Science.gov

Sample records for all-distillate product slate

  1. Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products

    SciTech Connect

    Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru

    2010-11-24

    Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

  2. Floating oil production unit slated in small field off Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the first U.S. tanker converted to a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) unit which takes up station in Gombe-Beta field off Gabon by Dec. 1. FPSO Ocean Producer will work under a 3 year, day rate contract let late in 1990 by Amoco-Gabon Bombe Marin co., a unit of Amoco Production Co. (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 27). Gombe-Beta field is in the Atlantic Ocean about 70 miles south of Port Gentil, Gabon. Ocean Producer will be moored in 50 ft of water 3.7 miles off Gabon, with Bombe-Beta's unmanned production platform about 820 ft astern. The vessel will be held in position by a disconnectable, asymmetric, six point, spread mooring system, It is owned and operated by Oceaneering International Services Ltd. (OISL). Affiliate Oceaneering Production Systems (OPS) converted the 78,061 dwt oil tanker MT Baltimore Sea at a capital cost of $25 million at Gulf Copper Manufacturing Corp.'s Port Arthur, Tex., shipyard. Both companies are units of Oceaneering International Inc., Houston. OPS the Ocean Producer's use in Gombe-Beta field is the shallowest water FPSO application in the world. Amoco-Gabon chose an FPSO production system for Gombe-Beta because it expects the remote field to have a short economic life, and the oil requires extensive processing.

  3. The deteriorating artificial slate

    SciTech Connect

    Gumpertz, W.H.; Condren, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    Wood fibers were substituted for asbestos fibers as reinforcing in cement-fiber shingle products used as imitation roofing slate when governmental action outlawed the use of asbestos in this application. Field experience with many installations of one brand of these new products, however, has been unsatisfactory. The authors have observed the rapid deterioration, often within two to three years, of shingles in service, primarily by the development of extensive cracking. Research finds that these failures result from layering of the mortar materials during manufacture, combined with petrifaction and loss of ductility of the organic fibers. The authors suggest changes to the requirements of the applicable ASTM standard to help ensure that the product has the attributes necessary for satisfactory performance in service.

  4. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham

    2013-04-01

    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are

  5. Zircon growth in slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, T. J.; Hay, D. C.; Bluck, B. J.

    2004-03-01

    Clastic sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks preserve populations of detrital zircons because of the unreactive nature of this mineral. However, evidence of new zircon growth has been found within highly heterogeneous populations of zircon from several greenschist facies slates from the Scottish Highlands. Small (<10 μm), anhedral, unzoned zircons and discrete overgrowths on rounded detrital grains are very common. These new fine-grained zircons have crystallized at temperatures below 350 °C and have been observed only in polished thin sections; they are absent from conventional mineral separates. Typical separation techniques create severe biases in the heavy-mineral populations of metasedimentary rocks, and recognition of the growth of zircon in such conditions may allow isotopic dating of low-temperature events.

  6. And the Slate Shale Be Cleaved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer

    1988-01-01

    Uses a demonstration done by John Tyndall in 1856 to show that geological processes can produce striking changes, such as slate formation, by slow and incremental means. Explains how Tyndall's demonstration can be replicated in the classroom using paraffin or beeswax to produce the layering change similar to slate. (CW)

  7. SLATE: Space for Learning and Teaching Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMonner, Sean; Espinosa, Roger

    Through the use of comprehensive instructional design and sophisticated information technologies, the University of Michigan School of Education has reinvented the way it educates prospective mathematics teachers. A new World Wide Web-based instructional environment called SLATE (Space for Learning and Teaching Exploration) combines digital video,…

  8. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  9. 26. Detail, typical section of roof; note condition of slates, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail, typical section of roof; note condition of slates, missing slates replaced by sheet metal inserts, heavy moss growth on lower edges of slates and completely filling channel of remaining gutter section; view to southwest from lift-bed truck, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  10. Shock attenuation at the Slate Islands revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S.; Robertson, P. B.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1993-01-01

    This study of a more extensive suite of Slate Islands samples confirms previous interpretations. It indicates clearly that recorded shock pressures, as determined by planar deformation feature orientations, increased towards the center. The 'shock center' is very close (considering the structural movements during cavity modification) to that from an independent determination from shatter cone orientations. Shock metamorphism at a higher level in breccia clasts than in the adjacent country rocks is evidence that the shock event preceded the formation of the breccia dikes. These observations, which are consistent with those at other impact structures, are all contrary to the interpretation by Sage that breccia dike formation by diatreme action was the source of the shock event. There is no plausible reason to consider the Slate Islands as anything but the emergent portion of the central uplift of a complex impact crater. It cannot be cited as an example of endogenic shock in arguments regarding evidence of impact in the terrestrial stratigraphic record.

  11. Clean Slate 1 revegetation and monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim cleanup of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Clean Slate 1 site (located on the Tonopah Test Range). This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the Double Tracks cleanup site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native plant species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of that study, and the results from numerous other studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the cleanup of the Clean Slate 1 site. The plan also contains procedures for monitoring both short-term and long-term reclamation.

  12. Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Cnudde, Veerle; Cnudde, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos Cardenes1, V., Cnudde1, V., Cnudde1, J.P. 1 Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. The world's major roofing slate outcrops are found in the NW of Spain, in the Ordovician terrains of the domain of the Truchas Syncline. In this remote area, slate was quarried since ancient times for the use of the inhabitants of the region. Half of a century ago, an industrialization process took place in this area, which began to produce high quality roofing slate for many buildings from Japan to the USA, and especially in Europe. Since then, Spanish slate roofing has been widely used for new buildings and also for restoration of historical buildings. This work revises the occurrence and characteristics of the two most representative grey slate varieties from the Truchas Syncline, Mormeau, a fine-grained slate, and Los Molinos, also a grey slate with a slightly coarser grain. Both slates have a very similar aspect, but Mormeau slate have some iron sulphides on its composition that sometimes forms oxidation spots. Mormeau beds are found at the Middle-Upper Ordovician age Casaio Formation, while Los Molinos beds are located at the Rozadais Formation, of age Upper Ordovician, defined as formation just for the Truchas Syncline domain. Both slates have a high degree of homogeneity on their constructive characteristics, with a typical composition of quartz, mica and chlorites, and a metamorphic degree corresponding to the green schists facies. This work revises the history and characteristics of both slates, that can be considered as lithotypes that can be used as a reference during the prospection of new slate outcrops worldwide. The presented varieties of slate are proposed for their inclusion as Global Heritage Stones.

  13. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David Anderson

    1998-02-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits.

  14. Clean Slate 1 revegetation and monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-07-01

    This document constitutes a reclamation plan for the short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with the cleanup of radionuclide contaminated surface soil at the Clean Slate 1 site. This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. The results of reclamation trials at Area 11, Area 19 and more recently the reclamation demonstration plots at the Double Tracks cleanup site, have been summarized and incorporated into this reclamation and monitoring plan. The plan also contains procedures for monitoring both the effectiveness and success of short-term and long-term soil stabilization. The Clean Slate 1 site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. The surface soils were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Short-term stabilization consists of the application of a chemical soil stabilizer that is applied immediately following excavation of the contaminated soils to minimize Pu resuspension. Long-term stabilization is accomplished by the establishment of a permanent vegetation.

  15. 11 CFR 100.140 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.140 Section...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.140 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  16. 11 CFR 100.140 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.140 Section...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.140 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  17. 11 CFR 100.140 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.140 Section...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.140 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  18. 11 CFR 100.140 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.140 Section...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.140 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  19. 11 CFR 100.80 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.80 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.80 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  20. 11 CFR 100.80 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.80 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.80 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  1. 11 CFR 100.80 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.80 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.80 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  2. 11 CFR 100.140 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subpart B for exempt... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.140 Section...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.140 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  3. 11 CFR 100.80 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.80 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.80 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  4. 11 CFR 100.80 - Slate cards and sample ballots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... advertising such as billboards. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a) and part 300, subpart B for exempt activities... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slate cards and sample ballots. 100.80 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.80 Slate cards and sample ballots. The payment by a State or...

  5. DETAIL OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN FOREGROUND, WITH PANELS FOR #1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN FOREGROUND, WITH PANELS FOR #1 AND #2 GENERATORS . PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  6. FRONTAL VIEW OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONTAL VIEW OF SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF ELWHA POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995 - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  7. VIEW OF DCEXCITER AND GENERATORFIELD SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DC-EXCITER AND GENERATOR-FIELD SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN CONTROL ROOM OF ELWHA POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  8. 9. Oblique view from liftbed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Oblique view from lift-bed truck, showing deteriorated slate roof and chimney, bicycle lockers placed against southeast wall; view to north, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  9. 23. Detail, ridge cresting and finial elements, deteriorated slates, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Detail, ridge cresting and finial elements, deteriorated slates, southeast roof slope, view to northwest from lift-bed truck, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  10. 42. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW OF SLATE SHINGLES ON ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. EXTERIOR, DETAIL VIEW OF SLATE SHINGLES ON ROOF AND JIG-SAWED FRET WORK SKIRTING FROM THE INSIDE OF THE TEXAS DECK (PORCH) - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  11. VIEW OF HISTORIC SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HISTORIC SLATE SWITCHBOARD IN THE CONTROL ROOM OF THE ELWHA POWERHOUSE, INCLUDING: METERS, PROTECTIVE RELAYS, AND SWITCHES. NOTE ADDITION OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS FOR POWER METERING AND OPERATIONS. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  12. Sunburst's 1 School Speller Spell Checking for Magic Slate II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Gareth H.

    1989-01-01

    The paper explores the capabilities and limitations of computerized spelling checkers, and describes "School Speller," which operates with the "Magic Slate II" word processing package. Program features include requiring students to practice spelling by re-typing words unrecognized by the program, and allowing teachers to view the accumulating list…

  13. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  14. The Slate turkey: a model for secondary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    de Kater, A W; Smyth, J R; Rosenquist, R C; Epstein, D L

    1986-12-01

    An inherited eye disease leading to a secondary angle closure glaucoma has been observed in turkeys (Meleagris gallapavo) of the Slate variety. The initial indications of the disease involve a low grade aqueous cell and flare reaction, associated with progressive posterior synechiae formation resulting in pupillary block and iris bombé. A midperipheral iridocorneal adhesion follows, accompanied by corneal edema, breaks in Descemet's membrane, and buphthalmos. IOP is not elevated substantially until a complete iris bombé occurs. Expression of the defect is sex-influenced, with females exhibiting the most severe pathological changes. PMID:3793405

  15. Mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a slate belt. Examples from the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; van Baelen, Hervé; van Noten, Koen; Muchez, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In the High-Ardenne slate belt, part of the Rhenohercynian external fold-and-thrust belt at the northern extremity of the Late Palaeozoic Variscan orogen (Belgium, Germany, France), particular quartz vein occurrences can be observed in predominantly fine-grained siliciclastic metasediments. Detailed structural, petrographical and geochemical studies has revealed that these vein occurrences can be related to a mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour in a low-grade metamorphic mid-crustal environment. The first type of quartz veins are bedding-perpendicular, lens-shaped extension veins that are confined to the sandstone layers within the multilayer sequence. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrate high fluid pressures suggesting that the individual sandstone bodies acted as isolated high-pressure compartments in an overpressured basin. Hydraulic fracturing occurred during the tectonic inversion (from extension to compression) in the earliest stages of the Variscan orogeny. The vein fill shows a blocky character indicating crystal growth in open cavities. Both the typical lens shape of the veins and the subsequent cuspate-lobate folding of the bed interfaces in between the quartz veins suggest plastic deformation of cohesionless fluid-filled fissures. Metamorphic grade of the host rock and fluid temperature and pressure clearly indicates mid-crustal conditions below the brittle-plastic transition. This first type of quartz veins exemplifies mixed brittle-plastic deformation behaviour, possibly related to a transient deepening of the brittle-plastic transition. This is in contrast with contemporaneous bedding-perpendicular crack-seal veins observed in higher - upper-crustal - structural levels in the slate belt, reflecting pure brittle deformation behaviour. The second type are discordant quartz veins confined to extensional low-angle detachment shear zones. These very irregular veins transect a pre-existing pervasive cleavage fabric. They show no matching walls and

  16. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

  17. New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

    1996-01-01

    The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

  18. Remote sensing of stressed vegetation in the Carolina slate belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been used to detect stress in vegetation, but they have not been very successful for identifying which environmental factors cause the vegetation to appear stressed. Controlled comparisons of spectral characteristics of plant communities experiencing known combinations of stresses were designed to examine this problem. Landsat TM, NS-001 TMS, CIR, and AIS imagery was acquired for six stressed areas in the Carolina slate belt. Preliminary results indicated that the areas of stressed vegetation were identifiable, and that the stressed communities appeared to be undergoing early fall leaf senescence. The AIS data seemed to have the greatest potential for identifying differences among plant community spectra, but calibration will be necessary before these differences can be evaluated.

  19. New Observations at the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1995-01-01

    Slate Islands, a group of 2 large and several small islands, is located in northern Lake Superior, approximately 10 km south of Terrace Bay. Shatter cones, breccias and shock metamorphic features provide evidence that the Slate Islands Structure was formed as a result of asteroid or comet impact. Most of the island group is believed to represent the central uplift of a complex impact crater. The structure possibly has a diameter of about 32 km. For Sage (1978, 1991) shock metamorphic features, shatter cones and pervasive rock brecciation are the results of diatreme activity. The present investigations represent the second year of a co-operative study of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas and the Field Services Section (Northwest) of the Ontario Geological Survey. The objective of this investigation is to come to a better understanding of the formation of mid-size impact structures on Earth and the planets of the solar system. Impact processes played a fundamental role in the formation of the planets and the evolution of life on Earth. Meteorite and comet impacts are not a phenomenon of the past. Last year, more than 20 pieces of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted on Jupiter and the Tunguska comet impacted in Siberia in the early years of this century. The study of impact processes is a relatively young part of geoscience and much is still to be learnt by detailed field and laboratory investigations. The State Islands Structure has been selected for the present detailed investigations because of the excellent shoreline outcrops of rock units related to the impact. The structure is a complex impact crater that has been eroded so that important lithological and structural elements are exposed. We know of no other mid-size terrestrial impact structure with equal or better exposures. In this publication we present preliminary results of our 1994 and 1995 field and laboratory investigations. We have tentatively identified a few impact melt and a considerable

  20. G.E. SLATE SWITCHBOARD WITH RELAYS IN GLINES POWERHOUSE. ALSO NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    G.E. SLATE SWITCHBOARD WITH RELAYS IN GLINES POWERHOUSE. ALSO NOTE 1926 PHONE BOOTH (STILL IN OPERATION). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  1. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  2. Clean Slate Environmental Remediation DSA for 10 CFR 830 Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    James L. Traynor, Stephen L. Nicolosi, Michael L. Space, Louis F. Restrepo

    2006-08-01

    Clean Slate Sites II and III are scheduled for environmental remediation (ER) to remove elevated levels of radionuclides in soil. These sites are contaminated with legacy remains of non-nuclear yield nuclear weapons experiments at the Nevada Test Site, that involved high explosive, fissile, and related materials. The sites may also hold unexploded ordnance (UXO) from military training activities in the area over the intervening years. Regulation 10 CFR 830 (Ref. 1) identifies DOE-STD-1120-98 (Ref. 2) and 29 CFR 1910.120 (Ref. 3) as the safe harbor methodologies for performing these remediation operations. Of these methodologies, DOE-STD-1120-98 has been superseded by DOE-STD-1120-2005 (Ref. 4). The project adopted DOE-STD-1120-2005, which includes an approach for ER projects, in combination with 29 CFR 1910.120, as the basis documents for preparing the documented safety analysis (DSA). To securely implement the safe harbor methodologies, we applied DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref. 5) and DOE-STD-3009-94 (Ref. 6), as needed, to develop a robust hazard classification and hazards analysis that addresses non-standard hazards such as radionuclides and UXO. The hazard analyses provided the basis for identifying Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) level controls. The DOE-STD-1186-2004 (Ref. 7) methodology showed that some controls warranted elevation to Specific Administrative Control (SAC) status. In addition to the Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94, we also applied the DOE G 420.1 (Ref. 8) annual, radiological dose, siting criterion to define a controlled area around the operation to protect the maximally exposed offsite individual (MOI).

  3. Multiple deformation at the western edge of the Carolina slate belt, north-central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, J.P.; Shell, G.S.; Wilkins, J.K. ); Samson, S.; Wortman, G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    In north-central North Carolina, volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Carolina slate belt are separated from gneisses of the Milton belt to the west by a wide, ENE-trending, polygenetic structural zone. Within a portion of this zone, the Country Line Creek complex (CLCC) forms the western edge of the slate belt. Rocks of the CLCC span a wide age range and include mafic and granitoid gneisses with subordinate pelitic schist, granitoid pegmatite, and a concordant sheet-like intrusion, the Yanceyville metagranite. The complex is heterogeneously deformed and metamorphosed. Along the SE margin of the structural zone, steeply-dipping, strongly foliated biotite granitoid and mafic gneisses of the complex appear to be intruded by the Roxboro metagranite of the Carolina slate belt. To the NW, in more interior portions of the zone, the CLCC is affected by multiphase foliations and folds that record a dextral oblique normal shear event. Here, the Yanceyville metagranite is affected by a strong foliation that is folded. A preliminary new date on the Roxboro pluton of ca. 545 Ma, indicates a Late Precambrian or older timing of deformation along the SE margin of the zone. In contrast, a preliminary, ca. 340 Ma, age on the Yanceyville metagranite indicates multiple stage Late Paleozoic deformation for interior portions of the zone. Regional structural and isotopic data hint that the Precambrian deformation may record initial interactions between the Milton and Carolina slate belts. Subsequently, this contact was reactivated during Alleghanian orogenesis.

  4. 76 FR 43677 - Funding Down Slate; Training for Real-Time Writers (TRTW) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 38510) inviting applications for FY 2010 for new awards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Funding Down Slate; Training for Real-Time Writers (TRTW) Program AGENCY: Office of...

  5. newSLATE: Building a Web-Based Infrastructure for Learning Non-Roman Script Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Marsha A.; Hopp, Theodore H.

    2004-01-01

    The "newSLATE" environment provides a Web-based infrastructure for language learning. Its design and implementation were driven by the difficulties of non-Roman-script text handling. The software features a cross-platform approach to non-Roman text input and handling and a novel method for automatically generating online quizzes from study…

  6. 76 FR 29227 - Funding Down Slate; Indian Education Professional Development Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Development Grant program for FY 2010 in the Federal Register on December 18, 2009 (74 FR 67182). In response... requirements, and definitions referenced in the December 18, 2009 notice inviting applications (74 FR 67182... Funding Down Slate; Indian Education Professional Development Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary...

  7. Preferred mineral orientation of a chloritoid-bearing slate in relation to its magnetic fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerinck, Tom; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    A regional analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility on low-grade metamorphic, chloritoid-bearing slates of the Paleozoic in Central Armorica (Brittany, France) revealed very high values for the degree of anisotropy (up to 1.43). Nonetheless, high-field torque magnetometry indicates that the magnetic fabric is dominantly paramagnetic. Chloritoid's intrinsic degree of anisotropy of 1.47 ± 0.06, suggests that chloritoid-bearing slates can have a high degree of anisotropy without the need of invoking a significant contribution of strongly anisotropic ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. To validate this assumption we performed a texture analysis on a representative sample of the chloritoid-bearing slates using hard X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The preferred orientation patterns of both muscovite and chloritoid are extremely strong (∼38.6 m.r.d. for muscovite, 20.9 m.r.d. for chloritoid) and display roughly axial symmetry about the minimum magnetic susceptibility axis, indeed suggesting that chloritoid may have a profound impact on the magnetic fabric of chloritoid-bearing rocks. However, modeling the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility by averaging single crystal properties indicates that the CPO of chloritoid only partially explains the slate's anisotropy.

  8. The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Joan A.

    2007-11-15

    Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

  9. Comparison of lattice preferred orientation and magnetic fabric of a chloritoid-bearing slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerinck, Tom; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A regional analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on chloritoid-bearing slates of the Paleozoic Plougastel Formation in the low-grade metamorphic conditions (epizonal) of the Monts d'Arrée slate belt in Central Armorica (Brittany, France) reveals very high values for the degree of anisotropy (PJ), up to 1.43 (Haerinck et al. 2013a). In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent slates free of chloritoid, in the very low-grade metamorphic conditions (anchizonal) of the Crozon fold-and-thrust belt, show a lower degree of anisotropy, with PJ values up to 1.27. Classically, very strong magnetic fabrics (i.e. those with PJ above 1.35) are attributed to a contribution of ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. Nonetheless, high-field torque magnetometry indicates that the magnetic fabric of the chloritoid-bearing slates is dominantly paramagnetic. The ferromagnetic (sensu lato) contribution to the AMS is less than 10%. Based on these observations, it would seem that chloritoid has an intrinsic magnetic anisotropy that is significantly higher than that of most paramagnetic silicates and the frequently used upper limit for the paramagnetic contribution to the AMS. Using two independent approaches, i.e. (a) directional magnetic hysteresis measurements, and (b) torque magnetometry, on a collection of single chloritoid crystals, collected from different tectonometamorphic settings worldwide, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of monoclinic chloritoid has been determined (Haerinck et al. 2013b). The determined paramagnetic high-field AMS ellipsoids have a highly oblate shape with the minimum susceptibility direction subparallel to the crystallographic c-axis of chloritoid and the degree of anisotropy of chloritoid is found to be 1.47 ± 0.06. The obtained very high magnetocrystalline degree of anisotropy suggests that chloritoid-bearing slates with a pronounced mineral alignment can have a high degree of anisotropy (PJ) without the need of invoking a significant

  10. Clastic Breccias at the Slates Islands Complex Impact Structure, Northern Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1996-01-01

    About 150 impact craters are known on Earth and each year several structures are added to this number. The general geology of the Slate Islands archipelago has been described by Sage (1991) and a short summary based on Sage's work is given in Dressler et al. (1995). The reader is referred to these publications for information on the bedrock geology of the island group. Early studies on the Slate Islands impact structure include: Halls and Grieve (1976), Grieve and Robertson (1976) and Stesky and Halls (1983). In this report, we provide a summary of the impact process as presently understood. We also present some of the results of our laboratory investigations conducted in 1995 and 1996. We describe in some detail the various clastic breccias encountered on the islands during our 1994 and 1995 field work and relate them to the various phases of the impact process. A more encompassing treatise on the breccias has been submitted for publication. (Dressler and Sharpton 1996).

