistent relationship with breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality. We found increasing parity reduced mortality in ductal and lobular breast cancer. The number of full-term births, rather than age at first birth, has an effect on both breast cancer-specific and overall mortality. PMID:21769659

  15. Mortality after hip fracture in Austria 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Reichardt, Berthold; Kimberger, Oliver; Zwerina, Jochen; Dimai, Hans Peter; Kritsch, Daniela; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwettler, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis-related hip fractures represent a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries like Austria. Identification of groups at high risk for mortality after hip fracture is crucial for health policy decisions. To determine in-hospital, long-term, and excess mortality after osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Austrian patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pseudonymized invoice data from Austrian social insurance authorities covering roughly 98 % of the entire population. The data set included 31,668 subjects aged 50 years and above sustaining a hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 with follow-up until June 2011, and an age-, gender-, and regionally matched control population without hip fractures (56,320 subjects). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard regression analyses served to determine unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates: Unadjusted all-cause 1-year mortality amounted to 20.2 % (95 % CI: 19.7-20.7 %). Males had significantly higher long-term, in-hospital, and excess mortality rates than females, but younger males exhibited lower excess mortality than their female counterparts. Advanced age correlated with increased long-term and in-hospital mortality, but lower excess mortality. Excess mortality, particularly in males, was highest in the first 6 months after hip fracture, but remained statistically significantly elevated throughout the observation period of 3 years. Longer hospital stay per fracture was correlated with mortality reduction in older patients and in patients with more subsequent fractures. In conclusion, more efforts are needed to identify causes and effectively prevent excess mortality especially in male osteoporosis patients. PMID:24989776

  16. Emotion Suppression and Mortality Risk Over a 12-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Fiscella, Kevin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Duberstein, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suppression of emotion has long been suspected to have a role in health, but empirical work has yielded mixed findings. We examined the association between emotion suppression and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality over 12 years of follow-up in a nationally representative US sample. Methods We used the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index (NDI) cohort, which included an emotion suppression scale administered to 729 people in 1996. Prospective mortality follow up between 1996 and 2008 of 111 deaths (37 by cardiovascular disease, 34 by cancer) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, education, and minority race/ethnicity. Results The 75th vs. 25th percentile on the emotional suppression score was associated with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 1.00, 1.82; p = .049) for all-cause mortality. For cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality, the HRs were 1.70 (95% CI = 1.01, 2.88, p = 0.049) and 1.47 (95% CI = .87, 2.47, p = 0.148) respectively. Conclusions Emotion suppression may convey risk for earlier death, including death from cancer. Further work is needed to better understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms for this risk, as well as the nature of associations between suppression and different forms of mortality. PMID:24119947

  17. U.S. MORTALITY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Mortality data, collected and maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), can be analyzed with the SEER*Stat software. The data covers all causes of death, not just cancer deaths. NCHS granted the SEER program limited permission to provide the mortality d...

  18. Relationship of dietary phosphate intake with risk of end stage renal disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease stage 3-5: A Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study

    PubMed Central

    Selamet, Umut; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J.; Beck, Gerald; Levey, Andrew S.; Block, Geoffrey; Ix, Joachim H.

    2015-01-01

    KDIGO guidelines recommend dietary phosphate restriction to lower serum phosphate levels in CKD stage 3-5. Recent studies suggest that dietary phosphate intake is only weakly linked to its serum concentration, and the relationship of phosphate intake with adverse outcomes is uncertain. To further evaluate this, we used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of baseline 24 hour urine phosphate excretion with risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), all-cause mortality, and mortality subtypes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease data. Models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, iothalamate GFR, and urine protein and nitrogen excretion. Phosphate excretion was modestly inversely correlated with serum phosphate concentrations. There was no association of 24 hour urinary phosphate excretion with risk of ESRD, CVD-, non-CVD- or all-cause mortality. For comparison, higher serum phosphate concentrations were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 0.7 mg/dL higher, 1.15 [95% CI 1.01, 1.30]). Thus, phosphate intake is not tightly linked with serum phosphate concentrations in CKD stage 3-5, and there was no evidence that greater phosphate intake, assessed by 24 hour phosphate excretion, is associated with ESRD, CVD-, non CVD-, or all-cause mortality in CKD stage 3-5. Hence, factors other than dietary intake may be key determinants of serum phosphate concentrations and require additional investigation. PMID:26422502

  19. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Levine, ME; Crimmins, EM

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Concepts such as Allostatic Load, Framingham Risk Score, and Biological Age were developed to combine information from multiple measures into a single latent variable that can be used to quantify a person's biological state. Given these varying approaches, the goal of this paper is to compare how well these three measures predict subsequent all-cause and disease-specific mortality within a large nationally representative U.S. sample. Methods Our study population consisted of 9,942 adults, ages 30 and above from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and Cox Proportional Hazard models for the whole sample and for stratified age groups were used to compare how well Allostatic Load, Framingham Risk Score, and Biological Age predict ten-year all-cause and disease-specific mortality in the sample, for whom there were 1,076 deaths over 96,420 person years of exposure. Results Overall, Biological Age predicted 10-year mortality more accurately than other measures for the full age range, as well as for participants ages 50-69 and 70 +. Additionally, out of the three measures, Biological Age had the strongest association with all-cause and cancer mortality, while the Framingham Risk Score had the strongest association with CVD mortality. Conclusions Methods for quantifying biological risk provide important approaches to improving our understanding of the causes and consequences of changes in physiological function and dysregulation. Biological Age offers an alternative and, in some cases more accurate summary approach to the traditionally used methods, such as Allostatic Load and Framingham Risk Score. PMID:25088793

  20. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110–119, 120–129, 130–139, 140–149, 150–159, 160–169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89–2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60–1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51–1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  1. Fat intake after prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Yang, Meng; Sesso, Howard D.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chan, June M.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diet after prostate cancer diagnosis may impact disease progression. We hypothesized that consuming saturated fat after prostate cancer diagnosis would increase risk of mortality, and consuming vegetable fat after diagnosis would be lower risk of mortality. Methods This was a prospective study among 926 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer in the Physicians’ Health Study who completed a food frequency questionnaire a median of five years after diagnosis and were followed a median of 10 years after the questionnaire. We examined post-diagnostic saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fat, as well as animal and vegetable fat, intake in relation to all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results We observed 333 deaths (56 prostate cancer deaths) during follow-up. Men who obtained 5% more of their daily calories from saturated fat and 5% less of their daily calories from carbohydrate after diagnosis had a 1.8-fold increased risk of all cause mortality (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.74; p-value: 0.005) and a 2.8-fold increase risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01, 7.64; p-value: 0.05). Men who obtained 10% more of their daily calories from vegetable fats and 10% less of their daily calories from carbohydrates had a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.96; p-value: 0.03). Conclusions Among men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, saturated fat intake may increase risk of death and vegetable fat intake may lower risk of death. PMID:26047644

  2. Relationship of hyperuricemia with mortality in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Kanno, Yuki; Takiguchi, Mai; Sato, Akihiko; Miura, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Owada, Takashi; Abe, Satoshi; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-10-01

    Serum uric acid is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. However, the impact of uric acid on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the association between hyperuricemia and mortality in HFpEF patients. Consecutive 424 patients, who were admitted to our hospital for decompensated heart failure and diagnosed as having HFpEF, were divided into two groups based on presence of hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥7 mg/dl or taking antihyperuricemic agents). We compared patient characteristics, echocardiographic data, cardio-ankle vascular index, and cardiopulmonary exercise test findings between the two groups and prospectively followed cardiac and all-cause mortality. Compared with the non-hyperuricemia group (n = 170), the hyperuricemia group (n = 254) had a higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.013), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01), dyslipidemia (P = 0.038), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.001), and use of diuretics (P < 0.001). Cardio-ankle vascular index (8.7 vs. 7.5, P < 0.001) and V̇e/V̇co2 slope (34.9 vs. 31.9, P = 0.02) were also higher. In addition, peak V̇o2 (14.9 vs. 17.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.001) was lower. In the follow-up period (mean 897 days), cardiac and all-cause mortalities were significantly higher in those with hyperuricemia (P = 0.006 and P = 0.004, respectively). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses after adjustment for several confounding factors including chronic kidney disease and use of diuretics, hyperuricemia was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.036-3.793, P = 0.039). Hyperuricemia is associated with arterial stiffness, impaired exercise capacity, and high mortality in HFpEF. PMID:26297226

  3. Causal effect of education on mortality in a quasi-experiment on 1.2 million Swedes.

    PubMed

    Lager, Anton Carl Jonas; Torssander, Jenny

    2012-05-29

    In 1949-1962, Sweden implemented a 1-y increase in compulsory schooling as a quasi-experiment. Each year, children in a number of municipalities were exposed to the reform and others were kept as controls, allowing us to test the hypothesis that education is causally related to mortality. We studied all children born between 1943 and 1955, in 900 Swedish municipalities, with control for birth-cohort and area differences. Primary outcome measures are all-cause and cause-specific mortality until the end of 2007. The analyses include 1,247,867 individuals, of whom 92,351 died. We found lower all-cause mortality risk in the experimental group after age 40 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-0.99] but not before (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07) or during the whole follow-up (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01). After age 40, the experimental group had lower mortality from overall cancer, lung cancer, and accidents. In addition, exposed women had lower mortality from ischemic heart disease, and exposed men lower mortality from overall external causes. In analyses stratified for final educational level, we found lower mortality in the experimental group within the strata that settled for compulsory schooling only (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99) and compulsory schooling plus vocational training (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Thus, the experimental group had lower mortality from causes known to be related to education. Lower mortality in the experimental group was also found among the least educated, a group that clearly benefited from the reform in terms of educational length. However, all estimates are small and there was no evident impact of the reform on all-cause mortality in all ages. PMID:22586112

  4. Optimism and Mortality in Older Men and Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Ericha G.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations of optimism and pessimism with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and cancer mortality in a population-based sample of older men and women followed ≤12 years. Methods. 367 men and 509 women aged ≥50 from the Rancho Bernardo Study attended a 1999–2002 research clinic visit when demographic, behavioral, and medical history were obtained and completed a 1999 mailed survey including the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). Mortality outcomes were followed through 2012. Results. Average age at baseline was 74.1 years; during follow-up (mean = 8.1 years), 198 participants died, 62 from CVD, 22 from CHD, and 49 from cancer. Total LOT-R, optimism and pessimism scores were calculated. Participants with the highest optimism were younger and reported less alcohol use and smoking and more exercise. Cox proportional hazard models showed that higher total LOT-R and optimism, but not pessimism scores, were associated with reduced odds of CHD mortality after adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, smoking, obesity, physical exercise, and medication (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.99; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.99, resp.). No associations were found for all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality. Conclusions. Optimism was associated with reduced CHD mortality in older men and women. The association of positive attitudes with mortality merits further study. PMID:27042351

  5. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Mortality among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Xia, Min; Li, Dan; Yang, Yunou; Li, Qing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Xuechen; Hu, Gang; Ling, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the risk of mortality among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is complex and still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eGFR on the risk prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with a long follow-up period among patients with CHD in China. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3276 Chinese patients with CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of eGFR with the risks of mortality. Results During a mean follow-up period of 4.9 years, 293 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with different levels of eGFR (≥90 [reference group], 60–89, 30–59, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73m2) at baseline were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.88), 1.96 (95% CI, 1.31–2.94), and 3.91 (95% CI, 2.15–7.13) (P <0.001) for all-cause mortality, and 1.00, 1.26 (95% CI, 0.78–2.04), 1.94 (95% CI, 1.17–3.20), and 3.77 (95% CI, 1.80–7.89) (P <0.001) for CVD mortality, respectively. After excluding subjects who died during the first 2 years of follow-up (n = 113), the graded associations of eGFR with the risks of all-cause and CVD morality were still present. The addition of eGFR to a model including traditional cardiovascular risk factors resulted in significant improvement in the prediction of all-cause and CVD mortality. Conclusions Reduced eGFR (< 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline is associated with increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality among Chinese patients with CHD. PMID:27537335