  11. Simplified greywater treatment systems: Slow filters of sand and slate waste followed by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zipf, Mariah Siebert; Pinheiro, Ivone Gohr; Conegero, Mariana Garcia

    2016-07-01

    One of the main actions of sustainability that is applicable to residential, commercial, and public buildings is the rational use of water that contemplates the reuse of greywater as one of the main options for reducing the consumption of drinking water. Therefore, this research aimed to study the efficiencies of simplified treatments for greywater reuse using slow sand and slow slate waste filtration, both followed by granular activated carbon filters. The system monitoring was conducted over 28 weeks, using analyses of the following parameters: pH, turbidity, apparent color, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), surfactants, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms. The system was run at two different filtration rates: 6 and 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences in the majority of the results when filtration rate changed from 6 to 2 m(3)/m(2)/day. The average removal efficiencies with regard to the turbidity, apparent color, COD and BOD were 61, 54, 56, and 56%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 66, 61, 60, and 51%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. Both systems showed good efficiencies in removing surfactants, around 70%, while the pH reached values of around 7.80. The average removal efficiencies of the total and thermotolerant coliforms were of 61 and 90%, respectively, for the sand filter, and 67 and 80%, respectively, for the slate waste filter. The statistical analysis found no significant differences between the responses of the two systems, which attest to the fact that the slate waste can be a substitute for sand. The maximum levels of efficiency were high, indicating the potential of the systems, and suggesting their optimization in order to achieve much higher average efficiencies. PMID:27045540

  12. Effect of the properties of a porous coating on boundary layer stability. [considering porous slates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaponov, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Drawing off gas from the boundary layer is a well-known method for increasing the stability of boundary layers. The increase in stability is primarily connected with a change in the velocity profile form in the case of suction. On the basis of the assumption that the velocity perturbations on a porous slate do not equal zero, the influence of the properties of a permeable surface upon the boundary layer stability were studied.

  13. Compaction fabrics of pelites: experimental consolidation of kaolinite and implications for analysis of strain in slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, David W.; Chawla, Kanwarjit S.; Krizek, Raymond J.

    1993-09-01

    Compaction of clay and shale results in large reductions in volume as pore water is expelled. Preferred orientation of the platy minerals increases with compaction strain and loss of porosity according to the March-Owens model. This relationship has been studied quantitatively by experimentally consolidating kaolinite clay from slurries and analyzing the resulting fabrics with the X-ray pole figure goniometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 'Initial' porosity corresponds to the onset of the strain recorded by the preferred orientation; and the values of 0.78 for dispersed slurries and 0.76 for flocculated slurries reflect the electrostatic forces between the clay platelets. 'Initial' porosities of recently deposited fine silt and clay are in the range of 0.60-0.90 and are a function of grain size and mineralogy. Loss of this 'initial' porosity has a large effect on the subsequent development of slaty cleavage. Matrix methods were used to model deformation paths for slates in the Welsh slate belt. Preferred orientation of mica and ellipsoidal shapes of 'reduction' spots were simulated for one locality by loss of a 0.60 'initial' porosity, a 6° tilt of the beds and horizontal shortening involving plane strain. Strain determinations for shales and slates should include the large reduction in volume.

  14. Variable effects of labile carbon on the carbon use of different microbial groups in black slate degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dachung; Kothe, Erika; Gleixner, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    Weathering of ancient organic matter contributes significantly to biogeochemical carbon cycles over geological times. The principle role of microorganisms in this process is well recognized. However, information is lacking on the contribution of individual groups of microorganisms and on the effect of labile carbon sources to the degradation process. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the degradation process using a column experiment. Investigations were performed on low metamorphic black slates. All columns contained freshly crushed, sieved (0.63-2 mm), not autoclaved black slates. Two columns were inoculated with the lignite-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune and received a culture medium containing 13C labeled glucose, two columns received only this culture medium and two control columns received only water. The total mass balance was calculated from all carbon added to the slate and the CO 2 and DOC losses. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were extracted to investigate microbial communities. We used both the compound specific 14C and 13C signal of the PLFA to quantify carbon uptake from black slates and the glucose of the culture medium, respectively. The total carbon loss in these columns exceeded the amount of added carbon by approximately 60%, indicating that black slate carbon has been used. PLFA associated with Gram-positive bacteria dominated the indigenous community and took up 22% of carbon from black slate carbon, whereas PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria used only 8% of carbon from the slates. PLFA of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were both mostly activated by the glucose addition. The added Schizophyllum did not establish well in the columns and was overgrown by the indigenous microbial community. Our results suggest that especially Gram-positive bacteria are able to live on and degrade black slate material. They also benefit from easy degradable carbon from the nutrient broth. In

  15. Blank Slate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber-Thrush, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Ullysses Tucker likes a good challenge. After spending the first 20 years of his career working in media, he entered the development profession in 2000. He worked for the State University of New York Plattsburgh, New Jersey's Montclair State University, Louisiana's Grambling State University, and Western Illinois University before joining London…

  16. Breccia formation at a complex impact crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-07-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a ˜30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earlist breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of ˜2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing shatter-coned fragments

  17. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David; Wintsch, Robert

    2016-04-01

    constrain the age of the regional Acadian foliation to be younger than ~411 Ma. These regionally metamorphosed slates and meta-sandstones are from the Madrid Formation and the overlying Devonian Carrabassett Formation that were intruded by the unfoliated granite of the Mattamiscontis Mountain pluton. Its 407 ± 4 Ma zircon crystallization age (Bradley et al. 2000) provides a minimum age of the regional Acadian deformation thus constrained to the range 411-407 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar minimum age steps of slates that display S1 and S2 cleavages from the Chester shear zone constrain the age of a second cleavage to be younger than ~381 Ma. The fabrics in some of the Chester shear zone rocks are overprinted by garnet porphyroblasts interpreted as the product of thermal metamorphism associated with the emplacement of the nearby Center Pond pluton (zircon crystallization age is 377 ± 3 Ma, Bradley et al. 2000). This constrains the age of S2 cleavage to be between 381-377 Ma. Thus, the combination of maximum crystallization ages analyzed in the slates and the minimum contact metamorphic ages around local plutons established narrow constraints on the ages of low-grade cleavages in the Central Maine-Aroostook-Matapedia slate belt.

  18. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  19. Breeding biology and natural history of the Slate-throated Whitestart in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggera, R.A.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We provide details on the breeding biology of the Slate-throated Whitestart (Myioborus miniatus) from 126 nests found during seven breeding seasons, 2002-2008, at Yacamb?? National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest and incubated the eggs. Males rarely visited the nest during these stages. Mean clutch size (2.1 ?? 0.04 eggs, n = 93) was the smallest recorded for the Slate-throated Whitestart. Incubation and nestling period lengths were 15.3 ?? 0.31 (n = 21) and 10.8 ?? 0.24 (n = 7) days, respectively. Attentiveness (% of time on the nest) during incubation (59 ?? 1.6%, n = 52) was similar to other tropical warblers and much lower than northern relatives. This caused a relatively low egg temperature (34.40 ?? 0.33u C, n = ?? nests, 20 days) compared with north temperate birds. Both parents fed nestlings and increased their provisioning rates with nestling age. Growth rate based on nestling mass (k = 0.521 ?? 0.015) was faster than for other tropical passerines but slower than northern relatives. Predation was the main cause of nesting failure and rate of predation increased with age of the nest. An estimated 15% of nests were successful based on an overall Mayfield daily predation rate of 0.053 ?? 0.007. This study confirms a strong latitudinal variation in life history traits of warblers. ?? 2010 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  20. Remedial actions of nuclear safety shot sites: Double Tracks and Clean Slates

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, M.; Shotton, M.; Lyons, C.

    1998-03-01

    Remedial actions of plutonium (Pu)-contaminated soils are in the preliminary stages of development at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Interim clean-up actions were completed at the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 safety shot sites in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Soil at both sites, with a total transuranic activity greater than 20 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g), was excavated and shipped to the NTS for disposal. Characterization and assessment efforts were initiated at the Double Tracks site in 1995, and the clean-up of this site as an interim action was completed in 1996. Clean-up of this site consisted of taking site-specific data and applying rationale for dose and risk calculations in selecting parameter values for the interim corrective action level. The remediation process included excavating and stockpiling the contaminated soil and loading the soil into supersacks with approximately 1,513 cubic meters (53,500 cubic feet) being shipped to the NTS for disposal. In 1997, remediation began on the Clean Slate 1 site on which characterization had already been completed using a very similar approach; however, the site incorporated lessons learned, cost efficiencies, and significant improvements to the process. This paper focuses on those factors and the progress that has been made in cleaning up the sites. The application of a technically reasonable remediation method, as well as the cost factors that supported transport and disposal of the low-level waste in bulk are discussed.

  1. Application of a Hybrid 3D-2D Laser Scanning System to the Characterization of Slate Slabs

    PubMed Central

    López, Marcos; Martínez, Javier; Matías, José María; Vilán, José Antonio; Taboada, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional control based on 3D laser scanning techniques is widely used in practice. We describe the application of a hybrid 3D-2D laser scanning system to the characterization of slate slabs with structural defects that are difficult for the human eye to characterize objectively. Our study is based on automating the process using a 3D laser scanner and a 2D camera. Our results demonstrate that the application of this hybrid system optimally characterizes slate slabs in terms of the defects described by the Spanish UNE-EN 12326-1 standard. PMID:22219696

  2. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  3. A preliminary report on the geology of the volcanic-rock-hosted Barite Hill gold deposit, Carolina slate belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.; Greig, David D.; Bryan, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    Text and copies of slides for a paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Section of the Geological Society of America in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, March 19, 1992. The Barite Hill mine is located in the southern part of the Carolina slate belt of South Carolina just north of the Georgia border.

  4. Quantitative analysis of soil erosion in vineyards of the Rhenish Slate Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brings, Christine; Bielen, Rainer; Willger, Heribert; Engels, Bastienne; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of erosion rates under real conditions is of great concern regarding sustainability of land-use and off-site effects. Long term observations showed that the vineyards of the Rhenish Slate Mountains are generally stable. But the soil erosion may increase in several orders of magnitude with the occurrence of extreme rainfall events or under the influence of soil and vineyard management. The test site was located in Hunsrueck in West Germany. Geologically, it is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains and therefore it is composed of devonian shales. The v-shaped valley was created by the river called Ruwer. In 2008, an old vineyard was abandoned and exposed. For erosion control reasons he was terraced. After that, it lied fallow for two years, in spring 2012 it was reshaped. The slope was steepened and filled up again. In the autumn of 2012, the rows were attached and the slope was replanting with grapes. Since these slopes are cultivated with caterpillars, the line spacing is much higher than in traditional management. For quantification of surface runoff and soil erosion in the comparison between an old and traditionally farmed vineyard and a new applied and with modern methods farmed vineyard, three test plots with application of sediment traps were installed on south-west exposed slope. Each test plot consists of two sediment traps, some of the traps are separated. In addition, a precipitation collector was established. The maximum runoff values of the old vineyards reached 36.42 L in 2011 and 36.68 L in 2012. Highest soil erosion values were measured in the summer (248.04 g 2011 and 187.98 g 2012), while the highest sediment concentrations were reached in October (233.95 gL-1 2011 und 812.29 gL-1 2012).

  5. Initial tree establishment on blocky quarry waste ameliorated with hydrogel or slate processing fines.

    PubMed

    Rowe, E C; Williamson, J C; Jones, D L; Holliman, P; Healey, J R

    2005-01-01

    Pocket planting reclamation techniques developed in the 1970s for revegetating blocky quarrying waste have met with very limited success, often because the low water-holding capacity of the waste and limited root development within a small volume of planting pocket material result in severe drought mortality. We tested pocket planting approaches for waste tip reclamation at Europe's largest slate quarry, and compared materials for enhancing the continuity of water- and nutrient-holding down into the interior of the waste tip. When small compost-filled pocket planting bags were placed above slate processing fines (SPF) or water absorbent cross-linked polyacrylamide gel ("hydrogel"), tree growth rates increased in comparison with pocket planting bags alone. The SPF significantly improved tree survival especially during severe drought, but survival was not enhanced by the use of hydrogel. The sorption characteristics of hydrogel indicated that its presence may help to reduce nutrient leaching, but that it may have a negative effect on nitrogen availability. A more likely explanation for the poor performance of pure hydrogel is that it did not maintain sufficient available water, because of discontinuities caused by shrinkage and movement of the hydrogel, and/or degradation of water-holding capacity with environmental exposure. However, the root growth observed in the hydrogel treatments suggests that this technique, if adapted to reduce the effects of hydrogel shrinkage by using finer-grade hydrogel, mixing it with other soil-forming material, and reducing its exposure to extremes of temperature or sunlight, might have the potential to improve the growth and survival of trees planted on sites where delivery of heavy materials such as SPF is impractical. Fine mineral processing waste is freely available at active quarries and should be seen as a key resource for reclamation schemes. PMID:15888885

  6. Testing the Shock Remanent Magnetization Hypothesis at the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Fairchild, L. M.; Shuster, D. L.; Renne, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ubiquity of cratering events in the solar system motivates understanding how the magnetizations of planetary surfaces are affected by hypervelocity impacts. Passing shock waves may impart target rocks with shock remanent magnetization (SRM) which can, in principle, be preserved if a region does not experience substantial impact-related heating. While SRM has been proposed as an explanation for enigmatic magnetizations observed at impact craters and in extraterrestrial samples, SRM has not yet been conclusively identified in natural samples. At present, the most suggestive evidence for naturally occurring SRM exists at the ~450 Ma Slate Islands Impact Structure, Canada. The islands represent the ~10 km diameter central uplift of a ~30 km diameter complex crater. Target rocks, which consist of Archean and Paleoproterozoic dikes and metamorphic rocks as well as ~1.1 Ga dikes and lava flows, contain a pervasive impact-related secondary magnetization component which is not present in coeval rocks of corresponding lithologies outside the impact crater (Halls 1975, 1979). Our paleomagnetic study aims to determine whether the Slate Islands overprint is an SRM. Samples were collected from 18 igneous dikes and 17 lava flows across the impact structure from regions which experienced variable (2-25 GPa) shock pressures (Dressler et al., 1998). Alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization results indicate that the secondary component persists to AF levels reaching several tens of mT and unblocking temperatures approaching ~250-525°C. At all studied sites, grains at higher AF levels and unblocking temperatures retain pre-impact magnetizations. Secondary magnetization blocked within the lower coercivity and blocking temperature fractions of samples is consistent with an origin as either SRM or thermoviscous remanence (TVRM) resulting from impact-related heating. Viscous remanence acquired at Earth surface temperatures is precluded by the component's high unblocking

  7. U.S. National Science Foundation Slated for Large Budget Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    Although the Obama administration has promoted its proposed $3.8 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011 as one that works toward reining in budget deficits and living within the nation's means, research is among the areas slated for increases. The National Science Foundation (NSF) would receive $7.42 billion, an 8% increase above the FY 2010 enacted level of $6.87 billion, which pleases NSF administrators. This proposal would keep the agency on track for doubling its budget between about 2007 and 2017. “The president sees science as a way to build our economy. It’s a way to make the nation strong in the future. It’s a way of bringing change in society, and in addressing some of the global challenges that we are facing,” NSF director Arden Bement Jr. explained at a 1 February briefing. Bement, who has been at the helm of the agency for more than 6 years, announced in early February that he is leaving later this year to head up the Global Policy Research Institute at Purdue University.

  8. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  9. AIS Spectra for Stressed and Unstressed Plant Communities in the Carolina Slate Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over a number of derelict heavy metal mine sites in the Carolina slate belt of North Carolina. A 32 channel (1156 to 1456 nm) data set was acquired in October, 1983 at the time of peak fall foliage display, and a 128 channel (1220 to 2420) data set was acquired near the end of the spring leaf flush in May, 1984. Spectral curves were extracted from the AIS data for differing ground cover types (e.g., pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, mine sites, and pastures). Variation in the width of an absorption feature located at approximately 1190 nm has been related to differences in forest type. Small differences in the location and shape of features in the near infrared plateau (1156 to 1300 nm) and the region 2000 to 2420 nm have yet to be evaluated. Because these variations were subtle, and because atmospheric effects were apparent in the data, high priority must be assigned to devising a means of removing atmospheric effects from AIS spectra.

  10. Pteridinium: an element of late Precambrian Ediacaran fauna from Carolina Slate Belt, Southern Appalachian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G.G.

    1984-04-01

    Although the Carolina Slate belt (CSB) is not a prime petroleum exploration target, the documentation of metazoan elements belonging to the late Precambrian Ediacaran fauna in the CSB is new data pertinent to interpretations of sedimentary history and accretion geometry of an exotic terrane that by some interpretations may be involved in overthrusting and is thus concealing potentially petroleum-bearing strata. The presence of Pteridinium in the CBS provides correlation with late Precambrian strata of the Russian platform, South West Africa, and South Australia, and is thus very significant in paleogeographic reconstructions. Pteridinium in the CSB is represented by 4 specimens that are impressions of ''petal-like'' metazoans. These metazoans are approximately bilaterally symmetrical, crudely ovoid-shaped, and composed of curved segments that join across a medial zig-zag groove created by the proximal ends of alternating left and right segments. The segments curve toward one end of the organism, terminating distally in spines. Individual segments exhibit longitudinal ornamentation, and grooves separating adjacent segments indicate articulation. Data from the USSR, Africa, and South Australia suggest that Pteridinium lived in a shallow water, near-shore, high-energy environment. However, the CSB examples are preserved in an essentially bedding-parallel position in deep-water flysch, suggesting transportation from nearshore into deep water.

  11. The Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district, Slate belt, central Myanmar: mesothermal veins in a Mesozoic orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Ausa, C. A.; Deiparine, L.; Hlaing, T.; Htay, N.; Khine, A.

    2004-07-01

    The recently discovered quartz-gold veins comprising the Modi Taung-Nankwe gold district in central Myanmar are largely hosted by mudstones of the late Palaeozoic Slate belt. Mesozoic rocks of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone separate the Slate belt from the Shan Scarp and Shan Plateau to the east. At Modi Taung 5 km of exploration adits indicate that the veins, within steeply dipping oblique reverse-slip shear zones, are displaced by movements along the shears, intruded by late Jurassic calc-alkaline dykes, and offset on conjugate cross-faults. Drill intercepts show that mineralization extends vertically for more than 500 m. Coarse visible gold, book-and-ribbon texture and stylolitic laminations, and trace metal values are consistent with mineralization at mesothermal depths of several kilometres in the brittle-ductile regime. Our field observations suggest that mineralization took place in the early Jurassic following collision of Myanmar on the passive western margin of a Greater Shan-Thai continental block with an oceanic arc on the overriding plate to the west. Collision generated intra-continental thrusting in and east of the Paunglaung-Mawchi zone, metamorphism of Plateau rocks thrust west beneath the Slate belt to form the Mogok Metamorphics, and ascent of mineralizing fluids expelled from dehydrating underthrust rocks. Reversal in orogenic polarity initiated late Jurassic eastward subduction of oceanic crust beneath Myanmar, and generation of a magmatic arc with dykes cutting the quartz-gold veins. Renewed east-directed thrusting translated the Slate belt over arc clastics, and probably resulted in exhumation of the Mogok Metamorphics and offsets of the veins on conjugate faults. Young K/Ar, Rb 87/Sr 86 and Ar 40/Ar 39 ages on the Mogok Metamorphic belt imply renewed Tertiary uplift and possibly intrusion of mid-Tertiary or Palaeogene granites.

  12. Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Canada: A mid-size, Complex Impact Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Copeland, P.

    1999-01-01

    The target rocks of the 30-32-km diameter Slate Islands impact structure in northern Lake Superior, Canada, are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and supracrustal Proterozoic rocks. Shatter cones, pseudotachylites, impact glasses, and microscopic shock metamorphic features were formed during the contact and compression phase of the impact process, followed, during excavation and central uplift, by polymict, clastic matrix breccias in the uplifted target, and by allogenic fall-back breccias (suevite and bunte breccia). Monomict, autoclastic breccias were mainly observed on Mortimer Island and the other outlying islands of the archipelago and were probably generated relatively late in the impact process (central uplift and/or crater modification). The frequency of low index planar shock metamorphic features in quartz was correlated with results from shock experiments to estimate shock pressures experienced by the target rocks. The resulting shock attenuation plan across the archipelago is irregular, probably because the shock wave did not expand from a point or spherical source, and because of the destruction of an originally more regular shock attenuation plan during the central uplift and crater modification stages of the impact process. No impact melt rock bodies have been positively identified on the islands. An impact melt may be present in the annular trough around the islands, though and-based on a weighted mixture of target rocks-may have an intermediate-mafic composition. No such impact melt was found on the archipelago. An Ar-40-Ar-39 release spectrum of a pseudotachylite provides an age of about 436 Ma for the impact structure, substantiating age constraints based on various stratigraphic considerations.

  13. Quartz veining in slates and Variscan deformation: Insights from the Luarca sector (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Alonso, J.; Fuertes-Fuente, M.; Bastida, F.

    2016-03-01

    A structural and geochemical analysis of quartz veins is made in order to determine their evolution and the physical-chemical conditions that enabled their development. In this sector of the Variscan belt (Westasturian-Leonese Zone), three phases of deformation have been described. However, only the first and third phases are represented in the study sections. The first phase (D1) resulted in tight or closed folds (F1) verging towards the foreland and associated slaty cleavage (S1). The third phase (D3) resulted in approximately upright asymmetric folds (F3) with associated crenulation cleavage (S3). The veins are hosted in slates and approximately follow the slaty cleavage (S1). The veins started their development at the beginning of the deformation phase D3 as a result of S1 near parallel shortening. Through a process of progressive deformation, this compression gave rise to the folding of the cleavage and, eventually, of the veins. The F3 folds have associated crenulation cleavage parallel to the axial planes. In some cases, the location of the veins was controlled by irregularities in the bedding due to sedimentary structures. The quartz of the veins underwent notable intracrystalline plastic deformation, and the contact zone between the veins and the host rock was affected by pressure solution. The microstructures produced by the latter mechanism indicate the greatest compressive stress forming a high angle with the vein walls at a time post-dating vein generation. Quartz precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid at temperatures between 350 °C and 375 °C under fluid pressure fluctuations of up to 140 MPa at constant depth. Maximum values of fluid pressure of 220 MPa and minimum values of 75 MPa were recorded by fluid inclusion assemblages in quartz of the veins under study. Pressure fluctuation from lithostatic to infralithostatic at constant depth was caused by the opening and sealing of the dilatant fractures.

  14. Serious Gaming for Test & Evaluation of Clean-Slate (Ab Initio) National Airspace System (NAS) Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that

  15. Hand Washing Induces a Clean Slate Effect in Moral Judgments: A Pupillometry and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the “Macbeth effect” direct links between bodily cleansing and one’s own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  16. Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: a pupillometry and eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  17. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.

  18. Neogene structural evolution of Gold Mountain, Slate Ridge and adjacent areas, Esmeralda and Nye counties, SW Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, D.C.; Weiss, S.I.; Worthington, J.E. . Mackay School of Mines); McKee, E.H. )

    1993-04-01

    The onset of crustal instability in the Gold Mountain-Slate Ridge (GMSR) area took place prior to middle Miocene time, as shown by the irregular topography upon which the 16.8 Ma tuff of Mount Dunfee was deposited. Local wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate between four overlying ash-flow sheets and complex patterns of thinning and thickening, nondeposition, and erosion show that normal faulting took place more-or-less continuously between 16.8 and 11.5 Ma. More intense listric( ) faulting, tilting, uplift, erosion and deposition of wedges of fanglomerate and conglomerate occurred between emplacement of the 11.5 Ma Timber Mountain Tuff (TMT) and the 7.5 Ma Stonewall Flat Tuff (SFT). The present topography west of long. 117[degree]W developed mostly after 7.5 Ma following deposition of the widespread SFT, which thickens westward with increasing elevation on the east end of Slate Ridge. major uplifted blocks include the GMSR area, Magruder Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain, where erosional remnants of the SFT are found at elevations as high as 8,200 ft. Uplift was accommodated by high-angle faulting with little tilting and by warping. In the GMSR area pre-7.5 Ma tilting was mainly to the south-southeast reflecting movement along N-dipping listric( ) faults, indicating northwest-directed extension. In contrast, southeast of Gold Mountain and in the northeastern part of the Grapevine Mountains post-11.5 Ma tilting resulted from movement on normal faults that dip to the SSE beneath Sarcobatus Flat and toward the WNW-vergent Boundary Canyon-Original Bullfrog detachment fault system further south; this implies SE-directed extensional strain within a general region of NW-directed extension. Slate Ridge also acted as a barrier to the 11.5 Ma TMT. These relations suggest that certain areas within this section of the Walker Lane belt tended to remain high from middle Miocene time until the present, with a major exception being the time of deposition of the SFT.

  19. A Description of the Development, Capabilities, and Operational Status of the Test SLATE Data Acquisition System at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, Christopher J.; Wright, James D.; Simmons, Scott A.; Bobbitt, Lynn E.; DeMoss, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will present a brief background of the previous data acquisition system at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the reasoning and goals behind the upgrade to the current Test SLATE (Test Software Laboratory and Automated Testing Environments) data acquisition system. The components, performance characteristics, and layout of the Test SLATE system within the NTF control room will be discussed. The development, testing, and integration of Test SLATE within NTF operations will be detailed. The operational capabilities of the system will be outlined including: test setup, instrumentation calibration, automatic test sequencer setup, data recording, communication between data and facility control systems, real time display monitoring, and data reduction. The current operational status of the Test SLATE system and its performance during recent NTF testing will be highlighted including high-speed, frame-by-frame data acquisition with conditional sampling post-processing applied. The paper concludes with current development work on the system including the capability for real-time conditional sampling during data acquisition and further efficiency enhancements to the wind tunnel testing process.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  1. An oxygen isotope and geochemical study of meteoric-hydrothermal systems at Pilot Mountain and selected other localities, Carolina slate belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Several epigenetic mineral deposits in the Carolina slate belt are intimately related to meteoric-hydrothermal systems of late Precambrian and early Paleozoic age. At Pilot Mountain, low 18O rocks correlate well with zones of strong silicic alteration and alkali leaching accompanied by high alumina minerals (sericite, pyrophyllite, andalusite ?? topaz) and anomalous concentrations of Cu, Mo, Sn, B, and Au. A magmatic source for much of the sulfur and metal is likely, and a subordinate magmatic water component in the fluid of the central zone is possible. This central zone is surrounded by a >30 km2 peripheral zone of low 18O sericite schists, chlorite-sericite schists, and andesitic volcanic rocks. Reconnaissance studies of other alteration zones in the Carolina slate belt have so far disclosed the involvement of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids at the Snow Camp pyrophyllite deposit, at the Hoover Hill and Sawyer Au mines, and probably at the Haile and Brewer Au mines. -from Authors

  2. Ichnological evidence for the environmental setting of the Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Owen E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Bartels, Christoph

    1999-03-01

    Analysis of the ichnology and sedimentology of the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany, reveals that the distribution and preservation of the famous pyritized fauna were controlled by the deposition of fine-grained turbidites that formed a firm substrate. The nature of this substrate is evidenced by the preservation of laminae and the finest details of arthropod trackways. The trace fossils are dominated by two ecological groups: those made by epifaunal organisms and those involving burrow systems connected to the sediment-water interface. Trace makers that moved through the sediment are poorly represented. The diversity of in situ body fossils and epifaunal traces confirms that conditions within the water column remained well oxygenated, even though the sediment rapidly became inhospitable. The Hunsrück Slate Konservat-Lagerstätten are remarkable in preserving soft tissues where unusual geochemical conditions prevailed in the environment where the animals lived, rather than following transport to a different setting.

  3. Sulfur Isotropic Studies of Archean Slate and Graywacke from Northern Minnesota: Evidence for the Existence of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripley, E. M.; Nicol, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic studies of pyrite from metasediments in the 2.6 b.y. old Deer Lake greenstone sequence, Minnesota, were conducted in order to evaluate the possible importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfide formation. Pyrite occurs as ovules up to 2 cm in diameter within graphitic slates, and as fine disseminations in metagraywacke units. SEM studies indicate the pyrite is framboidal in morphology. Delta notation values of pyrite from the Deer Lake sediments range from -2.3 to 11.1 0/00, with a peak at approximately +2 o/oo. Isotopic data is consistent with either high temperature inorganic reduction of circulating seawater sulfate, or low temperature bacterial reduction. However, the lack of sulfide bands or massive occurrences in the sediments, the restriction of pyrite mineralization to the sediments, and the absence of evidence for hot spring activity suggest that a diagenetic origin of pyrite is more feasible. Sulfide in such an environment would be produced principally by the action of sulfate reducing bacteria.

  4. Arsenic in groundwater in the North Carolina Eastern slate belt (Esb): Nash and halifax counties, north carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.C.; Haven, W.T.; Eudy, D.D.; Milosh, R.M.; Stafford, E.G.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic-contaminated groundwater is present within the Eastern Slate Belt (ESB) of North Carolina. Long-term, integrated geologic and geo-chemical investigations havedetermined the presence of arsenic by analyzing precipitates from first and second order streams under base flow conditions. When groundwater discharges into streams, arsenic and other metals are precipitated from solution, due to redox changes between the subsurface and surface environments. Analyses (As, base metals, Fe and Mn) were determined following chemical extraction ofnaturally occurring manganese-iron oxide-coatings, which had precipitated from solution onto stream-bed cobbles. Additionally, artificial redox fronts were produced by placing ceramic tilesin streambeds to collect and analyze oxide precipitates. Thermochemical plots from these data, as well as information from respective stream water measurements (pH and Eh), water sampling, and rock chemical analyses indicate mobile arsenic in predicted stability fields. Initial results show that naturally occurring arsenic-contaminated groundwater is present within the study area. However, the resulting oxidation and pre-cipitation within streams appreciably removes thiscontaminant from surface water solution.

  5. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims. PMID:26513124

  6. Roseomics: a blank slate

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Nathaniel J.; Murphy, Eain A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an explosion in the system-wide profiling of biological processes in the study of herpesvirus biology, herein referred to as “-omics”. In many cases these approaches have revealed novel virus-induced changes to host cell biology that can be targeted with new antiviral therapeutics. Despite these successes, -omics approaches are not widely applied in the study of roseoloviruses. Here we describe examples of how -omics studies have shaped our understanding of herpesvirus biology, and discuss how these approaches might be used to identify host and viral factors that mediate roseolovirus pathogenesis. PMID:25437230

  7. A Combined Remote Sensing-Numerical Modelling Approach to the Stability Analysis of Delabole Slate Quarry, Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havaej, Mohsen; Coggan, John; Stead, Doug; Elmo, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Rock slope geometry and discontinuity properties are among the most important factors in realistic rock slope analysis yet they are often oversimplified in numerical simulations. This is primarily due to the difficulties in obtaining accurate structural and geometrical data as well as the stochastic representation of discontinuities. Recent improvements in both digital data acquisition and incorporation of discrete fracture network data into numerical modelling software have provided better tools to capture rock mass characteristics, slope geometries and digital terrain models allowing more effective modelling of rock slopes. Advantages of using improved data acquisition technology include safer and faster data collection, greater areal coverage, and accurate data geo-referencing far exceed limitations due to orientation bias and occlusion. A key benefit of a detailed point cloud dataset is the ability to measure and evaluate discontinuity characteristics such as orientation, spacing/intensity and persistence. This data can be used to develop a discrete fracture network which can be imported into the numerical simulations to study the influence of the stochastic nature of the discontinuities on the failure mechanism. We demonstrate the application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry in discontinuity characterization and distinct element simulations within a slate quarry. An accurately geo-referenced photogrammetry model is used to derive the slope geometry and to characterize geological structures. We first show how a discontinuity dataset, obtained from a photogrammetry model can be used to characterize discontinuities and to develop discrete fracture networks. A deterministic three-dimensional distinct element model is then used to investigate the effect of some key input parameters (friction angle, spacing and persistence) on the stability of the quarry slope model. Finally, adopting a stochastic approach, discrete fracture networks are used as input for 3D

  8. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  9. Sulfur and lead isotope geochemistry of hypogene mineralization at the Barite Hill Gold Deposit, Carolina Slate Belt, southeastern United States: A window into and through regional metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The Barite Hill gold deposit, at the southwestern end of the Carolina slate belt in the southeastern United States, is one of four gold deposits in the region that have a combined yield of 110 metric tons of gold over the past 10 years. At Barite Hill, production has dominantly come from oxidized ores. Sulfur isotope data from hypogene portions of the Barite Hill gold deposit vary systematically with pyrite–barite associations and provide insights into both the pre-metamorphic Late Proterozoic hydrothermal and the Paleozoic regional metamorphic histories of the deposit. The δ34S values of massive barite cluster tightly between 25.0 and 28.0‰, which closely match the published values for Late Proterozoic seawater and thus support a seafloor hydrothermal origin. The δ34S values of massive sulfide range from 1.0 to 5.3‰ and fall within the range of values observed for modern and ancient seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits. In contrast, δ34S values for finer-grained, intergrown pyrite (5.1–6.8‰) and barite (21.0–23.9‰) are higher and lower than their massive counterparts, respectively. Calculated sulfur isotope temperatures for the latter barite–pyrite pairs (Δ=15.9–17.1‰) range from 332–355 °C and probably reflect post-depositional equilibration at greenschist-facies regional metamorphic conditions. Thus, pyrite and barite occurring separately from one another provide pre-metamorphic information about the hydrothermal origin of the deposit, whereas pyrite and barite occurring together equilibrated to record the metamorphic conditions. Preliminary fluid inclusion data from sphalerite are consistent with a modified seawater source for the mineralizing fluids, but data from quartz and barite may reflect later metamorphic and (or) more recent meteoric water input. Lead isotope values from pyrites range for 206Pb/204Pb from 18.005–18.294, for 207Pb/204Pb from 15.567–15.645, and for 208Pb/204Pb from 37.555–38.015. The data

  10. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Etyemezian, Vic; McCurdy, Greg; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  11. The development of folds and cleavages in slate belts by underplating in accretionary complexes: A comparison of the Kodiak Formation, Alaska and the Calaveras Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.

    1988-08-01

    The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and

  12. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  13. Model and field studies of the degradation of cross-linked polyacrylamide gels used during the revegetation of slate waste.

    PubMed

    Holliman, Peter J; Clark, Jennifer A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are increasingly being used in environmental restoration schemes and horticulture as a means of enhancing water supply to plants. However, the environmental impact of cross-linked polyacrylamide gel deployment in soil remains poorly understood. This study assessed the chemical, physical and biological properties of new and field-conditioned cross-linked polyacrylamide gels. Both monomeric acrylamide (11 microg l(-1)) and acrylic acid (285 microg l(-1)) were observed in new gel; however, the levels of monomers in field-conditioned gels (1-6 years old) were very low (acrylamide <1 microg l(-1); acrylic acid <7 microg l(-1)). Generally, freeze-thaw processes and exposure to UV radiation had little effect on gel acrylic acid and acrylamide concentrations. However, elevated temperatures (35 degrees C) caused a significant release of up to 144 mug l(-1) of acrylamide and 453 microg l(-1) of acrylic acid in new gel and up to 25 microg l(-1) of acrylamide and 157 microg l(-1) of acrylic acid in field-conditioned gels. In contrast, gel water holding capacity was highly dependent upon environmental conditions (UV exposure and freeze/thaw cycles produced the greatest loss of water holding in new gels) and gel age. Optical microscopy revealed that after placement in the field the gels became increasingly colonised over time by fungi and bacteria. In enrichment cultures, we were unable, however, to demonstrate microbial growth when cross-linked polyacrylamide was used as the sole nitrogen source. In summary, under a range of conditions cross-linked polyacrylamide did not release acrylamide above legally permitted limits, with the exception of gel subjected to elevated temperatures. However, their capacity for holding water decreased sharply within 18 months. We therefore conclude that cross-linked polyacrylamide placed in soil is relatively stable with respect to the production of potentially toxic acrylamide, a species with a short half

  14. SLATE: Virtualizing multiscale CT training

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sourav; Sharma, Kriti Sen; Lee, Spencer J.; Fox, Edward A.; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Training on micro- and nano- computed tomography (CT) scanners has been traditionally conducted via extensive practice on the instrument. This entails presence of an instructor to guide through the training procedure, until reasonable experience is attained. Modern tomographic instruments being expensive to maintain, the operational costs escalates with increasing number of training conducted. In a pioneering approach, the technical know-how to operate such equipment has been partly imparted via virtual reality environment running on the Second Life grid. The experimentation has indicated a reduction of the total training time. The authors hope that in the long run, such techniques will aid in significant reduction of instruction time and costs associated with training. PMID:22635178

  15. Evolutionary significance of geographic variation in a plumage-based foraging adaptation: an experimental test in the slate-throated redstart (Myioborus miniatus).

    PubMed

    Mumme, Ronald L; Galatowitsch, Mark L; Jabłoński, Piotr G; Stawarczyk, Tadeusz M; Cygan, Jakub P

    2006-05-01

    Geographic variation in the plumage pattern of birds is widespread but poorly understood, and in very few cases has its evolutionary significance been investigated experimentally. Neotropical warblers of the genus Myioborus use their contrasting black-and-white plumage to flush insect prey during animated foraging displays. Although previous experimental work has demonstrated that white plumage patches are critical to flush-pursuit foraging success, the amount of white in the plumage shows considerable interspecific and intraspecific geographic variation. We investigated the evolutionary significance of this geographic variation by experimentally decreasing or increasing the amount of white in the tail of slate-throated redstarts (Myioborus miniatus comptus) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, to mimic the natural extremes of tail pattern variation in this species. In addition to measuring the effects of plumage manipulation on foraging performance, we performed field experiments measuring the escape response of a common insect prey species (an asilid fly) using model redstarts representing four different Myioborus plumage patterns. Our experiments were designed to test four hypotheses that could explain geographic variation in plumage pattern. Compared to controls, experimental birds with reduced-white tails that mimic the plumage pattern of M. miniatus hellmayri of Guatemala showed significant reductions in flush-pursuit foraging performance. In contrast, the addition of white to the tail to mimic the plumage pattern of M. miniatus verticalis of Bolivia had no significant effect on foraging performance of Costa Rican redstarts. In field experiments with asilid flies, model redstarts simulating the plumage of M. miniatus comptus of Costa Rica and M. miniatus verticalis of Bolivia elicited greater responses than did models of other Myioborus taxa with either less or more white in the plumage. The results of our experiments with both birds and insects allow us to reject

  16. Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Fourth quarterly report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.M.

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly report covers activities of optimization of Reactor Configuration in Coal Liquefaction during the period July 1--September 30, 1992, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE contract period is from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1993. The overall objective of the program is to achieve a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillates product slate at reduced cost of about $25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The quarterly report covers work on Laboratory Support, Laboratory Scale Operations, Technical Assessment, and Project Management.

  17. Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.M.

    1992-12-01

    This quarterly report covers activities of optimization of Reactor Configuration in Coal Liquefaction during the period July 1--September 30, 1992, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE contract period is from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1993. The overall objective of the program is to achieve a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillates product slate at reduced cost of about $25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The quarterly report covers work on Laboratory Support, Laboratory Scale Operations, Technical Assessment, and Project Management.

  18. Relationship between metamorphism and ore formation at the Sukhoi Log gold deposit hosted in black slates from the data of U-Th-Pb isotopic SHRIMP-dating of accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovskaya, M. A.; Distler, V. V.; Rodionov, N. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Antonov, A. V.; Sergeev, S. A.

    2011-02-01

    The formation conditions and age of the Sukhoi Log gold deposit are considered on the basis of new isotopic-geochemical data. The U-Pb isotopic study of zircon and monazite from high-grade ore and host black slates at the Sukhoi Log deposit was carried out with SIMS technique using a SHRIMP II instrument. Two generations of monazite are distinguished on the basis of optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and micro X-ray spectroscopy. Monazite I is characterized by black opaque porphyroblasts with microinclusions of minerals pertaining to metamorphic slates and structural attributes of pre- and synkinematic formation. Monazite II occurs only within the ore zone as transparent crystals practically free of inclusions and as rims around monazite I. The REE contents are widely variable in both generations. Porphyroblastic monazite I differs in low U and Th (0.01-0.7 wt % ThO2) contents, whereas transparent monazite II contains up to 4 wt % ThO2. The average weighted U-Pb isotopic age of monazite I is 650 ± 8.1 Ma (MSWD = 1.6; n = 9) and marks the time of metamorphism or catagenesis. The U-Pb age estimates of synore monazite II cover the interval of 486 ± 18 to 439 ± 17 Ma. Zircons of several populations from 0.5 to 2.6 Ga in age are contained in the ore. Most detrital zircon grains have porous outer rims composed of zircon and less frequent xenotime with numerous inclusions of minerals derived from slates. The peaks of 206Pb/238U ages in the most abundant zircon populations fall on 570 and 630 Ma and correspond to the age of newly formed metamorphic mineral phases. The discordant isotopic ages indicate that the U-ThPb isotopic system of ancient detrital zircons was disturbed 470-440 Ma ago in agreement with isotopic age of monazite II and the Rb-Sr whole -rock isochron age of black slates (447 ± 6 Ma). The new data confirm the superimposed character of the gold-quartz-sulfide mineralization at the deposit. Black shales of the Khomolkho

  19. Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts for selective transportation fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, W.E.; Cilen, N.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The future use of coal as a source of conventional transportation fuel will depend on the development of an economical and energy efficient liquefaction process. Technologies that have been commercially proven or that are close to commercialization include the fixed- and fluidized-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis (fixed-bed and slurry-phase) and the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. Of these technologies, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis produces the widest slate of products and has been in operation for the longest period.

  20. Final slate for AGU elections this fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-07-01

    Your vote is important! This fall, AGU members will elect leaders for the next term (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014). This issue of Eos provides details about the upcoming election and information on candidates for open AGU Board and Council positions as well as section and focus group secretary positions. All regular and student members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 are eligible to vote in this year's election of AGU leaders. The election will be held electronically, and all members must have a valid e-mail address on file at AGU to receive login credentials from the company conducting the election.

  1. EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Research Behemoth Slated for Overhaul.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R

    2000-09-22

    Disaffection with the European Union's (E.U.'s) flagship research effort has found a sympathetic ear in the program's upper echelons. Last week, the E.U.'s top two research officials said they are pushing for big changes in the successor to Europe's 5-year, $17 billion Framework 5, including stronger efforts to coordinate research across the continent and to support innovative projects. PMID:17799385

  2. New Orleans Eyed as Clean Educational Slate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    New Orleans will probably never be the same after Hurricane Katrina. But when it comes to schools, many educators and analysts say that might not be all bad. Both in Louisiana and beyond, the wreckage in the Big Easy has sparked thinking about how the city might reinvent its beleaguered school system, in difficult straits long before the storm was…

  3. Validation of remote sensing products produced by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Scanning Imager (SSUSI): a far UV-imaging spectrograph on DMSP F-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Larry J.; Morrison, Daniel; Zhang, Yongliang; Kil, Hyosub; Wolven, Brian; Ogorzalek, Bernard S.; Humm, David C.; Meng, Ching-I.

    2002-01-01

    Operational sensors are designed and intended to reliably produce the measurements needed to develop high-value key environmental parameters. The Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) is slated to fly on the next five Defense Meteorological Satellite Program launches (beginning with the launch of F16 in Fall 2001). SSUSI will routinely produce maps of ionospheric and upper atmospheric composition and image the aurora. In this paper we describe these products and our validation plans and the process through which we can assure our sponsors and data products users of the reliability and accuracy of these products.

  4. Furan production from glycoaldehyde over HZSM-5

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Seonah; Evans, Tabitha J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Bu, Lintao; Beckham, Gregg T.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Paton, Robert S.; Robichaud, David J.