  6. Spectrum of excess mortality due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections.

    PubMed

    Hauck, C; Cober, E; Richter, S S; Perez, F; Salata, R A; Kalayjian, R C; Watkins, R R; Scalera, N M; Doi, Y; Kaye, K S; Evans, S; Fowler, V G; Bonomo, R A; van Duin, D

    2016-06-01

    Patients infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) are often chronically and acutely ill, which results in substantial mortality unrelated to infection. Therefore, estimating excess mortality due to CRKp infections is challenging. The Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRACKLE) is a prospective multicenter study. Here, patients in CRACKLE were evaluated at the time of their first CRKp bloodstream infection (BSI), pneumonia or urinary tract infection (UTI). A control cohort of patients with CRKp urinary colonization without CRKp infection was constructed. Excess hospital mortality was defined as mortality in cases after subtracting mortality in controls. In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for time-to-hospital-mortality at 30 days associated with infection compared with colonization were calculated in Cox proportional hazard models. In the study period, 260 patients with CRKp infections were included in the BSI (90 patients), pneumonia (49 patients) and UTI (121 patients) groups, who were compared with 223 controls. All-cause hospital mortality in controls was 12%. Excess hospital mortality was 27% in both patients with BSI and those with pneumonia. Excess hospital mortality was not observed in patients with UTI. In multivariable analyses, BSI and pneumonia compared with controls were associated with aHR of 2.59 (95% CI 1.52-4.50, p <0.001) and 3.44 (95% CI 1.80-6.48, p <0.001), respectively. In conclusion, in patients with CRKp infection, pneumonia is associated with the highest excess hospital mortality. Patients with BSI have slightly lower excess hospital mortality rates, whereas excess hospital mortality was not observed in hospitalized patients with UTI. PMID:26850824

  7. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrate Quality and Quantity, and Mortality Risk of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Koert N. J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Dethlefsen, Claus; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rolandsson, Olov; Huerta, José María; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber, carbohydrate quality and quantity are associated with mortality risk in the general population. Whether this is also the case among diabetes patients is unknown. Objective To assess the associations of dietary fiber, glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intake with mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. Methods This study was a prospective cohort study among 6,192 individuals with confirmed diabetes mellitus (mean age of 57.4 years, and median diabetes duration of 4.4 years at baseline) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1992–2000) with validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, while adjusting for CVD-related, diabetes-related, and nutritional factors. Results During a median follow-up of 9.2 y, 791 deaths were recorded, 306 due to CVD. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75–0.91]) and CVD mortality risk (0.76[0.64–0.89]). No significant associations were observed for glycemic load, glycemic index, carbohydrate, sugar, or starch. Glycemic load (1.42[1.07–1.88]), carbohydrate (1.67[1.18–2.37]) and sugar intake (1.53[1.12–2.09]) were associated with an increased total mortality risk among normal weight individuals (BMI≤25 kg/m2; 22% of study population) but not among overweight individuals (P interaction≤0.04). These associations became stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. Conclusions High fiber intake was associated with a decreased mortality risk. High glycemic load, carbohydrate and sugar intake were associated with an increased mortality risk in normal weight individuals with diabetes. PMID:22927948

  8. Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

    2015-01-15

    To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

  9. Polyphenol intake and mortality risk: a re-analysis of the PREDIMED trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyphenols may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as their beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between the intake of total polyphenols intake and polyphenol subclasses with overall mortality. Our aim was to evaluate whether polyphenol intake is associated with all-cause mortality in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We used data from the PREDIMED study, a 7,447-participant, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter, controlled five-year feeding trial aimed at assessing the effects of the Mediterranean Diet in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) with the Phenol-Explorer database on the polyphenol content of each reported food. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between polyphenol intake and mortality were estimated using time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models. Results Over an average of 4.8 years of follow-up, we observed 327 deaths. After multivariate adjustment, we found a 37% relative reduction in all-cause mortality comparing the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total polyphenol intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.97; P for trend = 0.12). Among the polyphenol subclasses, stilbenes and lignans were significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR =0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.91; P for trend = 0.04 and HR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.97; P for trend = 0.03, respectively), with no significant associations apparent in the rest (flavonoids or phenolic acids). Conclusions Among high-risk subjects, those who reported a high polyphenol intake, especially of stilbenes and lignans, showed a reduced risk of overall mortality compared to those

  10. Depression and Risk of Mortality in Individuals with Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijung; Katon, Wayne J.; Wolf, Fredric M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate risk of comorbid depression on all-cause mortality over time among individuals with diabetes METHODS Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Science Direct database were searched through September. 30, 2012. We limited our search to longitudinal or prospective studies reporting all-cause mortality among those having depression and diabetes, compared with those having diabetes alone that used hazard ratios as the main outcome. Two reviewers independently extracted primary data and evaluated quality of studies using predetermined criteria. The pooled random effects adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using meta-analysis. The impact of moderator variables on study effect size was examined with meta-regression. RESULTS A total of 42,363 respondents from 10 studies were included in the analysis. Depression was significantly associated with risk of mortality (Pooled HRs: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.66). Little evidence for heterogeneity was found across the studies (Cochran Q: 13.52, p-value: 0.20, I2: 26.03). No significant possibility of publication bias was detected (Egger’s regression intercept: 0.98, p-value: 0.23). CONCLUSION Depression significantly increases the risk of mortality among individuals with diabetes. Early detection and treatment of depression may improve health outcomes in this population. PMID:23415577

  11. Religion and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Oman, D; Reed, D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the prospective association between attending religious services and all-cause mortality to determine whether the association is explainable by 6 confounding factors: demographics, health status, physical functioning, health habits, social functioning and support, and psychological state. METHODS: The association between self-reported religious attendance and subsequent mortality over 5 years for 1931 older residents of Marin County, California, was examined by proportional hazards regression. Interaction terms of religion with social support were used to explore whether other forms of social support could substitute for religion and diminish its protective effect. RESULTS: Persons who attended religious services had lower mortality than those who did not (age- and sex-adjusted relative hazard [RH] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52, 0.78). Multivariate adjustment reduced this relationship only slightly (RH = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.94), primarily by including physical functioning and social support. Contrary to hypothesis, religious attendance tended to be slightly more protective for those with high social support. CONCLUSIONS: Lower mortality rates for those who attend religious services are only partly explained by the 6 possible confounders listed above. Psychodynamic and other explanations need further investigation. PMID:9772846

  12. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance

  13. The prognostic value of the plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level on all-cause death and major cardiovascular events in a community-based population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiwei; Xiao, Wenkai; Bai, Yongyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Gao, Peng; Wu, Hongmei; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has an important prognostic value for patients with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, etc, the prognostic significance of NT-proBNP levels in the general population has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of NT-proBNP in a community population. Methods This is a community-based prospective survey of residents from two communities in Beijing conducted for a routine health status checkup. Out of 1,860 individuals who were eligible for inclusion from 2007 to 2009, 1,499 completed a follow-up and were assessed for the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in 2013. A questionnaire was used for end point events. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured. Plasma NT-proBNP, creatinine, lipids, and glucose were determined. Results A total of 1,499 subjects with complete data were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into four groups according to baseline NT-proBNP levels (quartile 1, <19.8 pg/mL; quartile 2, 19.8–41.6 pg/mL; quartile 3, 41.7–81.8 pg/mL; quartile 4, ≥81.9 pg/mL). During a median 4.8-year follow-up period, the all-cause mortality rate rose from 0.8% in the lowest concentration NT-proBNP group (<19.8 pg/mL) to 7.8% in the highest NT-proBNP group (≥81.9 pg/mL; P<0.001). The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) increased from 3.1% in the lowest NT-proBNP group to 18.9% in the highest group (P<0.001). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP group (≥81.9 pg/mL) were associated with higher risk of all-cause death and MACEs compared with the lowest NT-proBNP group using Kaplan–Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors. Conclusion The plasma NT-proBNP level is a strong and independent prognosis factor for all-cause death and MACEs in the community population. The NT-proBNP cut-point for the

  14. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  15. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60–120) (median [5–95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as “obese” (O) or “non-obese” (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m2. People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered “metabolically unhealthy” (MU), while those with none were considered “metabolically healthy” (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21–1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63–2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74–0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57–0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  16. Body Mass Index and Mortality: A 10-Year Prospective Study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Gu, Meng-Jia; Shen, Peng; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Chen-Zheng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, You-Qing; Mayila, Mamat; Ye, Ding; Gu, Shi-Tong; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have evaluated the role of body weight as a risk factor for mortality, most studies have been conducted in Western populations and the findings remain controversial. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, China. At baseline, 384,533 subjects were recruited through the Yinzhou Health Information System between 2004 and 2009. The final analysis was restricted to 372,793 participants (178,333 men and 194,460 women) aged 18 years and older. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs). We found an increased risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with BMI levels <22.5-24.9, although several groups were not statistically significant-adjusted HRs for persons with BMIs of <15.0, 15.0-17.4, 17.5-19.9, and 20.0-22.4 were 1.61(95% CI: 1.17-2.23), 1.07(0.94-1.20), 1.04(0.98-1.10), 1.06(1.02-1.11), respectively. In the upper BMI range, subjects with BMIs of 25.0-34.9 had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses excluding smokers, those with prevalent chronic disease or those with less than four years of follow-up did not materially alter these results. Our findings provide evidence for an inverse association of BMI and mortality in this population. PMID:27546611

  17. Body Mass Index and Mortality: A 10-Year Prospective Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Gu, Meng-Jia; Shen, Peng; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Chen-Zheng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Wang, You-Qing; Mayila, Mamat; Ye, Ding; Gu, Shi-Tong; Lin, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have evaluated the role of body weight as a risk factor for mortality, most studies have been conducted in Western populations and the findings remain controversial. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, China. At baseline, 384,533 subjects were recruited through the Yinzhou Health Information System between 2004 and 2009. The final analysis was restricted to 372,793 participants (178,333 men and 194,460 women) aged 18 years and older. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios(HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs). We found an increased risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with BMI levels <22.5–24.9, although several groups were not statistically significant—adjusted HRs for persons with BMIs of <15.0, 15.0–17.4, 17.5–19.9, and 20.0–22.4 were 1.61(95% CI: 1.17–2.23), 1.07(0.94–1.20), 1.04(0.98–1.10), 1.06(1.02–1.11), respectively. In the upper BMI range, subjects with BMIs of 25.0–34.9 had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses excluding smokers, those with prevalent chronic disease or those with less than four years of follow-up did not materially alter these results. Our findings provide evidence for an inverse association of BMI and mortality in this population. PMID:27546611

  18. Black–White Differences in the Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Mortality Among US Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank B.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated Black–White differences in the association between average alcohol drinking patterns and all-cause mortality. Methods. We pooled nationally representative samples of 152 180 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2002 with mortality follow-up through 2006. Usual drinking days per week and level of alcohol consumed per day were based on self-report. We used race- and gender-specific Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to adjust for physical activity, smoking status, and other potential confounders. Results. Over 9 years, 13 366 deaths occurred from all causes. For men, the lowest multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for total mortality among drinkers was 0.81 among White men who consumed 1 to 2 drinks 3 to 7 days per week (compared with abstainers) and Black men who abstained. For women, the lowest mortality risk was among White women (HR = 0.71) consuming 1 drink per day 3 to 7 days per week and Black women (HR = 0.72) consuming 1 drink on 2 or fewer days per week. Conclusions. Risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in relation to mortality risk were dependent on race- and gender-specific drinking patterns. PMID:25905819