    2016-04-03

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass over zeolite catalysts results primarily in aromatic (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene) and olefin products. However, furans are a higher value intermediate for their ability to be readily transformed into gasoline, diesel, and chemicals. Here we investigate possible mechanisms for the coupling of glycoaldehyde, a common product of cellulose pyrolysis, over HZSM-5 for the formation of furans. Experimental measurements of neat glycoaldehyde over a fixed bed of HZSM-5 confirm furans (e.g. furanone) are products of this reaction at temperatures below 300 degrees C with several aldol condensation products as co-products (e.g. benzoquinone). However, under typical catalyticmore » fast pyrolysis conditions (>400 degrees C), further reactions occur that lead to the usual aromatic product slate. ONIOM calculations were utilized to identify the pathway for glycoaldehyde coupling toward furanone and hydroxyfuranone products with dehydration reactions serving as the rate determining steps with typical intrinsic reaction barriers of 40 kcal mol-1. The reaction mechanisms for glycoaldehyde will likely be similar to that of other small oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, lactaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone and this study provides a generalizable mechanism of oxygenate coupling and furan formation over zeolite catalysts.« less

  5. F sorption/desorption on two soils and on different by-products and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Quintáns-Fondo, Ana; Ferreira-Coelho, Gustavo; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2016-07-01

    We used batch-type experiments to study F sorption/desorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, finely and coarsely ground mussel shell, mussel shell calcination ash, oak wood ash, pine-sawdust, slate processing fines, and three different mixtures that included three components: sewage sludge, mussel shell ash, and calcined mussel shell or pine wood ash. The three waste mixtures, forest soil, pyritic material, and shell ash showed high sorption capacity (73-91 % of added F) and low desorption, even when 100 mg F L(-1) was added. All these materials (and to a lower extent wood ash) could be useful to remove F from polluted media (as certain soils, dumping sites, and contaminated waters). The vineyard soil, the granitic material, mussel shell, slate fines, and pine-sawdust were less effective in F removal. In most cases, sorption data fitted better to the Freundlich than to the Langmuir equation. These results can be useful to program the correct management of the soils, by-products, and waste materials assayed, mostly in situations where F concentrations are excessive and F removal should be promoted. PMID:27250088

  6. Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J. . Research and Development Dept.); Stahlnecker, E.; Schreiber, G.; Klein, R. )

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary design for the production of JP-8 jet fuel and other salable products from the Great Plains by-products is given. The design incorporates experimental results from Tasks 2 and 3 with the scoping design from Task 1. The experimental results demonstrated the need for more severe hydrotreating conditions to convert the tar oil to jet fuel than was estimated in Task 1. As a result, capital costs for the revised design are significantly higher and the plant is less profitable than estimated in the Task 1 work. The increase in capital costs is offset somewhat by a higher phenol value in the current market. Refined estimates for the cost of an aromatics recovery unit preclude its economical construction in the new estimate, consequently the revised product slate includes no BTX. Recommendations are given for a 10,000 barrel production run. No commercial domestic facility exists which can provide suitable expanded-bed hydrotreating facilities for a production run of this size. However, an alternative approach using hot filtration and dilute fixed-bed hydrocracking followed by product fractionation and extinctive hydrotreating of the heavy products is recommended. Commercial domestic facilities which might reasonably accommodate this scheme are listed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    monitored in 52 farms distributed throughout Extremadura by determining production, composition and crude protein content. Samples were taken from 208 exclusion cages during four years. The experimental fields included different soil types, developed mainly on slates and granites, and different managing practices. Rainfall vaiability was registered during the study period, with mean annual values ranging from 280 mm to 500 mm. High production differences were registered between the driest year and the other years. Furthermore, natural pastures showed a mean annual dry matter production of 2390 kg/ha, while improved pastures produced up to 3608 kg/ha.

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.

    2014-09-01

    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  9. U.S. Science Agency Budgets Slated for Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    The Obama administration released more details on 7 May about its proposed US$3.6 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 and the planned significant increases for science agencies and for research and development (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009). The budget, which needs to be approved by Congress, includes $147.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. In addition, the 2009 budget includes $18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, said the FY 2009 and proposed 2010 budgets are among the two largest research and development investments in the nation's history, in real terms. “We in the science and technology community have done better than just about any other constituency in the budget,” Holdren explained in a 7 May budget overview briefing, noting that virtually every science agency is doing better now than it was doing 2 years ago. “We have, in the White House, a president who gets it, believes and gets that investments in science and technology are just that: investments that will pay off.”

  10. Magic Bullets, Slate, and Stradivarius: Analogies, Research, and Policy Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Considering how important analogies are to human thinking, it is surprising how little attention educators and educational researchers give them. Valid research results can lead to false conclusions if viewed through the mental filter of a faulty analogy. This article examines two policy problems (prison literacy/recidivism rates and vanishing…

  11. Cleaning the Slate? School Choice and Educational Outcomes in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Cecilia; Garcia-Serrano, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a nation-wide survey on Spanish workers, this paper examines two issues: the determinants of school choice (distinguishing between public and private schools) and the influence of school type on the individual's educational attainment. For that, bivariate probit models are estimated. The analysis is carried out separately by gender…

  12. Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R. ); Hogsett, R.F. ); Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO ); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. . Energy and Environmental Research Center)

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  14. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  15. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products. PMID:20598878

  16. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  17. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  18. Single particle refuse-derived fuel devolatilization: Experimental measurements of reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Weichuan; Krieger-Brockett, B. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present experimentally measured devolatilization product yields from single particles of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a more uniform, transportable municipal solid waste. Disposal costs and environmental concerns have stimulated interest in thermochemical conversion of this material to chemicals and fuels. The composition, reaction conditions, and particle properties were systematically varied over the range found in practice to develop quantitative measures that rank the process controllables' influence on altering the product slate. Specialized regression methods and experimental designs enhanced the accuracy in view of the feed heterogeneity and offer a general method to extract real effects from experimental and sample noise''. The results have been verified successfully using actual commercial RDF and fabricated compositions that surpass those normally found in municipal waste to anticipate the influence of trends in recycling. The results show that the reaction conditions have a greater influence on altering fuel utilization and the relative yields of char, condensibles, and gases than does the composition over the range found in MSW and RDF.

  19. Science-Ready Data Production in the DKIST Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kevin; Berukoff, Steven; Hays, Tony; Spiess, DJ; Watson, Fraser

    2015-08-01

    The NSO's new flagship solar observatory, the four-meter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is under construction on Halekalala, Hawaii and slated for first light in 2019. The facility will operate an initial suite of five complementary spectroscopic and polarimetric instruments, with up to 11 detectors running simultaneously at typical cadences of 5-30 frames per second, or more. The instruments will generate data of notable volume, dimensionality, cardinality, and diversity. The facility is expected to record several hundred million images per year, for a total data volume in excess of 4 petabytes.Beyond the crucial informatics infrastructure necessary to transport, store, and curate this deluge of data, there are significant challenges in developing the robust calibration workflows that can autonomously process the range of data to generate science-ready datasets for a heterogeneous and growing community. Efforts will be made to improve our ability to compensate for the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, to identify and assess instrument and facility contributions to the measured signal, and to use of quality and fitness-of-use metrics to characterize and advertise datasets.In this talk, we will provide an overview of the methods and tools we are using to define and evaluate the calibration workflows. We will review the type of datasets that may be made available to scientists at the time of the initial operations of DKIST, as well as the potential mechanisms for the search and delivery of those data products. We will also suggest some of the likely secondary data products that could possibly be developed successively in collaboration with the community.

  20. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Chander, S.; Gutterman, C.

    1994-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases. This effect is also demonstrated by improved catalyst precursor impregnation with increased contact temperature. Laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent.

  1. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 4 wt% ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt% ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases.

  2. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  3. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  4. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  5. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  6. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming. PMID:24869918

  7. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and

  8. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.R.; Hogsett, R.F.; Sinor, J.E.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D.

    1992-10-01

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  10. Production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a cross section of different solutions to the many unique production problems operators face. Sections address benefit vs. cost options for production facility designs, oil and gas separation processes and equipment, oil treating and desalting systems, and water treating methods and equipment. Papers were selected to give an overall view of factors involved in optimizing the design of cost-effective production facilities.

  11. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  12. Solvent Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities such as corn and molasses was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  13. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  14. Agricultural Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  15. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  16. Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

  17. Assessing the Effects of Corn-Based Ethanol Production on Stream Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Corn grain-based ethanol production nearly doubled over the past five years in response to energy security concerns and the use of ethanol as a gasoline additive. Corn prices show similar increases with much of the rise occurring in more recent years. Farmers responded by planting 93 million acres of corn in 2007, a 19 percent increase over 2006, with most of the new acreage converted from lands in soybeans and cotton. The projected doubling of corn-based ethanol production by 2016 is expected to exert a continued demand for increased corn acreage and production. Both the recent and projected increases in corn production have raised concerns about the degradation of stream water quality; these include the water-quality effects of possible conversions of Conservation Reserve Program lands of which 16 million enrolled acres are slated to expire in 2007. However, no studies of the potential water-quality impacts have been conducted to date. Corn-based agriculture is currently recognized as a major source of nitrogen to Midwestern streams and the northern Gulf of Mexico where increased nitrogen has contributed to coastal eutrophication over the last several decades. Phosphorus from agricultural sources, including corn-based crops, is also known to impair the quality of inland streams and rivers. We use the spatially explicit water-quality model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes) to simulate the potential effects of recent and projected ethanol-related corn production on stream nutrient loads and coastal nutrient delivery. We simulate mean-annual total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in major streams of the conterminous United States, based on the use of a previously estimated national model. The model accounts for major sources and inputs of nutrients to watersheds (e.g., agricultural, atmospheric deposition, human wastes); these are mediated in the model by the effects of climate, topography, soils, and aquatic attenuation processes on

  18. Achieving a production goal of 1 million B/D of coal liquids by 1990. [Impediments and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Charles; LaRosa, Dr., P. J.; Coles, E. T.; Fein, H. L.; Petros, J. J.; Iyer, R. S.; Merritt, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Under this contract, Bechtel analyzed the resource requirements and reviewed major obstacles to the daily production of several million barrels of synthetic coal liquids. Further, the study sought to identify the industry infrastructure needed to support the commercial readiness of the coal liquefaction process. A selected list of critical resource items and their domestic/international availability was developed and examined, and the impact of their supply on the various synthetic coal liquids programs was evaluated. The study approach was to develop representative, or generic, direct and indirect coal liquefaction conceptual designs from available technology and costs data. The generic processes were to employ technology that would be considered commercial by the mid- or late-1980s. The size of the generic construction mobilization was considered reasonable at the outset of the program. The product slate was directed toward unrefined liquid fuels rather than diesel oil or gasoline. The generic processes were to use a wide range of coals to permit siting in most coal-producing regions across the country. Because of the dearth of conceptual design data in the literature, Bechtel developed generic plant designs by using in-house design expertise. Bechtel assumed that because it is first generation technology, the indirect process will be used at the outset of the liquids program, and the direct process will be introduced two to four years later as a second generation technology. The products of either of these processes will be limited to boiler fuels and/or other liquid products which require further upgrading. Cost estimates were developed from equipment lists, as well as material and labor estimates, which enabled the determination of an order-of-magnitude cost estimate and target plant construction schedule for both processes.

  19. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  20. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and ...

  1. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry ...

  2. The SMAP Level 4 surface and root-zone soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slated for launch in 2015, the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive mission represents a generational advance in our ability to globally observe time and space variations in surface soil moisture fields. The SMAP mission concept is based on the integrated use of L-band active radar and passive radiome...

  3. Cordless Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Apollo-era technology spurred the development of cordless products that we take for granted everyday. In the 1960s, NASA asked Black Decker to develop a special drill that would be powerful enough to cut through hard layers of the lunar surface and be lightweight, compact, and operate under its own power source, allowing Apollo astronauts to collect lunar samples further away from the Lunar Experiment Module. In response, Black Decker developed a computer program that analyzed and optimized drill motor operations. From their analysis, engineers were able to design a motor that was powerful yet required minimal battery power to operate. Since those first days of cordless products, Black Decker has continued to refine this technology and they now sell their rechargeable products worldwide (i.e. the Dustbuster, cordless tools for home and industrial use, and medical tools.)

  4. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  5. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  6. Novolak Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  7. Transplant production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For field pepper (Capsicum spp.) production, plants can be established from direct seed or transplants depending on the location and cultural practices for the specific pepper type grown. Direct seeding can result in slow, variable, and reduced plant stands due to variations in soil temperature, wat...

  8. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  9. New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Reviews new educational technology products, including a microcomputer-based tutoring system, laser barcode reader, video/data projectors, CD-ROM for notebook computers, a system to increase a printer's power, data cartridge storage shell, knowledge-based decision tool, video illustrator, interactive videodiscs, surge protectors, scanner system,…

  10. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economic analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Conceptual process design and economics for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Humbird, David; Schaidle, Joshua; Biddy, Mary

    2015-10-28

    This paper describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas via indirect gasification, gas clean-up via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and the homologation of DME over a zeolite catalyst to high-octane gasoline-range hydrocarbon products. The current process configuration has similarities to conventional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies, but there are key distinctions, specifically regarding the product slate, catalysts, and reactor conditions. A techno-economicmore » analysis is performed to investigate the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock. The design features a processing daily capacity of 2000 tonnes (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The process yields 271 liters of liquid fuel per dry tonne of biomass (65 gal/dry ton), for an annual fuel production rate of 178 million liters (47 MM gal) at 90% on-stream time. The estimated total capital investment for an nth-plant is $438 million. The resulting minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) is $0.86 per liter or $3.25 per gallon in 2011 US dollars. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance. Sustainability metrics for the conversion process are quantified and assessed. The potential premium value of the high-octane gasoline blendstock is examined and found to be at least as competitive as fossil-derived blendstocks. A simple blending strategy is proposed to demonstrate the potential for blending the biomass-derived blendstock with petroleum-derived intermediates. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Industrial Chemistry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.« less

  12. Oil Production

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  13. Tequila production.

    PubMed

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively. PMID:7736598

  14. Product separator

    DOEpatents

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  15. Aqueous production.

    PubMed

    Krupin, T; Wax, M; Moolchandani, J

    1986-01-01

    The formation of aqueous humour by the ciliary body is a complex process. Active transport of solutes by the ciliary process epithelium is an energy-dependent mechanism that selectively transports substances against an electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. Water passively follows the active solute transport. In addition to these active transport processes, ultrafiltration contributes to the formation of aqueous humour. The ciliary epithelium contains enzyme systems that function in the production of aqueous humour. The enzymes sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase [(Na+:K+)ATPase] and carbonic anhydrase participate in the active transport across this epithelium. Inhibition of these enzymes lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by decreasing aqueous humour production. the ciliary epithelium contains both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Electrophysiologic studies on the isolated iris-ciliary body (I-CB) preparation provide a means to study direct effects of the adrenergic agents on transepithelial properties of the ciliary epithelium. This paper will discuss the enzymatic and adrenergic properties of the ciliary epithelium as they relate to active transport and thereby aqueous humour production. PMID:3026067

  16. Fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, G.M.; Holmes, J.M.

    1985-01-22

    A coal fines log comprising a composite log made of a mixture of 90 to 98% coal particles having a size of roughly 10 microns, the log also containing paper and other cellulosic fibers such as bark in the range of 2 to 10% and grounded limestone is also provided in the log to neutralize the sulfur dioxide while burning. The log is contained in a hermetically sealed polyethylene envelope, the product so-formed is readily ignited and can sustain combustion over a relatively long period of time.

  17. Metallized Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1960's, virtually all NASA spacecraft have used metallized films for a variety of purposes, principally thermal radiation insulation. King Seeley manufactures a broad line of industrial and consumer oriented metallized film, fabric, paper and foam in single layer sheets and multi-layer laminates. A few examples, commercialized by MPI Outdoor Safety Products, are the three ounce Thermos Emergency Blanket which reflects and retains up to 80 percent of the user's body heat helping prevent post accident shock or keeping a person warm for hours under emergency cold weather conditions.

  18. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  19. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  20. Spending for R&D Slated to Rise 11% This Year, 10% in 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Data on U.S. research and development (R&D) efforts are presented in chart and graph form, focusing on trends, sources of funds, performance and character of R&D, employed scientists/engineers, abstracts appearing in Chemical Abstracts, and U.S. patents. Indicates that most R&D is done by private industry with funding for development. (JN)

  1. 76 FR 29228 - Funding Down Slate; Demonstration Grants for Indian Children Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Grants for Indian Children program for FY 2010 in the Federal Register on December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63398... a notice published in the Federal Register on February 8, 2010 (75 FR 6192). In response to those... December 3, 2009 notice inviting applications (74 FR 63398). Note: To be eligible to receive a grant...

  2. In Brief: Suresh slated to head U.S. National Science Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-06-01

    U.S. president Barack Obama announced on 3 June his intent to nominate Subra Suresh as the next director of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Arden Bement, who served as NSF director since 2004, resigned earlier this year to lead Purdue University's Global Policy Research Institute, in West Lafayette, Indiana. Suresh is dean of the School of Engineering and the Vannevar Bush Professor of Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. Suresh joined MIT in 1993 as the R. P. Simmons Professor of Materials Science and Engineering. Since then, he has held joint faculty appointments in the departments of Mechanical Engineering and Biological Engineering, as well as the Division of Health Sciences and Technology. He previously was head of the university's Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Suresh has a B.S. from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India; an M.S. from Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames; and a Sc.D. from MIT.

  3. NULLJOB product

    SciTech Connect

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-05-01

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  4. Software Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MAST is a decision support system to help in the management of dairy herds. Data is collected on dairy herds around the country and processed at regional centers. One center is Cornell University, where Dr. Lawrence Jones and his team developed MAST. The system draws conclusions from the data and summarizes it graphically. CLIPS, which is embedded in MAST, gives the system the ability to make decisions without user interaction. With this technique, dairy managers can identify herd problems quickly, resulting in improved animal health and higher milk quality. CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) was developed by NASA's Johnson Space Center. It is a shell for developing expert systems designed to permit research, development and delivery on conventional computers.

  5. Production Density Diffusion Equation Propagation and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Kenji; Amano, Yoshinori

    When we call the production flow to transition elements in the next step in the process of product manufactured one, the production flow is considered to be displaced in the direction of the unit production density. Density and production, as captured from different perspectives, also said production costs per unit of production. However, it is assumed that contributed to the production cost of manufacturing 100 percent. They may not correspond to the physical propagation conditions after each step of the production density, the equations governing the manufacturing process, which is intended to be represented by a single diffusion equation. We can also apply the concept of energy levels in statistical mechanics, production density function, in other words, in statistical mechanics “place” that if you use the world of manufacturing and production term. If the free energy in this production (potential) that are consuming the substance is nothing but the entropy production. That is, productivity is defined as the entropy production has to be. Normally, when we increase the number of production units, the product nears completion at year-end number of units completed and will aim to be delivered to the contractor from the turnover order. However, if you stop at any number of units, that will increase production density over time. Thus, the diffusion does not proceed from that would be irreversible. In other words, the congestion will occur in production. This fact and to report the results of analysis based on real data.

  6. Informing Decisions with a Climate Synthesis Product: Implications for Regional Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Z.; Hill, D.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The demand for regional climate information is increasing and spurring efforts to provide a broad slate of climate services that inform policy and resource management and elevate general knowledge. Routine syntheses of existing climate-related information may be an effective strategy for connecting climate information to decision making, but few studies have formally assessed their contribution to informing decisions. During the 2010-2011 winter, drought conditions expanded and intensified in Arizona and New Mexico, creating an opportunity to develop and evaluate a pithy, monthly regional climate communication product—La Niña Drought Tracker—that synthesized and interpreted drought and climate information. Six issues were published and subsequently evaluated through an online survey. On average, 417 people consulted the publication each month. Many of the survey respondents indicated that they made at least one drought-related decision, and the product at least moderately influenced the majority of those decisions, some of which helped mitigate economic losses and reduce climate vulnerability. The product also improved understanding of climate and drought for more than 90 percent of the respondents and helped the majority of them better prepare for drought. These, and other results demonstrate that routine interpretation and synthesis of existing climate information can help enhance access to and understanding and use of climate information in decision-making. Moreover, developing regional, contextual knowledge within climate service programs can facilitate the implementation of activities like the Tracker that enhance the use of climate information without engaging in time-consuming collaborative processes that can prevent the timely production of the services. We present results from the case study of the Tracker and place it within the context of the challenges and opportunities associated with providing climate services, particularly those services that

  7. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L.; Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis; Syrimis, M.; Fatemi, S.M.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this research is to invert the conventional scale of values for products of coal utilization processes by making coal chars (carbons) that, because of their unique properties, are the most valuable materials in the product slate. A unique type of coal-derived carbon studied in this project is oxidized activated coal char having both adsorptive and catalyst properties. Major program elements were (a) preparation and characterization of materials (b) characterization of carbons and catalyst testing (c) completion of diesel engine testing of low-ash coal and (d) initiation of a two-year adsorption study. Materials prepared were (a) two low-ash coal samples one via ChemCoal processing of IBC-109 and the other by acid dissolution of IBC-109`s mineral matter, (b) coal char (MG char), (c) activated low-ash carbon (AC), (d) oxidized activated carbon (OAC). Amoco continued its support with state-of-the art analytical capabilities and development of catalyst testing procedures. Diesel engine tests were made with low ash coal dispersed in diesel fuel at solid loadings of 20% and 35%. The slurry was successfully burned in cylinder 2 of a two-cylinder diesel engine, after modifications of the engine`s fuel injection system. The higher speed proved to be more favorable but the slurry burned with a slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency at both speeds with respect to diesel fuel alone. Adsorption studies included preparation of seven base-line carbon samples and their characterization, including their N{sub 2} BET surface areas and apparent densities. Paranitrophenol (PNP) adsorption isotherms were determined for the six controls. Oxidation of carbon with nitric acid decreases activated carbon`s PNP adsorption capacity while air oxidation increases adsorption capacity.

  8. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-12-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  9. As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana María; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. PMID:26690456

  10. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D.L.; Griffitts, W.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the

  11. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  12. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  13. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  14. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  15. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. How do antibacterials work? ♦ Antibacterials may be ... contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products Are there any risks associated with triclosan-containing ...

  16. Science and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.; Schmitt, Roland W.

    1988-01-01

    Defines incremental product development and discusses how this style of innovation effects technology industries. Cites examples of Japanese competition which emphasizes quality and speed in product development. Makes recommendations for the improvement of product development in the United States. (CW)

  17. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  18. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  19. Household Products Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commercial / Institutional Product Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More Resources What's under your kitchen sink, in your garage, in your bathroom, and ...

  20. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  1. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  2. Product engineering guide

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, C.E.

    1989-12-01

    The semiconductor product engineers job requires knowledge and expertise related to many different subjects. This report provides guidance for newcomers to product engineering and is a consise reference for all others involved in product engineering. Subjects addressed are Customer/Supplier interactions, component development sequence, production schedule support, component characterization, product specifications, test equipment requirements, product qualification, characterization and development reports, preferred parts list, standard packaging, and finally, classification and security considerations. This guide is intended to help standardize and simplify the component development sequence presently used in the semiconductor product engineering department. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  4. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  5. Product assurance management and software product assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, C.; Borycki, G.; Panaroni, P.; Surbone, M.; Borcz, R.; Beddow, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of software assurance is discussed. The definition and implementation of standards are considered. It is recommended that requirements be clarified at the start of a project. The need for quality assurance in hardware is identified as the coming trend in the production of high cost single units which call for eradication of all errors during the early stages of development. The need to apply quality assurance throughout the whole mission is stressed. The dangers of overpricing product assurance services is stressed.

  6. ACS Quicklook PDF products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, Anatoly

    1999-12-01

    This report details the features of the ACS quicklook PDF products produced by the HST data pipeline. The requirements closely follow the design of paper products recommended by the Data Quality Committee, with appropriate changes required to fully support ACS.

  7. The Top 10 Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, American School & University showcased some of the hottest products in the industry. This article presents the 10 most requested, as determined by readers. Products include fluorescent lighting, concrete floor maintenance and exterior sheathing.

  8. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  9. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  10. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  11. Baryon production at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, G.; Weiss, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of inclusive ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production for 1.0 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 10.0 GeV/c and p + anti p production for 0.4 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 2.0 GeV/c show significant baryon production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at E/sub cm/ = 29 GeV. ..lambda.. + anti ..lambda.. production represents 0.2 ..lambda..'s or anti ..lambda..'s per PEP event while the observed p + anti p production implies all baryon-antibaryon pair production is occurring at least as often as 0.6 per event, depending on the yet to be measured p + anti p production at high momentum. Comparisons are made with the first theoretical attempts to account for baryon production at these energies.

  12. CALIPSO Data Products Catalog

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-11-12

    ... aerosol, and stratospheric subtypes The cloud layer fraction was added to the aerosol profile data products. The aerosol layer fraction and surface winds were added to the cloud profile data product. ...

  13. Rational forest productivity decline.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, James I; Carleton, T J

    2003-01-01

    A whole forest optimisation model was employed to examine economic behaviour as it relates to long term, forest productivity decline in the boreal forests of Ontario, Canada. Our productivity investment model (PIM) incorporated a choice between productivity decline as represented by a drop in forest Site Class, and a fee to 'maintain' site productivity. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the point at which these fees exceeded the value of the differential in timber volume between upper and lower site classes. By varying discount rate, 'productivity investment frontiers' were constructed, which highlight the effects of the magnitude in productivity decline, maintenance fees, and harvest flow constraints upon the occurrence and schedule of productivity declines. In presenting this simple approach to exploring the effects of economic choice upon forest productivity decline, the phenomena of 'natural capital divestment' within forestry is described. PMID:12859006

  14. Data Product Maturity

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-25

    ... document, maturity levels are provided separately for each scientific data set (SDS) included with the data files. The data product ... indiscriminate use of these data products as the basis for research findings, journal publications, and/or presentations.   ...

  15. The new productivity challenge.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1991-01-01

    "The single greatest challenge facing managers in the developed countries of the world is to raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers," writes Peter F. Drucker in "The New Productivity Challenge." Productivity, says Drucker, ultimately defeated Karl Marx; it gave common laborers the chance to earn the wages of skilled workers. Now five distinct steps will raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers--and not only stimulate new economic growth but also defuse rising social tensions. PMID:10114929

  16. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  17. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... three types of MISR Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters ... Radiance/RQI field. Component Global Aerosol Product (CGAS): MI3DAER, MI3MAER, MI3QAER, MI3YAER ...

  18. MISR Data Product Specifications

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-09-06

    ... which corresponds to the data product version. The  Science Data Product Guide  (PDF) describes a template for MISR science data ... 7, 10: updates for V4.0 software delivery Sections 1, 2: update applicable product versions Size (PDF):  11.1 Mb   ...

  19. Production of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production technology is critical for the success of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in biological control. Production approaches include in vivo and in vitro methods (solid or liquid fermentation). For laboratory use and small scale field experiments, in vivo production of EPNs appears to be th...

  20. Nulcear materials production: Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

  1. Vocational Education and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert, Jr.

    Vocational education can contribute to an improved United States productivity by producing an effective work force. People together with technology are two major factors in improving productivity, and they must be integrated. Industry is in the forefront of the efforts to improve productivity. It has encouraged management in long-range strategic…

  2. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. The EGRET data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) data products which we anticipate will suffice for virtually all guest and archival investigations. The production process, content, availability, format, and the associated software of each product is described. Supplied here is sufficient detail for each researcher to do analysis which is not supported by extant software.

  4. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  5. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Text Size Even though ... nothing small or simple about their accessories! Selecting products for your baby can be confusing, especially with ...

  6. Flexible production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, A. D.; Shchetinin, D. D.

    1986-03-01

    Flexible production systems are a technological tool design to automate multiple product line manufacturing. Flexible production systems provide an efficient means of organizing combined equipment operations and bring the production organization nearer to an unmanned arrangement or one requiring a limited number of workers. This is achieved by intensifying and automating manufacturing processes; coordinating the automated processes involved in warehousing and materials transport to maintain a tight production path; and using computers to automate production preparation and production control. The prerequisites for a change to these new production structures include numerical control NC tools and machining centers, power connection points for robots, automated conveying and warehousing systems controlled by microelectronic devices and control computer complexes consisting primarily of microprocessor-based units capable of controlling equipment via a direct connection and on a real-time basis. The types of flexible production systems in operation are divided into three groups: (1) flexible automated lines (GAL), (2) flexible production modules (GPM); and (3) flexible production complexes (GPK).

  7. Suomi Npp Products Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The products include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone products from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a product maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data products. By far all products were publicly available and most products were ready for operational evaluation. Most products also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data products, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 products will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP products once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data products however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data products' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.

  8. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  9. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... expressed in common units of production with oil, gas, and other products converted to a common unit...

  10. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  11. Estimating Prices of Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.; Chamberlain, R. G.; Zendejas, S. C.; Lee, T. S.; Malhotra, S.

    1986-01-01

    Company-wide or process-wide production simulated. Price Estimation Guidelines (IPEG) program provides simple, accurate estimates of prices of manufactured products. Simplification of SAMIS allows analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform greater number of sensitivity studies. Although developed for photovoltaic industry, readily adaptable to standard assembly-line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG program estimates annual production price per unit. IPEG/PC program written in TURBO PASCAL.

  12. Higgs central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Dechambre, A.; Hernández, O. F.

    2012-01-01

    Using the CHIDe model, we tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs production to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive production of Higgs boson at the LHC. In this model, due to different choices of the scale in the Sudakov form factor for dijet and Higgs production, it is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.

  13. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  14. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  15. Nasa's Emerging Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunstein, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The goals, membership, and organizational structure of the NASA Productivity Steering Committee are described as well as steps taken to make NASA a leader in the development and application of productivity and quality concepts at every level of agency management. The overall strategy for the Productivity Improvement and Quality Enhancement (PIQE) Program is through employee involvement, both civil servant and contractor, in all phases of agency-wide activity. Elements of the PIQE program and initial thrusts are examined.

  16. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  17. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  18. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  19. Ethnic cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Victoria L

    2003-10-01

    Based both on actual differences in the hair and skin and on cultural desire, people of color do have special considerations for cosmetic products. As the experts in hair and skin, it is incumbent on dermatologists to understand the needs of a diverse patient base, to be knowledgeable about the products that patients need and desire, and to be aware of possible adverse effects related to product use or misuse. Further research is needed both to continue to understand the needs of the hair and skin of people of color and to understand the effects of products on ethnic hair and skin. PMID:14717415

  20. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  1. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production, by final product sold, of oil, gas, and other products. Disclosure shall be made by geographical... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be... (Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas Topic). Instruction 5 to Item 1204: The average production cost,...

  3. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  4. 78 FR 36759 - Funding Down the Grant Slate From Fiscal Year (FY) 2012; Graduate Assistance in Areas of National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 77985) inviting applications for FY 2012 for new awards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... (GAANN) Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION:...

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis Shows That Neolithic Slate Plaques from the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula Are Not Genealogical Recording Systems

    PubMed Central

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500–2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  6. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    PubMed

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it. PMID:24558384

  7. Enhancing Enterprise 2.0 Ecosystems Using Semantic Web and Linked Data Technologies:The SemSLATES Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Alexandre; Laublet, Philippe; Breslin, John G.; Decker, Stefan

    During the past few years, various organisations embraced the Enterprise 2.0 paradigms, providing their employees with new means to enhance collaboration and knowledge sharing in the workplace. However, while tools such as blogs, wikis, and principles like free-tagging or content syndication allow user-generated content to be more easily created and shared in the enterprise, in spite of some social issues, these new practices lead to various problems in terms of knowledge management. In this chapter, we provide an approach based on Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies for (1) integrating heterogeneous data from distinct Enterprise 2.0 applications, and (2) bridging the gap between raw text and machine-readable Linked Data. We discuss the theoretical background of our proposal as well as a practical case-study in enterprise, focusing on the various add-ons that have been provided to the original information system, as well as presenting how public Linked Open Data from the Web can be used to enhance existing Enterprise 2.0 ecosystems.

  8. Blank Slates or Hidden Treasure? Assessing and Building on the Experiential Learning of Migrant and Refugee Women in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Commonly, the work situation of migrant and refugee women declines notably on arriving in the new country, irrespective of their existing qualifications and even after they have taken accepted qualifications. The primary objectives of this research were to test the hypothesis that women bring to their new countries skills and competencies arising…

  9. Jobs or Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Moira

    1985-01-01

    The author examines some of the complexities involved in trying to answer the question: jobs or productivity? human labor or machines? She discusses calculation of labor intensity, Australian statistics on the subject, trends in productivity, and institutional discouragement of labor intensity. (CT)

  10. User Oriented Product Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Wingard, Joseph

    While the educational product development field has expanded tremendously over the last 15 years, there is a paucity of conveniently assembled and readily interpretable information that would enable users to make accurate and informed evaluations of different, but comparable, instructional products. Minimum types of validation data which should be…

  11. OSI Product Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metka, Tonia

    1990-01-01

    Reviews some of the projects and organizations concerned with promoting conformance and interoperability testing of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) products and describes OSI products available from computer manufacturers and vendors. A list of references includes 57 articles that mention specific vendors and 11 general articles about OSI…

  12. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  13. Biotechnology and derived products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microorganisms able to infect and kill insect pests, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops are biotechnologically derived products that are being promoted for use to control insect pests in lieu of chemical insecticides. Products based on these technologies effectively co...

  14. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  15. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  16. Nanomaterials in Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. Foss; Baun, A.; Michelson, E. S.; Kamper, A.; Borling, P.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. It was found that in 19% of the products the nanomaterial were nanoparticles bound to the surfaces. Nanoparticles suspended in liquids were used in 37% of the products, whereas 13% used nanoparticles suspended in solids. One percent were powders containing free potentially airborne nanoparticles. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) Expected to cause exposure; (2) May cause exposure; and (3) No expected exposure to the consumer. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete the quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products — a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to a product scenario — the application of sun lotion — using best estimates available and/or worst case assumptions.

  17. Process to Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gary, Ed.; Mirkes, Donna Z., Ed.

    Intended for educators who direct federally funded model projects, the booklet provides a framework for special education product development. In "Making Media Decisions," G. Richman explores procedures for selecting the most appropriate medium to carry the message of a given product. The fundamental questions are addressed: what is the goal; who…

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF MANNITOL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. We have found that Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL...

  19. Productivity and Capital Goods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Providing teacher background on the concepts of productivity and capital goods, this document presents 3 teaching units about these ideas for different grade levels. The grade K-2 unit, "How Do They Do It?," is designed to provide students with an understanding of how physical capital goods add to productivity. Activities include a field trip to…

  20. Insect mass production technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements, make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food and animal origin. However, to realize the...

  1. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  2. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  3. Products from lunar anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Donald L.; Cochran, C. Norman; Cochran, William C.; Haupin, Warren E.; Keller, Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Lunar anorthositic soil can be processed to produce oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and calcium. A process scheme starting with the beneficiation of the ore by magnetic separation and yielding the pure products is being developed. Simplifications in the process are possible if requirements regarding product purity and separation may be relaxed.

  4. Productivity: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    This training package explains productivity in terms of the difference between worker output and company input. Output is defined in terms of the products and/or services of an organization (number and/or quality of units produced, efficiency of time use, marginal profits) and in terms of behavior (labor turnover, disruptions in routine, wasted…

  5. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  6. Worldwide Blackberry Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of worldwide blackberry (Rubus spp.) production was conducted in 2005. Results indicated there were an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from 1995. Wild blackberries still make a significant contribution to worldwide production...

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  9. MICROBIAL RESISTANT GYPSUM PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsum building materials often become wet, resulting in mold growth that leads to health and productivity impacts. A major source of mold growth is gypsum wallboard since nearly 90% of the interior finished surfaces of buildings are covered with gypsum products. It has been est...

  10. Training for Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

  11. Hydrogen production from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  12. PHOENIX: the production line for science data products at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    In the past two years ESO has installed a production line for level 2 science data products. Focussing on spectroscopic observations, these in-house generated data products are complementary to the externally provided data products from the imaging surveys. The production line combines mass production (more than one million spectra have been generated so far), previews, and quality control.

  13. Product definition data interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  14. Firewall products today

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.P.

    1995-02-01

    With an increased interest in connecting to the Internet, there is a corresponding interest in protecting an organization`s network from others on the Internet. Internet firewalls help protect an organization`s network, and the increased demand for firewalls have brought about a number of freeware and commercial products. But how does someone determine the best product or service for their organization? This paper discusses things that need to be considered in deciding to build or purchase a firewall system. It discusses many of the products, features, and services that are commercially available and what components they include such as software, hardware, consulting, or a combination thereof. This paper is not an attempt to evaluate the products. The aim is to provide an awareness of what is currently available and their capabilities. An appendix gives contact information for all of the vendors whose product information was used in developing this paper.

  15. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  16. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-01-01

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source. PMID:16371161

  17. Concrete production floating platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

    1981-01-01

    The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

  18. SMAP Science Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, D.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will retrieve global surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on measurements acquired by remote sensing instruments that fly on an Earth orbiting satellite. The SMAP observatory will launch no earlier than January 8, 2015 into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument suite includes a radiometer and synthetic aperture radar. This paper will describe the Science Data System (SDS) that will process the SMAP raw data into higher-level products. SMAP data products will provide calibrated radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperatures, derived geophysical parameters in the form of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states, daily maps of these geophysical parameters, as well as modeled analyses of global soil moisture and carbon flux in Boreal regions. The SDS is a fully automated system that will process the incoming raw data from the instruments, incorporate spacecraft and instrument engineering data, and use both dynamic and static ancillary products from the scientific community. The SDS will produce 14 standard data product processors. This paper will discuss the standard data products, their format, metadata, quality assessment products, as well as the planned release dates for the products both Beta and Validated quality. The standard data products will appear in Hierarchical Data Format-5 (HDF5) format. The products will contain metadata that conform to the ISO 19115 standard. The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) will host and distribute SMAP Radar data, while the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will host and distribute all other SMAP products.

  19. Towards regional products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, M.; Dibarboure, G.; Faugère, Y.; Bronner, E.

    2011-12-01

    During the last 17 years, altimeter Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (merging multiple sensors as maps or time series) were developed in parallel with L2 (a.k.a GDR) processing improvements. Directly usable and easier to manipulate, L3/4 products are now vastly used in the user community. They contribute to various studies in different fields that cover the ocean, from climate and meteorological phenomena, to geophysics and biology. The quality and precision of these products were periodically improved, taking advantage of new missions and datasets of opportunity, advanced altimeter technology, improved L2 processing, but also from a better understanding of the ocean stemming from the analysis of past records. Moreover, as applications become more and more diversified, L3/L4 products are evolving to better fit users' needs. The data latency is improved with an "on the fly" RT (OGDR-based) data production. Regional L3/L4 products are developed, with higher resolution (still limited to temporal/spatial scales accessible to a small satellite constellation), as for Mozambique, European West Shelves, and Arctic areas. Different experimental datasets were made available for end users. They will be able to assess impact of different parameters on their applications. Their feedback will contribute to improve altimeter products.

  20. IRIS Product Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) evaluation of SIGMET Inc.'s Integrated Radar Information System (IRIS) Product Generator and recommendations for products emphasizing lightning and microburst tools. The IRIS Product Generator processes radar reflectivity data from the Weather Surveillance Radar, model 74C (WSR-74C), located on Patrick Air Force Base. The IRIS System was upgraded from version 6.12 to version 7.05 in late December 1999. A statistical analysis of atmospheric temperature variability over the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Weather Station provided guidance for the configuration of radar products that provide information on the mixed-phase (liquid and ice) region of clouds, between 0 C and -20 C. Mixed-phase processes at these temperatures are physically linked to electrification and the genesis of severe weather within convectively generated clouds. Day-to-day variations in the atmospheric temperature profile are of sufficient magnitude to warrant periodic reconfiguration of radar products intended for the interpretation of lightning and microburst potential of convectively generated clouds. The AMU also examined the radar volume-scan strategy to determine the scales of vertical gaps within the altitude range of the 0 C to -20 C isotherms over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/CCAFS area. This report present's two objective strategies for designing volume scans and proposes a modified scan strategy that reduces the average vertical gap by 37% as a means for improving radar observations of cloud characteristics in the critical 0 C to -20 C layer. The AMU recommends a total of 18 products, including 11 products that require use of the IRIS programming language and the IRIS User Product Insert feature. Included is a cell trends product and display, modeled after the WSR-88D cell trends display in use by the National Weather Service.

  1. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  2. Gasohol: outlook for production

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.M.

    1981-11-01

    The US Department of Energy has set goals for alcohol production of 920 million gallons per year by the end of 1982 and 1.8 billion gallons per year by the end of 1985, to provide an alternative source of energy. The production of ethanol from sugar crops, grains and tubers, and other crops is reviewed. The recovery of fuel-grade alcohol from fermentation beers, and the energy requirements to make anhydrous alcohol are discussed. The economics of alcohol production and the financial incentives offered by the United States Government are summarized.

  3. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2004-12-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  4. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  5. Product Realization Environment

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore » enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  6. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  7. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  8. CALIPSO Expedited Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... Thursday, January 31, 2013 The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration ... Science investigations to be published in research journals should, therefore, not be based on the Expedited data products, but ...

  9. Thermochromism in Commercial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mary Anne; Leblanc, Monique

    1999-09-01

    Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

  10. JWST science data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Greene, Gretchen; Swam, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Science data products for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) ©observations will be generated by the Data Management Subsystem (DMS) within the JWST Science and Operations Center (S&OC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Data processing pipelines within the DMS will produce uncalibrated and calibrated exposure files, as well as higher level data products that result from combined exposures, such as mosaic images. Information to support the science observations, for example data from engineering telemetry, proposer inputs, and observation planning will be captured and incorporated into the science data products. All files will be generated in Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format. The data products will be made available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) and adhere to International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) standard data protocols.

  11. Equipment & New Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are a number of materials including a spectrophotometer, power meter, vacuum pump, fume hood, cart system, and others. The source of the product and a brief description are given for each. (RH)

  12. Production of solvated electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    Current research, both theoretical and experimental, relating to the production and kinetics of interactions of solvated electrons is reviewed. Particular attention is focused on solvated electrons generated by ionizing radiation in water, alcohols, and organic systems.

  13. Well production method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.J.; Coats, E.A.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes a method of producing methane gas from a coalbed. It includes drilling a well into an earth formation to a depth penetrating a coalbed seam; setting a casing in the well extending through the coalbed seam; perforating the casing at the coalbed seam; installing a production tubing string in the well casing, the string extending in spaced relation in the casing to the coalbed seam and defining a continuous annulus in the well between the production tubing string and the casing between a surface end of the well and the coalbed seam, the production tubing string including a side pocket mandrel and a tubing removable gas lift valve installed in the side pocket mandrel; installing a tubing lift gas injection line in the well annulus along with the production tubing string the lift gas injection line being connected into the side pocket mandrel to communicate into the gas lift valve; installing a wellhead on the well having separate flow line.

  14. NOx production in lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, W. L.; Stedman, D. H.; Dickerson, R. R.; Rusch, D. W.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of odd nitrogen (NOx) production by electrical discharge through air was theoretically and experimentally estimated to be about 60,000 trillion NOx molecules per joule. The theoretical treatment employed a cylindrical shock-wave solution to calculate the rate of NOx production in high temperature reactions. The limits obtained were experimentally verified by subjecting a regulated air flow to electrical discharges followed by a measurement of NOx production using chemiluminescence. These measurements also indicated that water vapor content has no detectable effect on the NOx production rate. The results imply that lightning is a significant source of NOx, producing about 30-40 megatons NOx-N per year and possibly accounting for as much as 50% of the total atmospheric NOx source.

  15. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  16. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Formula What do can codes mean? Dates on Egg Cartons UPC or Bar Codes Storage Times Refrigerator ... primarily on perishable foods such as meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. "Closed" or "coded" dating might ...

  17. CERES FSW Data Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    CERES FSW Data Products Level 3:  Spatially (1°x1° lat/lon ... Description : Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW): Regional averages of instantaneous footprint computed fluxes [TOA, ...

  18. Critical Schwinger Pair Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality.

  19. Cyanobacterial biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-11-30

    The development of new technologies for production of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO₂ emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO₂ to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO₂ with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel production from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the production systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for production of high value chemicals including biofuels. PMID:22446641

  20. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  1. Colloidal Silver Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be dangerous to your health. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... homemade and commercial colloidal silver products. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Colloidal Silver Scientific ...

  2. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:27023568

  3. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... products come as a tablet, a capsule, a syrup, a solution (clear liquid), an extended-release (long- ... liquid) to take by mouth. The tablet, capsule, syrup, and solution are usually taken every 4 to ...

  4. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other hydrocodone combination products are used to relieve cough. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications called ... and nervous system respond to pain. Hydrocodone relieves cough by decreasing activity in the part of the ...