  19. Pre- and Postdiagnosis Physical Activity, Television Viewing, and Mortality Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. Methods We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Results Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). Conclusion LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. PMID:25488967

  20. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as a predictor of mortality in elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Li, Li-Hua; Huang, Qi-Fang; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Ming; Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Ge-Le; Song, Jie; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness and predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population and various patient populations. In the present study, we investigated the predictive value of brachial-ankle PWV for mortality in an elderly Chinese population. Our study subjects were older (≥60 years) persons living in a suburban town of Shanghai. We measured brachial-ankle PWV using an automated cuff device at baseline and collected vital information till June 30, 2013, during follow-up. The 3876 participants (1713 [44.2%] men; mean [±SD] age, 68.1±7.3 years) included 2292 (59.1%) hypertensive patients. PWV was on average 17.8 (±4.0) m/s and was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with age (r=0.48) and in unadjusted analysis with all-cause (n=316), cardiovascular (n=148), stroke (n=46), and noncardiovascular mortality (n=168) during a median follow-up of 5.9 years. In further adjusted analysis, we studied the risk of mortality according to the decile distributions of PWV. Only the subjects in the top decile (23.3-39.3 m/s) had a significantly (P≤0.003) higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio relative to the whole study population, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.08), especially in hypertensive patients (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.64; P=0.02 for the interaction between PWV and hypertension). Similar trends were observed for cardiovascular, stroke, and noncardiovascular mortality, although statistical significance was not reached (P≥0.08). In conclusion, brachial-ankle PWV predicts mortality in elderly Chinese on the conditions of markedly increased PWV and hypertension. PMID:25259749

  1. Latino risk-adjusted mortality in the men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Avis J; Eberly, Lynn E; Neaton, James D; Smith, George Davey

    2005-09-15

    Latinos are now the largest minority in the United States, but their distinctive health needs and mortality patterns remain poorly understood. Proportional hazards regressions were used to compare Latino versus White risk- and income-adjusted mortality over 25 years' follow-up from 5,846 Latino and 300,647 White men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Men were aged 35-57 years and residing in 14 states when screened in 1973-1975. Data on coronary heart disease risk factors, self-reported race/ethnicity, and home addresses were obtained at baseline; income was estimated by linking addresses to census data. Mortality follow-up through 1999 was obtained using the National Death Index. The fully adjusted Latino/White hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 0.87), based on 1,085 Latino and 73,807 White deaths; this pattern prevailed over time and across states (thus, likely across Latino subgroups). Hazard ratios were significantly greater than one for stroke (hazard ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.68), liver cancer (hazard ratio = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.37), and infection (hazard ratio = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). A substudy found only minor racial/ethnic differences in the quality of Social Security numbers, birth dates, soundex-adjusted names, and National Death Index searches. Results were not likely an artifact of return migration or incomplete mortality data. PMID:16076831

  2. A Retrospective Study of the Clinical Burden of Hospitalized All-Cause and Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Shelly A.; Qizilbash, Nawab; Ye, Jian; Gray, Sharon; Zanotti, Giovanni; Munson, Samantha; Dartois, Nathalie; Laferriere, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background. Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in Canada for infants, the elderly, and individuals with chronic comorbidity. National incidence and burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia in Canada (excluding Quebec) were assessed. Methods. Incidence, length of stay, and case-fatality rates of hospitalized all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia were determined for 2004–2010 using ICD-10 discharge data from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Population-at-risk data were obtained from the Statistics Canada census. Temporal changes in pneumococcal and all-cause pneumonia rates in adults ≥65 years were analyzed by logistic regression. Results. Hospitalization for all-cause pneumonia was highest in children <5 years and in adults >70 years and declined significantly from 1766/100,000 to 1537/100,000 per year in individuals aged ≥65 years (P < 0.001). Overall hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia also declined from 6.40/100,000 to 5.08/100,000 per year. Case-fatality rates were stable (11.6% to 12.3%). Elderly individuals had longer length of stay and higher case-fatality rates than younger groups. Conclusions. All-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates declined between 2004 and 2010 in Canada (excluding Quebec). Direct and indirect effects from pediatric pneumococcal immunization may partly explain some of this decline. Nevertheless, the burden of disease from pneumonia remains high. PMID:27445530

  3. The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: a six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession.

    PubMed

    Garcy, Anthony M; Vågerö, Denny

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes

  4. Ethnic differences in the relationships between diabetes, early age adiposity and mortality among breast cancer survivors: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Avonne E; Visvanathan, Kala; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Boone, Stephanie D; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; John, Esther M; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of type 2 diabetes and obesity on mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients has not been well studied among Hispanic women, in whom these exposures are highly prevalent. In a multi-center population-based study, we examined the associations between diabetes, multiple obesity measures, and mortality in 1180 Hispanic and 1298 non-Hispanic white (NHW) women who were diagnosed with incident invasive BC from the San Francisco Bay Area, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The median follow-up time from BC diagnosis to death was 10.8 years. In ethnic-stratified results, the association for BC-specific mortality among Hispanics was significantly increased (HR 1.85 95 % CI 1.11, 3.09), but the ethnic interaction was not statistically significant. In contrast, obesity at age 30 increased BC-specific mortality risk in NHW women (HR 2.33 95 % CI 1.36, 3.97) but not Hispanics (p-interaction = 0.045). Although there were no ethnic differences for all-cause mortality, diabetes, obesity at age 30, and post-diagnostic waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all women. This study provides evidence that diabetes and adiposity, both modifiable, are prognostic factors among Hispanic and NHW BC patients. PMID:27116186

  5. Risk factors for mortality among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a single-centre retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jegatheswaran, Januvi; Pepe, Daniel Luke; Priestap, Fran; Delport, Johan; Haeryfar, S.M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Given the paucity of recent Canadian data, we estimated the mortality rate associated with S. aureus bacteremia in a tertiary care hospital and identified risk factors associated with mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of adults with S. aureus bacteremia admitted to a tertiary care centre in southwestern Ontario between 2008 and 2012. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between predictor variables and all-cause, in-hospital, and 90-day postdischarge mortality. Results Of the 925 patients involved in the study, 196 (21.2%) died in hospital and 62 (6.7%) died within 90 days after discharge. Risk factors associated with in-hospital and all-cause mortality included age, sepsis (adjusted hazard ratio [adjusted HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.06, p = 0.02), admission to the intensive care unit (adjusted HR 3.78, 95% CI 2.85–5.02, p < 0.0001), hepatic failure (adjusted HR 3.36, 95% CI 1.91–5.90, p < 0.0001) and metastatic cancer (adjusted HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.77–3.75, p < 0.0001). Methicillin resistance, hepatic failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metastatic cancer were associated with postdischarge mortality. Interpretation The all-cause mortality rate in our cohort was 27.9%. Identification of predictors of mortality may guide empiric therapy and provide prognostic clarity for patients with S. aureus bacteremia. PMID:25553328

  6. Obesity and Mortality After Breast Cancer by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model–estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI–mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24107615

  7. Chronic musculoskeletal complaints as a predictor of mortality-The HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Anders N; Stovner, Lars J; Zwart, John-Anker; Winsvold, Bendik S; Heuch, Ingrid; Hagen, Knut

    2016-07-01

    The impact of chronic musculoskeletal complaints (CMSC) and chronic widespread chronic musculoskeletal complaints (CWMSC) on mortality is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between these conditions and mortality. In this prospective population-based cohort study from Norway, baseline data from the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2, performed 1995-1997) were linked to the comprehensive National Cause of Death Registry in Norway with follow-up through the year 2011. A total of 65,026 individuals (70%) participated and were categorized based on their response to CMSC questions in HUNT2 (no CMSC, CMSC, or CWMSC). Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality during a mean of 14.1 years of follow-up were estimated using Cox regression. During the follow-up period, 12,521 subjects died, 5162 from cardiovascular diseases, 3478 from cancer, and 3881 from all other causes. In the multivariate-adjusted analyses, there was no difference in all-cause mortality between individuals with or without CMSC (HR 1.01, confidence interval, 0.97-1.05) and CWMSC (HR 1.01, confidence interval, 0.96-1.05). Similarly, there was no association between CMSC or CWMSC and cardiovascular mortality, mortality from cancer, or mortality from all other causes. Therefore, from this study, we conclude that there is no evidence for a higher mortality rate among individuals with CMSC or CWMSC. PMID:26919487

  8. Impact of Mean Platelet Volume on Long-Term Mortality in Chinese Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xi-peng; Li, Bo-yu; Li, Jing; Zhu, Wei-wei; Hua, Qi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between mean platelet volume (MPV) and risk of all-cause mortality in Chinese patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). We enrolled 1836 patients with STEMI in Xuanwu Hospital from January 2008 to December 2013. Based on MPV, patients were categorized into the following groups: <9.5 fL (n = 85), 9.5–11.0 fL (n = 776), 11.1–12.5 fL (n = 811) and >12.5 fL (n = 164), respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 56.9 months, and 197 patients (10.7%) died during follow-up. All-cause mortality rates were compared between groups. The lowest mortality occurred in patients with MPV between 9.5–11.0 fL, with a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15(95%CI 0.62–1.50), 1.38(95%CI 1.20–1.68), and 1.72(95%CI 1.41–1.96) in patients with MPV of <.5, 11.1–12.5 and >12.5 fL, respectively. Therefore, increased MPV was associated with all-cause mortality in Chinese patients with STEMI. MPV might be useful as a marker for risk stratification in Chinese patients with STEMI. PMID:26879002

  9. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality: a prospective cohort study1234

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Matthews, Charles E; Kamensky, Victor; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Rohan, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several health agencies have issued guidelines promoting behaviors to reduce chronic disease risk; however, little is known about the impact of such guidelines, particularly on cancer incidence. Objective: The objective was to determine whether greater adherence to the American Cancer Society (ACS) cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. Design: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 566,401 adults aged 50–71 y at recruitment in 1995–1996, was followed for a median of 10.5 y for cancer incidence, 12.6 y for cancer mortality, and 13.6 y for total mortality. Participants who reported a history of cancer or who had missing data were excluded, yielding 476,396 subjects for analysis. We constructed a 5-level score measuring adherence to ACS guidelines, which included baseline body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, and several aspects of diet. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute HRs and 95% CIs for the association of the adherence score with cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and total mortality. All analyses included fine adjustment for cigarette smoking. Results: Among 476,396 participants, 73,784 incident first cancers, 16,193 cancer deaths, and 81,433 deaths from all causes were identified in the cohort. Adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with reduced risk of all cancers combined: HRs (95% CIs) for the highest compared with the lowest level of adherence were 0.90 (0.87, 0.93) in men and 0.81 (0.77, 0.84) in women. Fourteen of 25 specific cancer sites showed a reduction in risk associated with increased adherence. Adherence was also associated with reduced cancer mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.75 (0.70, 0.80) in men and 0.76 (0.70, 0.83) in women] and reduced all-cause mortality [HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) in men and 0.67 (0.65, 0.70) in women]. Conclusions: In both men and women, adherence to the

  10. β-Blocker use and mortality in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shanliang; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Sujin; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Shukui

    2016-09-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have attempted to link the use of β blockers to mortality in cancer patients, but their findings have been inconclusive. A meta-analysis was carried out to derive a more precise estimation. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE to May 2015. We calculated the summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Twenty cohort studies and four case-control studies involving 76 538 participants were included. The overall results showed that patients who used β blockers after diagnosis had an HR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.81-0.98) for all-cause mortality compared with nonusers. Those who used β blockers after diagnosis (vs. nonusers) had an HR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.79-0.99) for cancer-specific mortality. Prediagnostic use of β blockers showed no beneficial effect on all-cause mortality or cancer-specific mortality. Stratifying by cancer type, only breast cancer patients who used β blockers after diagnosis had a prolonged overall survival. A linear but nonsignificant trend was found between postdiagnostic β-blocker use and mortality of cancer patients. In conclusion, the average effect of β-blocker use after diagnosis but not before diagnosis is beneficial for the survival of cancer patients. PMID:26340056

  11. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  12. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES)

    PubMed Central

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406

  13. The FoxO3 gene and cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Bradley J; Tranah, Gregory J; Chen, Randi; Morris, Brian J; Masaki, Kamal H; He, Qimei; Willcox, D Craig; Allsopp, Richard C; Moisyadi, Stefan; Poon, Leonard W; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Cummings, Steven R; Liu, Yongmei; Parimi, Neeta; Evans, Daniel S; Davy, Phil; Gerschenson, Mariana; Donlon, Timothy A

    2016-08-01

    The G allele of the FOXO3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2802292 exhibits a consistently replicated genetic association with longevity in multiple populations worldwide. The aims of this study were to quantify the mortality risk for the longevity-associated genotype and to discover the particular cause(s) of death associated with this allele in older Americans of diverse ancestry. It involved a 17-year prospective cohort study of 3584 older American men of Japanese ancestry from the Honolulu Heart Program cohort, followed by a 17-year prospective replication study of 1595 white and 1056 black elderly individuals from the Health Aging and Body Composition cohort. The relation between FOXO3 genotype and cause-specific mortality was ascertained for major causes of death including coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and stroke. Age-adjusted and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We found G allele carriers had a combined (Japanese, white, and black populations) risk reduction of 10% for total (all-cause) mortality (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.95; P = 0.001). This effect size was consistent across populations and mostly contributed by 26% lower risk for CHD death (HR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.86; P = 0.00004). No other causes of death made a significant contribution to the survival advantage for G allele carriers. In conclusion, at older age, there is a large risk reduction in mortality for G allele carriers, mostly due to lower CHD mortality. The findings support further research on FOXO3 and FoxO3 protein as potential targets for therapeutic intervention in aging-related diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease. PMID:27071935

  14. Past Decline Versus Current eGFR and Subsequent Mortality Risk.

    PubMed

    Naimark, David M J; Grams, Morgan E; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Black, Corri; Drion, Iefke; Fox, Caroline S; Inker, Lesley A; Ishani, Areef; Jee, Sun Ha; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lea, Janice P; Nally, Joseph; Peralta, Carmen Alicia; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ryu, Seungho; Tonelli, Marcello; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Coresh, Josef; Gansevoort, Ron T; Warnock, David G; Woodward, Mark; de Jong, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    A single determination of eGFR associates with subsequent mortality risk. Prior decline in eGFR indicates loss of kidney function, but the relationship to mortality risk is uncertain. We conducted an individual-level meta-analysis of the risk of mortality associated with antecedent eGFR slope, adjusting for established risk factors, including last eGFR, among 1.2 million subjects from 12 CKD and 22 other cohorts within the CKD Prognosis Consortium. Over a 3-year antecedent period, 12% of participants in the CKD cohorts and 11% in the other cohorts had an eGFR slope <-5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, whereas 7% and 4% had a slope >5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, respectively. Compared with a slope of 0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, a slope of -6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year associated with adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.25 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.09 to 1.44) among CKD cohorts and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.31) among other cohorts during a follow-up of 3.2 years. A slope of +6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year also associated with higher all-cause mortality risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.58 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.95) among CKD cohorts and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.84) among other cohorts. Results were similar for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes of death and stronger for longer antecedent periods (3 versus <3 years). We conclude that prior decline or rise in eGFR associates with an increased risk of mortality, independent of current eGFR. PMID:26657865

  15. Meta-Analysis of Cardiac Mortality in Three Cohorts of Carbon Black Production Workers

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Peter; Mundt, Kenneth A.; Dell, Linda D.; Sorahan, Tom; McCunney, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between airborne environmental particle exposure and cardiac disease and mortality; however, few have examined such effects from poorly soluble particles of low toxicity such as manufactured carbon black (CB) particles in the work place. We combined standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and Cox proportional hazards results from cohort studies of US, UK and German CB production workers. Under a common protocol, we analysed mortality from all causes, heart disease (HD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fixed and random effects (RE) meta-regression models were fit for employment duration, and for overall cumulative and lugged quantitative CB exposure estimates. Full cohort meta-SMRs (RE) were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79–1.29) for HD; 1.02 (95% CI 0.80–1.30) for IHD, and 1.08 (95% CI 0.74–1.59) for AMI mortality. For all three outcomes, meta-SMRs were heterogeneous, increased with time since first and time since last exposure, and peaked after 25–29 or 10–14 years, respectively. Meta-Cox coefficients showed no association with lugged duration of exposure. A small but imprecise increased AMI mortality risk was suggested for cumulative exposure (RE-hazards ratio (HR) = 1.10 per 100 mg/m3-years; 95% CI 0.92–1.31), but not for lugged exposures. Our results do not demonstrate that airborne CB exposure increases all-cause or cardiac disease mortality. PMID:27005647

  16. Effect of Blood Cadmium Level on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies of general populations indicated environmental exposure to low-level cadmium increases mortality. However, the effect of cadmium exposure on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients is unclear.A total of 937 MHD patients from 3 centers in Taiwan were enrolled in this 36-month observational study. Patients were stratified by baseline blood cadmium level (BCL) into 3 groups: high BCL (>0.521 μg/L; n = 312), intermediate BCL (0.286-0.521 μg/L; n = 313), and low BCL (<0.286 μg/L; n = 312). The mortality rates and causes of death were analyzed.The analytic results demonstrated patients in the high BCL group had a significantly higher prevalence of malnutrition and inflammation than patients in the low and intermediate BCL groups. After 3 years of follow-up, 164 (17.5%) patients died and the major cause of death was cardiovascular disease. A Cox multivariate analysis indicated the high BCL group had increased hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.63; P = 0.018), cardiovascular-related mortality (HR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.09-3.23; P = 0.032), and infection-related mortality (HR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.12-4.55; P = 0.035). A Cox multivariate analysis of MHD patients who never smoked (n = 767) indicated the high BCL group had increased HRs for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.04-2.63; P = 0.048) and cardiovascular-related mortality (HR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08-4.00; P = 0.044).In conclusion, BCL is an important determinant of mortality in MHD patients. Therefore, MHD patients should avoid cadmium exposure as much as possible, such as tobacco smoking and eating cadmium-containing foods. PMID:26496294

  17. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and total and cause-specific mortality among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Sandin, Sven; Löf, Marie; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-06-01

    Several healthy dietary patterns have been linked to longevity. Recently, a Nordic dietary pattern was associated with a lower overall mortality. No study has, however, investigated this dietary pattern in relation to cause-specific mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (consisting of wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish/shellfish) and overall mortality, and death by cardiovascular disease, cancer, injuries/suicide and other causes. We conducted a prospective analysis in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 44,961 women, aged 29-49 years, who completed a food frequency questionnaire between 1991-1992, and have been followed up for mortality ever since, through Swedish registries. The median follow-up time is 21.3 years, and mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. Compared to women with the lowest index score (0-1 points), those with the highest score (4-6 points) had an 18% lower overall mortality (MRR 0.82; 0.71-0.93, p < 0.0004). A 1-point increment in the healthy Nordic food index was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality: 6% (3-9%), cancer mortality: 5% (1-9%) and mortality from other causes: 16% (8-22%). When examining the diet components individually, only wholegrain bread and apples/pears were significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality. We observed no effect-modification by smoking status, BMI or age at baseline. The present study encourages adherence to a healthy Nordic food index, and warrants further investigation of the strong association with non-cancer, non-cardiovascular and non-injury/suicide deaths. PMID:25784368

  18. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  19. Parathyroidectomy Associates with Reduced Mortality in Taiwanese Dialysis Patients with Hyperparathyroidism: Evidence for the Controversy of Current Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Li-Chun; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Kuo, Te-Hui; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Wu, Jia-Ling; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Sung, Junne-Ming; Sung, Junne-Ming; Wang, Jung-Der; Li, Chung-Yi; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Kuo, Te-Hui; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Ho, Li-Chun; Wu, Jia-Ling; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Miao-Fen; Wu, Hung-Lien; Chen, Ping-Yu; Li, Wen-Huang; Chang, Wei-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroidectomy is recommended by the clinical guidelines for dialysis patients with unremitting secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, the survival advantage of parathyroidectomy is debated because of the selection bias in previous studies. To minimize potential bias in the present nationwide cohort study, we enrolled only dialysis patients who had undergone radionuclide parathyroid scanning to ensure all patients had severe SHPT. The parathyroidectomized patients were matched with the controls based on propensity score for parathyroidectomy. Mortality hazard was estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for comorbidities before scanning (model 1) or over the whole study period (model 2). Our results showed that among the 2786 enrolled patients, 1707 underwent parathyroidectomy, and the other 1079 were controls. The crude mortality rates were lower in the parathyroidectomized patients than in the controls. In adjusted analyses for the population matched on propensity score, parathyroidectomy was associated with a significant 20% to 25% lower risk for all-cause mortality (model 1: hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.94; model 2: hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence internal 0.64 to 0.98). We concluded that parathyroidectomy was associated with a reduced long-term mortality risk in dialysis patients with severe SHPT. PMID:26758515

  20. Parathyroidectomy Associates with Reduced Mortality in Taiwanese Dialysis Patients with Hyperparathyroidism: Evidence for the Controversy of Current Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Li-Chun; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Kuo, Te-Hui; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Wu, Jia-Ling; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Sung, Junne-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroidectomy is recommended by the clinical guidelines for dialysis patients with unremitting secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, the survival advantage of parathyroidectomy is debated because of the selection bias in previous studies. To minimize potential bias in the present nationwide cohort study, we enrolled only dialysis patients who had undergone radionuclide parathyroid scanning to ensure all patients had severe SHPT. The parathyroidectomized patients were matched with the controls based on propensity score for parathyroidectomy. Mortality hazard was estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for comorbidities before scanning (model 1) or over the whole study period (model 2). Our results showed that among the 2786 enrolled patients, 1707 underwent parathyroidectomy, and the other 1079 were controls. The crude mortality rates were lower in the parathyroidectomized patients than in the controls. In adjusted analyses for the population matched on propensity score, parathyroidectomy was associated with a significant 20% to 25% lower risk for all-cause mortality (model 1: hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.94; model 2: hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence internal 0.64 to 0.98). We concluded that parathyroidectomy was associated with a reduced long-term mortality risk in dialysis patients with severe SHPT. PMID:26758515

  1. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary findings from the MDRD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In the general population, physical activity is associated with reduced mortality. We examined physical activity status in CKD patients and its relation to all-cause mortality. The Modified...