  5. Productivity Improvement and Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Benjamin I., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a developmental model designed to help productivity improvement and professional development become an integral part of the natural everyday work experience. Examples and a summarized model are included. (CT)

  6. Acceleration radioisotope production simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1996-12-31

    We have identified 96 radionuclides now being used or under consideration for use in medical applications. Previously, we calculated the production of {sup 99}Mo from enriched and depleted uranium targets at the 800-MeV energy used in the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos. We now consider the production of isotopes using lower energy beams, which may become available as a result of new high-intensity spallation target accelerators now being planned. The production of four radionuclides ({sup 7}Be, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 99}Mo, and {sup 195m}Pt) in a simplified proton accelerator target design is being examined. The LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER90 codes were used to model the target, transport a beam of protons and secondary produced particles through the system, and compute the nuclide production from spallation and low-energy neutron interactions. Beam energies of 200 and 400 MeV were used, and several targets were considered for each nuclide.

  7. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  8. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    PubMed

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality. PMID:26991162

  9. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  10. MISR UAE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... and desert regions of the United Arab Emirates. The main scientific goal is to evaluate and improve satellite derived aerosol and ocean products commonly used by the scientific community. Over 20 research laboratories are participating in the field campaign. The ...

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This presentation poster covers data products from the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) of the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer products (TOMS) introduced in the presentation include TOMS Version 8 as well as Aura, which provides 25 years of TOMS and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) data. The presentation lists a number of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics data sets at DAAC.

  12. Magnetite and its production

    SciTech Connect

    Koebbe, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    The supply of high quality magnetite for the cleaning of coal using dense medium cyclones and vessels is of concern to all coal preparation operations. This paper describes the production of high purity magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) from a domestic underground mining operation in Missouri, Pea Ridge Iron Ore Company. Emphasis will be placed on the mining and processing of the magnetite ore into the various magnetite products required by coal preparation plants.

  13. Dynamics of Hyperon Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sibirtsev, A.

    2007-11-07

    The progress of strangeness physics at COSY in both experimental and theoretical aspects is reviewed. It is argued that the dynamics of hyperon production involves excitation of baryons and that it is feasible to study their properties such as mass and total width. It is shown that under certain kinematical cuts the resonance signal can be isolated from the effect due to the final state interaction. Recent puzzles concerning the {sigma}-hyperon production are discussed.

  14. Pretreated densified biomass products

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  15. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  16. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  17. Measuring Hospital Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving

    1974-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703

  18. GSICS Satellite Intercalibration Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, M.; Flynn, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring satellite instrument measurements (Top of Atmosphere radiances) while they are orbiting by comparing them with in-orbit stable references has emerged as a key component of ensuring quality (the stability and accuracy) of their measurements and correcting any biases that emerge during the mission. In 2006 the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the CGMS together initiated the Gobal Space Based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS,gsics.wmo.int) with the aim of monitoring the quality of measurement from satellite instruments launched by member including NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ISRO CMA KMA CNES. In recent years, GSICS, via collaboration among member agencies across nations has successfully monitored instrument records for both GEO (GOES, SEVIRI, MTSAT) and LEO (AVHRR) based instruments by comparing them to in-orbit references such as IASI, AIRS and MODIS. The cross comparison products undergo stringent quality checks and standarizations and a scientific review of the theoretical bases and are assigned a GSICS maturity level. The accepted products are distributed freely as GSICS correction products. These products have wide applications. The goal of the presentation is to introduce GSICS cross calibration products and demonstrate their applications in developing products such as Fundamental Climate Data Records (FCDRs), evaluating Spectral Response Function status, and providing bias corrections. The impact of the GSICS bias corrections on retrieval of downstream variables such as Cloud Height Sea Surface Temperature will be one component of the presentation.

  19. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  20. Material and energy productivity.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  1. Microbial production of propanol.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; François, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Both, n-propanol and isopropanol are industrially attractive value-added molecules that can be produced by microbes from renewable resources. The development of cost-effective fermentation processes may allow using these alcohols as a biofuel component, or as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of propylene. This review reports and discusses the recent progress which has been made in the biochemical production of propanol. Several synthetic propanol-producing pathways were developed that vary with respect to stoichiometry and metabolic entry point. These pathways were expressed in different host organisms and enabled propanol production from various renewable feedstocks. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimization of fermentation conditions greatly improved process performance, in particular, when continuous product removal prevented accumulation of toxic propanol levels. Although these advanced metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies have facilitated significant progress in the biochemical production of propanol, the currently achieved propanol yields and productivities appear to be insufficient to compete with chemical propanol synthesis. The development of biosynthetic pathways with improved propanol yields, the breeding or identification of microorganisms with higher propanol tolerance, and the engineering of propanol producer strains that efficiently utilize low-cost feedstocks are the major challenges on the way to industrially relevant microbial propanol production processes. PMID:27262999

  2. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  3. Exergy and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Soma, J.

    1983-02-01

    With the fates of entire industries in the balance in the world's competitive economic battlegrounds, the leading competitor will be the one that is most productive in its sphere of competition. Conservation and competition are unnatural bedfellows. The most adept competitors will use the best principles of productive scientific management to seek the path of least action (Hamilton's principle) and least time (Fermat's principle) to triumph over their competitors' incomplete and insufficient conceptions of management. Exergy management can work in productive synergy with sound economic principles and other valid productivity principles to define and decide on optimal paths for a corporation to follow within existing degrees of freedom. It has identified its AEU and found its proper economics--exergioeconomics. It will encourage other managements to identify, say, their APUs (American Productivity Units) and their proper economics. When other managements follow suit, the revivified corporate entity will be admirably qualified to compete in the marketplace and reap the rewards that production economics offers through optimum allocation and utilization of energy, labor, capital and materials.

  4. Beauty production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Shears, Tara; /Liverpool U.

    2008-04-01

    A review of recent measurements of beauty production, based on proton antiproton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark production at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies {radical}s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty production at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), production will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark production can be found elsewhere [4].

  5. New Product Launching Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  6. Ecuador unveils products.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Ecuador's contraceptive social marketing program will be launched in January 1984 with distribution of a colored condom (Liber) and a low dose oral contraceptive (OC) (Evitex). The program, which is funded through a 3-year US$1.2 million award from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is managed by the Ecuador family planning association. Due to the fluctuating foreign monetary exchange rate, product prices have not yet been determined. However, Liber sales are expected to benefit from a government decision that removed condoms from the list of favored import products. The products will be cautiously promoted through generic television advertisements on family planning. In Ecuador, contraceptive products are not mentioned by brand name. If public response to the general family planning messages are favorable, brand name advertisements will run in small newspapers and on the radio. Eventually, advertisements will be placed in the 2 national newspapers with the aim of stimulating support of contraceptive social marketing among key opinion makers. OCs and IUDs are the most popular birth control methods in Ecuador, but nonavailability of OCs has retarded family planning efforts. Evitex will be sold on a prescription basis through about 1800 pharmaceutical outlets, while Liber will be distributed through pharmacies and the country's 30,000 "Mom and Pop" stores. A 3rd product, a spermicidal foaming tablet (Orlinda), will be available for distribution in mid to late 1984. PMID:12313312

  7. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  8. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  9. Application of manufactured products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  10. A productivity measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, R.H.; Blain, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The system for measuring productivity of the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Drafting Group was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Productivity Measurement System, built on relational data base management software, provides up-to-date information on the productivity of the Drafting Group, the drafting units, and the individual Drafters. The system was developed using data collected in the Drafters Time and Activities Log and Task Baseline Agreement (TBA) that was input to the data base. Using these data, an average usage rate in hours per square foot of drawing, CAD and Manual, was established. This provided a benchmark for management reports that are depicted graphically for ease of trend analyses. In addition, the system provides each drafter an indicator as to where they stand in relation to their peers, and all of the information provided leads to more accurate drafting estimates. 11 figs.

  11. SAR Product Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P. J.; Hounam, D.; Rye, A. J.; Rosich, B.; Börner, T.; Closa, J.; Schättler, B.; Smith, P. J.; Zink, M.

    2003-03-01

    As SAR instruments and their operating modes become more complex, as new applications place more and more demands on image quality and as our understanding of their imperfections becomes more sophisticated, there is increasing recognition that SAR data quality has to be controlled more completely to keep pace. The SAR product CONtrol software (SARCON) is a comprehensive SAR product control software suite tailored to the latest generation of SAR sensors. SARCON profits from the most up-to-date thinking on SAR image performance derived from other spaceborne and airborne SAR projects and is based on the newest applications. This paper gives an overview of the structure and the features of this new software tool, which is a product of a co-operation between teams at BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre and DLR under contract to ESA (ESRIN). Work on SARCON began in 1999 and is continuing.

  12. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  13. Cyanobacterial chemical production.

    PubMed

    Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-08-10

    The increase in global temperatures caused by rising CO2 levels necessitates the development of alternative sources of fuel and chemicals. One appealing alternative that has been receiving increased attention in recent years is the photosynthetic conversion of atmospheric CO2 to biofuels and chemical products using genetically engineered cyanobacteria. This can help to not only provide an alternate "greener" source for some of the most popular petroleum based products but it can also help to reduce atmospheric CO2. Utilizing cyanobacteria rather than plants allows for reduced land requirements and reduces competition with food crops. This review discusses advancements in the field since 2012 with a particular emphasis on production of hydrocarbons. PMID:27238233

  14. Enzymatic production of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Biwer, A; Antranikian, G; Heinzle, E

    2002-09-01

    Cyclodextrins (CD) are enzymatically modified starches with a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, agriculture and environmental engineering. They are produced from starch via enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glycosyl transferases (CGTases) and partly alpha-amylases. Due to its low solubility in water, separation and purification of beta-CD is relatively easy compared to alpha- and gamma-CD. In recent years more economic processes for gamma-CD and especially alpha-CD production have been developed using improved CGTases and downstream processing. New purification steps, e.g. affinity adsorption, may reduce the use of complexing agents. The implementation of thermostable CGTases can simplify the production process and increase the selectivity of the reaction. A tabular overview of alpha-CD production processes is presented. PMID:12226716

  15. Production of reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.J.; Raghuram, S.

    1992-08-04

    This patent describes a process combination for producing a gasoline component from a naphtha feedstock. It comprises: contacting the naphtha feedstock in a reforming zone at reforming conditions with a reforming catalyst comprising a Group VIII metal on a refractory support to produce a reformate and a hydrogen-rich gas; separating the reformate, in a first separation zone, into a light hydrocarbon product and a heavy reformate; separating the heavy reformate, in a second separation zone, into a low-octane paraffin fraction and an aromatic-rich fraction; contacting a low-octane paraffin fraction in a paraffin-isomerization zone at primary isomerization conditions with a paraffin-isomerizing catalyst to produce an isomerized heavy-paraffin product; and, combining at least a portion of each of the aromatic-rich fraction and the isomerized heavy-paraffin product to produce the gasoline component.

  16. Medical Products Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  17. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed. PMID:11548997

  18. Biological hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  19. Defect production in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Kinoshita, C.

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  20. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  1. Labour Productivity Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Iyetomi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    We discuss superstatistics theory of labour productivity.Productivity distribution across workers, firms and industrial sectors are studied empirically and found to obey power-distributions, in sharp contrast to the equilibrium theories of mainstream economics. The Pareto index is found to decrease with the level of aggregation, i.e., from workers to firms and to industrial sectors. In order to explain these phenomenological laws, we propose a superstatistics framework, where the role of the fluctuating temperature is played by the fluctuating demand.

  2. Biogas: Production and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, E. C.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.

    Among the aspects of biogas production and utilization covered are: (1) the microbiology and biochemistry of the acid and methane production stages in the anaerobic process; (2) factors affecting the process, such as temperature, acidity and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations; (3) denitrification processes and systems; and (4) the process kinetics of suspended growth systems, packed columns, and fluidized beds. Also considered are such issues in the application of this technology as the digestion of municipal treatment plant sludges, animal wastes, food processing wastes and energy crops. Attention is in addition given to anaerobic digester design, offgas measurement of anaerobic digesters, and sludge treatment through soil conditioning and composting.

  3. Improving designer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  4. Gas production apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  5. PESTICIDE PRODUCT INFORMATION SYSTEM (PPIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS) contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pestic...

  6. HRD and Productivity: Allied Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadler, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    The author defines productivity and discusses ways to increase productivity in the workplace, with emphasis on human resource development (HRD). He discusses the use of quality circles, participative management, and layoffs to increase productivity. (CH)

  7. 27 CFR 28.242 - Shipment for use on aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... aircraft. 28.242 Section 28.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Consignment § 28.242 Shipment for use on aircraft. (a) Distilled spirits and wine. All distilled spirits and wines intended for use on aircraft shall be consigned to the airline at the airport from which...

  8. 27 CFR 28.242 - Shipment for use on aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aircraft. 28.242 Section 28.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Consignment § 28.242 Shipment for use on aircraft. (a) Distilled spirits and wine. All distilled spirits and wines intended for use on aircraft shall be consigned to the airline at the airport from which...

  9. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  10. Retrieving Product Documentation Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

  11. Knowledge Production and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.; Meehan, Peter

    The study of knowledge production and utilization deals with the problems of how to translate theoretical concepts and knowledge into practical solutions to people's problems. Many criticisms have been leveled at aspects of previous information system models, including their linearity, one-way communication paths, overdependence on scientific…

  12. Production of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  13. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  14. Means of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    No one who's worked in higher education will ever confuse the experience with working in the corporate sector. Colleges and universities are simply not geared for the business of manufacturing or marketing products. The focus--as it should be--is on teaching and research. Given the wealth of talent among IT staff and faculty, however, higher ed…

  15. Education, Unemployment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    The United States is faced with two serious economic problems: declining productivity growth and rising unemployment. These problems have become severe in the last decade. Both problems are caused by a number of factors, but experts fail to agree on which factors have most contributed to the problems. This paper examines the relationship between…

  16. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  17. Data Products on Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

  18. Ethylene production from methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, M.; Kunishi, A. T.; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. A new reaction is described in which ethylene is formed from the Cu+-catalysed breakdown of methionine in phosphate buffer at 30° in air. Some of the other products of the reaction are methionine sulphone, methionine sulphoxide, homocysteic acid, homocystine, acrolein, dimethyl disulphide, methanethiol, ethyl methyl sulphide, methane and ethane. These are considered to be produced in different reaction pathways. 2. Hydrogen peroxide is an intermediate in this reaction and can support ethylene production in the model system in anaerobic atmospheres. Cuprous copper is the active form that catalyses the formation of ethylene from an oxidized intermediate. The initial reaction is probably a Strecker degradation, but the aldehyde product is further degraded to ethylene and other products. 3. Methional (CH3·S·CH2·CH2·CHO) is the most effective producer of ethylene in the model system and appears to be an intermediate in the reaction. 4. The evidence, from both tracer studies and from other precursors of ethylene in the reaction, indicates that ethylene is derived from the −CH2·CH2− group of methionine. PMID:16749150

  19. Fixing Maintenance Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes how one university's facility managers use Nextel communications technology in conjunction with a Famis Software maintenance management system to improve the productivity of its maintenance technicians. The system uses a wireless Internet connection to automate the flow of work order information to and from technicians. The key to these…

  20. Heterologous Production of Curcuminoids

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, J. L.; Prather, K. L. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Curcuminoids, components of the rhizome of turmeric, show several beneficial biological activities, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Despite their numerous pharmaceutically important properties, the low natural abundance of curcuminoids represents a major drawback for their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, they represent attractive targets for heterologous production and metabolic engineering. The understanding of biosynthesis of curcuminoids in turmeric made remarkable advances in the last decade, and as a result, several efforts to produce them in heterologous organisms have been reported. The artificial biosynthetic pathway (e.g., in Escherichia coli) can start with the supplementation of the amino acid tyrosine or phenylalanine or of carboxylic acids and lead to the production of several natural curcuminoids. Unnatural carboxylic acids can also be supplemented as precursors and lead to the production of unnatural compounds with possibly novel therapeutic properties. In this paper, we review the natural conversion of curcuminoids in turmeric and their production by E. coli using an artificial biosynthetic pathway. We also explore the potential of other enzymes discovered recently or already used in other similar biosynthetic pathways, such as flavonoids and stilbenoids, to increase curcuminoid yield and activity. PMID:25631288

  1. Early Humour Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

    2012-01-01

    The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their…

  2. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today's scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  3. Productivity increases in science

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, J.E.; Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M.; Dirks, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The study quantifies the impact on the cost of experimentation of synergistic advancements in instrumentation, theory, and computation over the last two decades. The study finds that the productivity of experimental investigation (experimental results/$) is increasing as science is transformed from a linear, isolated approach to a hierarchical, multidisciplinary approach. Developments such as massively parallel processors coupled with instrumental systems with multiple probes and diverse data analysis capabilities will further this transformation and increase the productivity of scientific studies. The complexities and scale of today`s scientific challenges are much greater than in the past, however, so that the costs of research are increasing. Even though science is much more productive in terms of the experimental results, the challenges facing scientific investigators are increasing at an even faster pace. New approaches to infrastructure investments must capitalize on the changing dynamics of research and allow the scientific community to maximize gains in productivity so that complex problems can be attacked cost-effectively. Research strategies that include user facilities and coordinated experimental, computational, and theoretical research are needed.

  4. Potato production in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  5. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... MISR Level 3 Imagery:   Overview  | Products |  View Data  |  Download Data There are currently five types of Level 3 ... MIL3MRD, MIL3QRD, MIL3YRD Parameter Definition Sample Radiance Radiance data for 4 bands and 9 view ...

  6. Teaching and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersholt C.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a theory of educational productivity that demonstrates the relationship between instructional practices and student outcomes. Identifies and discusses nine factors related to increasing student learning: ability, development, motivation, instructional quality, learning time, home environment, classroom social group, peer group, and use…

  7. Worldwide Production of Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of blackberry production conducted in 2005 found that an estimated 20,035 ha of blackberries were planted and commercially cultivated worldwide, a 45% increase from estimated area in 1995. In Europe, 7692 ha of black berries were commercially cultivated with Serbia accounting for 69% of the...

  8. Production of lentiviral vectors

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hebben, Matthias; Bovolenta, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented. PMID:27110581

  9. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... in preventing tooth decay in people of all ages. Use the information listed below to compare the other fluoride products ... even among children younger than 6 years of age. Proper application technique ... cleared for marketing by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as ...

  10. Partnerships for Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Wayne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes three programs in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that involve industry, education, and the community in teaching people the skills they need to become productive employees. The programs include a youth apprenticeship program, a customized adult education program, and a Tulsa chamber of commerce industrial alliance that provides manufacturing services…

  11. Production of heteropteran predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter treats several key aspects of rearing procedures for predatory bugs. The value of natural, factitious, and artificial foods for the major species used in biological control is reviewed. Whereas several types of factitious foods are routinely used in the production of heteropteran predat...

  12. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  13. Organic strawberry production manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern commercial organic strawberry production is a technical undertaking that encompasses many factors and poses many challenges. Growers must be aware of the compatibility of specific strawberry varieties with local climate, soil, plant pathogens, insect pests, and harvest schedules. Growers must...

  14. Chemicals and Allied Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. F.; Hovious, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from chemical industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) wastewater treatment by-product type; (2) biological, and physical/chemical treatments; and (3) source treatment. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  16. Switchgrass production tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decision to grow perennial grasses for bioenergy has long-term land use implications. Perennial grasses like switchgrass must be harvested annually for 5 to 10 years to be economically feasible. Typically, the decision comes down to which production system has the greatest economic benefit. Prod...

  17. Byproducts to New Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alaska fisheries industry harvests over 2 million metric tons of wild fish annually, and after processing, over 1 million metric tons of fish byproducts are produced. This presentation will discuss current utilization of products made from fish byproducts in Alaska, and opportunities for enhanci...

  18. Observer, Process, and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Noa

    1996-01-01

    The structure of art as a symbol system is composed of three dimensions: observer, process, and product. Each dimension is described, discussed, and its application to art therapy illustrated through the case study of a 12-year-old boy suffering from a progressive neurological disorder. (LSR)

  19. Career Education Product File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Office of Career Education.

    Designed for school staffs and others looking for effective career education programs, this resource file contains descriptions of 150 career education programs and products. It provides an overview of the types of research and development-based career education programs currently available to school districts across the United States. The file…

  20. Models for Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiser, Bob; Walter, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how models can support productive thinking. For us a model is a "thing", a tool to help make sense of something. We restrict attention to specific models for whole-number multiplication, hence the wording of the title. They support evolving thinking in large measure through the ways their users redesign them. They assume new…

  1. Developing Productive International Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes ways to develop productive international teams in the international marketplace. Discusses obstacles, including language and distance; a model for effective global team performance; cultural differences; shared goals; communication; lack of information; leadership; work procedures; compensation; lack of knowledge or skills; and hindered…

  2. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  3. The Democratization of Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Groves, James

    2009-01-01

    Just as the democratization of information through personal computers was a key advance of the 20th century, the democratization of production through improvements in fabrication technologies will be a pivotal development in the 21st century. Digital fabrication is the process of translating a digital design into a physical object. At one time,…

  4. MISR Geometric Product Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Current F03_0013 11/28/2004 Data Product Specification Rev L  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild ... fixes including removal of the 'T' from PGE 7 Core Meta Date fields. HDF file access efficiency updates.   ...

  5. Designing for Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the design principles undergirding "productive failure" (PF; M. Kapur, 2008). We then report findings from an ongoing program of research on PF in mathematical problem solving in 3 Singapore public schools with significantly different mathematical ability profiles, ranging from average to lower ability. In the 1st…

  6. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  7. Autonomous production of propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

  8. Innovating blackberry production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides an overview of progress made on the blackberry production system at the Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, WV. Several lines of research have made a significant positive impact to the blackberry industry as the new technology has have been successfully transf...