  2. Impact of oral beta-blocker therapy on mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for Killip class 1 myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Hirofumi; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Kashima, Yuichirou; Miura, Takashi; Ebisawa, Souichirou; Tomita, Takeshi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-05-01

    The use of beta-blockers therapy has been recommended to reduce mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which has become the mainstay of treatment for AMI, is associated with a lower mortality than fibrinolysis. The benefits of beta-blockers after primary PCI in AMI patients without pump failure are unclear. We hypothesized that oral beta-blocker therapy after primary PCI might reduce the mortality in AMI patients without pump failure. The assessment of lipophilic vs. hydrophilic statin therapy in acute myocardial infarction (ALPS-AMI) study was a multi-center study that enrolled 508 AMI patients to compare the efficacy of hydrophilic and lipophilic statins in secondary prevention after myocardial infarction. We prospectively tracked cardiovascular events for 3 years in 444 ALPS-AMI patients (median age 66 years; 18.2 % women) who had Killip class 1 on admission and were discharged alive. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The 3-year follow-up was completed in 413 patients (93.0 %). During this follow-up, 21 patients (4.7 %) died. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients on beta-blockers had a significantly lower incidence of all-cause mortality (2.7 vs. 7.3 %, log-rank p = 0.025). After adjusting for the calculated propensity score for using beta-blockers, their use remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.309; 95 % confidence interval 0.116-0.824; p = 0.019). In the statin era, the use of beta-blocker therapy after primary PCI is associated with lower mortality in AMI patients with Killip class 1 on admission. PMID:25863805

  3. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  4. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. Conclusions The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. PMID:23497300

  5. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  6. Associations Between Fine Particulate Matter Components and Daily Mortality in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kayo; Yamagami, Makiko; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation and regional heterogeneity have been observed in the estimated effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass on mortality. Differences in the chemical compositions of PM2.5 may cause this variation. We investigated the association of the daily concentration of PM2.5 components with mortality in Nagoya, Japan. Methods We combined daily mortality counts for all residents aged 65 years and older with concentration data for PM2.5 mass and components in Nagoya from April 2003 to December 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the association of daily mortality with PM2.5 mass and each component (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, elemental carbon [EC], and organic carbon [OC]). Results We found a stronger association between mortality and PM2.5 mass in transitional seasons. In analysis for each PM2.5 component, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, potassium, EC, and OC were significantly associated with mortality in a single-pollutant model. In a multi-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase in the concentration of sulfate was marginally associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 2.1% (95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 4.4). Conclusions These findings suggest that some specific PM components have a more hazardous effect than others and contribute to seasonal variation in the health effects of PM2.5. PMID:26686882

  7. Determinants of Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Papachristidis, Alexandros; Lim, Wei Yao; Voukalis, Christos; Ayis, Salma; Laing, Christopher; Rakhit, Roby D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal impairment is a known predictor of mortality in both the general population and in patients with cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that determine mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods In this study we included 293 consecutive patients with CKD who underwent PCI between 1st January 2007 and 30th September 2012. The primary outcome that we studied was all-cause mortality in a follow-up period of 12-69 months (mean 38.8 ± 21.7). Results Age (p < 0.001), PCI indication (p = 0.035), CKD stage (p < 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.001) were significantly related to mortality. CKD stage 5 [hazard ratio (HR) = 6.39, 95% CI: 1.51-27.12) and severely impaired left ventricular function (HR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.15-7.59) were the strongest predictors of mortality. Other factors tested (gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, established peripheral vascular disease/stroke, coronary arteries intervened, number of vessels treated, number of stents implanted and length of lesion treated) did not show any correlation with mortality. Conclusions The mortality of patients with CKD undergoing PCI increases with age, worsening CKD stage and deteriorating left ventricular systolic function, and it is also higher in patients with acute coronary syndromes compared to those with stable coronary artery disease.

  8. Is there a reverse J-shaped association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality? Results from the US Nationally Representative NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration or threshold of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] needed to maximally suppress intact serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) has been suggested as a measure of optimal vitamin D status. Depending upon the definition of maximal suppression of iPTH and the two-phase regression approach used, ...

  9. 122 CITIES MORTALITY REPORTING SYSTEM (122 MRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This system compiles summary mortality data by age group for all-causes and pneumonia and influenza as reported by Vital Statistic Registrars and Reporters within 122 U.S. cities. Additional information and access to a query system linked to 122 Cities Mortality data is available...

  10. Clinically diagnosed insomnia and risk of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Catarina; Alexanderson, Kristina; Kecklund, Göran; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Background. Insomnia and disability pension are major health problems, but few population-based studies have examined the association between insomnia and risk of disability pension. Methods. We conducted a prospective nationwide cohort study based on Swedish population-based registers including all 5,028,922 individuals living in Sweden on December 31, 2004/2005, aged 17-64 years, and not on disability or old age pension. Those having at least one admission/specialist visit with a diagnosis of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (insomnias) (ICD-10: G47.0) during 2000/2001-2005 were compared to those with no such inpatient/outpatient care. All-cause and diagnosis-specific incident disability pension were followed from 2006 to 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox regression. Results. In models adjusted for prior sickness absence, sociodemographic factors, and inpatient/specialized outpatient care, associations between insomnia and increased risks of all-cause disability pension (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.67) and disability pension due to mental diagnoses (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.38-2.50) were observed. After further adjustment for insomnia medications these associations disappeared. No associations between insomnia and risk of disability pension due to cancer, circulatory, or musculoskeletal diagnoses were observed. Conclusion. Insomnia seems to be positively associated with all-cause disability pension and disability pension due to mental diagnoses. PMID:24490078

  11. Clinically Diagnosed Insomnia and Risk of All-Cause and Diagnosis-Specific Disability Pension: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexanderson, Kristina; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Background. Insomnia and disability pension are major health problems, but few population-based studies have examined the association between insomnia and risk of disability pension. Methods. We conducted a prospective nationwide cohort study based on Swedish population-based registers including all 5,028,922 individuals living in Sweden on December 31, 2004/2005, aged 17–64 years, and not on disability or old age pension. Those having at least one admission/specialist visit with a diagnosis of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (insomnias) (ICD-10: G47.0) during 2000/2001–2005 were compared to those with no such inpatient/outpatient care. All-cause and diagnosis-specific incident disability pension were followed from 2006 to 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox regression. Results. In models adjusted for prior sickness absence, sociodemographic factors, and inpatient/specialized outpatient care, associations between insomnia and increased risks of all-cause disability pension (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09–1.67) and disability pension due to mental diagnoses (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.38–2.50) were observed. After further adjustment for insomnia medications these associations disappeared. No associations between insomnia and risk of disability pension due to cancer, circulatory, or musculoskeletal diagnoses were observed. Conclusion. Insomnia seems to be positively associated with all-cause disability pension and disability pension due to mental diagnoses. PMID:24490078

  12. Association of urinary injury biomarkers with mortality and cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Sarnak, Mark J; Katz, Ronit; Newman, Anne; Harris, Tamara; Peralta, Carmen A; Devarajan, Prasad; Bennett, Michael R; Fried, Linda; Ix, Joachim H; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Parikh, Chirag R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2014-07-01

    Kidney damage is a common sequela of several chronic pathologic conditions. Whether biomarkers of kidney damage are prognostic for more severe outcomes is unknown. We measured three urinary biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], IL-18, and albumin) in 3010 individuals enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study and used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations of urinary KIM-1/creatinine (cr), IL-18/cr, and albumin/cr (ACR) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multivariable models adjusted for demographics, traditional CVD risk factors, and eGFR. Mean age of participants was 74 years, 49% of participants were men, and 41% of participants were black. During the median 12.4 years of follow-up, 1450 deaths and 797 CVD outcomes occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile, successive quartiles had the following adjusted hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) for mortality: KIM-1/cr: (1.21; 1.03 to 1.41), (1.13; 0.96 to 1.34), and (1.28; 1.08 to 1.52); IL-18/cr: (1.02; 0.88 to 1.19), (1.16; 0.99 to 1.35), and (1.06; 0.90 to 1.25); ACR: (1.08; 0.91 to 1.27), (1.24; 1.06 to 1.46), and (1.63; 1.39 to 1.91). In similar analyses, only ACR quartiles associated with CVD: (1.19; 0.95 to 1.48), (1.35; 1.08 to 1.67), and (1.54; 1.24 to 1.91). Urinary KIM-1 had a modest association with all-cause mortality but did not associate with CVD, and urinary IL-18 did not associate with either outcome. In contrast, albuminuria strongly associated with all-cause mortality and CVD. Future studies should evaluate reasons for these differences in the prognostic importance of individual kidney injury markers. PMID:24511130

  13. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    PubMed Central

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-01-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than two months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1168 workers of the same industry employed one year or more, previously studied in similar fashion. Interviews among a random sample of 52 workers employed for less than two months seem to indicate that the prevalence of smoking, exposures to asbestos, and occupational accidents in other hazardous industries were higher for these workers than for the reference population. Furthermore, unmarried men were overrepresented among the study cohort. These findings support previous observations indicating that short term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes. It is suggested that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies. PMID:3663526

  14. Associations of mortality with own height using son's height as an instrumental variable

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Fraser, Abigail; Davey Smith, George; May, Margaret; Palmer, Tom; Sterne, Jonathan; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Height is associated with mortality from many diseases, but it remains unclear whether the association is causal or due to confounding by social factors, genetic pleiotropy,1 or existing ill-health. The authors investigated whether the association of height with mortality is causal by using a son's height as an instrumental variable (IV) for parents’ height among the parents of a cohort of 1,036,963 Swedish men born between 1951 and 1980 who had their height measured at military conscription, aged around 18, between 1969 and 2001. In a two-sample IV analysis adjusting for son's age at examination and secular trends in height, as well as parental age, and socioeconomic position, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause paternal mortality per standard deviation (SD, 6.49 cm) of height was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.96). The results of IV analyses of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, cancer, external causes and suicide were comparable to those obtained using son's height as a simple proxy for own height and to conventional analyses of own height in the present data and elsewhere, suggesting that such conventional analyses are not substantially confounded by existing ill-health. PMID:22560304

  15. Associations of mortality with own height using son's height as an instrumental variable.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Fraser, Abigail; Davey Smith, George; May, Margaret; Palmer, Tom; Sterne, Jonathan; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-07-01

    Height is associated with mortality from many diseases, but it remains unclear whether the association is causal or due to confounding by social factors, genetic pleiotropy,(1) or existing ill-health. The authors investigated whether the association of height with mortality is causal by using a son's height as an instrumental variable (IV) for parents' height among the parents of a cohort of 1,036,963 Swedish men born between 1951 and 1980 who had their height measured at military conscription, aged around 18, between 1969 and 2001. In a two-sample IV analysis adjusting for son's age at examination and secular trends in height, as well as parental age, and socioeconomic position, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause paternal mortality per standard deviation (SD, 6.49cm) of height was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.96). The results of IV analyses of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, cancer, external causes and suicide were comparable to those obtained using son's height as a simple proxy for own height and to conventional analyses of own height in the present data and elsewhere, suggesting that such conventional analyses are not substantially confounded by existing ill-health. PMID:22560304

  16. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With Higher 1-year All-Cause Rehospitalization Rates in Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Grillo, Cristina; Scala, Luca; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Zoppini, Giacomo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Repeat hospitalization due to acute heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem that markedly impacts on health resource use. Identifying novel predictors of rehospitalization would help physicians to determine the optimal postdischarge plan for preventing HF rehospitalization. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for many heart diseases, including HF. We assessed whether NAFLD at hospital admission predicts 1-year all-cause rehospitalization in patients with acute HF. We enrolled all patients consecutively admitted for acute HF to our General Medicine Division, from January 2013 to April 2014, after excluding patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe heart valve diseases, malignancy, known liver diseases, and those with volume overload related to extracardiac causes. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and exclusion of competing etiologies. The primary outcome of the study was the 1-year all-cause rehospitalization rate. Among the 107 patients enrolled in the study, the cumulative rehospitalization rate was 12.1% at 1 month, 25.2% at 3 months, 29.9% at 6 months, and 38.3% at 1 year. Patients with NAFLD had markedly higher 1-year rehospitalization rates than those without NAFLD (58% vs 21% at 1 y; P < 0.001 by the log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 5.56, 95% confidence interval 2.46-12.1, P < 0.001) after adjustment for multiple HF risk factors and potential confounders. In conclusion, NAFLD was independently associated with higher 1-year rehospitalization in patients hospitalized for acute HF. PMID:26886619