  9. Antiproton production for Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Azhgirey, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I. . Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij)

    1991-03-01

    Needs to improve the Fermilab Pbar Source for the Tevatron Upgrade and discrepancies in predictions of the antiproton yields have forced us to develop the production model based on the modern data and to incorporate this model to the current version of MARS10 code. The inclusive scheme of this code with the use of statistical weights allows the production of antiprotons to be enhanced within the phase space region of interest, which is extremely effective for optimization of Pbar Source parameters and for developing of such an idea as a beam sweeping system. Antiproton production model included in the modified version of our Monte Carlo program MARS10M for the inclusive simulation of hadronic cascades, as for other particles throughout the program, is based on a factorization approach for hadron-nucleus differential cross-section. To describe antiproton inclusive spectra in pp-collisions a phenomenological model has been used modified in the low-Pt region. The antiproton production in pion-nucleon interactions is described in the frame of our simple phenomenological model based on the modern data. In describing of the of antiproton production cross-sections ratio in hadron-nucleus and hadron-nucleon collisions the ideas of soft hadronization of color strings and all the present experimental data have been used. Some comparisons of our model with experimental data are presented in the wide intervals of initial momenta, antiproton kinematical variables and nuclei. In all the cases the agreement is pretty good what gives us an assurance in the consequent studies carried out for the Fermilab Pbar Source. The results of such study are presented in this paper.

  10. Butadiene production process overview.

    PubMed

    White, Wm Claude

    2007-03-20

    Over 95% of butadiene is produced as a by-product of ethylene production from steam crackers. The crude C4 stream isolated from the steam cracking process is fed to butadiene extraction units, where butadiene is separated from the other C4s by extractive distillation. The amount of crude C4s produced in steam cracking is dependent on the composition of the feed to the cracking unit. Heavier feeds, such as naphtha, yield higher amounts of C4s and butadiene than do lighter feeds. Crackers using light feeds typically produce low quantities of C4s and do not have butadiene extraction units. Overall butadiene capacity is determined by ethylene cracker operating rates, the type of feed being cracked, and availability of butadiene extraction capacity. Global butadiene capacity is approximately 10.5 million metric tons, and global production is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Crude C4s are traded globally, with the United States being the only significant net importer. Finished butadiene is also traded globally, with the largest exporters being Canada, Western Europe, Saudi Arabia and Korea. The largest net importers are Mexico, the United States and China. The global demand for butadiene is approximately 9 million metric tons [Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005 World Butadiene Analysis, Chemical Marketing Associates, Inc. (CMAI), 2005]. Production of styrene-butadiene rubber and polybutadiene rubber accounts for about 54% of global butadiene demand, with tire production being the single most important end use of butadiene synthetic rubbers. Other major butadiene derivatives are acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene butadiene latex (about 24% of demand combined). PMID:17324391

  11. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  12. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  13. 43 CFR 3931.70 - Production maps and production reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information to the MMS under 30 CFR parts 210 and 216. (c) Submit production maps to the proper BLM office no... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production maps and production reports... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.70 Production maps and...

  14. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  15. [Therapy with blood products].

    PubMed

    Petros, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are frequently used in intensive care medicine although there is little evidence of improvement in clinical outcome. The threshold for erythrocyte transfusion in non-bleeding critically ill patients is currently a hemoglobin level of 7.0 g/dl. The indications for platelet transfusion must be assessed after evaluation of the cause of thrombocytopenia, the clinical condition and the expected effect. The use of plasma should also be critically viewed, mainly due to hypervolemia. Prothrombin complex concentrates are better than plasma for warfarin reversal. There is good evidence for the use of albumin for massive paracentesis, in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Albumin infusion can have favorable effects in severe sepsis and septic shock. A restrictive strategy should be favored in the use of blood products and the decision should be based on a critical appraisal of the available evidence. PMID:26825633

  16. Aging and Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Shafto, Meredith A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental research and older adults’ reports of their own experience suggest that the ability to produce the spoken forms of familiar words declines with aging. Older adults experience more word-finding failures, such as tip-of-the-tongue states, than young adults do, and this and other speech production failures appear to stem from difficulties in retrieving the sounds of words. Recent evidence has identified a parallel age-related decline in retrieving the spelling of familiar words. Models of cognitive aging must explain why these aspects of language production decline with aging whereas semantic processes are well maintained. We describe a model wherein aging weakens connections among linguistic representations, thereby reducing the transmission of excitation from one representation to another. The structure of the representational systems for word phonology and orthography makes them vulnerable to transmission deficits, impairing retrieval. PMID:18414600

  17. Product lines in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weber, J R

    1986-01-01

    The findings presented in the case study demonstrate that financial analysis is only as valid as the assumptions it is based upon. The single most important task is the definition of the clinical product. All other associated data is suspect and can lead to serious errors in business decisions if the product is poorly defined. A comprehensive case mix system, integrated with other financial systems with flexible reporting capabilities is required. The hospital and physicians must be willing to invest the time and expense necessary to ensure that the data is reliable. The hospital must be prudent in determining what cost finding approach they will elect to use. Although the RCC method has some fundamental problems, care must be taken not to develop a cost system that will require a significant amount of effort to maintain. PMID:10311387

  18. Charm production in DPMJET

    SciTech Connect

    Berghaus, P; Montaruli, T; Ranft, J E-mail: montaruli@ba.infn.it

    2008-06-15

    In this work, charm production in the DPMJET hadronic jet simulation is compared to experimental data. Since the major application of DPMJET is the simulation of cosmic-ray-induced air showers, the version of the code integrated in the CORSIKA simulation package has been used for the comparison. Wherever necessary, adjustments have been made to improve agreement between simulation and data. With the availability of new muon/neutrino detectors that combine a large fiducial volume with large amounts of shielding, investigation of prompt muons and neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions will be feasible for the first time. Furthermore, above {approx}>100 TeV charmed particle decay becomes the dominant background for diffuse extraterrestrial neutrino flux searches. A reliable method to simulate charm production in high-energy proton-nucleon interactions is therefore required.

  19. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A.

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  20. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  1. Nattokinase: production and application.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed. PMID:25348469

  2. Holographic entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-10-01

    The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

  3. Natural Products for Antithrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis is considered to be closely related to several diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, hyperuricemia, and various inflammatory conditions. More and more studies have been focused on understanding the mechanism of molecular and cellular basis of thrombus formation as well as preventing thrombosis for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. In reality, there is considerable interest in the role of natural products and their bioactive components in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis related disorders. This paper briefly describes the mechanisms of thrombus formation on three aspects, including coagulation system, platelet activation, and aggregation, and change of blood flow conditions. Furthermore, the natural products for antithrombosis by anticoagulation, antiplatelet aggregation, and fibrinolysis were summarized, respectively. PMID:26075003

  4. Productivity Trends in Intercity Trucking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    Productivity trends indicate intercity trucking productivity increased an average 2.7 percent a year, a fairly uniform increased productivity rate but substantially lower as compared to air carrier, railroad, and pipeline transportation. Factors affecting productivity are gradual introduction of technological innovation, larger capacity trucks,…

  5. Massey products in differential cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Daniel

    We generalize Massey products to differential cohomology and relate these products to trivializations of higher bundles equipped with connection. The construction presented here is analogous to the construction of matric Massey products given by Peter May, but generalized to sheaves. We also prove a theorem regarding the refinement of the singular Massey product to differential cohomology.

  6. NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of natural products as pesticides is reviewed, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a natural product-based strategy for pesticide discovery. Current and past natural product and natural product-based herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, rodent...

  7. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  8. Maintaining JPSS Product Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; McWilliams, G.; Ibrahim, W.; Brueske, K. F.; Smit, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    NASA and NOAA are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the old POES system managed by the NOAA. JPSS satellites will carry sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the JPSS is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3), data processing and product delivery. CGS processes the data from the JPSS satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for S-NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the JPSS program. The EDRs for S-NPP are undergoing an extensive Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) campaign. Changes identified by the Cal/Val campaign are coming available for implementation into the operational system in support of both S-NPP and JPSS-1. Raytheon is supporting this effort through the development and use of tools, techniques, and processes designed to detect changes in product quality, identify root causes, and rapidly implement changes to the operational system to bring suspect products back into specification. This paper will describe the theoretical framework underpinning the analysis techniques, as well as the tools and processes used to support the cal/val effort.

  9. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  10. Deepwater production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Panicker, N.N.; Yancey, I.R.

    1983-05-01

    A deepwater production riser design developed by Mobil Research and Development Corporation is presented. The riser consists of a lower rigid section terminated about 200 feet below the sea surface with a tensioning buoy assembly and a flexible upper section made of a bundle of flexible pipes. It is designed to be compliant to waves, currents and vessel motions and applicable to both mild and severe environments. Design, analysis, testing, and installation method are discussed.

  11. Deepwater production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Panicker, N.N.; Yancey, I.R.

    1984-08-01

    The design of a deepwater production riser is described. The compliant riser design consists of a lower rigid section terminated about 200 ft (60 m) below the sea surface with a tensioning buoy assembly and a flexible upper section made of a bundle of flexible pipes. It is designed to be compliant to waves, currents, and vessel motions and applicable to both mild and severe environments. Design, analysis, testing, and installation are discussed.

  12. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  13. Pyrolysis Products Of Dimethyldichlorosilane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Carswell, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of chemical reactions and chemical products of chemical-vapor deposition of silicon carbide from dimethyldichlorosilane. Topic important because it relates to current interest in lightweight refractory materials for use in advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Analyses showed that at temperature of 700 to 1,100 degrees C and contact time of about 1 minute, SiC forms by two chemical-reaction paths.

  14. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  15. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  16. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  17. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  18. Advanced Production Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  19. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  20. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  1. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    PubMed

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer. PMID:25900048

  2. Production Planning Model

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  3. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  4. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  5. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  6. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  7. Economical production and transshipment policy for coordinating multiple production sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taebok; Goyal, Suresh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the coordination mechanism dealing with a production-transshipment policy across the multiple regions supplying multiple products. It is assumed that each production site has its own dedicated demand region consuming multiple products. The main concern is how to determine both the production quantity and the lot-apportioning policy while minimising the relevant supply chain cost. This decision issue is formulated as a non-linear mathematical model to determine several relevant decision variables. We propose the solution procedure for deriving the production-transshipment policy minimising the overall supply chain cost.

  8. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  9. Natural products as photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. PMID:25582033

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  11. Fuel from microalgae lipid products

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.M.; Feinberg, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The large-scale production of microalgae is a promising method of producing a renewable feedstock for a wide variety of fuel products currently refined from crude petroleum. These microalgae-derived products include lipid extraction products (triglycerides, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons) and catalytic conversion products (paraffins and olefins). Microalgal biomass productivity and lipid composition of current experimental systems are estimated at 66.0 metric tons per hectare year and 30% lipid content. Similar yields in a large-scale facility indicate that production costs are approximately six times higher than the average domestic price for crude, well-head petroleum. Based on achievable targets for productivity and production costs, the potential for microalgae as a fuel feedstock is presented in context with selected process refining routes and is compared with conventional and alternative feedstocks (e.g., oilseeds) with which microalgae must compete. 24 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  13. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  14. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  15. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  16. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  17. PRODUCTION OF FLUOROCARBONS

    DOEpatents

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-06-21

    This patent pertains to a process for recovering fluorocarbons from a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons with partially and completely fluorinated products thereof. It consists of contacting the mxture in the cold with a liquid which is a solvent for the hydrocarbons and which is a nonsolvent for the fluorocarbons, extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the fluorocarbon-containing layer from the solvent-containing layer, and submitting the fluorocarbon layer to fractlonal distillation, to isolate the desired fluorocarbon fraction. Suitable solvents wnich may be used in the process include the lower aliphatic alcohols, and the lower aliphatic ketones.

  18. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2013-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

  19. Beauty production at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Yagues, A.

    2009-12-17

    Beauty quark production in ep collisions is being studied at HERA. The latest results in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction (PHP) regime performed by the ZEUS and HI experiments are presented here. The first measurement exploits the potential of the ZEUS mi-crovertex detector to identify beauty in PHP dijet events in an inclusive analysis. In the second measurement, beauty quarks were identified through their decays into muons. Finally, two measurements of the beauty contribution to the proton structure function, F{sub 2}{sup b???b}, in DIS are presented. The four measurements are consistent with previous results and are reasonably well described by QCD predictions.

  20. Multi-pion production

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, D.; Fung, S.Y.; Gorn, W.; Keane, D.; Liu, Y.M.; Poe, R.T.; VanDalen, G.; Vient, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of pion production in 1.2 GeV/nucleon Kr-RbBr collisions is presented. The negative pion multiplicity is consistent with a convolution of Poisson distributions and a freeze-out density between 1/3 and 1/2 normal nuclear density is extracted. Global negative pion kinematic variables are used to search for possible structure in the multi-pion emission. No evidence for structured emission or conservation constraints is found. Pion interferometry analysis gives a source radius of 5.4 +- 1.2 Fermi and a freeze-out density of .3 +- .2 times normal nuclear density. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  1. {gamma} production at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, F.

    1995-07-01

    We report on preliminary measurements of the {gamma}(1S), {gamma}(2S) and {gamma}(3S) differential and integrated cross sections in p{bar p} at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using a sample of 16.6 {+-} 0.6 pb{sup -1} collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The three resonances were reconstructed through the decay {gamma} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in the rapidity region {vert_bar}y{vert_bar} < 0.4. The cross section results are compared to theoretical models of direct bottomonium production.

  2. Strangeness Production at CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    K. H. Hicks

    2002-06-07

    The CLAS detector is a large acceptance spectrometer located at the electron accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Production of K+ and K* mesons along with associated hyperons were measured using the CLAS detector at electron beam energies of 2.4-4.4 GeV. In addition, polarization transfer from the electron helicity to the Lambda hyperon was measured. These data are compared with theoretical models, where available, based on fits to older, less precise K+ data. The new data for CLAS indicate that improvements in the models are necessary in order to interpret the results.

  3. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  4. Wood Products Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Structural Reliability Consultants' computer program creates graphic plots showing the statistical parameters of glue laminated timbers, or 'glulam.' The company president, Dr. Joseph Murphy, read in NASA Tech Briefs about work related to analysis of Space Shuttle surface tile strength performed for Johnson Space Center by Rockwell International Corporation. Analysis led to a theory of 'consistent tolerance bounds' for statistical distributions, applicable in industrial testing where statistical analysis can influence product development and use. Dr. Murphy then obtained the Tech Support Package that covers the subject in greater detail. The TSP became the basis for Dr. Murphy's computer program PC-DATA, which he is marketing commercially.

  5. Product Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  6. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  7. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  8. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  9. RPC Production at General Tecnica: a mass scale production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Volpe, D.; Morganti, S.

    2006-08-01

    The construction of LHC has deeply changed the RPC production. The enormous amount of detector needed and the strong requirements on gas volume quality had a deep impact on the production chain and on the QC and QA at the production site. This basically has brought the RPC from an almost hand-crafted detector to a medium scale mass product. The most critical aspects of the production chain have been modified and/or improved introducing new and more rigorous QC and QA procedures to guarantee the detector quality and improve the management of storage and the procurement on materials. Here it will be presented the work carried on in the last four year at the production site to improve and check the quality and the results achieved. Something like 10000 RPC were produced between 2002 and 2005. Also a preliminary and rough analysis on the efficiencies of the various phases in the chain production based on ATLAS production will be presented.

  10. Production and Distribution of Global Products From MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, Edward; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer was launched on the EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999 and will also fly on EOS Aqua in December 2000. With 36 spectral bands from the visible through thermal infrared and spatial resolution of 250m to 1 kilometer, each MODIS instrument will image the entire Earth surface in 2 days. This paper traces the flow of MODIS data products from the receipt of Level 0 data at the EDOS facility, through the production and quality assurance process to the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), which ship products to the user community. It describes where to obtain products and plans for reprocessing MODIS products. As most components of the ground system are severely limited in their capacity to distribute MODIS products, it also describes the key characteristics of MODIS products and their metadata that allow a user to optimize their selection of products given anticipate bottlenecks in distribution.

  11. Determination of Offgassed Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A technician at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials Combustion Research Facility begins the Determination of Offgassed Products Test to determine the identity and quantity of volatile offgassed products from materials and assembled articles. Materials are measured, weighed, and loaded into a clean toxicity chamber (pictured). The chamber is purged with high-purity air and loaded into an oven where it will be held at 120 degrees Fahrenheit (48.9 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. At the end of the 72-hour period, the chamber is removed and allowed to cool to room temperature. Gas samples are taken from the chamber and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. From this, the quantity of the material that may be used safely in habitable areas of spacecraft is determined. This test also determines whether a flight hardware item may be flown safely in a crew compartment. Everything going into space with the astronauts is tested prior to flight to ensure the health and safety of the crew members.

  12. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Zhang, Z.

    1995-09-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Photoelectrochemical devices-direct photoconversion systems utilizing a photovoltaic-type structure coated with water-splitting catalysts-represent a promising option to meet this goal. Direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies greater than 7% and photoelectrode lifetimes of up to 30 hours in 1 molar KOH have been demonstrated in our laboratory using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Loss analysis models indicate that the DOE`s goal of 10% solar-to-chemical conversion can be met with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, we describe recent progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, improvements in photoelectrode efficiency and stability, and designs for higher efficiency and greater stability.

  13. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  14. Streamlining the production process

    SciTech Connect

    Hulpke, H.; Mueller-Eisen, U.

    1995-01-01

    Process facilities often use a combination of centralized and decentralized treatment plants for solid, liquid and gaseous waste streams. However, despite continual improvements in pollution-control technologies, treatment and disposal methods rarely lead to zero emissions. And, many add-on controls consume raw materials and energy themselves, create secondary waste streams, or require additional capital and operating costs. Environmentally sound manufacturing does not come only from developing better techniques for treating wastes at the end of the production process. Greater effort and capital budgets must be devoted to developing preventive measures, rather than simply working to improve existing treatment and disposal methods. In general all aspects of chemical production and waste management must be integrated. Since pollution-prevention efforts cannot totally eliminate waste formation, process operators should also consider the possibility of onsite reuse of unwanted byproduct streams. IN some cases, the recovery and reuse of unreacted raw materials or auxiliaries may be more cost effective than investing in system overhauls to eliminate their formation.

  15. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  16. Offshore production challenged

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, A.

    1983-10-01

    The capability to produce oil fields from under 20,000 ft of water or below the thick and treacherous Arctic icepack are 2 of the breakthroughs that have been brought about by a quietly emerging technology. A scan of announcements by designers, contractors, operators, and manufacturers reveals that substantial research and development efforts are being undertaken to ease the task of bringing to market the energy resources trapped under presently inaccessible locations. As a result, entirely new breeds of permanent or temporary drilling/production systems are evolving, some of which could be scaled down to face still another challenge: the economic exploitation of marginal offshore fields, whose meager reserves do not justify development by conventional means. New offshore systems described include the mobile Arctic drilling system, the mobile concrete island drilling system, the base and independent deck platform, the buoyant tower, the semiflex floating station, the tension leg platform, the big buoy floating cylinder, and the Sea Plex retrievable drilling/production system.

  17. Can humic products become mainstream amendments for improving crop production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humic products have been used in cropland production for several decades but only by small numbers of farmers. Appreciable proportions of field studies demonstrate efficacy of the products for numerous crops, justifying their further evaluation. Their adoption by mainstream farmers could be accelera...

  18. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  19. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  1. The NASA SBIR product catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Schwenk, F. Carl

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to assist small business firms in making the community aware of products emerging from their efforts in the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. It contains descriptions of some products that have advanced into Phase 3 and others that are identified as prospective products. Both lists of products in this catalog are based on information supplied by NASA SBIR contractors in responding to an invitation to be represented in this document. Generally, all products suggested by the small firms were included in order to meet the goals of information exchange for SBIR results. Of the 444 SBIR contractors NASA queried, 137 provided information on 219 products. The catalog presents the product information in the technology areas listed in the table of contents. Within each area, the products are listed in alphabetical order by product name and are given identifying numbers. Also included is an alphabetical listing of the companies that have products described. This listing cross-references the product list and provides information on the business activity of each firm. In addition, there are three indexes: one a list of firms by states, one that lists the products according to NASA Centers that managed the SBIR projects, and one that lists the products by the relevant Technical Topics utilized in NASA's annual program solicitation under which each SBIR project was selected.

  2. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  3. Natural products: Emulation illuminates biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, Jaron A. M.; Burns, Noah Z.

    2015-11-01

    A concise synthesis of the fungal natural product epicolactone suggests that this highly stereochemically complex yet racemic natural product may come from a cascade reaction between two polyhydroxylated arenes.

  4. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_0003 02/16/2001 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A ...

  5. Microbial hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Maness, P.C.; Martin, S.

    1995-09-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria inhabit an anaerobic or microaerophilic world where H{sub 2} is produced and consumed as a shared intermediary metabolite. Within a given bacterial isolate there are as many as 4 to 6 distinct enzymes that function to evolve or consume H{sub 2}. Three of the H{sub 2}-evolving physiologies involving three different enzymes from photosynthetic bacteria have been examined in detail for commercial viability. Nitrogenase-mediated H{sub 2} production completely dissimilates many soluble organic compounds to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at rates up to 131 {mu}mol H{sub 2}{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} and can remain active for up to 20 days. This metabolism is very energy intensive, however, which limits solar conversion efficiencies. Fermentative hydrogenase can produce H{sub 2} at rates of 440 {mu}mol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} at low levels of irradiation over indefinite periods. The equilibrium for this activity is low (<0.15 atmospheres), thereby requiring gas sparging, vacuuming, or microbial scavenging to retain prolonged activity. Microbial H{sub 2} production from the CO component of synthesis or producer gases maximally reaches activities of 1.5 mmol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1}. Mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension is the rate-limiting step. Increased gas pressure strongly accelerates these rates. Immobilized bacteria on solid supports at ambient pressures also show enhanced shift activity when the bulk water is drained away. Scaled-up bioreactors with 100-200 cc bed volume have been constructed and tested. The near-term goal of this portion of the project is to engineer and economically evaluate a prototype system for the biological production of H{sub 2} from biomass. The CO shift enables a positive selection technique for O{sub 2}-resistant, H{sub 2}-evolving bacterial enzymes from nature.

  6. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  7. Behavior analysis and linguistic productivity

    PubMed Central

    Malott, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    The greatest intellectual challenge to the field of behavior analysis may be understanding linguistic productivity (e.g., being able to correctly say and understand novel sentences). One of the main issues concerning linguistic productivity is whether behavioral productivity is, itself, a fundamental behavioral process, as claimed by the proponents of relational frame theory, or whether we can understand linguistic productivity in terms of more fundamental behavioral principles. PMID:22477252

  8. Estimate product quality with ANNs

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, A.; Trivella, F.