  17. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With Higher 1-year All-Cause Rehospitalization Rates in Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Grillo, Cristina; Scala, Luca; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Zoppini, Giacomo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D.; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Repeat hospitalization due to acute heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem that markedly impacts on health resource use. Identifying novel predictors of rehospitalization would help physicians to determine the optimal postdischarge plan for preventing HF rehospitalization. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for many heart diseases, including HF. We assessed whether NAFLD at hospital admission predicts 1-year all-cause rehospitalization in patients with acute HF. We enrolled all patients consecutively admitted for acute HF to our General Medicine Division, from January 2013 to April 2014, after excluding patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe heart valve diseases, malignancy, known liver diseases, and those with volume overload related to extracardiac causes. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and exclusion of competing etiologies. The primary outcome of the study was the 1-year all-cause rehospitalization rate. Among the 107 patients enrolled in the study, the cumulative rehospitalization rate was 12.1% at 1 month, 25.2% at 3 months, 29.9% at 6 months, and 38.3% at 1 year. Patients with NAFLD had markedly higher 1-year rehospitalization rates than those without NAFLD (58% vs 21% at 1 y; P < 0.001 by the log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 5.56, 95% confidence interval 2.46–12.1, P < 0.001) after adjustment for multiple HF risk factors and potential confounders. In conclusion, NAFLD was independently associated with higher 1-year rehospitalization in patients hospitalized for acute HF. PMID:26886619

  18. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  19. Longitudinal Trends in Hypertension Management and Mortality Among Octogenarians: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dregan, Alex; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Hazra, Nisha; Hamada, Shota; Jackson, Stephen H D; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    The role of hypertension management among octogenarians is controversial. In this long-term follow-up (>10 years) study, we estimated trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among octogenarians, and evaluated the relationship of systolic blood pressure (SBP) ranges with mortality. Data were based on the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Outcome measures were hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control, and cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality events. Participants were separated into 8 categories of SBP values (<110, 110-119, 120-129, 130-139, 140-149, 150-159, 160-169, and >169 mm Hg). Among 2692 octogenarians, mean SBP levels declined from 147 mm Hg in 1998/2000 to 134 mm Hg in 2012/2013. The decline was of lower magnitude in the 50 to 79 years old subgroup (n=22007). Hypertension prevalence and awareness were 40% and 13%, respectively, higher among octogenarians than the 50 to 79 years of age subgroup, but hypertension treatment rates were similar (≈90%). Around 47% of the treated octogenarians achieved conventional BP targets (<140/90 mm Hg), increasing to 59% when assessed against revised targets (<150/90 mm Hg). All-cause mortality rates were higher (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.72) at lower extremes of SBP values (<110 mm Hg). The lowest cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality risk among treated octogenarians was observed for an SBP range of 140 to 149 mm Hg (1.04, 0.60-1.78) and 160 to 169 mm Hg (0.78, 0.51-1.21). An increasing trend in hypertension awareness and treatment was observed in a large sample of community-dwelling octogenarians. The results do not support the view that more stringent BP targets may be associated with lower mortality. PMID:27160194

  20. Dietary patterns predict mortality in a national cohort: the National Health Interview Surveys, 1987 and 1992.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association of mortality and dietary patterns using data from the National Health Interview Surveys of 1987 and 1992 (n = 10,084), aged >/=45 y at baseline (with 2287 deaths due to all causes over 5.9 median years of follow-up). The approximately 60-item FFQ administered at baseline was examined for mentions of foods and dietary behaviors recommended in current dietary guidance (fruits, vegetables, lean poultry and alternates, low-fat dairy, and whole grains), and the resulting patterns were expressed as follows: 1) a Recommended Foods and Behavior Score (RFBS), 2) factor scores from factor analysis, and 3) clusters from cluster analysis. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality for each of the 3 types of dietary patterns was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In men, RR of all-cause mortality was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92, P for trend < 0.001) for RFBS, and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.95, P for trend = 0.002) for the fruit-vegetable-whole grain factor score when comparing extreme quartiles. Membership in 1 of the 4 clusters also was associated with lower risk in men (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.01). For women, the RFBS was a modest inverse predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.04, P for trend = 0.04), but estimates for factor and cluster patterns were attenuated. The population-attributable fraction due to diet was 0.16 in men and 0.09 in women. Dietary patterns characterized by compliance with prevailing food-based dietary guidance were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:15226471

  1. Chronic Fine and Coarse Particulate Exposure, Mortality, and Coronary Heart Disease in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Puett, Robin C.; Hart, Jaime E.; Yanosky, Jeff D; Paciorek, Christopher; Schwartz, Joel; Suh, Helen; Speizer, Frank E; Laden, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship of fine particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) air pollution with mortality and cardiovascular disease is well established, with more recent long-term studies reporting larger effect sizes than earlier long-term studies. Some studies have suggested the coarse fraction, particles between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10–2.5), may also be important. With respect to mortality and cardiovascular events, questions remain regarding the relative strength of effect sizes for chronic exposure to fine and coarse particles. Objectives We examined the relationship of chronic PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 exposures with all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal incident coronary heart disease (CHD), adjusting for time-varying covariates. Methods The current study included women from the Nurses’ Health Study living in metropolitan areas of the northeastern and midwestern United States. Follow-up was from 1992 to 2002. We used geographic information systems–based spatial smoothing models to estimate monthly exposures at each participant’s residence. Results We found increased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.54] and fatal CHD (HR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.07–3.78) associated with each 10-μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure. The association between fatal CHD and PM10–2.5 was weaker. Conclusions Our findings contribute to growing evidence that chronic PM2.5 exposure is associated with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:20049120

  2. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days. PMID:26300532

  3. Mediation effect of hepatitis B and C on mortality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Freeman, Joshua R; Yang, Hwai-I; Liu, Jessica; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses cause many liver diseases. To move beyond statistical interaction, we aimed to assess the coordinated effect of the two viruses on mortality using mediation analyses. A prospective cohort study of 3837 residents in Taiwan examined participants seropositive for hepatitis B, of which 181 subjects (4.7 %) were co-infected by HCV and 589 died during follow-up. Mediation analyses for cause-specific mortality were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Follow-up HBV viral load was inversely correlated with baseline HCV viral load (r(2) = -0.074; P < 0.001). For HCV serum viral load increasing from 800 to 404,000 IU/mL (minimum to median) at baseline, the effect of HCV mediated through HBV viral load decreased the all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.85, 0.94; P < 0.001), and the effect independent of HBV viral load had an opposite HR of 1.25 (95 % CI 0.98, 1.60; P = 0.08). The protective mediation effects of HCV viral load through HBV DNA level were observed in mortality from causes specific to liver-related diseases and liver cancer, but not in that from non-liver-related diseases. Our findings suggest a suppressive effect of HCV on mortality mediated through decreasing HBV viral load. PMID:26792787

  4. Increased Mortality in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Design: Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Setting: Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. Patients/Participants: All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. Interventions: None Measurements and Results: Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Conclusions: Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation. Citation: Ohayon MM; Black J; Lai C; Eller M; Guinta D; Bhattacharyya A. Increased mortality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(3):439-444. PMID:24587565

  5. Iron Supplementation and Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Florian; Neyer, Ulrich; Knoll, Florian; Lhotta, Karl; Weiss, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting. Methods In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study) we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (<0.5 mg/dL) and elevated CRP levels (≧0.5 mg/dL) was evaluated by using non-linear P-splines to allow flexible modeling of the association. Results One hundred and ninety-one (81.3%) patients received intravenous iron, 13 (5.5%) patients oral iron, whereas 31 (13.2%) patients were never supplemented with iron throughout the observation period. Eighty-two (35%) patients died during a median follow-up of 34 months, 38 patients due to cardiovascular events and 21 patients from sepsis. Baseline CRP levels were not different between patients with and without iron supplementation. However, baseline serum ferritin levels were lower in patients receiving iron during follow up (median 93 vs 251 ng/mL, p<0.001). Iron supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced all-cause mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.22 (0.08–0.58); p = 0.002] and a reduced cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.31 (0.09–1.04); p = 0.06]. Increasing ferritin concentrations in patients with normal CRP were associated with a decreasing mortality, whereas in patients with elevated CRP values ferritin levels>800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality. Conclusions Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels

  6. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73-0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  7. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  8. Unaccompanied Evacuation and Adult Mortality: Evaluating the Finnish Policy of Evacuating Children to Foster Care During World War II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined associations between evacuation of Finnish children to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II and all-cause mortality between ages 38 and 78 years. Methods. I used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate mortality risk according to whether the individual was evacuated during childhood or not. I used within-sibling analysis to control for all unobserved socioeconomic and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Individual-level data for Finnish cohorts born in 1933 to 1944 were derived from wartime government records, Finnish census data from 1950 and 1970, and death cause registry from 1971 to 2011. Results. I found no statistically significant association between evacuation and all-cause mortality when all exposed individuals were included in the analysis. However, subgroup analysis showed that men evacuated before age 4 years had a 1.31 higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.69) than their nonevacuated counterparts. Conclusions. In the aggregate, individuals do not have elevated mortality risk as a consequence of foster care during early childhood owing to the onset of sudden external shocks (e.g., wars). PMID:25033125

  9. SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN MORTALITY AMONG CHINESE ELDERLY*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weixiang; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the association of three different SES indicators (education, economic independence, and household per-capita income) with mortality, using a large, nationally representative longitudinal sample of 12,437 Chinese ages 65 and older. While the results vary by measures used, we find overall strong evidence for a negative association between SES and all-cause mortality. Exploring the association between SES and cause-specific mortality, we find that SES is more strongly related to a reduction of mortality from more preventable causes (i.e., circulatory disease and respiratory disease) than from less preventable causes (i.e., cancer). Moreover, we consider mediating causal factors such as support networks, health-related risk behaviors, and access to health care in contributing to the observed association between SES and mortality. Among these mediating factors, medical care is of greatest importance. This pattern holds true for both all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PMID:25098961

  10. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    Background While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. Methods In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Results During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85–0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66–0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30–90. Conclusions BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors. PMID:26985382

  11. Inflammatory markers and mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function

    PubMed Central

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MANNINO, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by an inflammatory state of uncertain significance. The objective of this study was to examine the association between elevated inflammatory marker count (white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) on all-cause mortality in a national sample of US adults with obstructive lung function (OLF). Methods Data for 1144 adults aged 40–79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Linked Mortality Study were analysed. Participants entered the study from 1988 to 1994, and mortality surveillance was conducted through 2006. White blood cell count and fibrinogen were dichotomized at their medians, and C-reactive protein was divided into >3 and ≤3 g/L. The number of elevated inflammatory markers was summed to create a score of 0–3. Results The age-adjusted distribution of the number of elevated inflammatory markers differed significantly among participants with normal lung function, mild OLF, and moderate or worse OLF. Of the three dichotomized markers, only fibrinogen was significantly associated with mortality among adults with any OLF (maximally adjusted hazard ratio 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.91). The maximally adjusted hazard ratios for having 1, 2 or 3 elevated markers were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.71–1.94), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.89–2.32) and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.29–3.37), respectively (P = 0.003). Conclusions An index of elevated inflammatory markers predicted all-cause mortality among adults with OLF. PMID:25739826