    1996-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to predict catalytic reformer octane number (ON) and gasoline splitter product qualities. Results show that ANNs are a valuable tool to derive fast and accurate product quality measurements, and offer a low-cost alternative to online analyzers or rigorous mathematical models. The paper describes product quality measurements, artificial neural networks, ANN structure, estimating gasoline octane numbers, and estimating naphtha splitter product qualities.

  9. Homecare marketing and product management.

    PubMed

    Wells, J B

    1985-09-01

    Entirely too much lip service is paid to marketing and product management in the health sector with too little action. Home health to one degree or another is guilty of this. Successful home health organizations will capitalize on the power of traditional marketing and product management approaches. Product, pricing, packaging, position, and penetration may be foreign concepts. But marketing is built on these concepts and they are key to product definition and management. PMID:10274064

  10. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  11. PRODUCTION OF THORIA WARE

    DOEpatents

    Murray, P.; Denton, I.; Wilkinson, D.

    1957-10-01

    The production of thoria ware of very low porosity by the slip casting of pure thoria is described. It comprises dry milling calcined thoria to obtain particles ranging up to 11 microns in size and having 60% of particles less than 2 microns, forming an aqueous slip of the milled thoric casting the slip and firing the dry cast at a sintering temperature of from 1600 to 1825 d C. The preferred composition of the slip is 1600 grams of thoria in each liter of slip. The preferred pH of the slip is 1. When thoria of 99.9% purity is used the slip is suitable for casting for as long as six weeks after preparation.

  12. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  13. Penstock productivity improved

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Strawberry Water Users Association recently realized a significant increase in output on their hydroelectric plant near Spanish Fork, Utah. The plant's output was declining steadily and the problem was determined to be caused by build-up in its 11,000 foot long, 18 inch diameter penstock. After considering replacing the penstock or using hydro-blasting, the association decided that the pipe could be cleaned internally with flexible foam pits. Following the cleaning operation, the plant's output increased 22 percent to 345 kW. The new output level represents an increase in the association's annual income from the sale of electricity of $32,850 -enough to cover the costs of the equipment and contractor costs in approximately one year. The association plans to maintain maximum production by pumping an 18 inch pig down the line each year.

  14. Light metal production

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  15. STS-9 BET products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Henry, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    The final products generated for the STS-9, which landed on December 8, 1983 are reported. The trajectory reconstruction utilized an anchor epoch of GMT corresponding to an initial altitude of h 356 kft, selected in view of the limited tracking coverage available. The final state utilized IMU2 measurements and was based on processing radar tracking from six C-bands and a single S-band station, plus six photo-theodolite cameras in the vicinity of Runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base. The final atmosphere (FLAIR9/UN=581199C) was based on a composite of the remote measured data and the 1978 Air Force Reference Atmosphere model. The Extended BET is available as STS9BET/UN=274885C. The AEROBET and MMLE input files created are discussed. Plots of the more relevant parameters from the AEROBET (reel number NL0624) are included. Input parameters, final residual plots, a trajectory listing, and data archival information are defined.

  16. Heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-06-10

    Predictions are presented of total cross sections for charm and bottom quark production in /bar p/p, ..pi../sup /minus//p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. The calculations are done through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The sensitivity is explored of results to the choices of renormalization/evolution scale, parton densities, ..lambda../sub QCD/, and heavy flavor masses. Comparisons with available data show that good agreement is obtained for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized including the large size of the next-to-leading order contributions, proper definition of the gluon density, the nuclear A dependence of charm cross sections, the role of final state interactions, and higher twist effects. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Hadron production experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris A.

    2013-02-01

    The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.

  18. Production of zinc pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  19. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  20. Advanced glycation end products

    PubMed Central

    Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of damage to an organism over time leading to disease and death. Aging research has been very intensive in the last years aiming at characterizing the pathophysiology of aging and finding possibilities to fight age-related diseases. Various theories of aging have been proposed. In the last years advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received particular attention in this context. AGEs are formed in high amounts in diabetes but also in the physiological organism during aging. They have been etiologically implicated in numerous diabetes- and age-related diseases. Strategies inhibiting AGE accumulation and signaling seem to possess a therapeutic potential in these pathologies. However, still little is known on the precise role of AGEs during skin aging. In this review the existing literature on AGEs and skin aging will be reviewed. In addition, existing and potential anti-AGE strategies that may be beneficial on skin aging will be discussed. PMID:23467327

  1. Economics of hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Much of the current interest in hydrogen (H/sub 2/) centers around its potential to displace oil and gas as a fuel. The results of this study should be useful to research and development managers making funding decisions, and they should also be of interest to energy analysts, economists, and proponents of a hydrogen economy. We examined the current costs of H/sub 2/ produced by commercially available technologies (from fossil fuels and by electrolysis) and projected these costs to 2010, to set cost goals for H/sub 2/ produced via new technologies. We also examined the sensitivity of H/sub 2/ costs to varying energy price forecasts, capital costs and the required rate of return on investment, and by-product credits. We find that conventionally produced H/sub 2/ will not break into the fuel market before 2010. 23 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  2. Prototypicality in Sentence Production

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Bock, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Three cued-recall experiments examined the effect of category typicality on the ordering of words in sentence production. Past research has found that typical items tend to be mentioned before atypical items in a phrase—a pattern usually associated with lexical variables (like word frequency), and yet typicality is a conceptual variable. Experiment 1 revealed that an appropriate conceptual framework was necessary to yield the typicality effect. Experiment 2 tested ad-hoc categories that do not have prior representations in long-term memory and yielded no typicality effect. Experiment 3 used carefully matched sentences in which two category members appeared in the same or in different phrases. Typicality affected word order only when the two words appeared in the same phrase. These results are consistent with an account in which typicality has its origin in conceptual structure, which leads to differences in lexical accessibility in appropriate contexts. PMID:17631877

  3. Nonassociative Weyl star products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.; Vassilevich, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    Deformation quantization is a formal deformation of the algebra of smooth functions on some manifold. In the classical setting, the Poisson bracket serves as an initial conditions, while the associativity allows to proceed to higher orders. Some applications to string theory require deformation in the direction of a quasi-Poisson bracket (that does not satisfy the Jacobi identity). This initial condition is incompatible with associativity, it is quite unclear which restrictions can be imposed on the deformation. We show that for any quasi-Poisson bracket the deformation quantization exists and is essentially unique if one requires (weak) hermiticity and the Weyl condition. We also propose an iterative procedure that allows one to compute the star product up to any desired order.

  4. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  5. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  6. Gross Primary Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana

  7. Microbial Production of Isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Fall

    2007-07-29

    Isoprene is a volatile hydrocarbon of unknown function, produced by certain bacteria, plants and animals, sometimes in huge amounts—the Earth’s forests are estimated to emit >500 x 106 tons of isoprene per year. With funding from this program we explored the biochemistry and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis, with the goals of explaining the biological rationale for isoprene biogenesis and constructing an isoprene-overproducing microbial system. Although the role for isoprene formation in B. subtilis is still uncertain, our current model for regulation of this hydrocarbon’s synthesis is that isoprene production in B. subtilis is controlled by a combination of i) rapid regulation of isoprene synthase activity and ii) supply of the substrate for isoprene synthase, dimethyallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This model parallels our current thinking about the control of isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts. In this reporting period we have been working to test part ii) of this model; this work has produced new results using genetic and analytical approaches. For examples, we have developed an analytical method to resolve DMAPP and its isomer, isopentenyl diphosphate, from each other in bacteria and plants. We have also shown that the IPP isomerase (type 2) of B. subtilis is not the source of “isoprene synthase” activity, and discovered that B. subtilis releases C5 isoprenoid alcohols to the medium, suggesting that isoprene plus other C5 isoprenoids may be common by-products of metabolism. In addition, we have continued to work on our discovery that wild type B. subtilis strains form prolific biofilms, are normal components of plant root microflora, and are testing the idea that B. subtilis growing in biofilms uses isoprene to induce plant root exudation.

  8. Synfuel production ship

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, M.J.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a ship for producing gasoline while sailing. The ship consists of: 1.) a top deck; 2.) absorption venturi towers arranged in a multiple row and column orientation and mounted along an extended area of the deck and inclined toward the bow to capture air in an ellipsoid tapered air stream tube as the ship moves forward; 3.) means for delivering NaOH solution to the towers; means for forming droplets of NaOH solution and directing the droplets to pass through air, in the towers, thus causing CO/sub 2/ in the air to be absorbed by the solution for which results in a carbonate solution of sodium bicarbonate/hypo carbonate; 4.) means for communicating with the droplet forming means for receiving the carbonate solution and combining Cl/sub 2/ for stripping CO/sub 2/ as a first by-product from the carbonate solution and NaCl/NaOCI as a second by-product; 5.) means connected to the stripping for transferring the CO/sub 2/ to a methanol converter; 6.) electrolysis means for disassociating H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ from water provided to it; 7.) means connected to the electrolysis mechanism for transferring the H/sub 2/ to the methanol converter; 8.) a hydrocarbon synthesizer connected to an outlet of the methanol converter for converting methanol to gasoline; 9.) a boiler connected to the stripping for separating O/sub 2/ from the NaCl/NaOCI solution resulting in a NaCl solution; 10.) a chlor-alkali cell convertor connected to the boiler for converting the NaCl solution to (a) Cl/sub 2/ which is recycled, and (b) NaOH solution which is re-introduced to the NaOH droplet forming means; 11.) a nuclear reactor for generating steam; 12.) output for delivering the electrical power.

  9. Engineering microbial hosts for production of bacterial natural products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzi M; Wang, Yajie; Ang, Ee Lui; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-08-27

    Covering up to end 2015Microbial fermentation provides an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of structurally complex natural products. In most cases, however, production titers are low and need to be improved for compound characterization and/or commercial production. Owing to advances in functional genomics and genetic engineering technologies, microbial hosts can be engineered to overproduce a desired natural product, greatly accelerating the traditionally time-consuming strain improvement process. This review covers recent developments and challenges in the engineering of native and heterologous microbial hosts for the production of bacterial natural products, focusing on the genetic tools and strategies for strain improvement. Special emphasis is placed on bioactive secondary metabolites from actinomycetes. The considerations for the choice of host systems will also be discussed in this review. PMID:27072804

  10. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World ethanol production and use of ethanol as motor fuel is increasing. In the United States, 6.3 billion gallons (24 billion liters) of new annual production capacity was planned or under construction in 2007, in addition to annual production capacity of 6.1 billion gallons (23 billion liters) fr...

  11. Women Faculty and Scholarly Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Betty J.

    The publication rates of female versus male faculty and factors that influence scholarly productivity for women faculty are discussed, based on the research literature. The academic reward structure and the payoffs resulting from scholarly productivity are also considered, along with the impact of productivity on building the reputations both of…

  12. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  13. A Home Production Activity Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; Owen, Alma J.

    1980-01-01

    The family is examined as a focal unit of production and a home production activity model is developed. An interdisciplinary approach is used which puts the broad range of family activities on a continuum from production to consumption. (Author/SK)

  14. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  15. Improving Productivity via QWL Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Marion T.; Hansen, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Gives a brief history of productivity improvement legislation in the United States and of the development and demise of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life (QWL). Describes existing productivity and QWL centers, including their locations, scope, services, and activities, and urges greater support at the federal level.…

  16. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  17. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  18. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  19. Biomimetic Production of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gust, Devens

    2004-03-01

    The basic reaction for hydrogen generation is formation of molecular hydrogen from two electrons and two protons. Although there are many possible sources for the protons and electrons, and a variety of mechanisms for providing the requisite energy for hydrogen synthesis, the most abundant and readily available source of protons and electrons is water, and the most attractive source of energy for powering the process is sunlight. Not surprisingly, living systems have evolved to take advantage of these sources for materials and energy. Thus, biology provides paradigms for carrying out the reactions necessary for hydrogen production. Photosynthesis in green plants uses sunlight as the source of energy for the oxidation of water to give molecular oxygen, protons, and reduction potential. Some photosynthetic organisms are capable of using this reduction potential, in the form of the reduced redox protein ferredoxin, to reduce protons and produce molecular hydrogen via the action of an hydrogenase enzyme. A variety of other organisms metabolize the reduced carbon compounds that are ultimately the major products of photosynthesis to produce molecular hydrogen. These facts suggest that it might be possible to use light energy to make molecular hydrogen via biomimetic constructs that employ principles similar to those used by natural organisms, or perhaps with hybrid "bionic" systems that combine biomimetic materials with natural enzymes. It is now possible to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that mimic some of the major steps in the natural process.(1) Artificial antennas based on porphyrins, carotenoids and other chromophores absorb light at various wavelengths in the solar spectrum and transfer the harvested excitation energy to artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.(2) In these centers, photoinduced electron transfer uses the energy from light to move an electron from a donor to an acceptor moiety, generating a high-energy charge-separated state

  20. Natural Products for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22281308

  1. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  2. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  3. Biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Etschmann, M M W; Bluemke, W; Sell, D; Schrader, J

    2002-06-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important flavour and fragrance compound with a rose-like odour. Most of the world's annual production of several thousand tons is synthesised by chemical means but, due to increasing demand for natural flavours, alternative production methods are being sought. Harnessing the Ehrlich pathway of yeasts by bioconversion of L-phenylalanine to 2-PE could be an option, but in situ product removal is necessary due to product inhibition. This review describes the microbial production of 2-PE, and also summarizes the chemical syntheses and the market situation. PMID:12073125

  4. 76 FR 11823 - New Postal Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... New Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: This notice... and adding a new product to the competitive product list. This notice identifies preliminary... a new product, provisionally titled Lightweight Commercial Parcels, to the competitive product...

  5. Mead production: tradition versus modernity.

    PubMed

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and "pouts" fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yeast off-flavors. Many factors might be related with these problems, such as honey variety, temperature, medium composition (vitamin and nitrogen content), fermentative yeast, and pH. Due to all these factors, mead production has decreased over the years. To overcome this situation, more research is needed to optimize the production of this beverage. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of previous research on mead production. It will focus on honey characterization and mead production. The first section covers honey composition and the way this affects honey properties, as well as important parameters that are indicators of honey quality. The second section discusses mead production, including fermentative microorganisms, fermentation conditions, and required postfermentation adjustments and maturation conditions. The final section focuses on the problems that must be surpassed and what the future holds for mead production. PMID:21867893

  6. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  7. Options for Martian propellant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

  8. Energy implications of product leasing.

    PubMed

    Intlekofer, Koji; Bras, Bert; Ferguson, Mark

    2010-06-15

    A growing number of advocates have argued that leasing is a "greener" form of business transactions than selling. Leasing internalizes the costs of process wastes and product disposal, placing the burden on the OEMs, who gain from reducing these costs. Product leasing results in closed material loops, promotes remanufacturing or recycling, and sometimes leads to shorter life cycles. This paper provides two case studies to quantitatively test these claims for two distinct product categories. Life cycle optimization and scenario analysis are applied, respectively, to the household appliance and computer industries to determine the effect that life spans have on energy usage and to what extent leasing the product versus selling it may influence the usage life span. The results show that products with high use impacts and improving technology can benefit from reduced life cycles (achieved through product leases), whereas products with high manufacturing impacts and no improving technology do not. PMID:20469896

  9. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  10. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian... in determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal... reference prices apply to calendar year 2011 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the...

  11. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian... in determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal... reference prices apply to calendar year 2010 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the...

  12. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian... in determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal... reference prices apply to calendar year 2012 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the...

  13. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian... in determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined coal... reference prices apply to calendar year 2013 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the...

  14. Early humour production.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Akhtar, Nameera

    2012-11-01

    The current studies explored early humour as a complex socio-cognitive phenomenon by examining 2- and 3-year-olds' humour production with their parents. We examined whether children produced novel humour, whether they cued their humour, and the types of humour produced. Forty-seven parents were interviewed, and videotaped joking with their children. Other parents (N= 113) completed a survey. Parents reported children copy jokes during the first year of life, and produce novel jokes from 2 years. In play sessions, 3-year-olds produced mostly novel humorous acts; 2-year-olds produced novel and copied humorous acts equally frequently. Parents reported children smile, laugh, and look for a reaction when joking. In play sessions, 2- and 3-year-olds produced these behaviours more when producing humorous versus non-humorous acts. In both parent reports and play sessions, they produced novel object-based (e.g., underwear on head) and conceptual humour (e.g., 'pig says moo') and used wrong labels humorously (e.g., calling a cat a dog). Thus, parent report and child behaviour both confirm that young children produce novel humorous acts, and share their humour by smiling, laughing, and looking for a reaction. PMID:23039334

  15. Production Maintenance Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Gabler, David Skinner

    2005-11-01

    PMI is a XML framework for formulating tests of software and software environments which operate in a relatively push button manner, i.e., can be automated, and that provide results that are readily consumable/publishable via RSS. Insofar as possible the tests are carried out in manner congruent with real usage. PMI drives shell scripts via a perl program which is charge of timing, validating each test, and controlling the flow through sets of tests. Testing in PMI is built up hierarchically. A suite of tests may start by testing basic functionalities (file system is writable, compiler is found and functions, shell environment behaves as expected, etc.) and work up to large more complicated activities (execution of parallel code, file transfers, etc.) At each step in this hierarchy a failure leads to generation of a text message or RSS that can be tagged as to who should be notified of the failure. There are two functionalities that PMI has been directed at. 1) regular and automated testing of multi user environments and 2) version-wise testing of new software releases prior to their deployment in a production mode.

  16. Drizzle production in stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Stevens, B.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    Although stratocumulus clouds are not prodigious producers of precipitation, the small amounts of drizzle they do produce have an important impact on both cloud macrophysical properties (e.g., spatial coverage, depth and liquid water content) and microphysical properties (e.g., droplet size distributions, effective radii). The radiative effects of stratocumulus are intimately connected to both these macro- and microphysical properties, and it is thus essential that we understand the mechanisms of droplet growth which generate precipitation sized droplets. Drizzle production is closely related to cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) number and size, as well as to cloud dynamics and the ability of clouds to support droplets within their bounds and allow for repeated collision-coalesence cycles. In order to address both the microphysical and dynamical aspects of drizzle formation (and their close coupling), we have adapted a large eddy simulation (LES) model to include explicit (size-resolving) microphysical treatment of the CCN and droplet spectra. By directly calculating processes such as droplet growth by condensation and stochastic collection, evaporation, and sedimentation in the LES framework, we are in a position to elucidate the drizzle formation process.

  17. APASS Data Product Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    (Abstract only) Data Release 6 (DR6) of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) was a significant milestone in the ambitious project to provide calibrated photometry for 10 < V < 17 over the entire sky in Johnson B and V and Sloan g',r',I', bandpasses. DR6 itself was a list of mean magnitudes and colors for about 42 million objects and sky coverage was approximately 95% complete. The photometric means database has now been supplemented by additional data products: an epoch photometry database and a publicly-accessible store of the dark-subtracted, flat-fielded images at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. In this talk, I will describe the processes and challenges of producing these new, useful resources and the contributions of numerous people to the success of this effort. As new data releases occur, the epoch photometry database - which contains data for all measured stars, not just variables - will be updated to include all newly available measurements. As of October 2012, 861,322,813 individual photometric measurements exist in the epoch photometry database. The breakdown of measurements per filter is: B 167,682,680; V 170,005,969; u 25,457; g 181,303,298; r 181,266,321; i 160,374,091; z 664,997. A VStar plug-in to access and analyse the APASS epoch photometry database will be demonstrated and future developments discussed.

  18. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, R.D.

    1957-08-27

    A process for the production of uranium hexafluoride from the oxides of uranium is reported. In accordance with the method, the higher oxides of uranium may be reduced to uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/), the latter converted into uranium tetrafluoride by reaction with hydrogen fluoride, and the UF/sub 4/ converted to UF/sub 6/ by reaction with a fluorinating agent, such as CoF/sub 3/. The UO/sub 3/ or U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is placed in a reac tion chamber in a copper boat or tray enclosed in a copper oven, and heated to 500 to 650 deg C while hydrogen gas is passed through the oven. After nitrogen gas is used to sweep out the hydrogen and the water vapor formed, and while continuing to inaintain the temperature between 400 deg C and 600 deg C, anhydrous hydrogen fluoride is passed through. After completion of the conversion of UO/sub 2/ to UF/sub 4/ the temperature of the reaction chamber is lowered to about 400 deg C or less, the UF/sub 4/ is mixed with the requisite quantity of CoF/sub 3/, and after evacuating the chamber, the mixture is heated to 300 to 400 deg C, and the resulting UF/sub 6/ is led off and delivered to a condenser.

  19. Production Maintenance Infrastructure

    2005-11-01

    PMI is a XML framework for formulating tests of software and software environments which operate in a relatively push button manner, i.e., can be automated, and that provide results that are readily consumable/publishable via RSS. Insofar as possible the tests are carried out in manner congruent with real usage. PMI drives shell scripts via a perl program which is charge of timing, validating each test, and controlling the flow through sets of tests. Testing inmore » PMI is built up hierarchically. A suite of tests may start by testing basic functionalities (file system is writable, compiler is found and functions, shell environment behaves as expected, etc.) and work up to large more complicated activities (execution of parallel code, file transfers, etc.) At each step in this hierarchy a failure leads to generation of a text message or RSS that can be tagged as to who should be notified of the failure. There are two functionalities that PMI has been directed at. 1) regular and automated testing of multi user environments and 2) version-wise testing of new software releases prior to their deployment in a production mode.« less

  20. Sweetclover Production and Agronomy

    PubMed Central

    Goplen, B. P.

    1980-01-01

    Sweetclover has a notorious reputation for causing “sweetclover disease” when improperly cured. In spite of this, however, sweetclover remains a useful forage legume with valuable agronomic traits. It is drought-resistant and well adapted to Western Canada. Sweetclover is the highest yielding legume forage in this region and is valuable in soil improvement, silage, hay and pasture production and a prized crop for the honey producer. It is the most saline-tolerant of the legumes and is particularly useful on saline “white alkali” soils where cereals and other crops cannot grow. Special precautions are necessary to avoid spoilage and concomitant dicoumarol formation in preserving sweetclover hay and silage. Feeding recommendations are suggested for the safe utilization of spoiled forage. Low coumarin cultivars of sweetclover are completely safe and will not result in sweetclover disease despite spoilage. The breeding program at Saskatoon is expected to produce a new low coumarin (yellow flowered) sweetclover cultivar within the next two years. PMID:7427838