  12. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Doukky, Rami; Mangla, Ashvarya; Ibrahim, Zeina; Poulin, Marie-France; Avery, Elizabeth; Collado, Fareed M; Kaplan, Jonathan; Richardson, DeJuran; Powell, Lynda H

    2016-04-01

    The impact of physical inactivity on heart failure (HF) mortality is unclear. We analyzed data from the HF Adherence and Retention Trial (HART) which enrolled 902 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III HF, with preserved or reduced ejection fraction, who were followed for 36 months. On the basis of mean self-reported weekly exercise duration, patients were classified into inactive (0 min/week) and active (≥1 min/week) groups and then propensity score matched according to 34 baseline covariates in 1:2 ratio. Sedentary activity was determined according to self-reported daily television screen time (<2, 2 to 4, >4 h/day). The primary outcome was all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death and HF hospitalization. There were 196 inactive patients, of whom 171 were propensity matched to 342 active patients. Physical inactivity was associated with greater risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 3.00; p <0.001) and cardiac death (HR 2.01, CI 1.28 to 3.17; p = 0.002) but no significant difference in HF hospitalization (p = 0.548). Modest exercise (1 to 89 min/week) was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of death (p = 0.003) and cardiac death (p = 0.050). Independent of exercise duration and baseline covariates, television screen time (>4 vs <2 h/day) was associated with all-cause death (HR 1.65, CI 1.10 to 2.48; p = 0.016; incremental chi-square = 6.05; p = 0.049). In conclusion, in patients with symptomatic chronic HF, physical inactivity is associated with higher all-cause and cardiac mortality. Failure to exercise and television screen time are additive in their effects on mortality. Even modest exercise was associated with survival benefit. PMID:26853954

  13. Elder Self-neglect and Abuse and Mortality Risk in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; de Leon, Carlos Mendes; Fulmer, Terry; Beck, Todd; Hebert, Liesi; Dyer, Carmel; Paveza, Gregory; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Context Both elder self-neglect and abuse have become increasingly prominent public health issues. The association of either elder self-neglect or abuse with mortality remains unclear. Objective To examine the relationship of elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies with all-cause mortality among a community-dwelling elderly population. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study (conducted from 1993 to 2005) of residents living in a geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois, who were participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; a longitudinal, population-based, epidemiological study of residents aged ≥65 years). A subset of these participants had suspected elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies. Main Outcome Measures Mortality ascertained during follow-up and by use of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent associations of self-neglect or elder abuse reporting with the risk of all-cause mortality using time-varying covariate analyses. Results Of 9318 CHAP participants, 1544 participants were reported for elder self-neglect and 113 participants were reported for elder abuse from 1993 to 2005. All CHAP participants were followed up for a median of 6.9 years (interquartile range, 7.4 years), during which 4306 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, reported elder self-neglect was associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20–6.51). Mortality risk was lower but still elevated after 1 year (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). Reported elder abuse also was associated with significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Confirmed elder self-neglect or abuse also was associated with mortality. Increased mortality risks associated with either elder self-neglect or

  14. Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees: a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter; Mellner, Christin; Vinberg, Stig; Eloranta, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data. Methods A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise's legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders. Results Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries. Conclusions Mortality differences between self-employed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:27443155

  15. Educational Inequalities in the Transition to Adulthood in Belgium: The Impact of Intergenerational Mobility on Young-Adult Mortality in 2001-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the association between parental and personal socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, with mixed results depending on the specific health outcome, research methodology and population under study. In the last decades, a growing interest is given to the influence of intergenerational mobility on several health outcomes at young ages. This study addresses the following research question: Is educational intergenerational mobility associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood? To this end, the Belgian 1991 and 2001 censuses are used, providing characteristics of young persons at two time points (T1 = 01/03/91;T2 = 01/10/01) and follow-up information on mortality and emigration between T2 and 31/12/09 (T3). The study population consists of all official inhabitants of Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region at T2, born between 1972 and 1982 and alive at T2. Parental and personal education are divided into primary (PE), lower secondary (LSE), higher secondary (HSE) and higher education (HE). We analyse mortality between T2 and T3 calculating age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) and using Cox regression (hazard ratios = HR). Personal rather than parental education determines the observed mortality rates, with high all-cause mortality rates among those with PE, irrespective of parental education (e.g., among men ASMRPE-PE = 200.0 [95% CI 158.0–241.9]; ASMRHE-PE = 319.7 [183.2–456.3]) and low all-cause mortality among those in higher education, regardless of parental education (ASMRPE-HE = 41.7 [30.8–52.6]; ASMRHE-HE = 38.0 [33.2–42.8]). There is some variation by gender and according to cause of death. This study shows the strong association between personal education and young-adult mortality. PMID:26657691

  16. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors and Mortality among Oldest Old Chinese: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Tuohong; Byles, Julie; Martin, Sean; Avery, Jodie C.; Taylor, Anne W.

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies reporting the association between lifestyle and mortality among the oldest old in developing countries. We examined the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality in the oldest old (≥80 years) using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). In 1998/99, 8959 participants aged 80 years and older took part in the baseline survey. Follow-up surveys were conducted every two to three years until 2011. Food habits were assessed using an in-person interview. Deaths were ascertained from family members during follow-up. Cox and Laplace regression were used to assess the association between food habits, lifestyle factors and mortality risk. There were 6626 deaths during 31,926 person-years of follow-up. Type of staple food (rice or wheat) was not associated with mortality. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratios (HRs): 0.85 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.77–0.92), and 0.74 (0.66–0.83) for daily intake of fruit and vegetables, respectively). There was a positive association between intake of salt-preserved vegetables and mortality risk (consumers had about 10% increase of HR for mortality). Fruit and vegetable consumption were inversely, while intake of salt-preserved vegetables positively, associated with mortality risk among the oldest old. Undertaking physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of premature death. PMID:26371039

  17. Purpose in Life Is Associated With Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between purpose in life as an important determinant of health outcomes and mortality in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods We used data from 1238 older persons without dementia from two longitudinal cohort studies (Rush Memory and Aging Project and Minority Aging Research Study) with baseline evaluations of purpose in life and up to 5 years of follow-up to test the hypothesis that greater purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk of mortality among community-dwelling older persons. Results The mean ± standard deviation score on the purpose in life measure at baseline was 3.7 ± 0.5 (range = 2−5), with higher scores indicating greater purpose in life. During the 5-year follow-up (mean = 2.7 years), 151 of 1238 persons (12.2%) died. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, education, and race, a higher level of purpose in life was associated with a substantially reduced risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.42, 0.87). Thus, the hazard rate for a person with a high score on the purpose in life measure (score = 4.2, 90th percentile) was about 57% of the hazard rate of a person with a low score (score = 3.1, 10th percentile). The association of purpose in life with mortality did not differ among men and women or Whites and Blacks. Further, the finding persisted after the addition of terms for several potential confounders, including depressive symptoms, disability, neuroticism, the number of chronic medical conditions, and income. Conclusion Greater purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older persons. PMID:19414613

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, En-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K.; Ma, Seung-Hyun; Cho, In-Seong; Park, Boyoung; Lee, Eun-Ha; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kang, Daehee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between alcohol consumption habit, types of beverages, alcohol consumption quantity, and overall and cancer-specific mortality among Korean adults. Methods The alcohol consumption information of a total of 16 320 participants who were 20 years or older from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort were analyzed to examine the association between alcohol consumption habit and mortality (median follow-up of 9.3 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of alcohol consumption to mortality adjusting for age, sex, geographic areas, education, smoking status, and body mass index. Results Alcohol drinkers showed an increased risk for total mortality compared with never drinkers (HR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.14 for past drinkers; HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.39 for current drinkers), while past drinkers only were associated with higher risk for cancer deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.53). The quantity of alcohol consumed per week showed a J-shaped association with risk of mortality. Relative to light drinkers (0.01 to 90 g/wk), never drinkers and heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) had an increased risk for all-cause and cancer deaths: (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.45) and (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.83) for all-cause mortality; and (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.11) and (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.09) for all cancer mortality, respectively. Heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) showed an elevated risk for death from stomach and liver cancers. Conclusions The present study supports the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption quantity and the risk of all-cause and cancer deaths. Heavy drinkers had an increased risk of death from cancer overall and liver and stomach cancer. PMID:23091655

  19. Alcohol-Related Diagnoses and All-Cause Hospitalization Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis of United States Veterans from 1997 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Christopher; Tate, Janet P; Akgün, Kathleen M; Crystal, Stephen; Wang, Karen H; Ryan Greysen, S; Wang, Emily A; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Rimland, David

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with HIV infection are living substantially longer on antiretroviral therapy, but hospitalization rates continue to be relatively high. We do not know how overall or diagnosis-specific hospitalization rates compare between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals or what conditions may drive hospitalization trends. Hospitalization rates among United States Veterans were calculated and stratified by HIV serostatus and principal diagnosis disease category. Because alcohol-related diagnoses (ARD) appeared to have a disproportional effect, we further stratified our calculations by ARD history. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to assess the relative risk of hospitalization controlling for demographic and other comorbidity variables. From 1997 to 2011, 46,428 HIV-infected and 93,997 uninfected patients were followed for 1,497,536 person-years. Overall hospitalization rates decreased among HIV-infected and uninfected patients. However, cardiovascular and renal insufficiency admissions increased for all groups while gastrointestinal and liver, endocrine, neurologic, and non-AIDS cancer admissions increased among those with an alcohol-related diagnosis. After multivariable adjustment, HIV-infected individuals with an ARD had the highest risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio 3.24, 95 % CI 3.00, 3.49) compared to those free of HIV infection and without an ARD. Still, HIV alone also conferred increased risk (HR 2.08, 95 % CI 2.04, 2.13). While decreasing overall, risk of all-cause hospitalization remains higher among HIV-infected than uninfected individuals and is strongly influenced by the presence of an ARD. PMID:25711299

  20. Declining mortality among HIV-positive indigenous people at a Vancouver indigenous-focused urban-core health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Klakowicz, Piotr; Zhang, Wen; Colley, Guillaume; Moore, David; Tu, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine mortality rates among HIV-positive indigenous people and others after initiation of HIV care improvements based on the chronic care model to address high HIV-related mortality. Design Retrospective cohort preintervention-to-postintervention evaluation study. Setting Urban-core primary health care centre focused on indigenous people in Vancouver, BC. Participants Individuals infected with HIV. Intervention Adoption of the chronic care model to improve HIV care over time. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and HIV-related mortality rates, overall and from preintervention (2007 to 2009) to postintervention (2010 to 2012), by indigenous ethnicity, were calculated from clinical data linked with the provincial HIV treatment clinical registry. Results Of the 546 eligible study patients, 323 (59%) self-identified as indigenous. Indigenous persons had higher all-cause mortality compared with other patients (14% vs 8%, P = .035; 6.25 vs 4.02 per 100 person-years [PYRs], P = .113), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.77 (95% CI 0.95 to 3.30). Indigenous persons also had higher HIV-related mortality (6% vs 2%, P = .027; 2.50 vs 0.89 per 100 PYRs, P = .063), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.88 (95% CI 0.93 to 8.92). Between 2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012, a significant decline was observed in all-cause mortality for indigenous patients (10.00 to 5.00 per 100 PYRs, P = .023) and a non-significant decline was observed in other patients (7.21 to 2.97 per 100 PYRs, P = .061). A significant decline in HIV-related mortality was also seen for indigenous patients (5.56 to 1.80 per 100 PYRs, P = .005). Conclusion Despite the overall higher risk of death among indigenous patients compared with others, the decline in mortality in HIV-positive indigenous patients after the initiation of efforts to improve HIV care at the clinic further support HIV primary care informed by indigenous issues and the adoption of the chronic care model.

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Ferrari, Pietro; Weikert, Cornelia; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nailler, Laura; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Lund, Eiliv; Engeset, Dagrun; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Gallo, Valentina; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010. Hazard ratios, rate advancement periods, and preventable proportions to respectively compare risk of death between quartiles of consumption, to estimate the period by which the risk of death was postponed among high consumers, and to estimate proportions of deaths that could be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:23599238

  2. Circadian activity rhythms and mortality: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A.; Cummings, Steven R; Stone, Katie L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether circadian activity rhythms are associated with mortality in community-dwelling older women. DESIGN Prospective study of mortality. SETTING A cohort study of health and aging. PARTICIPANTS 3,027 community-dwelling women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures cohort (mean age 84 years). MEASUREMENTS Activity data were collected with wrist actigraphy for a minimum of three 24-hour periods and circadian activity rhythms were computed. Parameters of interest included height of activity peak (amplitude), mean activity level (mesor), strength of activity rhythm (robustness), and time of peak activity (acrophase). Vital status, with cause of death adjudicated through death certificates, was prospectively ascertained. RESULTS Over an average of 4.1 years of follow-up there were 444 (15%) deaths. There was an inverse association between peak activity height and all-cause mortality rates with higher mortality rates observed in the lowest activity quartile (Hazard ratio [HR]=2.18, 95% CI, 1.63–2.92) compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age, clinic site, race, BMI, cognitive function, exercise, IADL impairments, depression, medications, alcohol, smoking, self-reported health status, married status, and co-morbidities. Increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed between lower mean activity level (HR=1.71, 95% CI, 1.29–2.27) and rhythm robustness (HR=1.97, 95% CI, 1.50–2.60). Increased mortality from cancer (HR=2.09, 95% CI, 1.04–4.22) and stroke (HR=2.64, 95% CI, 1.11–6.30) was observed for a delayed timing of peak activity (after 4:33PM; >1.5 SD from mean) when compared to the mean peak range (2:50PM–4:33PM). CONCLUSION Older women with weak circadian activity rhythms have higher mortality risk. If confirmed in other cohorts, studies will be needed to test whether interventions (e.g. physical activity, bright light exposure) that regulate circadian activity rhythms will improve health outcomes in the elderly

  3. Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Walraven, G E; Mkanje, R J; van Roosmalen, J; van Dongen, P W; Dolmans, W M

    1994-05-01

    The results from a prospective community survey, a sisterhood method survey, and a hospital survey were compared in order to ascertain a reliable and inexpensive method for estimating direct deaths from obstetric complications of pregnancy. The maternal mortality ratio was used to express risk of dying during pregnancy. The surveys were conducted in Kwimba District in Mwanza region of northwestern Tanzania: in August 1989 to March 1991 in the community study within the primary health care area of Sumve Hospital, which supplied data on maternal mortality between 1986 and 1990. The sisterhood survey was conducted in 2 villages in 1990, of which 1 village was included in the community survey. The village study included 447 women, of whom 421 remained in the survey and delivered 427 infants (415 live born); there was 1 maternal death. The sisterhood method engaged 2865 respondents and the lifetime risk of maternal death was estimated at 297 and the proportional maternal mortality rate was 13.9%. There were 82 maternal deaths and 589 deaths from all causes among sisters aged 15 years and older. 7526 women were included in the hospital survey, of which 7335 births were represented; there were 62 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality risk was 845 among hospital admissions. 69% of all maternal deaths were accounted for by direct causes. Most deaths were attributed to the top 5 worldwide causes: obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, complications of abortion, and preeclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women. Many hospital deaths were emergency admissions. The conclusion was that the sisterhood method provided a better indication of the extent of maternal mortality within the community. Other advantages were the small sample and the speed, quickness, and low cost. Hospital data

  4. Particulate Matter Exposures, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Suh, Helen; Mittleman, Murray; Laden, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes with air pollution exposures has been well established in the literature. The number of studies examining chronic exposures in cohorts is growing, with more recent studies conducted among women finding risk estimates of greater magnitude. Questions remain regarding sex differences in the relationship of chronic particulate matter (PM) exposures with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives: In this study we explored these associations in the all-male Health Professionals Follow-Up Study prospective cohort. Methods: The same spatiotemporal exposure estimation models, similar outcomes, and biennially updated covariates were used as those previously applied in the female Nurses’ Health Study cohort. Results: Among 17,545 men residing in the northeastern and midwestern United States, there were 2,813 deaths, including 746 cases of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). An interquartile range change (4 µg/m3) in average exposure to PM ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter in the 12 previous months was not associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87–1.00] or fatal CHD (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87–1.13) in fully adjusted models. Findings were similar for separate models of exposure to PM ≤ 10 µm in diameter and PM between 2.5 and 10 µm in diameter and for copollutant models. Conclusions: Among this cohort of men with high socioeconomic status living in the midwestern and northeastern United States, the results did not support an association of chronic PM exposures with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in models with time-varying covariates. Whether these findings suggest sex differences in susceptibility or the protective impact of healthier lifestyles and higher socioeconomic status requires additional investigation. PMID:21454146

  5. Increased Mortality Risk among the Visually Impaired: The Roles of Mental Well-Being and Preventive Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, D. Diane; Christ, Sharon L.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Galor, Anat; Lee, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Mechanisms by which visual impairment (VI) increases mortality risk are poorly understood. We estimated the direct and indirect effects of self-rated VI on risk of mortality through mental well-being and preventive care practice mechanisms. Methods. Using complete data from 12,987 adult participants of the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey with mortality linkage through 2006, we undertook structural equation modeling using two latent variables representing mental well-being and poor preventive care to examine multiple effect pathways of self-rated VI on all-cause mortality. Generalized linear structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate pathways including the latent variables and Cox regression model, with adjustment for controls and the complex sample survey design. Results. VI increased the risk of mortality directly after adjusting for mental well-being and other covariates (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.55]). Poor preventive care practices were unrelated to VI and to mortality. Mental well-being decreased mortality risk (HR = 0.68 [0.64, 0.74], P < 0.001). VI adversely affected mental well-being (β = −0.54 [−0.65, −0.43]; P < 0.001). VI also increased mortality risk indirectly through mental well-being (HR = 1.23 [1.16, 1.30]). The total effect of VI on mortality including its influence through mental well-being was HR 1.53 [1.24, 1.90]. Similar but slightly stronger patterns of association were found when examining cardiovascular disease-related mortality, but not cancer-related mortality. Conclusions. VI increases the risk of mortality directly and indirectly through its adverse impact on mental well-being. Prevention of disabling ocular conditions remains a public health priority along with more aggressive diagnosis and treatment of depression and other mental health conditions in those living with VI. PMID:22427599

  6. Gallstone Disease is Associated with Increased Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Gallstones are common and contribute to morbidity and health-care costs, but their effects on mortality are unclear. We examined whether gallstone disease was associated with overall and cause-specific mortalities in a prospective national population-based sample. Methods We analyzed data from 14,228 participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20–74 years old) who underwent gallbladder ultrasonography from 1988 to 1994. Gallstone disease was defined as ultrasound-documented gallstones or evidence of cholecystectomy. The underlying cause of death was identified from death certificates collected through 2006 (mean follow up=14.3 years). Mortality hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, to adjust for multiple demographic and cardiovascular-disease risk factors. Results The prevalence of gallstones was 7.1% and of cholecystectomy was 5.3%. During a follow-up period of 18 years or more, the cumulative mortality was 16.5% from all causes (2,389 deaths), 6.7% from cardiovascular disease (886 deaths), and 4.9% from cancer (651 deaths). Participants with gallstone disease had higher all-cause mortality in age-adjusted (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–1.5) and multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.5). A similar increase was observed for cardiovascular disease mortality (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.7) and cancer mortality (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.98–1.8). Individuals with gallstones had a similar increase in risk of death as those with cholecystectomy (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.92–1.4). Conclusions In the U.S. population, persons with gallstone disease have increased mortality, overall, and mortalities from cardiovascular disease and cancer. This relationship was found for both ultrasound-diagnosed gallstones and cholecystectomy. PMID:21075109

  7. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrlander, Tomas; Dencker, Magnus; Acosta, Stefan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  8. Physical Activity, Sitting Time and Mortality in Older Adults with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, D; Guallar-Castillon, P; Mota, J; Lopez-Garcia, E; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity (PA) and sitting time (ST) with all-cause mortality in older adults with diabetes. A total of 611 individuals representative of the Spanish diabetic population aged ≥ 60 years. Participants were selected in 2000/2001 and were prospectively followed-up through 2011. PA and ST were self-reported at baseline. Study associations were summarized as hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). During a mean follow-up of 8.3 years, 282 deaths occurred. The HR (95% CI) of mortality for very/moderately active individuals compared to those who were inactive/less active was 0.59 (0.45, 0.78). The association between ST and mortality was non-linear (P<0.001 in spline analysis), and mortality was increased only among individuals who reported a ST>8 h/day (HR=1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.52). The HR (95% CI) of mortality was 0.50 (0.32, 0.77) in participants who either were very/moderately active or had ST≤8 h/day, and 0.32 (0.20, 0.50) in those with both health behaviors, compared to those with none of these behaviors. In conclusion, among older adults with diabetes, high PA and less ST are independently and jointly associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:26332898

  9. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  10. Trauma, comorbidity, and mortality following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences. PMID:26243737

  11. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 is a Risk Factor for Kidney Transplant Loss and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Miklos Z.; Amaral, Ansel P.; Czira, Maria E.; Rudas, Anna; Ujszaszi, Akos; Kiss, Istvan; Rosivall, Laszlo; Kosa, Janos; Lakatos, Peter; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    An increased circulating level of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its role in transplant allograft and patient survival is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased FGF23 is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and allograft loss in a prospective cohort of 984 stable kidney transplant recipients. At enrollment, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 51 ± 21 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and median C-terminal FGF23 was 28 RU/ml (interquartile range, 20 to 43 RU/ml). Higher FGF23 levels independently associated with increased risk of the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and allograft loss (full model hazard ratio: 1.46 per SD increase in logFGF23, 95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 1.68, P < 0.001). The results were similar for each component of the composite outcome and in all sensitivity analyses, including prespecified analyses of patients with baseline eGFR of 30 to 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In contrast, other measures of phosphorus metabolism, including serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, did not consistently associate with outcomes. We conclude that a high (or elevated) FGF23 is an independent risk factor for death and allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:21436289

  12. Association between Serum Soluble Klotho Levels and Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Otani-Takei, Naoko; Masuda, Takahiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Honma, Sumiko; Watanabe, Yuko; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Miki, Takuya; Kusano, Eiji; Asano, Yasushi; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in the kidney. The extracellular domain of Klotho is subject to ectodomain shedding and is released into the circulation as a soluble form. Soluble Klotho is also generated from alternative splicing of the Klotho gene. In mice, defects in Klotho expression lead to complex phenotypes resembling those observed in dialysis patients. However, the relationship between the level of serum soluble Klotho and overall survival in hemodialysis patients, who exhibit a state of Klotho deficiency, remains to be delineated. Here we prospectively followed a cohort of 63 patients with a mean duration of chronic hemodialysis of 6.7 ± 5.4 years for a median of 65 months. Serum soluble Klotho was detectable in all patients (median 371 pg/mL, interquartile range 309–449). Patients with serum soluble Klotho levels below the lower quartile (<309 pg/mL) had significantly higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates. Furthermore, the higher all-cause mortality persisted even after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio 4.14, confidence interval 1.29–13.48). We conclude that there may be a threshold for the serum soluble Klotho level associated with a higher risk of mortality. PMID:26604925

  13. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. Methods We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin us