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Sample records for all-electric range test

  1. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Type B hybrid electric vehicles shall be subject to the All-Electric Range Test specified below for the purpose of determining the energy efficiency and operating range of a ZEV or of a hybrid electric vehicle operating without the use of its auxiliary power unit. For hybrid electric vehicles, the manufacturer...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Type B hybrid electric vehicles shall be subject to the All-Electric Range Test specified below for the purpose of determining the energy efficiency and operating range of a ZEV or of a hybrid electric vehicle operating without the use of its auxiliary power unit. For hybrid electric vehicles, the manufacturer...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1770-99 All-Electric Range Test requirements. (a) ZEVs and Type A and... Driving Schedule, found in 40 CFR part 86, appendix I, until the vehicle is no longer able to...

  4. Impact of real world driving pattern and all-electric range on battery sizing and cost of plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Shaik; Rudramoorthy, R.; Neelakrishnan, S.; Varman, K. Sri Raja; Arjunan, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the impact of an actual drive pattern on the sizing and cost of a battery pack for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. To estimate the daily average travel distance in fixing the all-electric range of two wheelers, a study conducted in Coimbatore city is presented. A MATLAB simulation model developed for estimating the energy and power requirements in an all-electric strategy using an Indian driving cycle (IDC) and a real-world driving pattern are discussed. The simulation results reveal the impact of the real-world driving pattern on energy consumption and also the influence of all-electric range in sizing the battery pack. To validate the results, a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler developed by modifying a standard two-wheeler has been tested on the road with the help of the IDC simulator kit. An annual battery cost comparison shows that nickel-metal-hydride batteries are more economical and suitable for in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1770-99 - All-Electric Range Test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Driving Schedule, found in 40 CFR part 86, appendix I, until the vehicle is no longer able to maintain... Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, found in 40 CFR part 600, appendix I, until the vehicle is...

  6. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  7. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  8. GPS test range mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  9. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  10. Tests of gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has been a workhorse for testing general relativity over the pat four decades. The three retrorefiector arrays put on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts and the French built array on the second Soviet Lunokhod rover continue to be useful targets, and have provided the most stringent tests of the Strong Equivalence Principle and the time variation of Newton's gravitational constant. The relatively new ranging system at the Apache Point :3.5 meter telescope now routinely makes millimeter level range measurements. Incredibly. it has taken 40 years for ground station technology to advance to the point where characteristics of the lunar retrorefiectors are limiting the precision of the range measurements. In this article. we review the gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging and discuss prospects for the future.

  11. Global positioning system missile test range applications

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.E.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a missile under test could transmit its own position, reducing radar tracking requirements while still providing three-dimensional position and velocity data with the required accuracy. This study investigated minimum package size requirements for GPS implementation on the SRAM II missile as part of the joint test assembly telemetry system. Reported GPS missile test range applications are reviewed. The two missile tracking system implementations considered are a complete GPS package onboard the missile and onboard frequency translator that retransmits the GPS satellite signals. Accuracy and operation of the two methods are compared. A functional description of the GPS is provided.

  12. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  13. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  14. Tonopah Test Range 2030 Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Closed, Closed in Place, or Closure in Progress. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized. CASs and CAUs where contaminants and/or waste have been closed in place are summarized. There is also a table that summarizes the contaminant that has been closed at each site, if land-use restrictions are present, and if post-closure inspections are required.

  15. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  16. Systems Analysis Developed for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop and evaluate concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. As part of this effort, system studies are being conducted to identify concepts with high payoff potential and associated technology areas for further development. To support this effort, a suite of component models was developed to estimate the mass, volume, and performance for a given system architecture. These models include a hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; an SOFC; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. First-order feasibility studies were completed for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel-cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including a PEM fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage, a direct methanol PEM fuel cell, and a direct internal reforming SOFC/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared with the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  17. The impact of the All Electric Airplane on production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The emergence of an All Electric Airplane in the role of an energy efficient transport is described in relation to the increasing fuel problems, which are impacting on the economic viability of the aerospace industry. The paper reviews the All Electric Airplane (which performs electrically all those functions normally powered by hydraulics, pneumatics and engine bleed air) for its impact upon the design/implementation of the aircraft systems, the advanced technology engines, the aircraft's ground-logistic support, and the producibility aspects of these advanced transport aircraft. The simplification of engine design and the prospective improvements in its specific-fuel-consumption are highlighted along with the overall simplification of the aircraft production aspects of the All Electric Airplane.

  18. The all electric airplane-benefits and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.; Hood, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    The all electric aircraft considered in the present investigation is an aircraft which has digital flight crucial controls, electromechanical actuators, and electrical secondary power. There are no hydraulic or pneumatic systems. The characteristics of an all electric aircraft are related to reduced acquisition cost, reduced weight, reduced fuel consumption, increased reliability, reduced support equipment, simpler maintenance, an expanded flight envelope, and improved survivability. An additional benefit is the dramatically increased design flexibility and mission adaptability. However, the implementation of the all electric aircraft concept requires the resolution of a number of major technology issues. Issues in the digital flight controls area are related to achieving the required levels of safety and reliability in a cost effective manner. Other challenges which have to be met are concerned with electromechanical actuators, environmental control and ice protection systems, and engine technology.

  19. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range/range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pernic, E.

    1985-01-01

    The test program Phase II effort provides additional design information in terms of range and range rate (R/R) sensor performance when observing and tracking a typical spacecraft target. The target used in the test program was a one-third scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) available at the MSFC test site where the tests were performed. A modified Bendix millimeter wave radar served as the R/R sensor test bed for evaluation of range and range rate tracking performance, and generation of radar signature characteristics of the spacecraft target. A summary of program test results and conclusions are presented along with detailed description of the Bendix test bed radar with accompaning instrumentation. The MSFC test site and facilities are described. The test procedures used to establish background levels, and the calibration procedures used in the range accuracy tests and RCS (radar cross section) signature measurements, are presented and a condensed version of the daily log kept during the 5 September through 17 September test period is also presented. The test program results are given starting with the RCS signature measurements, then continuing with range measurement accuracy test results and finally the range and range rate tracking accuracy test results.

  20. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  1. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  2. Programmed Controls for an All-Electric School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, W.J.

    1965-01-01

    Heating and ventilating equipment used in the all-electric upper Elementary School in Bedford, New Hampshire, is controlled to insure optimum comfort while the school is occupied and optimum economy of standby operation while it is not in use. A master clock programs all control functions while its mechanism drives two types of tapes--(1) a 365…

  3. A globally nonsingular quaternion-based formulation for all-electric satellite trajectory optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libraro, Paola

    The general electric propulsion orbit-raising maneuver of a spacecraft must contend with four main limiting factors: the longer time of flight, multiple eclipses prohibiting continuous thrusting, long exposure to radiation from the Van Allen belt and high power requirement of the electric engines. In order to optimize a low-thrust transfer with respect to these challenges, the choice of coordinates and corresponding equations of motion used to describe the kinematical and dynamical behavior of the satellite is of critical importance. This choice can potentially affect the numerical optimization process as well as limit the set of mission scenarios that can be investigated. To increase the ability to determine the feasible set of mission scenarios able to address the challenges of an all-electric orbit-raising, a set of equations free of any singularities is required to consider a completely arbitrary injection orbit. For this purpose a new quaternion-based formulation of a spacecraft translational dynamics that is globally nonsingular has been developed. The minimum-time low-thrust problem has been solved using the new set of equations of motion inside a direct optimization scheme in order to investigate optimal low-thrust trajectories over the full range of injection orbit inclinations between 0 and 90 degrees with particular focus on high-inclinations. The numerical results consider a specific mission scenario in order to analyze three key aspects of the problem: the effect of the initial guess on the shape and duration of the transfer, the effect of Earth oblateness on transfer time and the role played by, radiation damage and power degradation in all-electric minimum-time transfers. Finally trade-offs between mass and cost savings are introduced through a test case.

  4. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  5. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  6. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  7. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  8. 33 CFR 159.115 - Temperature range test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temperature range test. 159.115...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.115 Temperature range test. (a) The device must be held at a temperature of 60 °C or higher for a period of 16 hours. (b) The...

  9. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  10. Test techniques for determining laser ranging system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures and results of an on going test program intended to evaluate laser ranging system performance levels in the field as well as in the laboratory are summarized. Tests show that laser ranging system design requires consideration of time biases and RMS jitters of individual system components. All simple Q switched lasers tested were found to be inadequate for 10 centimeter ranging systems. Timing discriminators operating over a typical 100:1 dynamic signal range may introduce as much as 7 to 9 centimeters of range bias. Time interval units commercially available today are capable of half centimeter performance and are adequate for all field systems currently deployed. Photomultipliers tested show typical tube time biases of one centimeter with single photoelectron transit time jitter of approximately 10 centimeters. Test results demonstrate that NASA's Mobile Laser Ranging System (MOBLAS) receiver configuration is limiting system performance below the 100 photoelectron level.

  11. Requirements for a Hydrogen Powered All-Electric Manned Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to set propulsion system targets for an all-electric manned helicopter of ultra-light utility class to achieve performance comparable to combustion engines. The approach is to begin with a current two-seat helicopter (Robinson R 22 Beta II-like), design an all-electric power plant as replacement for its existing piston engine, and study performance of the new all-electric aircraft. The new power plant consists of high-pressure Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, hydrogen stored in 700 bar type-4 tanks, lithium-ion batteries, and an AC synchronous permanent magnet motor. The aircraft and the transmission are assumed to remain the same. The paper surveys the state of the art in each of these areas, synthesizes a power plant using best available technologies in each, examines the performance achievable by such a power plant, identifies key barriers, and sets future technology targets to achieve performance at par with current internal combustion engines.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  13. Lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the lightning threat warning system at the Tonopah Test Range and the technology it uses. The report outlines each of the system's individual components and the information each contributes.

  14. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range/range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Hardware Test Program for evaluation of the baseline range/range rate sensor concept was initiated 11 September 1984. This ninth report covers the period 12 May through 11 June 1885. A contract amendment adding a second phase has extended the Hardware Test Program through 10 December 1985. The objective of the added program phase is to establish range and range measurement accuracy and radar signature characteristics for a typical spacecraft target. Phase I of the Hardware Test Program was designed to reduce the risks associated with the Range/Range Rate (R/R) Sensor baseline design approach. These risks are associated with achieving the sensor performance required for the two modes of operation, the Interrupted CW (ICW) mode for initial acquisition and tracking to close-in ranges, and the CW mode, providing coverage during the final docking maneuver. The risks associated with these modes of operation have to do with the realization of adequate sensitivity to operate to their individual maximum ranges.

  15. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  16. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  17. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  18. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  19. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  20. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  1. 33 CFR 159.119 - Operability test; temperature range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operability test; temperature... Operability test; temperature range. The device must operate in an ambient temperature of 5 °C with inlet operating fluid temperature varying from 2 °C to 32 °C and in an ambient temperature of 50 °C with...

  2. Overview of the X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D.; Sakahara, R.; Kremer, S.

    1998-01-01

    On July 1, 1996, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration signed a Cooperative Agreement No. NCC8-115 with Lockheed Martin Skunk Works to develop and flight test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The development of an Extended Test Range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications from Edwards Air Force Base Ca. to landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base Montana, was required to flight test the mach 15 vehicle over 950 nautical miles. The cooperative agreement approach makes Lockheed Martin Skunk Works responsible for the X-33 program. When additional Government help was required, Lockheed "subcontracted" to NASA Field Centers for certain work. It was through this mechanism that Dryden Flight Research Center became responsible for the Extended Test Range. The Extended Test Range Requirements come from two main sources: 1) Range Safety and 2) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. The range safety requirements were the most challenging to define and meet. The X-33 represents a vehicle that launches like a rocket, reenters the atmosphere and lands autonomously like an aircraft. Historically, rockets have been launched over the oceans to allow failed rockets to be destroyed using explosive devices. Such approaches had to be reconsidered for the X-33 flying over land. Numerous range requirements come from Lockheed Martin Skunk Works for interface definitions with the vehicle communication subsystems and the primary ground operations center, defined the Operations Control Center. Another area of considerable interest was the reentry plasma shield that causes "blackout" of the radio frequency signals, such as the range safety commands. Significant work was spent to analyze and model the blackout problem using a cooperative team of experts from across the country. The paper describes the Extended Test Range a, an unique Government/industry team of personnel and range assets was established to resolve design issues and

  3. An all-electrical torque differential magnetometer operating under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, Akashdeep; von Hoesslin, Stefan; Roschewsky, Niklas; Lotze, Johannes; Schreier, Michael; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Huebl, Hans

    2015-09-01

    An all-electrical torque differential magnetometry (also known as cantilever magnetometry) setup employing piezoelectric quartz tuning forks is demonstrated. The magnetometer can be operated under ambient conditions as well as low temperatures and pressures. It extends the allowed specimen mass range up to several 10 μg without any significant reduction in the sensitivity. Operation under ambient conditions and a simple all-electrical design of the magnetometer should allow for an easy integration with other experimental setups. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of a 25 μm diameter iron wire, measured under ambient conditions with a high signal to noise ratio, was found to be in good agreement with its literature value. Further applications of the technique are discussed.

  4. Euthyroid range reevaluation for radioactive iodine uptake test

    SciTech Connect

    Vohs, J.S.; Petersen, R.J.

    1985-12-01

    A new radioactive iodine uptake euthyroid range with /sup 131/I was obtained at their institution. The thyroid status of 150 patients seen at this institution for RAIU tests was determined utilizing thyroid hormone levels. A mean and standard deviation (s.d.) of the RAIU was calculated on the 57 patients with normal hormone levels. Two s.ds. about the mean yielded a range of 3.0-37.4%. The authors established a new normal range of 10-35% with the previous normal range being 10-30%.

  5. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  6. Evaluation of all-electric secondary power for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.

  7. Current Testing Capabilities at the NASA Ames Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Alvin; Tam, Tim; Bogdanoff, David; Gage, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Capabilities for designing and performing ballistic range tests at the NASA Ames Research Center are presented. Computational tools to assist in designing and developing ballistic range models and to predict the flight characteristics of these models are described. A CFD code modeling two-stage gun performance is available, allowing muzzle velocity, maximum projectile base pressure, and gun erosion to be predicted. Aerodynamic characteristics such as drag and stability can be obtained at speeds ranging from 0.2 km/s to 8 km/s. The composition and density of the test gas can be controlled, which allows for an assessment of Reynolds number and specific heat ratio effects under conditions that closely match those encountered during planetary entry. Pressure transducers have been installed in the gun breech to record the time history of the pressure during launch, and pressure transducers have also been installed in the walls of the range to measure sonic boom effects. To illustrate the testing capabilities of the Ames ballistic ranges, an overview of some of the recent tests is given.

  8. The Western Aeronautical Test Range. Chapter 10 Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudtson, Kevin; Park, Alice; Downing, Robert; Sheldon, Jack; Harvey, Robert; Norcross, April

    2011-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) staff at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a translation software called Chapter 10 Tools in response to challenges posed by post-flight processing data files originating from various on-board digital recorders that follow the Range Commanders Council Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 Digital Recording Standard but use differing interpretations of the Standard. The software will read the date files regardless of the vendor implementation of the source recorder, displaying data, identifying and correcting errors, and producing a data file that can be successfully processed post-flight

  9. Testing the strong equivalence principle by radio ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1984-01-01

    Planetary range data offer the most promising means to test the validity of the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP). Analytical expressions for the perturbation in the 'range' expected from an SEP violation predicted by the 'variation-of-G' method and by the 'two-times' approach are derived and compared. The dominant term in both expressions is quadratic in time. Analysis of existing range data should allow a determination of the coefficient of this term with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of about 1 part in 100 billion/yr.

  10. All-electric spin transistor using perpendicular spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Bae, Joohyung; Min, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Koo, Hyun Cheol

    2016-04-01

    All-electric spin transistor is demonstrated using perpendicular spins in an InAs quantum well channel. For the injection and detection of perpendicular spins in the quantum well channel, we use Tb20Fe62Co18/Co40Fe40B20 electrodes, where the Tb20Fe62Co18 layer produces the perpendicular magnetization and the Co40Fe40B20 layer enhances the spin polarization. In this spin transistor device, a gate-controlled spin signal as large as 80 mΩ is observed at 10 K without an external magnetic field. In order to confirm the spin injection and relaxation independently, we measure the three-terminal Hanle effect with an in-plane magnetic field, and obtain a spin signal of 1.7 mΩ at 10 K. These results clearly present that the electric field is an efficient way to modulate spin orientation in a strong spin-orbit interaction system.

  11. Space Weather Concerns for All-Electric Propulsion Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Richard B.; Pitchford, David

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of all-electric propulsion satellites is a game changer in the quest for low-cost access to space. It also raises new questions for satellite manufacturers, operators, and the insurance industry regarding the general risks and specifically the threat of adverse space weather. The issues surrounding this new concept were discussed by research scientists and up to 30 representatives from the space industry at a special meeting at the European Space Weather Week held in November 2014. Here we report on the discussions at that meeting. We show that for a satellite undergoing electric orbit raising for 200 days the radiation dose due to electrons is equivalent to approximately 6.7 year operation at geostationary orbit or approximately half the typical design life. We also show that electrons can be injected into the slot region (8000 km) where they pose a risk of satellite internal charging. The results highlight the importance of additional radiation protection. We also discuss the benefits, the operational considerations, the other risks from the Van Allen radiation belts, the new business opportunities for space insurance, and the need for space situation awareness in medium Earth orbit where electric orbit raising takes place.

  12. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved.

  13. Predicted Turbine Heat Transfer for a Range of Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Lucci, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons are shown between predictions and experimental data for blade and endwall heat transfer. The comparisons of computational domain parisons are given for both vane and rotor geometries over an extensive range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. Comparisons are made with experimental data from a variety of sources. A number of turbulence models are available for predicting blade surface heat transfer, as well as aerodynamic performance. The results of an investigation to determine the turbulence model which gives the best agreement with experimental data over a wide range of test conditions are presented.

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility and the all-electric airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, Al

    1995-01-01

    NASA is studying the feasibility of installing 'all-electric' controls in future commercial aircraft, replacing the current hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Planes utilizing such equipment should weigh less and be cheaper to maintain, but might also be susceptible to interference from undesired external electromagnetic fields. Possible sources of these extraneous signals include radio and television broadcasters, two-way communications stations, and radar installations of all kinds. One way to reduce the hazard would be to use fiber-optic cables to carry signals from the cockpit to the various points of use, a concept known as 'fly-by-light' or FBL. However, electrical circuits (PBW, or 'power-by-wire') would still be required at both ends of the cables to perform control functions, so the possibility of harmful interference would remain. Computer models for two different antennas were created in order to find the magnitude of the electric fields which would be generated in the airspace around them while in the transmit mode. The first antenna was a horizontal 'rhombic' used by the Voice of America (VOA) for long-distance short-wave broadcasting. The second antenna was a multi-element 'log-periodic dipole array' (LPDA) of a type often used for two-way radio communications. For each case, a specified amount of power was applied in the computer model, and the resulting electric field intensity was predicted at a variety of locations surrounding the antenna. This information will then be used to calculate the levels of interference which could occur inside an airplane flying in the vicinity of these radiation emitters.

  15. Research on the application of multifunctional firearm test equipment in range testing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chijun; Ma, Hong; Zhai, Xuhua

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies on the application of multifunctional firearm test equipment in range testing technology. Its objevtive is to improve the level of firearm test technology in conventional range, to fill the gap of the test technology in our country. In this paper, it mainly discusses the principle and method of measurement on firearm size, sighting angle, locking force and loading force. Furthermore, it comprehensively analyzes test accuracy of sighting angle and the locking force. In addition, it finds out the problems in the current experimentation, which makes a good technical basis for improving the range test ability.

  16. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  17. X-33 Integrated Test Facility Extended Range Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Ashley

    1998-01-01

    In support of the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit program, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was selected to provide continuous range communications of the X-33 vehicle from launch at Edwards Air Force Base, California, through landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base Montana, or at Michael Army Air Field, Utah. An extensive real-time range simulation capability is being developed to ensure successful communications with the autonomous X-33 vehicle. This paper provides an overview of various levels of simulation, integration, and test being developed to support the X-33 extended range subsystems. These subsystems include the flight termination system, L-band command uplink subsystem, and S-band telemetry downlink subsystem.

  18. Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Siebielec, Grzegorz; Chaney, Rufus L

    2012-10-15

    Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on the effectiveness of remediation of these soils is scarce. We tested the effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation and revegetation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to zinc (Zn) phytotoxicity while lead (Pb) posed a substantial risk to soil biota, wildlife and humans through various pathways. Seven treatments were tested: untreated control, agricultural NPK fertilization, high phosphate fertilization plus agricultural rates of NK, CaCO(3), "Orgro" biosolid compost, "Orgro" + CaCO(3), "Orgro" + CaCO(3) + Mn sulfate. All compost treatments alleviated Zn phytotoxicity to tall fescue; however compost combined with liming reduced plant Zn content up to 158-162 mg kg(-1). Compost added with lime reduced Pb in-vitro bioaccessibility from 32.5 to 20.4% of total Pb and was the most effective among the tested treatments. The study revealed the effectiveness of biosolids compost and lime mixture in the rapid stabilization of metals and revegetation of military range contaminated soils. The persistence of the remediation needs to be, however, confirmed in the long-term field study.

  19. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  20. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-Electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  1. Integrated radar-camera security system: range test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Karol, M.; Markowski, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the test results of a mobile system for the protection of large-area objects, which consists of a radar and thermal and visual cameras. Radar is used for early detection and localization of an intruder and the cameras with narrow field of view are used for identification and tracking of a moving object. The range evaluation of an integrated system is presented as well as the probability of human detection as a function of the distance from radar-camera unit.

  2. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  3. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  4. 1990 Environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.; Girard, C.

    1991-05-01

    There is no routine radioactive emission from Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range (SNL, TTR). However, based on the types of test activities such as air drops, gun firings, ground- launched rockets, air-launched rockets, and other explosive tests, possibilities exist that small amounts of depleted uranium (DU) (as part of weapon components) may be released to the air or to the ground because of unusual circumstances (failures) during testing. Four major monitoring programs were used in 1990 to assess radiological impact on the public. The EPA Air Surveillance Network (ASN) found that the only gamma ({gamma}) emitting radionuclide on the prefilters was beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally-occurring spallation product formed by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The weighted average results were consistent with the area background concentrations. The EPA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) Network and Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC) reported normal results. In the EPA Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), analytical results for tritium ({sup 3}H) in well water were reported and were well below DOE-derived concentration guides (DCGs). In the Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) Drinking Water Sampling Program, analytical results for {sup 3}H, gross alpha ({alpha}), beta ({beta}), and {gamma} scan, strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) were within the EPA's primary drinking water standards. 29 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Exploring Propulsion System Requirements for More and All-Electric Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicopters offer unique capabilities that are important for certain missions. More and all-electric propulsion systems for helicopters offer the potential for improved efficiency, reliability, vehicle and mission capabilities as well as reduced harmful emissions. To achieve these propulsion system-based benefits, the relevant requirements must be understood and developed for the various component, sub-component and ancillary systems of the overall propulsion system. Three representative helicopters were used to explore propulsion and overall vehicle and mission requirements. These vehicles varied from light utility (one to three occupants) to highly capable (three crew members plus ten passengers and cargo). Assuming 15 and 30 year technology availability, analytical models for electric system components were developed to understand component and ancillary requirements. Overall propulsion system characteristics were developed and used for vehicle sizing and mission analyses to understand the tradeoffs of component performance and weight, with increase in vehicle size and mission capability. Study results indicate that only the light utility vehicle retained significant payload for an arbitrary 100 nautical mile range assuming 15 year technology. Thirty year technology assumptions for battery energy storage are sufficient to enable some range and payload capabilities, but further improvements in energy density are required to maintain or exceed payload and range capabilities versus present systems. Hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders can be prudently used to recover range and payload deficiencies resulting from battery energy density limitations. Thermal loads for electric systems are low heat quality, but seem manageable. To realize the benefits from more and all-electric systems, technology goals must be achieved, as well as identify vehicles, missions and systems that are best suited to take advantage of their unique characteristics.

  6. Exploring Propulsion System Requirements for More and All-Electric Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicopters offer unique capabilities that are important for certain missions. More and all-electric propulsion systems for helicopters offer the potential for improved efficiency, reliability, vehicle and mission capabilities as well as reduced harmful emissions. To achieve these propulsion system-based benefits, the relevant requirements must be understood and developed for the various component, sub-component and ancillary systems of the overall propulsion system. Three representative helicopters were used to explore propulsion and overall vehicle and mission requirements. These vehicles varied from light utility (one to three occupants) to highly capable (three crew members plus ten passengers and cargo). Assuming 15 and 30 year technology availability, analytical models for electric system components were developed to understand component and ancillary requirements. Overall propulsion system characteristics were developed and used for vehicle sizing and mission analyses to understand the tradeoffs of component performance and weight, with increase in vehicle size and mission capability. Study results indicate that only the light utility vehicle retained significant payload for an arbitrary 100 nautical mile range assuming 15 year technology. Thirty year technology assumptions for battery energy storage are sufficient to enable some range and payload capabilities, but further improvements in energy density are required to maintain or exceed payload and range capabilities versus present systems. Hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders can be prudently used to recover range and payload deficiencies resulting from battery energy density limitations. Thermal loads for electric systems are low heat quality, but seem manageable. To realize the benefits from more and all-electric systems, technology goals must be achieved, as well as vehicles, missions and systems identified that are best suited to take advantage of their unique characteristics.

  7. Hardware test program for evaluation of baseline range-range rate sensor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The baseline range/range rate sensor concept was evaluated. The Interrupted CW (ICW) mode of operation continued with emphasis on establishing the sensitivity of the video portion of the receiver was 7 dB less than the theoretical value. This departs from test results of previous implementations in which achieved sensitivity was within 1.5 to 2 dB of the theoretical value. Several potential causes of this discrepancy in performance were identified and are scheduled for further investigation. Results indicate that a cost savings in both per unit and program costs are realizable by eliminating one of the modes of operation. An acquisition (total program) cost savings of approximately 10% is projected by eliminating the CW mode of operation. The modified R/R sensor would operate in the ICW mode only and would provide coverage from initial acquisition at 12 nmi to within a few hundred feet of the OMV. If the ICW mode only were selected, then an accompanying sensor would be required to provide coverage from a few hundred feet to docking.

  8. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  9. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  10. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  11. 1989 environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The maximum offsite dose impact from 1989 operations was 8.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem as a result of an unusual occurrence. The population received a collective dose of 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} person-rem from this incidence, while the same populations received 4.94 person-rem from natural background radiation. The 1989 SNL, TTR operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. 18 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Symplectic orbit and spin tracking code for all-electric storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talman, Richard M.; Talman, John D.

    2015-07-01

    Proposed methods for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the proton use an intense, polarized proton beam stored in an all-electric storage ring "trap." At the "magic" kinetic energy of 232.792 MeV, proton spins are "frozen," for example always parallel to the instantaneous particle momentum. Energy deviation from the magic value causes in-plane precession of the spin relative to the momentum. Any nonzero EDM value will cause out-of-plane precession—measuring this precession is the basis for the EDM determination. A proposed implementation of this measurement shows that a proton EDM value of 10-29e -cm or greater will produce a statistically significant, measurable precession after multiply repeated runs, assuming small beam depolarization during 1000 s runs, with high enough precision to test models of the early universe developed to account for the present day particle/antiparticle population imbalance. This paper describes an accelerator simulation code, eteapot, a new component of the Unified Accelerator Libraries (ual), to be used for long term tracking of particle orbits and spins in electric bend accelerators, in order to simulate EDM storage ring experiments. Though qualitatively much like magnetic rings, the nonconstant particle velocity in electric rings gives them significantly different properties, especially in weak focusing rings. Like the earlier code teapot (for magnetic ring simulation) this code performs exact tracking in an idealized (approximate) lattice rather than the more conventional approach, which is approximate tracking in a more nearly exact lattice. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi (BMT) equation describing the evolution of spin vectors through idealized bend elements is also solved exactly—original to this paper. Furthermore the idealization permits the code to be exactly symplectic (with no artificial "symplectification"). Any residual spurious damping or antidamping is sufficiently small to permit reliable tracking for the

  13. Office of Inspector General audit of alternatives to testing at the Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.H.

    1998-03-13

    Since the 1950s, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have done weapons program testing at the Tonopah Test Range (Tonopah). Beginning the in 1990s, DOE`s testing at Tonopah declined dramatically. This decline was coincident with the signing of various international treaties, the end of the Cold War, and the movement of some types of tests to other ranges. As a result, Tonopah was left with some bomb and work-for-others testing. The objective of this audit was to determine if there were viable, cost effective alternatives to testing at Tonopah. During the early 1990s, DOE`s Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), which operates Tonopah for DOE, explored the alternative of testing elsewhere. Some of the data gathered by Albuquerque and Sandia provided indications that testing at another range would be practical and economical. This audit followed up on the Albuquerque/Sandia studies and also indicated that testing could be done elsewhere, at a potential cost savings of several million dollars annually. Therefore, it was recommended that Albuquerque conduct a comprehensive study of all testing alternatives. Albuquerque agreed to implement this recommendation but raised technical questions regarding issues such as environmental permits, scheduling flexibility, and cost components, which warrant a more detailed examination as part of the recommended study. It was also recommended that, if the study found that it was not feasible or economical to move the testing elsewhere, Albuquerque reduce the cost of Tonopah to the minimum level necessary to support testing requirements. Albuquerque agreed to this recommendation and stated that it and Sandia continued to actively pursue cost reductions at Tonopah.

  14. Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Jason P; Hufford, Matthew B; Bateman, Ashley C; Lowry, David B; Meimberg, Harald; Strauss, Sharon Y; Rice, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, and yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change, it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance across the entire elevation-based climate range. Contrary to expectations, within-population plant density increased towards both climate limits. Mean genetic diversity of edge populations was equivalent to central populations; however, all edge populations exhibited less genetic diversity than neighbouring interior populations. Genetic differentiation was fairly consistent and moderate among all populations, and no directional signals of contemporary gene flow were detected between central and peripheral elevations. Elevation-driven gene flow (isolation by environment), but not isolation by distance, was found across the species range. These findings were the same towards high- and low-elevation range limits and were inconsistent with two common centre-edge hypotheses invoked for the formation of species range limits: (i) decreasing habitat quality and population size; (ii) swamping gene flow from large, central populations. This pattern demonstrates that climate, but not centre-edge dynamics, is an important range-wide factor structuring M. laciniatus populations. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to relate environmental patterns of gene flow to range limits hypotheses. Similar investigations across a wide variety of taxa and life histories are needed.

  15. Climate structures genetic variation across a species' elevation range: a test of range limits hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Jason P; Hufford, Matthew B; Bateman, Ashley C; Lowry, David B; Meimberg, Harald; Strauss, Sharon Y; Rice, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    Gene flow may influence the formation of species range limits, and yet little is known about the patterns of gene flow with respect to environmental gradients or proximity to range limits. With rapid environmental change, it is especially important to understand patterns of gene flow to inform conservation efforts. Here we investigate the species range of the selfing, annual plant, Mimulus laciniatus, in the California Sierra Nevada. We assessed genetic variation, gene flow, and population abundance across the entire elevation-based climate range. Contrary to expectations, within-population plant density increased towards both climate limits. Mean genetic diversity of edge populations was equivalent to central populations; however, all edge populations exhibited less genetic diversity than neighbouring interior populations. Genetic differentiation was fairly consistent and moderate among all populations, and no directional signals of contemporary gene flow were detected between central and peripheral elevations. Elevation-driven gene flow (isolation by environment), but not isolation by distance, was found across the species range. These findings were the same towards high- and low-elevation range limits and were inconsistent with two common centre-edge hypotheses invoked for the formation of species range limits: (i) decreasing habitat quality and population size; (ii) swamping gene flow from large, central populations. This pattern demonstrates that climate, but not centre-edge dynamics, is an important range-wide factor structuring M. laciniatus populations. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to relate environmental patterns of gene flow to range limits hypotheses. Similar investigations across a wide variety of taxa and life histories are needed. PMID:26756973

  16. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  17. High force vibration testing with wide frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Edward F.; Jepsen, Richard A.; Gregory, Danny Lynn

    2013-04-02

    A shaker assembly for vibration testing includes first and second shakers, where the first shaker includes a piezo-electric material for generating vibration. A support structure permits a test object to be supported for vibration of the test object by both shakers. An input permits an external vibration controller to control vibration of the shakers.

  18. Comparison of all-electric secondary power systems for civil subsonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David D.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate studies have shown operational, weight, and cost advantages for commercial subsonic transport aircraft using an all-electric secondary power system. The first study in 1982 showed that all-electric secondary power systems produced the second largest benefit compared to four other technology upgrades. The second study in 1985 showed a 10 percent weight and fuel savings using an all-electric high frequency (20 kHz) secondary power system. The last study in 1991 showed a 2 percent weight savings using today's technology (400 Hz) in an all-electric secondary power system. This paper will compare the 20 kHz and 400 Hz studies, analyze the 2 to 10 percent difference in weight savings and comment on the common benefits of the all-electric secondary power system.

  19. Input Range Testing for the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This document contains a test plan for testing input values to the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). The plan includes four primary types of information, which rigorously define all tests that should be performed to validate that GMAT will accept allowable inputs and deny disallowed inputs. The first is a complete list of all allowed object fields in GMAT. The second type of information, is test input to be attempted for each field. The third type of information is allowable input values for all objects fields in GMAT. The final piece of information is how GMAT should respond to both valid and invalid information. It is VERY important to note that the tests below must be performed for both the Graphical User Interface and the script!! The examples are illustrated using a scripting perspective, because it is simpler to write up. However, the test must be performed for both interfaces to GMAT.

  20. X-33 Integrated Test facility, Extended Range Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Ashley

    1998-01-01

    In support of the X-33 Single Stage To Orbit program, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was selected to provide continuous communications coverage of the X-33 vehicle from launch, through landing at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana and Michaels Army Air Field, Utah. An extensive real-time range simulation capability is being developed to ensure successful communications with the autonomous X-33 vehicle. This paper will provide an overview of the various levels of simulation being developed to support the X-33 extended range subsystems. These subsystems include the Flight Termination System, L-Band command uplink subsystem and the S-Band telemetry downlink subsystem. In addition, the radar model developed provides continuous azimuth, elevation and range information based on the flight trajectory. The Dynamic Ground Station Analysis model developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, calculate the received signal strength at each ground station. This model takes into consideration Radio Frequency (RF) link parameters such as frequency, antenna gain, space loss, plasma effects and the vehicle's position and attitude at any point in time during the flight path. All three RF links are then attenuated based on this calculated level and the RF signals are sent into telemetry receivers to emulate remote sites, or the power incident on the vehicle from uplinked signals. The best source received telemetry data is then passed back to the Launch and Mission Control Monitoring System (LMCMS) resident in the Operations Control Center. The LMCMS also provides the range simulation system the uplink command combined with differential GPS corrections. Later stages will require the progressive integration of actual range hardware with this simulation effort, leading to communication between telemetry, uplink and FTS antennas at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, with vehicle antennas mounted on the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility (RAIF). Decommutated

  1. Testing assay linearity over a pre-specified range.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Novick, Steven J; LeBlond, David

    2015-01-01

    Validation of linearity is a regulatory requirement. Although many methods are proposed, they suffer from several deficiencies including difficulties of setting fit-for-purpose acceptable limits, dependency on concentration levels used in linearity experiment, and challenges in implementation for statistically lay users. In this article, a statistical procedure for testing linearity is proposed. The method uses a two one-sided test (TOST) of equivalence to evaluate the bias that can result from approximating a higher-order polynomial response with a linear function. By using orthogonal polynomials and generalized pivotal quantity analysis, the method provides a closed-form solution, thus making linearity testing easy to implement.

  2. Gauss's law test of gravity at short range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moody, M. V.; Paik, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    A null test of the gravitational inverse-square law can be performed by testing Gauss's law for the field. We have constructed a three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer and carried out such a test. A lead pendulum weighing 1500 kg was used to produce a time-varying field. This experiment places a new (2-sigma) limit of alpha = (0.9 + or - 4.6) x 10 exp -4 at lambda of 1.5 m, where alpha and lambda are parameters for the generalized potential phi = -(GM/r)(l + alpha e exp -r/lambda).

  3. Universal non-destructive testing method in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. Yu; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Yu V.; Kondrakova, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Considered in this paper, a new method of nondestructive control based on the spectra of radio wave radiation of the microwave range wideband scanning receiver. It is experimentally shown that this method has a high accuracy in the determination of the frequency spectrum. This allows the method considered to reach a sensitivity of 5-6 Hz/nm.

  4. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  5. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY1, 2, 3

    PubMed Central

    JANTZ, PAUL B.; FROEHLICH, ALYSON L.; CARIELLO, ANNAHIR N.; ANDERSON, JEFFREY; ALEXANDER, ANDREW L.; BIGLER, ERIN D.; PRIGGE, MOLLY B. D.; TRAVERS, BRITTANY G.; ZIELINSKI, BRANDON A.; LANGE, NICHOLAS; LAINHART, JANET E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT–3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N=31) were males ages 6–22years (M=15.2, SD=4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N=185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M=31.8mo., SD=4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT–3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time. PMID:25871566

  6. WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: TEST-RETEST STABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jantz, Paul B; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Prigge, Molly B D; Cariello, Annahir N; Travers, Brittany G; Anderson, Jeffrey; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew L; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    The principal goal of this descriptive study was to establish the test-retest stability of the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-3) across two administrations in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Participants (N = 31) were males ages 6-22 years (M = 15.2, SD = 4.0) who were part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study of brain development in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 185). Test-retest stability for all three subtests remained consistent across administration periods (M = 31.8 mo., SD = 4.1). Age at time of administration, time between administrations, and test form did not significantly influence test-retest stability. Results indicated that for research involving individuals with autism spectrum disorder with a full scale intelligence quotient above 75, the WRAT-3 Spelling and Arithmetic subtests have acceptable test-retest stability over time and the Reading subtest has moderate test-retest stability over time.

  7. Wide temperature range testing with ROTEM coagulation analyses.

    PubMed

    Kander, Thomas; Brokopp, Jens; Friberg, Hans; Schött, Ulf

    2014-09-01

    Mild induced hypothermia is used for neuroprotection in patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Temperature-dependent effects on rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) assays with EXTEM(®), FIBTEM(®), or APTEM(®) in cardiac arrest patients have not previously been studied. Ten patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who underwent induced hypothermia were studied during stable hypothermia at 33°C. ROTEM temperature effects on EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays were studied at temperatures set between 30°C and 42°C. Citrated whole blood test tubes were incubated in temperature-adjusted heating blocks and then investigated at respective temperature in the temperature-adjusted ROTEM. The following variables were determined: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF). The results from hypo- and hyperthermia samples were compared with the samples incubated at 37°C using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. CT-EXTEM(®) and CT-APTEM(®) were prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C (p<0.01 for both) and 33°C (p<0.05 for both). Hyperthermia at 42°C shortened CT-EXTEM (p<0.05) and CT-APTEM (p<0.01). CFT-EXTEM(®) and CFT-APTEM(®) were markedly prolonged by hypothermia at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01 for all except CFT-EXTEM, 35°C [p<0.05]). The α-angle-EXTEM was markedly decreased at 30°C, 33°C, and 35°C (p<0.01) but increased at 40°C (p<0.05) and 42°C (p<0.01); α-angle-APTEM showed similar results. MCF was unchanged at different temperatures for all tests. ROTEM (EXTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays) revealed a hypocoagulative response to in vitro-applied hypothermia in the blood of cardiac arrest patients reflected in the prolonged clot initiation and decreased clot propagation. Hyperthermia showed the opposite effects. Clot firmness was not affected by temperature.

  8. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  9. HTS machines as enabling technology for all-electric airborne vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, P. J.; Brown, G. V.; Soban, D. S.; Luongo, C. A.

    2007-08-01

    Environmental protection has now become paramount as evidence mounts to support the thesis of human activity-driven global warming. A global reduction of the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is therefore needed and new technologies have to be considered. A large part of the emissions come from transportation vehicles, including cars, trucks and airplanes, due to the nature of their combustion-based propulsion systems. Our team has been working for several years on the development of high power density superconducting motors for aircraft propulsion and fuel cell based power systems for aircraft. This paper investigates the feasibility of all-electric aircraft based on currently available technology. Electric propulsion would require the development of high power density electric propulsion motors, generators, power management and distribution systems. The requirements in terms of weight and volume of these components cannot be achieved with conventional technologies; however, the use of superconductors associated with hydrogen-based power plants makes possible the design of a reasonably light power system and would therefore enable the development of all-electric aero-vehicles. A system sizing has been performed both for actuators and for primary propulsion. Many advantages would come from electrical propulsion such as better controllability of the propulsion, higher efficiency, higher availability and less maintenance needs. Superconducting machines may very well be the enabling technology for all-electric aircraft development.

  10. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  11. Modeling methodology for MLS range navigation system errors using flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Flight test data was used to develop a methodology for modeling MLS range navigation system errors. The data used corresponded to the constant velocity and glideslope approach segment of a helicopter landing trajectory. The MLS range measurement was assumed to consist of low frequency and random high frequency components. The random high frequency component was extracted from the MLS range measurements. This was done by appropriate filtering of the range residual generated from a linearization of the range profile for the final approach segment. This range navigation system error was then modeled as an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to identify the parameters of the ARMA process.

  12. Telemetry Ranging: Laboratory Validation Tests and End-to-End Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.; Adams, N.; Sanchez, E.; Millard, W.

    2016-08-01

    This article reports on a set of laboratory tests of telemetry ranging conducted at Development Test Facility 21 (DTF-21) in Monrovia, California. An uplink pseudorandom noise (PN) ranging signal was generated by DTF-21, acquired by the Frontier Radio designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and downlink telemetry frames from the radio were recorded by an open-loop receiver. In four of the tests, the data indicate that telemetry ranging can resolve the two-way time delay to a standard deviation of 2.1-3.4 ns, corresponding to about 30 to 51 cm in (one-way) range accuracy, when 30 s averaging of timing estimates is used. Other tests performed worse because of unsatisfactory receiver sampling rate, quantizer resolution, dc bias, improper configuration, or other reasons. The article also presents an analysis of the expected end-to-end performance of the telemetry ranging system. In one case considered, the theoretically-predicted performance matches the test results, within 10 percent, which provides a reasonable validation that the expected performance was achieved by the test. The analysis also shows that in one typical ranging scenario, one-way range accuracy of 1 m can be achieved with telemetry ranging when the data rate is above 2 kbps.

  13. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This post-closure inspection report includes the results of inspections, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for Calendar Year 2005 for nine Corrective Action Units located on the Tonopah Test Range , Nevada.

  14. NASA’s new High Dynamic Range Camera Records Rocket Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is footage of Orbital ATK’s QM-2 solid rocket booster test taken by NASA’s High Dynamic Range Stereo X (HiDyRS-X) camera. HiDyRS-X records high speed, high dynamic range footage in multiple ex...

  15. An Analysis of Fuel Cell Options for an All-electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance characteristics of both PEM and SOFC-based fuel cell systems for an all-electric high altitude, long endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Primary and hybrid systems were considered. Fuel options include methane, hydrogen, and jet fuel. Excel-based models were used to calculate component mass as a function of power level and mission duration. Total system mass and stored volume as a function of mission duration for an aircraft operating at 65 kft altitude were determined and compared.

  16. All-electrical frequency noise reduction and linewidth narrowing in quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Sergachev, Ilia; Maulini, Richard; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Gresch, Tobias; Bidaux, Yves; Müller, Antoine; Schilt, Stéphane; Südmeyer, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    A novel all-electrical method of frequency noise reduction in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is proposed. Electrical current through the laser was continuously adjusted to compensate for fluctuations of the laser internal resistance, which led to an active stabilization of the optical emission frequency. A reduction of the linewidth from 1.7 MHz in the standard constant current mode of operation down to 480 kHz is demonstrated at 10-ms observation time when applying this method to a QCL emitting at 7.9 μm.

  17. The all-electric aircraft - A systems view and proposed NASA research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is expected that all-electric aircraft, whether military or commercial, will exhibit reduced weight, acquisition cost and fuel consumption, an expanded flight envelope and improved survivability and reliability, simpler maintenance, and reduced support equipment. Also noteworthy are dramatic improvements in mission adaptability, based on the degree to which control system performance relies on easily exchanged software. Flight-critical secondary power and control systems whose malfunction would mean loss of an aircraft pose failure detection and design methodology problems, however, that have only begun to be addressed. NASA-sponsored research activities concerned with these problems and prospective benefits are presently discussed.

  18. A new dimension. Wallops Island flight test range: The first fifteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortal, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A record of the first fifteen years (1945-1959) of research and development tests that were performed at Wallops Island is presented. It begins with the events that led to the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics flight test range on Wallops Island to the first year as a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  20. Dynamic range considerations when designing PC sound card based audiometric systems to test human hearing.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Roger M; Dille, Marilyn L

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into maximizing the dynamic range of a PC sound card based audiometric test system is presented. Two principle sound paths are characterized: a) the analog line input, and, b) internal waveform conversion from digital formats into analog signals. Each signal path's electrical performance and overall dynamic range is measured using audio harmonic distortion analysis and frequency spectrum analysis tools. Recommendations are made for proper combinations of signal amplitude and mixer attenuation settings to maximize overall system dynamic range. This work could be useful for scientists using PC sound card based systems for psycho-acoustic testing purposes or for those using similar systems attempting to test the full range of human hearing. PMID:21096936

  1. Dynamic range considerations when designing PC sound card based audiometric systems to test human hearing.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Roger M; Dille, Marilyn L

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into maximizing the dynamic range of a PC sound card based audiometric test system is presented. Two principle sound paths are characterized: a) the analog line input, and, b) internal waveform conversion from digital formats into analog signals. Each signal path's electrical performance and overall dynamic range is measured using audio harmonic distortion analysis and frequency spectrum analysis tools. Recommendations are made for proper combinations of signal amplitude and mixer attenuation settings to maximize overall system dynamic range. This work could be useful for scientists using PC sound card based systems for psycho-acoustic testing purposes or for those using similar systems attempting to test the full range of human hearing.

  2. All-Electric Access to the Magnetic-Field-Invariant Magnetization of Antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Radu, Florin; Schmidt, Oliver G; Makarov, Denys

    2015-08-28

    The rich physics of thin film antiferromagnets can be harnessed for prospective spintronic devices given that all-electric assessment of the tiny uncompensated magnetic moment is achieved. On the example of magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic Cr2O3, we prove that spinning-current anomalous Hall magnetometry serves as an all-electric method to probe the field-invariant uncompensated magnetization of antiferromagnets. We obtain direct access to the surface magnetization of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets providing a read-out method for ferromagnet-free magnetoelectric memory. Owing to the great sensitivity, the technique bears a strong potential to address the physics of antiferromagnets. Exemplarily, we apply the method to access the criticality of the magnetic transition for an antiferromagnetic thin film. We reveal the presence of field-invariant uncompensated magnetization even in 6-nm-thin IrMn films and clearly distinguish two contributions, of which only the minor one is involved in interfacial magnetic coupling. This approach is likely to advance the fundamental understanding of the anomalous Hall and magnetic proximity effects.

  3. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  4. Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB) is a real-time web-based command and control, communication, and intelligent simulation environment of ground-vehicle, launch and range operation activities. ILRO-VTB consists of a variety of simulation models combined with commercial and indigenous software developments (NASA Ames). It creates a hybrid software/hardware environment suitable for testing various integrated control system components of launch and range. The dynamic interactions of the integrated simulated control systems are not well understood. Insight into such systems can only be achieved through simulation/emulation. For that reason, NASA has established a VTB where we can learn the actual control and dynamics of designs for future space programs, including testing and performance evaluation. The current implementation of the VTB simulates the operations of a sub-orbital vehicle of mission, control, ground-vehicle engineering, launch and range operations. The present development of the test bed simulates the operations of Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed supports a wide variety of shuttle missions with ancillary modeling capabilities like weather forecasting, lightning tracker, toxic gas dispersion model, debris dispersion model, telemetry, trajectory modeling, ground operations, payload models and etc. To achieve the simulations, all models are linked using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The test bed provides opportunities for government, universities, researchers and industries to do a real time of shuttle launch in cyber space.

  5. Young adult reference ranges for thyroid function tests on the Centaur immunoassay analyser.

    PubMed

    Alqahatani, M; Tamimi, W; Aldaker, M; Alenzi, F; Tamim, H; Alsadhan, A

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to establish reference ranges for thyroid tests in young Saudi adults using the Centaur immunoassay method. Physical examination is performed and thyroid function tests include thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3). These are performed on 291 young Saudi adults (182 [63%] females and 109 [37%] males; average age: 27 years [range 18-50]). Clinical thyroid abnormality, related symptoms and/or abnormal thyroid function tests exclude a person from the study and thus a total of 276 subjects (171 [62%] females and 105 [38%] males) are used to establish the new reference ranges. Combined female and male ranges for TSH, FT4, and FT3 were found to be 0.48-6.30 miu/L (9.00-18.62 pmol/L and 3.39-6.85 pmol/L, respectively). Mean TSH and FT4 levels were significantly different (P<0.0001) from those quoted by the manufacturer. Ranges for TSH were 0.48-6.30 miu/L (female) and 0.52-4.89 miu/L (male) (P=0.08). Female ranges for FT4 and FT3 were 9.00-17.15 pmol/L and 3.39-5.82 pmol/L, respectively. Male ranges were 9.92-18.62 pmol/L (P=0.0001) and 4.36-6.85 pmol/L (P<0.0001). The range of TSH levels in the young local Saudi population proved to be higher than that quoted by the manufacturer. FT4 range was lower and narrower than that quoted by the manufacturer. Significant differences between female and male populations suggest that partitioning of the reference ranges by gender is necessary. PMID:17201204

  6. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  7. The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad M.; Pratt, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Pad Abort One flight test of the Orion Abort Flight Test Program is currently under development with the goal of demonstrating the capability of the Launch Abort System. In the event of a launch failure, this system will propel the Crew Exploration Vehicle to safety. An essential component of this flight test is range safety, which ensures the security of range assets and personnel. A debris catalog analysis was done as part of a range safety data package delivered to the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico where the test will be conducted. The analysis discusses the consequences of an overpressurization of the Abort Motor. The resulting structural failure was assumed to create a debris field of vehicle fragments that could potentially pose a hazard to the range. A statistical model was used to assemble the debris catalog of potential propellant fragments. Then, a thermodynamic, energy balance model was applied to the system in order to determine the imparted velocity to these propellant fragments. This analysis was conducted at four points along the flight trajectory to better understand the failure consequences over the entire flight. The methods used to perform this analysis are outlined in detail and the corresponding results are presented and discussed.

  8. A collection of articles on S/X-band experiment zero delay ranging tests, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Articles are presented which are concerned with the development of special test equipment and a dual-frequency zero delay device (ZDD) that were required for range tests and the measurement of ground station delays for the Mariner-Venus-Mercury 1973 S/X-band experiment. Test data obtained at DSS 14 after installation of the ZDD on the 64-m antenna are given. It is shown that large variations of range were observed as a function of antenna elevation angle and were sensitive to antenna location. A ranging calibration configuration that was subsequently developed and a technique for determining the appropriate Z-correction are described. Zero delay test data at DSS 14 during the Mariner 10 Venus-Mercury-Encounter periods (1974 days 12-150) are presented. The theoretical analysis and experimental verifications are included of the effects of multipath and effects of discontinuities on range delay measurements. A movable subreflector technique and the multipath theory were used to isolate principal multipath errors on the 64-m antenna and to enable a more accurate determination of the actual ground station range delay.

  9. Design of a photovoltaic system for a southwest all-electric residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Johnson, J.; Parker, J.

    1980-04-01

    The grid connected residential photovoltaic system for the Southwest is designed to meet both space conditioning requirements and all conventional electrical load requirements for an all-electric residence. The system is comprised of two major subsystems, the solar array and the power conditioning subsystem (PCS). An 8 kW peak photovoltaic array been designed for the house. The 93 square meters solar array uses a shingle solar cell module in a highly redundant series/parallel matrix. The photovoltaic generated power is supplied to a 10kVA power conversion subsystem which is controlled to track the solar array maximum power operating point and feed the 240 Vac output power directly to the house loads or back to the utility when excess power is generated. The photovoltaic power is isolated from the utility by a 15 kVA transformer. The house design and subsystem specifications are given in detail.

  10. Microscale Marangoni actuation: all-optical and all-electrical methods.

    PubMed

    Farahi, R H; Passian, A; Zahrai, S; Lereu, A L; Ferrell, T L; Thundat, T

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental results from an all-optical microfluidic platform that may be complimented by a thin film all-electrical network. Using these configurations we have studied the microfluidic convective flow systems of silicone oil, glycerol, and 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene on open surfaces through the production of surface tension gradients derived from thermal gradients. We show that sufficient localized thermal variation can be created utilizing surface plasmons and/or engaging individually addressable resistive thermal elements. Both studies manipulate fluids via Marangoni forces, each having their unique exploitable advantages. Surface plasmon excitation in metal foils are the driving engine of many physical-, chemical-, and bio-sensing applications. Incorporating, for the first time, the plasmon concept in microfluidics, our results thus demonstrate great potential for simultaneous fluid actuation and sensing.

  11. Proposal for an All-Electrical Detection of Crossed Andreev Reflection in Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Recher, Patrik; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2013-05-01

    Using a generalized wave matching method we solve the full scattering problem for quantum spin Hall insulator-superconductor (SC)-quantum spin Hall insulator junctions. We find that for systems narrow enough so that the bulk states in the SC part couple both edges, the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) is significant and the electron cotunneling (T) and CAR become spatially separated. We study the effectiveness of this separation as a function of the system geometry and the level of doping in the SC. Moreover, we show that the spatial separation of both effects allows for an all-electrical measurement of CAR and T separately in a five-terminal setup or by using the spin selection of the quantum spin Hall effect in an H-bar structure.

  12. A proposed all-electrical spin qubit CNOT gate robust against charge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, Sankar; Kestner, Jason

    2011-03-01

    We shall propose an alternative to the Loss-DiVincenzo implementation of the CNOT gate in a quantum dot spin qubit system. Our all-electrical proposal has the advantage of being robust against uncertainties and fluctuations in the tunnel coupling, barrier gate voltage pulse area, and interwell detuning which typically arise due to charge noise. The core idea is to introduce an auxiliary dot and use an analog to the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) pulse sequence in three-level atomic systems, often referred to in the context of electron transport in quantum dot systems as CTAP (Coherent Tunneling by Adiabatic Passage). Spin-dependent tunneling opens the possibility of performing entangling two-qubit gates by this method. Work supported by IARPA, LPS-CMTC, and CNAM.

  13. Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

  14. On the Use of Long-Range Radars for Space Situational Awareness: An Experimental Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigilante, D.; Farina, A.; Feudo, F.; Pagliai, S.; Petrucci, R.; Timmoneri, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on the results achieved in an experimental test conducted with the Selex ES RAT (Radar Avvistamento Terrestre) 31DL/M long range radar in February 2012. The objective of the test was to determine the capability of the radar of detecting and tracking Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites without modifications of the sensor hardware or software. The test have been prepared and conducted in the frame of the Company initiatives dedicated to the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program and in particular for the development of a dual-use function for the detection and tracking of space or orbital debris.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  16. The Range Safety Debris Catalog Analysis in Preparation for the Pad Abort One Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Pratt, William

    2010-01-01

    With each flight test a Range Safety Data Package is assembled to understand the potential consequences of various failure scenarios. Debris catalog analysis considers an overpressure failure of the Abort Motor and the resulting debris field created 1. Characterize debris fragments generated by failure: weight, shape, and area 2. Compute fragment ballistic coefficients 3. Compute fragment ejection velocities.

  17. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these

  18. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. Materials and Methods A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. Results No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. Conclusions These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges. PMID:27617078

  19. Realization of an all-electric spin transistor using quantum point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tse-Ming; Chuang, Pojen; Ho, Sheng-Chin; Smith, Luke; Sfigakis, Francois; Pepper, Michael; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Beere, Harvey; Jones, Geb; Ritchie, Dave

    The spin field effect transistor envisioned by Datta and Das opens a gateway to spin information processing. Although the coherent manipulation of electron spins in semiconductors is now possible, the realization of a functional spin field effect transistor for information processing has yet to be achieved, owing to several fundamental challenges such as the low spin-injection efficiency due to resistance mismatch, spin relaxation, and the spread of spin precession angles. Alternative spin transistor designs have therefore been proposed, but these differ from the field effect transistor concept and require the use of optical or magnetic elements, which pose difficulties for the incorporation into integrated circuits. Here, we present an all-electric all-semiconductor spin field effect transistor, in which these obstacles are overcome by employing two quantum point contacts as spin injectors and detectors. Distinct engineering architectures of spin-orbit coupling are exploited for the quantum point contacts and the central semiconductor channel to achieve complete control of the electron spins--spin injection, manipulation, and detection--in a purely electrical manner. Such a device is compatible with large-scale integration and hold promise for future spintronic devices for information processing. Ref: P. Chuang et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 35 (2015).

  20. Electrophoretic and field-effect graphene for all-electrical DNA array technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangyu; Abbott, Jeffrey; Qin, Ling; Yeung, Kitty Y M; Song, Yi; Yoon, Hosang; Kong, Jing; Ham, Donhee

    2014-09-05

    Field-effect transistor biomolecular sensors based on low-dimensional nanomaterials boast sensitivity, label-free operation and chip-scale construction. Chemical vapour deposition graphene is especially well suited for multiplexed electronic DNA array applications, since its large two-dimensional morphology readily lends itself to top-down fabrication of transistor arrays. Nonetheless, graphene field-effect transistor DNA sensors have been studied mainly at single-device level. Here we create, from chemical vapour deposition graphene, field-effect transistor arrays with two features representing steps towards multiplexed DNA arrays. First, a robust array yield--seven out of eight transistors--is achieved with a 100-fM sensitivity, on par with optical DNA microarrays and at least 10 times higher than prior chemical vapour deposition graphene transistor DNA sensors. Second, each graphene acts as an electrophoretic electrode for site-specific probe DNA immobilization, and performs subsequent site-specific detection of target DNA as a field-effect transistor. The use of graphene as both electrode and transistor suggests a path towards all-electrical multiplexed graphene DNA arrays.

  1. All-electrical control of a singlet-triplet qubit coupled to a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Baczewski, Andrew; Gamble, John; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard; Carroll, Malcolm

    Donor nuclear spins in isotopically purified silicon have very long coherence times, suggesting that they may form high-quality quantum memories. We propose that coupling these nuclear spins to few-electron quantum dots could enable nuclear spin readout and two-qubit operations of the joint quantum dot and nuclear spin system without the need for electron spin resonance. As a step towards this goal, our group recently demonstrated coherent singlet/triplet electron spin rotations induced by the hyperfine interaction between electronic spin degrees of freedom and a single nuclear spin in isotopically purified silicon. In this talk, I will discuss the feasibility of universal all-electrical control of such a singlet/triplet electron spin qubit and explore the decoherence mechanisms that we expect to dominate. Finally, I will examine the relative merits of AC and pulsed DC gating schemes. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  2. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  3. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Tappen; George Nikolich; Ken Giles; David Shafer; Tammy Kluesner

    2010-05-18

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Sub-Project. The TTR is located within the boundaries of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) near the northern edge, and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (179,200 acres). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from one of the three Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  4. The Moon as a Laser-ranged Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Currie, Douglas

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo/Lunokhod Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) Arrays supplied some of the best tests of General Relativity (GR): possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy (PPN parameter beta), weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. Secondly, LLR has provided significant information on the composition of the deep interior of the Moon. LLR physics analysis also allows to set constraints on extensions of GR (like spacetime torsion) and, possibly, on new gravitational physics which may explain the gravitational universe without Dark Matter and Dark Energy (like, for example, Non-Minimally Coupled gravity, NMC). LLR is the only Apollo/Lunokhod experiment still in operation, since 45 years. In the 1970s Apollo/Lunokohd LLR Arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo/Lunokhod CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the US/Italy project "LLRRA21/MoonLIGHT (Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st century / Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High accuracy Tests)", University of Maryland and INFN-LNF developed and tested a next-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter), unaffected by the effect of librations. In fact, we will show that MoonLIGHT reflectors will improve the LLR accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in a few years. INFN-LNF also developed a laser retroreflector micropayload to be deployed on the lunar surface to be laser-ranged by lunar orbiters. The latter micropayload will further extend the physics reach of Apollo, Lunokhod and MoonLIGHT CCRs to improve all precision tests of GR and new gravitational physics using LLR data. As an added value for the LRR and SLR (Satellite Laser ranging) disciplines INFN-LNF built and is

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-09-30

    This corrective action plan proposes the closure method for the area 9 unexploded Ordnance landfill, corrective action unit 453 located at the Tonopah Test Range. The area 9 UXO landfill consists of corrective action site no. 09-55-001-0952 and is comprised of three individual landfill cells designated as A9-1, A9-2, and A9-3. The three landfill cells received wastes from daily operations at area 9 and from range cleanups which were performed after weapons testing. Cell locations and contents were not well documented due to the unregulated disposal practices commonly associated with early landfill operations. However, site process knowledge indicates that the landfill cells were used for solid waste disposal, including disposal of UXO.

  6. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  7. Western aeronautical test range real-time graphics software package MAGIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1988-01-01

    The master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) software package used on the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of the NASA Ames Research Center is described. MAGIC is a resident real-time research tool available to flight researchers-scientists in the NASA mission control centers of the WATR at the Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California. The hardware configuration and capabilities of the real-time software package are also discussed.

  8. Accurate time delay technology in simulated test for high precision laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhibin; Xiao, Wenjian; Wang, Weiming; Xue, Mingxi

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous development of technology, the ranging accuracy of pulsed laser range finder (LRF) is higher and higher, so the maintenance demand of LRF is also rising. According to the dominant ideology of "time analog spatial distance" in simulated test for pulsed range finder, the key of distance simulation precision lies in the adjustable time delay. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of fiber and circuit delay, a method was proposed to improve the accuracy of the circuit delay without increasing the count frequency of the circuit. A high precision controllable delay circuit was designed by combining the internal delay circuit and external delay circuit which could compensate the delay error in real time. And then the circuit delay accuracy could be increased. The accuracy of the novel circuit delay methods proposed in this paper was actually measured by a high sampling rate oscilloscope actual measurement. The measurement result shows that the accuracy of the distance simulated by the circuit delay is increased from +/- 0.75m up to +/- 0.15m. The accuracy of the simulated distance is greatly improved in simulated test for high precision pulsed range finder.

  9. Testing the enemy release hypothesis in a native insect species with an expanding range

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that the spread of (invasive) species will be facilitated by release from their enemies as they occupy new areas. However, the ERH is rarely tested on native (non-invasive, long established) species with expanding or shifting ranges. I tested the ERH for a native damselfly (Enallagma clausum) whose range has recently expanded in western Canada, with respect to its water mite and gregarine parasites. Parasitism levels (prevalence and intensity) were also compared between E. clausum and a closely related species, Enallagma boreale, which has long been established in the study region and whose range is not shifting. A total of 1,150 damselflies were collected at three ‘old’ sites for E. clausum in Saskatchewan, and three ‘new’ sites in Alberta. A little more than a quarter of the damselflies collected were parasitized with, on average, 18 water mite individuals, and 20% were parasitized by, on average, 10 gregarine individuals. I assessed whether the differences between levels of infection (prevalence and intensity) were due to site type or host species. The ERH was not supported: Enallagma clausum has higher or the same levels of parasitism in new sites than old sites. However, E. boreale seems to be benefitting from the recent range expansion of a native, closely related species through ecological release from its parasites because the parasites may be choosing to infest the novel, potentially naïve, host instead of the well-established host. PMID:26618085

  10. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  11. 3-D Characterization of Seismic Properties at the Smart Weapons Test Range, YPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard D.; Anderson, Thomas S.; Davis, John C.; Steeples, Don W.; Moran, Mark L.

    2001-10-01

    The Smart Weapons Test Range (SWTR) lies within the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. SWTR is a new facility constructed specifically for the development and testing of futuristic intelligent battlefield sensor networks. In this paper, results are presented for an extensive high-resolution geophysical characterization study at the SWTR site along with validation using 3-D modeling. In this study, several shallow seismic methods and novel processing techniques were used to generate a 3-D grid of earth seismic properties, including compressional (P) and shear (S) body-wave speeds (Vp and Vs), and their associated body-wave attenuation parameters (Qp, and Qs). These experiments covered a volume of earth measuring 1500 m by 300 m by 25 m deep (11 million cubic meters), centered on the vehicle test track at the SWTR site. The study has resulted in detailed characterizations of key geophysical properties. To our knowledge, results of this kind have not been previously achieved, nor have the innovative methods developed for this effort been reported elsewhere. In addition to supporting materiel developers with important geophysical information at this test range, the data from this study will be used to validate sophisticated 3-D seismic signature models for moving vehicles.

  12. Tests of a range-compensated PMT base. [photomultiplier tube for lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The base design used in the tests is similar to one reported by Allen and Evans (1972). In this base the potential of alternate dynodes is varied with time so as to produce a gain which increases with the square of the time after triggering. Attention is given to modulator design, performance tests, the tube's output for a constant light source, the use of an exponential light source, and the effect of defocusing. The test results show that a range-corrected output with less than 10% error between 1.5 and 40 microsec can easily be obtained with the considered design. The accuracy could probably be improved to 6% with more careful adjustment.

  13. Optimal Asteroid Mass Determination from Planetary Range Observations: A Study of a Simplified Test Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchynka, P.; Laskar, J.; Fienga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Mars ranging observations are available over the past 10 years with an accuracy of a few meters. Such precise measurements of the Earth-Mars distance provide valuable constraints on the masses of the asteroids perturbing both planets. Today more than 30 asteroid masses have thus been estimated from planetary ranging data (see [1] and [2]). Obtaining unbiased mass estimations is nevertheless difficult. Various systematic errors can be introduced by imperfect reduction of spacecraft tracking observations to planetary ranging data. The large number of asteroids and the limited a priori knowledge of their masses is also an obstacle for parameter selection. Fitting in a model a mass of a negligible perturber, or on the contrary omitting a significant perturber, will induce important bias in determined asteroid masses. In this communication, we investigate a simplified version of the mass determination problem. Instead of planetary ranging observations from spacecraft or radar data, we consider synthetic ranging observations generated with the INPOP [2] ephemeris for a test model containing 25000 asteroids. We then suggest a method for optimal parameter selection and estimation in this simplified framework.

  14. Testing the strong equivalence principle with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Lagrangian points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, Giuseppe; De Marchi, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    General relativity is supported by great experimental evidence. Yet there is a lot of interest in precisely setting its limits with on going and future experiments. A question to answer is about the validity of the strong equivalence principle. Ground experiments and lunar laser ranging have provided the best upper limit on the Nordtvedt parameter σ [η ]=4.4 ×10-4 . With the future planetary mission BepiColombo, this parameter will be further improved by at least an order of magnitude. In this paper we envisage yet another possible testing environment with spacecraft ranging towards the nearby Sun-Earth collinear Lagrangian points. Neglecting errors in planetary masses and ephemerides, we forecast σ [η ]=6.4 (2.0 )×10-4 (5 yr integration time) via ranging towards L1 in a realistic (optimistic) scenario depending on current (future) range capabilities and knowledge of the Earth's ephemerides. A combined measurement, L1+L2, gives instead 4.8 (1.7 )×10-4. In the optimistic scenario a single measurement of one year would be enough to reach ≈3 ×10-4. All figures are comparable with lunar laser ranging, but worse than BepiColombo. Performances could be much improved if data were integrated over time and over the number of satellites flying around either of the two Lagrangian points. We point out that some systematics (gravitational perturbations of other planets or figure effects) are much more in control compared to other experiments. We do not advocate a specific mission to constrain the strong equivalence principle, but we do suggest analyzing ranging data of present and future spacecrafts flying around L1/L2 (one key mission is, for instance, LISA Pathfinder). This spacecraft ranging would be a new and complementary probe to constrain the strong equivalence principle in space.

  15. Evaluating the applicability of regulatory leaching tests for assessing lead leachability in contaminated shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is the current US-EPA standard protocol to evaluate metal leachability in wastes and contaminated soils. However, application of TCLP to assess lead (Pb) leachability from contaminated shooting range soils may be questionable. This study determined Pb leachability in the range soils using TCLP and another US-EPA regulatory leaching method, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP). Possible mechanisms that are responsible for Pb leaching in each leaching protocol were elucidated via X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were collected from the backstop berms at four shooting ranges, with Pb concentrations ranging from 5,000 to 60,600 mg kg(-1) soil. Lead concentrations in the TCLP leachates were from 3 to 350 mg l(-1), with all but one soil exceeding the USEPA non-hazardous waste disposal limit of 5 mg l(-1). However, continued dissolution of metallic Pb particles from spent Pb bullets and its re-precipitation as cerussite (PbCO(3)) prevented the TCLP extraction from reaching equilibrium at the end of the standard leaching period (18 h). Thus, the standard one-point TCLP test would either over- or under-estimate Pb leachability in shooting range soils. Lead concentration in the SPLP leachates ranged from 0.021 to 2.6 mg l(-1), with all soils above the USEPA regulatory limit of 0.015 mg l(-1). In contrast to TCLP, SPLP leaching had reached equilibrium, with regard to both pH and Pb concentrations, within the standard 18 h leaching period, and the analytical SPLP results were in good agreement with those derived from modeling. Thus, we concluded that SPLP is a more appropriate alternative than TCLP for assessing lead leachability in range soils.

  16. Methyltrimethoxysilane-insulated piezoelectric microcantilevers for direct, all-electrical biodetection in buffered aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.; Shih, Wan Y.; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2006-12-01

    We have examined coating (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.63-(PbTiO3)0.37 (PMN-PT)/tin piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMSs) with a thin methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) by a simple solution method to electrically insulate the PEMS for biodetection in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions. The PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were constructed using PMN-PT freestanding films that exhibited an electric-field-enhanced giant piezoelectric coefficient. The insulation procedure involved spin coatings of MTMS followed by cross-linking in water, which yielded a coating layer of about 10nm in thickness on the tin side of the PEMS. We showed that the MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMSs were capable of electrical self-excitation and self-sensing with a stable resonance spectrum exhibiting a quality factor of Q =50 when submerged in 0.1M PBS solution. Direct, all-electrical, in situ detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at various concentrations was demonstrated at a flow rate of 0.5ml/min. A MTMS-insulated PMN-PT/tin PEMS 725μm long consisting of a 22-μm-thick PMN-PT layer and a 6-μm-thick tin layer exhibited a mass detection sensitivity Δm /Δf=-3±2×10-12g/Hz and a concentration sensitivity of better than 100cells/ml in less than 1ml of liquid.

  17. All-electrical nonlinear fano resonance in coupled quantum point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shiran

    This thesis is motivated by recent interest in the Fano resonance (FR). As a wave-interference phenomenon, this resonance is of increasing importance in optics, plasmon-ics, and metamaterials, where its ability to cause rapid signal modulations under variation of some suitable parameter makes it desirable for a variety of applications. In this thesis, I focus on a novel manifestation of this resonance in systems of coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs). The major finding of this work is that the FR in this system may be ma-nipulated by applying a nonlinear DC bias to the system. Under such conditions, we are able to induce significant distortions of resonance lineshape, providing a pathway to all-electrical manipulation of the FR. To interpret this behavior we apply a recently-developed model for a three-path FR, involving an additional "intruder" continuum. We have previously used this model to account for the magnetic-field induced distortions of the FR observed in coupled QPCs, and show here that this model also provides a frame-work for understanding the observed nonlinear behavior. Our work therefore reveals a new manifestation of the FR that can be sensitively tailored by external control, a finding that may eventually allow the application of this feature to nanoelectronics. Since the in-terference scheme involves in this thesis is a completely general one, it should be broadly applicable across a variety of different wave-based systems, including those in both pho-tonics and electronics and opening up the possibility of new applications in areas such as chemical and biological sensing and secure communications.

  18. Rocket research and test at the NACA/NASA Wallops Island flight test range 1945-1959

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortal, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Established by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) to function under the supervision of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) of the Langley Research Center, the Wallops Island flight test range began operations in 1945. Before the end of the decade, researchers at Wallops Island had developed two techniques for studying transonic problems - the free-falling body technique and the wing-flow technique - accomplishments which won NACA the needed funds to develop a guided missile for the Army Armed Forces. PARD kept abreast of developments in solid rocket motor technology and added new rockets to its inventory as they became available, and by 1955 Wallops Island programs encompassed sounding-rocket and spaceflight research. By 1959, after the Wallops range had become a NASA facility, it had played essential roles in the development of such satellite programs as Echo and Project Mercury.

  19. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  20. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  1. Software-testing apparatus registrating emission and absorption in optical- and SHF-radiation ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakova, Anna I.; Penin, Sergei T.; Chistyakova, Liliya K.

    2004-12-01

    At the Institute of atmospheric optics of Russian Academy of Science (IAO SO RAS), the automatic express control equipment for atmospheric pollution and remote detection of aerosol and gas emissions from industrial enterprises is created over a remote method detecting radioactive anomalies on secondary displays of radioactivity. Matching several original scientific and technical decisions in one complete equipment essentially expanded opportunities of registration of emission and absorption spectra in several spectral ranges. The automated system of data processing includes some program modules, each of which is intended for the decision of specific tasks, and needed special techniques of testing. In the given paper original techniques of testing of a program complex and subprograms processing experimental data and calculations are presented. So, testing of the microwave Spectroradiometer module is based on graduation of a frequency scale, on the basis of which frequency of the signal is determined. The technique of testing and calibration of the measuring data from TV-system represents the procedure similar to television tests. The technique of testing forecast optical noise in the atmosphere is based on use of algorithms of comparison with standard optical models. In a basis of testing technique of the program module of optical correlation spectrophotometer, the graduation of a scale of voltage from two channels of analog-digital converter, which is carried out proceeding from values of the signal impressed from the external photoelectronic multiplier. Results of testing, which have shown serviceability of separate modules and a complex of programs as a whole and reliability of received results, are shown.

  2. Aerodynamic Coefficients of Entry Vehicle Demonstrator from Free Flight Range Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, C.; Fleck, V.; Sommer, E.; Tran, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the ISL testing programme conducted in the framework of ESA-TRP contract No.AO/1 5031-06/NL/PM on Aerothermodynamics of Aerocapture and High Speed Earth Entry. It presents the results extracted from data collected during a series of free flight tests with instrumented entry space probes conducted at the ISL open range test site. The main objective of this test series was to investigate the basic aerodynamics of two electronic equipped subscale space probes with primary focus on the dynamic stability characteristics. Motion of the models and the corresponding aerodynamic coefficients were obtained by a low-cost and all-weather technique, unique in Europe and developed in the last years at the French-German Research Institute. Launch Mach number was about 3.0 at low and high angles of attack with final Mach number of about 0.6. Comparisons were also made when possible with previous results obtained from computational predictions and/or free flight tests.

  3. The northern boundary of the desert tortoise range on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Brown, G.A.; Goodwin, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    A study was conducted in 1993 to more accurately define the northern boundary of the range of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Eighty-six transects totaling 338.2 km were walked along this boundary and 53 tortoise signs were recorded. Tortoise signs were found all along the northern edge of Jackass and Frenchman flats. Signs were found north of those valleys only in the Calico Hills at the south end of Topopah Valley and in the CP Hills at the extreme southern end of Yucca Flat. A revised map of the range of desert tortoises on NTS is presented. This information can be used by the US Department of Energy to determine whether activities conducted along or near this boundary will affect desert tortoises.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  5. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-03-30

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  7. Hyper-X (X-43A) Flight Test Range Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, Jessica; Burkes, Darryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The Hyper-X program flew X-43A research vehicles to hypersonic speeds over the Pacific Ocean in March and November 2004 from the Western Aeronautical Test Range, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The program required multiple telemetry ground stations to provide continuous coverage of the captive carry, launch, boost, experiment, and descent phases of these missions. An overview is provided of vehicle telemetry and distributed assets that supported telemetry acquisition, best source selection, radar tracking, video tracking, flight termination systems, and voice communications. Real-time data display and processing are discussed, and postflight analysis and comparison of the acquired data are presented.

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  9. Short circuit testing of a nickel-hydrogen cell for compliance with range safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Tracinski, W.A.; Applewhite, A.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Short circuit testing was performed on a single stack, Independent Pressure Vessel (IPV) aerospace Nickel-Hydrogen cell with axial terminals for compliance with range safety requirements. The cell contained two brazed ceramic seals, was 3 1/2 inches in diameter, and had a nameplate rating of 85.5 Ah. The majority of the energy was released in the first ten minutes with peak terminal temperature reaching 192 degrees Celsius. No breaching of the cell was evident and the cell returned to normal open circuit voltage within fifteen minutes of the load being removed.

  10. Test environments for the GRACE follow-on laser ranging interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görth, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Gohlke, M.; Rasch, S.; Abich, K.; Braxmaier, C.; Heinzel, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the year 2017 a follow-on mission to the very successful joint German/US mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) will be launched. As of this day the two GRACE satellites have successfully been mapping the spatial and temporal varitations of the gravitational field of the Earth by satellite-to-satellite tracking for over a decade. The main science instrument on GRACE and its successor mission GRACE Follow-On which is used to measure the inter-satellite distance changes is a microwave link sensor. However, an additional instrument, the laser ranging interferometer (LRI), will be implemented into the architecture of the GRACE Follow-On satellites as a technology demonstrator. In this paper we will give a brief overview of a fiber-based test environment which is currently used during the assembly, integration and test of the LRI flight hardware.

  11. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  12. A 4 V, ns-range pulse generator for the test of Cherenkov Telescopes readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoranz, P.; Vegas, I.; Miranda, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    We present in this paper the design, fabrication and verification of a ns-range pulse generator based on a Step Recovery Diode (SRD). This device needs only a 5 V DC power supply, delivers 1 ns pulses with peak amplitudes in excess of 4 V and features state of the art jitter figures. In addition, the pulser contains a trigger channel. The long standing problem of the SRD simulation via circuital analysis is addressed. It is shown that the dynamic properties of the Step Recovery Diode can accurately be reproduced via a small signal circuital simulation for the rise times needed in a ns-range pulser. It is also demonstrated that strong inaccuracies in the pulse shape prediction are obtained if the wave propagation through the lines typically used in this type of circuits is simulated by a simple Transverse Electromagnetic Mode (TEM) line model. Instead, it is necessary to account for non-TEM effects. By means of broadband resistive power splitters and high dynamic range amplifiers, a prototype of 4 channels was also fabricated. This prototype is particularly useful for testing the readout electronics of Cherenkov Telescopes, but additional applications to other large-scale experiments are expected, any of those where calibration or verification with compact ns-range pulsers featuring low jitter, large dynamic ranges and multichannel operation is needed. In addition, the fabrication cost of this pulser is almost negligible as compared with bulky, commercially available waveform generators, which rarely deliver ns pulses in excess of 3 V. Furthermore, the small size of the pulser presented here and its low power consumption allow an easy integration into more complex systems.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  14. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  15. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate. PMID:25635414

  16. Testing accuracy of long-range ultrasonic sensors for olive tree canopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate.

  17. Testing Accuracy of Long-Range Ultrasonic Sensors for Olive Tree Canopy Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gamarra-Diezma, Juan Luis; Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Cuenca, Andrés; Blanco-Roldán, Gregorio L.; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic sensors are often used to adjust spray volume by allowing the calculation of the crown volume of tree crops. The special conditions of the olive tree require the use of long-range sensors, which are less accurate and faster than the most commonly used sensors. The main objectives of the study were to determine the suitability of the sensor in terms of sound cone determination, angle errors, crosstalk errors and field measurements. Different laboratory tests were performed to check the suitability of a commercial long-range ultrasonic sensor, as were the experimental determination of the sound cone diameter at several distances for several target materials, the determination of the influence of the angle of incidence of the sound wave on the target and distance on the accuracy of measurements for several materials and the determination of the importance of the errors due to interference between sensors for different sensor spacings and distances for two different materials. Furthermore, sensor accuracy was tested under real field conditions. The results show that the studied sensor is appropriate for olive trees because the sound cone is narrower for an olive tree than for the other studied materials, the olive tree canopy does not have a large influence on the sensor accuracy with respect to distance and angle, the interference errors are insignificant for high sensor spacings and the sensor's field distance measurements were deemed sufficiently accurate. PMID:25635414

  18. Statistical testing of the full-range leadership theory in nursing.

    PubMed

    Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to test statistically the structure of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nurses and nurse leaders working in healthcare organizations in Finland. A follow-up study was performed 1 year later. The sample consisted of 601 nurses and nurse leaders, and the follow-up study had 78 respondents. Theory was tested through structural equation modelling, standard regression analysis and two-way anova. Rewarding transformational leadership seems to promote and passive laissez-faire leadership to reduce willingness to exert extra effort, perceptions of leader effectiveness and satisfaction with the leader. Active management-by-exception seems to reduce willingness to exert extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Rewarding transformational leadership remained as a strong explanatory factor of all outcome variables measured 1 year later. The data supported the main structure of the full-range leadership theory, lending support to the universal nature of the theory.

  19. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  20. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  1. Benchmark tests of a strongly constrained semilocal functional with a long-range dispersion correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J. G.; Bates, J. E.; Sun, J.; Perdew, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) semilocal density functional [J. Sun, A. Ruzsinszky, and J. P. Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.036402] obeys all 17 known exact constraints for meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGAs), and it includes some medium-range correlation effects. Long-range London dispersion interactions are still missing, but they can be accounted for via an appropriate correction scheme. In this study, we combine SCAN with an efficient London dispersion correction and show that lattice energies of simple organic crystals can be improved with the applied correction by 50%. The London-dispersion corrected SCAN meta-GGA outperforms all other tested London-dispersion corrected meta-GGAs for molecular geometries. Our method yields mean absolute deviations (MADs) for main group bond lengths that are consistently below 1 pm, rotational constants with MADs of 0.2%, and noncovalent distances with MADs below 1%. For a large database of general main group thermochemistry and kinetics (˜800 chemical species), one of the lowest weighted mean absolute deviations for long-range corrected meta-GGA functionals is achieved. Noncovalent interactions are of average quality, and hydrogen bonded systems in particular seem to suffer from overestimated polarization related to the self-interaction error of SCAN. We also discuss some consequences of numerical sensitivity encountered for meta-GGAs.

  2. Null-hypothesis significance testing and the critical weight range for Australian mammals.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan; Taylor, Robert

    2007-12-01

    The critical weight range hypothesis for Australian terrestrial mammals states that species in the intermediate size range 35-5500 g are particularly susceptible to extinction. In a 2001 study Cardillo and Bromham found no statistically significant evidence for this hypothesis and suggested that research should instead focus on why small species are resistant to extinction. We used a similar data set of body sizes of Australian mammals grouped by conservation classification, but we used test statistics (mean deviation above and below the median body size) that are more statistically powerful than those of Cardillo and Bromham (quartiles, maxima, and minima of body size distributions). We found strong evidence in favor of the critical weight range hypothesis: the body size distribution of threatened species was more clustered toward the median body size from above and below. This pattern was statistically significant at the continental scale and in the arid zone, but not in the mesic zone. Confusing statistical significance with evidence of no effect, as Cardillo and Bromham did, can have negative implications for conservation biology because it can result in failure to act when action is warranted or provision of incorrect advice that affects policy and planning decisions.

  3. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic

  4. The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading Subtest “Holds” in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  7. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  8. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  9. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  10. Field testing and applications of the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.; Blair, M.S.; Espegren, M.L.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System is a patented, computerized data acquisition system developed to relate the radiological surveyor's precise physical location to instantaneous radiation data taken during walk-on surveys. The USRAD System incorporates three technologies: radio frequency communications, ultrasonics, and microcomputers. Initial field testing of the USRAD System has resulted in several improvements to walk-on radiological surveys including real-time position data, reproducible survey results, on-site verification of survey coverage, on-site data reduction and graphics, and permanent data storage on magnetic media. Although the USRAD System was developed specifically for use with a gamma-ray detector, it is adaptable to other instruments. Applications of the USRAD System may include verification of remediated and uncontaminated areas, emergency response in mapping pollutant locations after accidents, and characterization of hazardous waste areas. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  12. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    PubMed

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. PMID:25991388

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-12-01

    This closure report (CR) provides documentation for the closure of the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). CAU 407 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The RCRSA is located on the northeast comer of the intersection of Main Road and Browne's Lake Road, which is approximately 8 km (5 mi) south of Area 3 (Figure 1). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Double Tracks and Clean Slate tests. Investigation of the RCRSA was conducted from June through November of 1998. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1999) was approved in October of 1999. The purpose of this CR is to: Document the closure activities as proposed in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (DOEM, 2000). Obtain a Notice of Completion from the NDEP. Recommend the movement of CAU 407 from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. The following is the scope of the closure actions implemented for CAU 407: Removal and disposal of surface soils which were over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal were disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Excavated areas were backfilled with clean borrow soil located near the site. A soil cover was constructed over the waste disposal pit area, where subsurface constituents of concern remain. The site was fenced and posted as an ''Underground Radioactive Material'' area.

  14. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; May 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 489: WWII UXO Sites, Tonopah Test Range. CAU 489 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996.

  16. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. 334.650 Section 334.650 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....650 Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...

  17. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  18. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  19. Comparison of range of motion tests with throwing kinematics in elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the glenohumeral external rotation with the maximal external rotation and throwing performance during different throws with different wind-up techniques in elite team handball players. Twenty-two elite team handball players participated in the study in which the maximal ball release velocity and maximal external rotation during standing, with run-up and jump throws with two types of wind-ups were measured together with the maximal active and passive glenohumeral ROM of the external rotation, lying supine on a bench. Higher maximal external rotation was found during the throws with the whip-like wind-up in comparison to circular-like wind-up throws together with a lower external rotation during the active ROM test. No correlations were found between the ROM of the external rotation with the maximal ball release velocity and the maximal external rotation measured during the throws. It was concluded that ROM of the external rotation measured on the bench does not give any information about the maximal throwing performance or the external rotation angle during throwing and therefore cannot be used to identify potential fast throwers or injuries in elite team handball players. PMID:26902748

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  1. Comparison of range of motion tests with throwing kinematics in elite team handball players.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the active and passive range of motion (ROM) of the glenohumeral external rotation with the maximal external rotation and throwing performance during different throws with different wind-up techniques in elite team handball players. Twenty-two elite team handball players participated in the study in which the maximal ball release velocity and maximal external rotation during standing, with run-up and jump throws with two types of wind-ups were measured together with the maximal active and passive glenohumeral ROM of the external rotation, lying supine on a bench. Higher maximal external rotation was found during the throws with the whip-like wind-up in comparison to circular-like wind-up throws together with a lower external rotation during the active ROM test. No correlations were found between the ROM of the external rotation with the maximal ball release velocity and the maximal external rotation measured during the throws. It was concluded that ROM of the external rotation measured on the bench does not give any information about the maximal throwing performance or the external rotation angle during throwing and therefore cannot be used to identify potential fast throwers or injuries in elite team handball players.

  2. Flaw Sizing in Pipes Using Long-Range Guided Wave Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, R. M.; Catton, P. P.

    2011-06-01

    The absence of adequate inspection data from difficult-to-access areas on pipelines, such as cased-road crossings, makes determination of fitness for continued service and compliance with increasingly stringent regulatory requirements problematic. Screening for corrosion using long-range guided wave testing is a relatively new inspection technique. The complexity of the possible modes of vibration means the technique can be difficult to implement effectively but this also means that it has great potential for both detecting and characterizing flaws. The ability to determine flaw size would enable the direct application of standard procedures for determining fitness-for-service, such as ASME B31G, RSTRENG, or equivalent for tens of metres of pipeline from a single inspection location. This paper presents a new technique for flaw sizing using guided wave inspection data. The technique has been developed using finite element models and experimentally validated on 6″ Schedule 40 steel pipe. Some basic fitness-for-service assessments have been carried out using the measured values and the maximum allowable operating pressure was accurately determined.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.; Lantow, Tiffany A.

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  4. Geologic investigation of Playa Lakes, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada : data report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2004-12-01

    Subsurface geological investigations have been conducted at two large playa lakes at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada. These characterization activities were intended to provide basic stratigraphic-framework information regarding the lateral distribution of ''hard'' and ''soft'' sedimentary materials for use in defining suitable target regions for penetration testing. Both downhole geophysical measurements and macroscopic lithilogic descriptions were used as a surrogate for quantitative mechanical-strength properties, although some quantitative laboratory strength measurements were obtained as well. Both rotary (71) and core (19) holes on a systematic grid were drilled in the southern half of the Main Lake; drill hole spacings are 300 ft north-south and 500-ft east-west. The drilled region overlaps a previous cone-penetrometer survey that also addressed the distribution of hard and soft material. Holes were drilled to a depth of 40 ft and logged using both geologic examination and down-hole geophysical surveying. The data identify a large complex of very coarse-grained sediment (clasts up to 8 mm) with interbedded finer-grained sands, silts and clays, underlying a fairly uniform layer of silty clay 6 to 12 ft thick. Geophysical densities of the course-grained materials exceed 2.0 g/cm{sup 2}, and this petrophysical value appears to be a valid discriminator of hard vs. soft sediments in the subsurface. Thirty-four holes, including both core and rotary drilling, were drilled on a portion of the much larger Antelope Lake. A set of pre-drilling geophysical surveys, including time-domain electromagnetic methods, galvanic resistivity soundings, and terrain-conductivity surveying, was used to identify the gross distribution of conductive and resistive facies with respect to the present lake outline. Conductive areas were postulated to represent softer, clay-rich sediments with larger amounts of contained conductive ground water. Initial drilling, consisting of

  5. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  7. Dynamic properties of Indiana, Fort Knox and Utah test range limestones and Danby Marble over the stress range 1 to 20 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The responses of the following carbonate materials to shock loading and release have been measured: Indiana limestone (18% porosity; saturated and dry), Jeffersonville/Louisville Limestones (Fort Knox limestone) (variable dolomitization, low porosity), Danby Marble (essentially pure calcite; low porosity), and a limestone from the Utah Test and Training Range (low porosity, with 22% silica). Various experimental configurations were used, some optimized to yield detailed waveform information, others to yield a clean combination of Hugoniot states and release paths. All made use of velocity interferometry as a primary diagnostic. The stress range of 0 - 20 GPa was probed (in most cases, emphasizing the stress range 0 -10 GPa). The primary physical processes observed in this stress regime were material strength, porosity, and polymorphic phase transitions between the CaCO{sub 3} phases I, II, III and VI. Hydration was also a significant reaction under certain conditions. The Indiana Limestone studies in particular represent a significant addition to the low-pressure database for porous limestone. Temperature dependence and the effect of freezing were assessed for the Fort Knox limestone. Experimental parameters and detailed results are provided for the 42 impact tests in this series.

  8. Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) Mission Control Gold Room During X-29 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The mission control Gold room is seen here during a research flight of the X-29 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. All aspects of a research mission are monitored from one of two of these control rooms at Dryden. Dryden and its control rooms are part of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). The WATR consists of a highly automated complex of computer controlled tracking, telemetry, and communications systems and control room complexes that are capable of supporting any type of mission ranging from system and component testing, to sub-scale and full-scale flight tests of new aircraft and reentry systems. Designated areas are assigned for spin/dive tests; corridors are provided for low, medium, and high-altitude supersonic flight; and special STOL/VSTOL facilities are available at Ames Moffett and Crows Landing. Special use airspace, available at Edwards, covers approximately twelve thousand square miles of mostly desert area. The southern boundary lies to the south of Rogers Dry Lake, the western boundary lies midway between Mojave and Bakersfield, the northern boundary passes just south of Bishop, and the eastern boundary follows about 25 miles west of the Nevada border except in the northern areas where it crosses into Nevada. Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, flew at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1984 to 1992. The fighter-sized X-29 technology demonstrators explored several concepts and technologies including: the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable-camber wing surfaces; a unique forward- swept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strakes; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system used to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward-swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave

  9. Testing the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth via satellite laser ranging and the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, D. M.; Anselmo, L.; Bassan, M.; Pardini, C.; Peron, R.; Pucacco, G.; Visco, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) is presented. This is a research program that aims to perform new refined tests and measurements of gravitation in the field of the Earth in the weak field and slow motion (WFSM) limit of general relativity (GR). For this objective we use the free available data relative to geodetic passive satellite lasers tracked from a network of ground stations by means of the satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique. After a brief introduction to GR and its WFSM limit, which aims to contextualize the physical background of the tests and measurements that LARASE will carry out, we focus on the current limits of validation of GR and on current constraints on the alternative theories of gravity that have been obtained with the precise SLR measurements of the two LAGEOS satellites performed so far. Afterward, we present the scientific goals of LARASE in terms of upcoming measurements and tests of relativistic physics. Finally, we introduce our activities and we give a number of new results regarding the improvements to the modelling of both gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations to the orbit of the satellites. These activities are a needed prerequisite to improve the forthcoming new measurements of gravitation. An innovation with respect to the past is the specialization of the models to the LARES satellite, especially for what concerns the modelling of its spin evolution, the neutral drag perturbation and the impact of Earth's solid tides on the satellite orbit.

  10. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sunrise to sunset daily Mondays through Fridays for test firing helicopter armament. (2) During firing... helicopter equipped with FM and UHF communications to the Safety Office at range control to insure cease...

  11. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sunrise to sunset daily Mondays through Fridays for test firing helicopter armament. (2) During firing... helicopter equipped with FM and UHF communications to the Safety Office at range control to insure cease...

  12. 33 CFR 334.650 - Gulf of Mexico, south of St. George Island, Fla.; test firing range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sunrise to sunset daily Mondays through Fridays for test firing helicopter armament. (2) During firing... helicopter equipped with FM and UHF communications to the Safety Office at range control to insure cease...

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  14. Remote control and navigation tests for application to long-range lunar surface exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, W. C.; White, P. R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Tests conducted with a vehicle system built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate some of the unknown factors associated with remote controlled teleoperated vehicles on the lunar surface are described. Test data are summarized and conclusions are drawn from these data which indicate that futher testing will be required.

  15. DC to DC Converter Testing for Space Applications: Use of EMI Filters and Thermal Range of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Several tests were performed on Interpoint and International Rectifier (IR) direct current (DC) to DC converters to evaluate potential performance and reliability issues in space use of DC to DC converters and to determine if the use of electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters mitigates concerns observed during previous tests. Test findings reported here include those done up until September - October 2008. Tests performed include efficiency, regulation, cross-regulation, power consumption with inhibit on, load transient response, synchronization, and turn-on tests. Some of the test results presented here span the thermal range -55 C to 125 C. Lower range was extended to -120 C in some tested converters. Determination of failure root cause in DC/DC converters that failed at thermal extremes is also included.

  16. The Assessment of Reliability Under Range Restriction: A Comparison of [Alpha], [Omega], and Test-Retest Reliability for Dichotomous Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Dustin A.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Terry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction, the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest…

  17. Challenge testing the lactoperoxidase system against a range of bacteria using different activation agents.

    PubMed

    Fweja, L W T; Lewis, M J; Grandison, A S

    2008-07-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LP) exerts antimicrobial effects in combination with H(2)O(2) and either thiocyanate (SCN(-)) or a halide (e.g., I(-)). Garlic extract in the presence of ethanol has also been used to activate the LP system. This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 LP activation systems (LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2); LP+I(-)+H(2)O(2); LP + garlic extract + ethanol) on the growth and activity of 3 test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus). Sterilized milk was used as the reaction medium, and the growth pattern of the organisms and a range of keeping quality (KQ) indicators (pH, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, clot on boiling) were monitored during storage at the respective optimum growth temperature for each organism. The LP+I(-)+ H(2)O(2) system reduced bacterial counts below the detection limit shortly after treatment for all 3 organisms, and no bacteria could be detected for the duration of the experiment (35 to 55 h). The KQ data confirmed that the milk remained unspoiled at the end of the experiments. The LP + garlic extract + ethanol system, on the other hand, had no effect on the growth or KQ with P. aeruginosa, but showed a small retardation of growth of the other 2 organisms, accompanied by small increases (5 to 10 h) in KQ. The effects of the LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) system were intermediate between those of the other 2 systems and differed between organisms. With P. aeruginosa, the system exerted total inhibition within 10 h of incubation, but the bacteria regained viability after a further 5 h, following a logarithmic growth curve. This was reflected in the KQ indicators, which implied an extension of 15 h. With the other 2 bacterial species, LP+SCN(-)+H(2)O(2) exerted an obvious inhibitory effect, giving a lag phase in the growth curve of 5 to 10 h and KQ extension of 10 to 15 h. When used in combination, I(-) and SCN(-) displayed negative synergy.

  18. Prototype Test Results for the Single Photon Detection SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; McGarry, Jan F.; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Patterson, Don; Donovan, Howard

    2004-01-01

    NASA's aging Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) network is scheduled to be replaced over the next few years with a fully automated single photon detection system. A prototype of this new system, called SLR2000, is currently undergoing field trials at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to evaluate photon counting techniques and determine system hardware, software, and control algorithm performance levels and limitations. Newly developed diode pumped microchip lasers and quadrant microchannel plate-based photomultiplier tubes have enabled the development of this high repetition rate single photon detection SLR system. The SLR2000 receiver threshold is set at the single photoelectron (pe) level but tracks satellites with an average signal level typically much less than 1 pe. The 2 kHz laser fire rate aids in satellite acquisition and tracking and will enable closed loop tracking by accumulating single photon count statistics in a quadrant detector and using this information to correct for pointing errors. Laser transmitter beamwidths of 10 arcseconds (FWHM) or less are currently being used to maintain an adequate signal level for tracking while the receiver field of view (FOV) has been opened to 40 arcseconds to accommodate point ahead/look behind angular offsets. In the near future, the laser transmitter point ahead will be controlled by a pair of Risley prisms. This will allow the telescope to point behind and enable closure of the receiver FOV to roughly match the transmitter beam divergence. Bandpass filters (BPF) are removed for night tracking operations while 0.2 nm or 1 nm filters are used during daylight operation. Both day and night laser tracking of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites has been achieved with a laser transmitter energy of only 65 microjoules per pulse. Satellite tracking is presently limited to LEO satellites until the brassboard laser transmitter can be upgraded or replaced. Simultaneous tracks have also been observed with NASA s

  19. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2006 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 9, 2006, May 31, 2006, and November 15, 2006. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2006, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 400, CAU 407, CAU 426, CAU 453, and CAU 487 in 2006. During the May inspection of CAU 400, it was identified that the east and west sections of chickenwire fencing beyond the standard fencing were damaged; they were repaired in June 2006. Also in June 2006, the southeast corner fence post and one warning sign at CAU 407 were reinforced and reattached, the perimeter fencing adjacent to the gate at CAU 426 was tightened, and large animal

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  2. Air STAR Beyond Visual Range UAS Description and Preliminary Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Foster, John V.; Riddick, Stephen E.; Laughter, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Unmanned Aerial System project's capabilities were expanded by updating the system design and concept of operations. The new remotely piloted airplane system design was flight tested to assess integrity and operational readiness of the design to perform flight research. The purpose of the system design is to improve aviation safety by providing a capability to validate, in high-risk conditions, technologies to prevent airplane loss of control. Two principal design requirements were to provide a high degree of reliability and that the new design provide a significant increase in test volume (relative to operations using the previous design). The motivation for increased test volume is to improve test efficiency and allow new test capabilities that were not possible with the previous design and concept of operations. Three successful test flights were conducted from runway 4-22 at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility.

  3. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  4. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  5. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  6. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  7. Shuttle communication systems compatibility and performance tests. [transponder, range error, and power amplifier problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromley, L. K.; Travis, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility and performance of the Shuttle communications system must be certified prior to operational missions. For this purpose, NASA has established the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) at the Johnson Space Center. This paper discusses the Shuttle communications system compatibility and performance testing being performed in the ESTL. The ESTL system verification test philosophy, including capabilities, procedures, and unique testing equipment are summarized. Summaries of the significant results of compatibility and performance tests of the Orbiter/Space-flight Tracking and Data Network, Orbiter/Air Force Remote Tracking Station, Orbiter/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and Orbiter/Shuttle Launch Support System interfaces are presented. The ESTL's unique ability to locate potential communication problems and participate in the resolution of these problems are discussed in detail.

  8. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION REPORT FOR THE TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-04-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Report provides an analysis and summary of the semi-annual inspections conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) during Calendar Year 2004. The report includes the inspection and/or repair activities completed at the following nine Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located at TTR, Nevada: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2,6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). Site inspections were conducted on July 7,2004, and November 9-10,2004. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports (CRs). The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B, with the exception of CAU 400 and CAU 423. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. In addition, post-closure inspections are not currently required at CAU 423; however, the CR is being revised to include inspection requirements. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Appendix C, the field notes are included in Appendix D, and the site photographs are included in Appendix E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2004, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F. In addition, topographic survey results of two repaired landfill cells in CAU 424 are included in Appendix G. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill, CAU 407, CAU 424, CAU 427, and CAU 487. CAU 400 repairs included mending the fence, reseeding of a flood damaged area, and

  9. PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME TEST WITH KAOLIN. NORMAL RANGE AND MODIFICATIONS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOPHILIA AND CHRISTMAS DISEASE.

    PubMed

    MATCHETT, M O; INGRAM, G I

    1965-07-01

    The partial thromboplastin time test provides a convenient and sensitive screening procedure for deficiencies of thromboplastic factors, especially factors VIII and IX. The test is carried out after preincubating the plasma for 10 minutes with kaolin, and Inosithin is used as a platelet substitute. The ;normal range' of the test has been estimated in terms of the differences encountered between random normal plasmas tested in pairs, because individual patients are usually tested against single control subjects. A patient's partial thromboplastin time should be regarded as abnormal if it is more than six seconds longer than the control time. In the diagnosis of haemophilia, patients' plasmas with concentrations of factor VIII as low as about 20% might be regarded as being within the range of normal, if the selected control subject's factor VIII happened to lie near the lower end of the normal range. When mild haemophilia is suspected, discrimination may be improved by diluting both the patient's and the control plasmas 1 in 20 in haemophilic plasma. With the test modified in this way the clotting time is prolonged, though the range of differences among normal subjects is unaltered, and plasmas with factor VIII concentrations below about 30%, i.e., in undiluted plasma, would be unlikely to be regarded as normal. The partial thromboplastin time may be similarly modified as a screening test for factor IX deficiency.Some clinical examples are reported.

  10. 'Optimal thermal range' in ectotherms: Defining criteria for tests of the temperature-size-rule.

    PubMed

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kiełbasa, Anna; Sobczyk, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    Thermal performance curves for population growth rate r (a measure of fitness) were estimated over a wide range of temperature for three species: Coleps hirtus (Protista), Lecane inermis (Rotifera) and Aeolosoma hemprichi (Oligochaeta). We measured individual body size and examined if predictions for the temperature-size rule (TSR) were valid for different temperatures. All three organisms investigated follow the TSR, but only over a specific range between minimal and optimal temperatures, while maintenance at temperatures beyond this range showed the opposite pattern in these taxa. We consider minimal and optimal temperatures to be species-specific, and moreover delineate a physiological range outside of which an ectotherm is constrained against displaying size plasticity in response to temperature. This thermal range concept has important implications for general size-temperature studies. Furthermore, the concept of 'operating thermal conditions' may provide a new approach to (i) defining criteria required for investigating and interpreting temperature effects, and (ii) providing a novel interpretation for many cases in which species do not conform to the TSR. PMID:27503715

  11. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Paxton K; Parsons, Michael S; Unz, Ronald J; Waggoner, Charles A

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m(3)/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  12. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  13. Real-time range generation for ladar hardware-in-the-loop testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Eric M.; Coker, Charles F.

    1996-05-01

    Real-time closed loop simulation of LADAR seekers in a hardware-in-the-loop facility can reduce program risk and cost. This paper discusses an implementation of real-time range imagery generated in a synthetic environment at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the Loop facility at Eglin AFB, for the stimulation of LADAR seekers and algorithms. The computer hardware platform used was a Silicon Graphics Incorporated Onyx Reality Engine. This computer contains graphics hardware, and is optimized for generating visible or infrared imagery in real-time. A by-produce of the rendering process, in the form of a depth buffer, is generated from all objects in view during its rendering process. The depth buffer is an array of integer values that contributes to the proper rendering of overlapping objects and can be converted to range values using a mathematical formula. This paper presents an optimized software approach to the generation of the scenes, calculation of the range values, and outputting the range data for a LADAR seeker.

  14. First Test of Long-Range Collisional Drag via Plasma Wave Damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the first experimental confirmation of a new theory predicting enhanced drag due to long-range collisions in a magnetized plasma. The experiments measure damping of Langmuir waves in a multispecies pure ion plasma, which is dominated by interspecies collisional drag in certain regimes. The measured damping rates in these regimes exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new theory.

  15. A Range-Null Hypothesis Approach for Testing DIF under the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Craig S.; Cohen, Allan S.; Patton, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A primary concern with testing differential item functioning (DIF) using a traditional point-null hypothesis is that a statistically significant result does not imply that the magnitude of DIF is of practical interest. Similarly, for a given sample size, a non-significant result does not allow the researcher to conclude the item is free of DIF. To…

  16. Life Before Tests: A District's Coordinated Health Approach for Addressing Children's Full Range of Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Chronic illnesses, depression, abuse of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Sugary snacks and drinks, vending machines, obesity and bullying. Guns, gang violence, school shootings and test scores. Teen-age birth rates, one-parent households, lack of health or dental care, and, dropouts. All of these issues are interconnected and intertwined with education…

  17. Test wells TW1 and TW2, and TW3, White Sands Missile Range, Otero County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three test wells, TW1, TW2, and TW3, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico in July, August, and October 1983 as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army in July, August, and October 1983. The test wells were drilled as exploratory and monitoring wells for the toxic waste storage facility at White Sands Missile Range. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs for the cased wells. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Closure report for CAU Number 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artillery Round Number 1, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 430 consists of the Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1. This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigate actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through ``No Further Action``. The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Materials to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep. The objectives of the activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identifying the projectile, destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination. This report contains the following five sections. Section 1.0 introduces the CAU and scope of work. Section 2.0 of this report presents the closure activities performed as part of this investigation. Waste disposition is discussed in Section 3.0. Closure investigation results are presented in Section 4.0, and references are presented in Section 5.0.

  19. All-electrical time-resolved spin generation and spin manipulation in n-InGaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, I.; Kuhlen, S.; Ersfeld, M.; Beschoten, B.; Lepsa, M.

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrate all-electrical spin generation and subsequent manipulation by two successive electric field pulses in an n-InGaAs heterostructure in a time-resolved experiment at zero external magnetic field. The first electric field pulse along the [11{sup ¯}0] crystal axis creates a current-induced spin polarization (CISP) which is oriented in the plane of the sample. The subsequent electric field pulse along [110] generates a perpendicular magnetic field pulse leading to a coherent precession of this spin polarization with 2-dimensional electrical control over the final spin orientation. Spin precession is probed by time-resolved Faraday rotation. We determine the build-up time of CISP during the first field pulse and extract the spin dephasing time and internal magnetic field strength during the spin manipulation pulse.

  20. Elemental isomerization processes for a photochromic diarylethene film based on carrier injection toward all-electrically operable organic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuki

    2016-06-01

    We propose a basic concept of all-electrically operable organic memory with a photochromic diarylethene (DAE) film based on a transistor structure, in which the DAE memory layer is recordable, erasable, and nondestructively readable by an electrical method. To realize such memory, we investigated each elementary process for recording, erasing, or nondestructive reading by current injection and electrostatic methods for the DAE layer. Both ring-opening and ring-closure isomerization reactions were confirmed for the injection of both carriers (electrons and holes). Hole injection induced ring-opening reaction only. These reaction modes can be utilized in the recording and erasing modes. Since no reactions for electron injection and current modulation based on photoisomerization were observed, electron current injection can be applied to nondestructive readout.

  1. All-electrical generation and control of odd-frequency s -wave Cooper pairs in double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burset, Pablo; Lu, Bo; Ebisu, Hiromi; Asano, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    We propose an all-electrical experimental setup to detect and manipulate the amplitude of odd-frequency pairing in a double quantum dot. The odd-frequency pair amplitude is induced from the breakdown of orbital symmetry when Cooper pairs are injected in the double dot with electrons in different dots. When the dot levels are aligned with the Fermi energy, i.e., on resonance, nonlocal Andreev processes are directly connected to the presence of odd-frequency pairing. Therefore, their amplitude can be manipulated by tuning the level positions. The detection of nonlocal Andreev processes by conductance measurements contributes a direct proof of the existence of the odd-frequency pair amplitude and is available using current experimental techniques.

  2. Reliability of Goniometric and Trigonometric Techniques for Measuring Hip-Extension Range of Motion Using the Modified Thomas Test

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, C. Brent; Halls, Amanda; Difilippo, Nicole; Cottrell, G. Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Context: Goniometric assessment of hip-extension range of motion is a standard practice in clinical rehabilitation settings. A weakness of goniometric measures is that small errors in landmarking may result in substantial measurement error. A less commonly used protocol for measuring hip range of motion involves applying trigonometric principles to the length and vertical displacement of the upper part of the lower extremity to determine hip angle; however, the reliability of this measure has never been assessed using the modified Thomas test. Objective: To compare the intrarater and interrater reliability of goniometric (GON) and trigonometric (TRIG) techniques for assessing hip-extension range of motion during the modified Thomas test. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Institutional athletic therapy facility. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 22 individuals (12 men, 10 women; age range, 18–36 years) with no pathologic knee or back conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hip-extension range of motion of each participant during a modified Thomas test was assessed by 2 examiners with both GON and TRIG techniques in a randomly selected order on 2 separate days. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed that the reliability of the GON technique was low for both the intrarater (ICC = 0.51, 0.54) and interrater (ICC = 0.30, 0.65) comparisons, but the reliability of the TRIG technique was high for both intrarater (ICC = 0.90, 0.95) and interrater (ICC = 0.91, 0.94) comparisons. Single-factorial repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no mean differences in scoring within or between examiners for either measurement protocol, whereas a difference was observed when comparing the TRIG and GON tests due to the differences in procedures used to identify landmarks. Conclusions: Using the TRIG technique to measure hip-extension range of motion during the modified Thomas test results in superior intrarater and interrater

  3. Accuracy of gravitational physics tests using ranges to the inner planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, N.; Bender, P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of different types of deviations from Kepler's laws for planetary orbits can occur in nonNewtonian metric gravitational theories. These include secular changes in all of the orbital elements and in the mean motion, plus additional periodic perturbations in the coordinates. The first order corrections to the Keplerian motion of a single planet around the Sun due to the parameterized post Newtonian theory parameters were calculated as well as the corrections due to the solar quadrupole moment and a possible secular change in the gravitational constant. The results were applied to the case of proposed high accuracy ranging experiments from the Earth to a Mercury orbiting spacecraft in order to see how well the various parameters can be determined.

  4. Testing for Lorentz violation: constraints on standard-model-extension parameters via lunar laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Battat, James B R; Chandler, John F; Stubbs, Christopher W

    2007-12-14

    We present constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance based on archival lunar laser-ranging (LLR) data. LLR measures the Earth-Moon separation by timing the round-trip travel of light between the two bodies and is currently accurate to the equivalent of a few centimeters (parts in 10(11) of the total distance). By analyzing this LLR data under the standard-model extension (SME) framework, we derived six observational constraints on dimensionless SME parameters that describe potential Lorentz violation. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the 10(-6) to 10(-11) level in these parameters. This work constitutes the first LLR constraints on SME parameters.

  5. Testing for Lorentz Violation: Constraints on Standard-Model-Extension Parameters via Lunar Laser Ranging

    SciTech Connect

    Battat, James B. R.; Chandler, John F.; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2007-12-14

    We present constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance based on archival lunar laser-ranging (LLR) data. LLR measures the Earth-Moon separation by timing the round-trip travel of light between the two bodies and is currently accurate to the equivalent of a few centimeters (parts in 10{sup 11} of the total distance). By analyzing this LLR data under the standard-model extension (SME) framework, we derived six observational constraints on dimensionless SME parameters that describe potential Lorentz violation. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -11} level in these parameters. This work constitutes the first LLR constraints on SME parameters.

  6. Accuracy of gravitational physics tests using ranges to the inner planets

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, N.; Bender, P.

    1981-02-01

    A number of different types of deviations from Kepler's laws for planetary orbits can occur in nonNewtonian metric gravitational theories. These include secular changes in all of the orbital elements and in the mean motion, plus additional periodic perturbations in the coordinates. The first order corrections to the Keplerian motion of a single planet around the Sun due to the parameterized post Newtonian theory parameters were calculated as well as the corrections due to the solar quadrupole moment and a possible secular change in the gravitational constant. The results were applied to the case of proposed high accuracy ranging experiments from the Earth to a Mercury orbiting spacecraft in order to see how well the various parameters can be determined.

  7. Fine range-motion simulation for hardware-in-the-loop testing of monostatic-pulsed LFM radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard F., Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Frequency stepping is an established technique for increasing the range resolution of pulsed Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM, or chirp) radar waveforms [1]. When a monostatic radar system employs this waveform for increased range resolution measurements on an object with motion relative to the radar platform, simple changes in the received waveform arise, requiring fine motion compensation on a per-pulse basis. These motion effects include phase, frequency and frequency slope offsets which vary according to the transmitted pulse frequency and frequency rate, and the object range and range rate. All three offsets are easily compensated by complementary offsets in Direct Digital Synthesizer outputs used to form frequency conversion LO signals in the radar receiver. Radars employing stepped frequency LFM waveforms may be tested in a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) facility in simulations involving scenes or objects with radar-relative motion. Under these conditions, the motion effects on the radar receiver input signals must be accurately computed, synthesized and must modify the transmit signal prior to its return to the receiver. Engineers at the U.S. Army AMRDEC Advanced Simulation Center have developed signal processing techniques for accurate simulation of fine range motion effects to support HWIL testing of pulsed LFM radar systems. This paper provides an analysis of the signal processing involved for a simple model of an HWIL RF signal generation chain. Some results are presented from successful application of the motion simulation methods in an HWIL test setting.

  8. Women's Attitudes Regarding Prenatal Testing for a Range of Congenital Disorders of Varying Severity.

    PubMed

    Norton, Mary E; Nakagawa, Sanae; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-21

    Little is known about women's comparative attitudes towards prenatal testing for different categories of genetic disorders. We interviewed women who delivered healthy infants within the past year and assessed attitudes towards prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, as well as pregnancy termination, for Down syndrome (DS), fragile X (FraX), cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), phenylketonuria (PKU) and congenital heart defects (CHD). Ninety-five women aged 21 to 48 years participated, of whom 60% were Caucasian, 23% Asian, 10% Latina and 7% African American; 82% were college graduates. Ninety-five to ninety-eight percent indicated that they would have screening for each condition, and the majority would have amniocentesis (64% for PKU to 72% for SMA). Inclinations regarding pregnancy termination varied by condition: Whereas only 10% reported they would probably or definitely terminate a pregnancy for CHD, 41% indicated they would do so for DS and 62% for SMA. Most women in this cohort reported that they would undergo screening for all six conditions presented, the majority without the intent to terminate an affected pregnancy. These women were least inclined to terminate treatable disorders (PKU, CHD) versus those associated with intellectual disability (DS, FraX) and were most likely to terminate for SMA, typically lethal in childhood.

  9. Content Range and Precision of a Computer Adaptive Test of Upper Extremity Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montpetit, Kathleen; Haley, Stephen; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Ni, Pengsheng; Tian, Feng; Gorton, George, III; Mulcahey, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the content range and measurement precision of an upper extremity (UE) computer adaptive testing (CAT) platform of physical function in children with cerebral palsy. Upper extremity items representing skills of all abilities were administered to 305 parents. These responses were compared with two traditional standardized…

  10. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Wide Range Intelligence Test: Convergent and Structural Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Konold, Timothy R.; Collins, Jason M.; Wilson, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal-crystallized abilities and nonverbal-fluid-visual abilities. With a sample of 152…

  11. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  16. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Lu, Jian; Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2014-01-01

    Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09-0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V) and currents (<1 mA) with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  17. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lan; Lu, Jian Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2014-01-15

    Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V) and currents (<1 mA) with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  18. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist. PMID:24079670

  19. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  20. Estimating Ancestral Ranges: Testing Methods with a Clade of Neotropical Lizards (Iguania: Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the ancestral ranges of distribution of a monophyletic clade, called the ancestral area, is one of the central objectives of historical biogeography. In this study, I used three common methodologies to establish the ancestral area of an important clade of Neotropical lizards, the family Liolaemidae. The methods used were: Fitch optimization, Weighted Ancestral Area Analysis and Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (DIVA). A main difference from previous studies is that the areas used in the analysis are defined based on actual distributions of the species of Liolaemidae, instead of areas defined arbitrarilyor based on other taxa. The ancestral area of Liolaemidae found by Fitch optimization is Prepuna on Argentina, Central Chile and Coastal Peru. Weighted Ancestral Area Analysis found Central Chile, Coquimbo, Payunia, Austral Patagonia and Coastal Peru. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis found an ancestral area that includes almost all the areas occupied by Liolaemidae, except Atacama, Coquimbo and Austral Patagonia. The results can be resumed on two opposing hypothesis: a restricted ancestral area for the ancestor of Liolaemidae in Central Chile and Patagonia, or a widespread ancestor distributed along the Andes. Some limitations of the methods were identified, for example the excessive importance of plesiomorphic areas in the cladograms. PMID:22028873

  1. ASSESSMENT OF WARFARIN TREATMENT EFFICACY BY MEANS; OF USING COAGULATION TEST RESULTS WITHIN THE THERAPEUTIC RANGE.

    PubMed

    Varim, P; Varim, C; Ergenç, H; Uyanık, M; Yaylacı, S; Vatan, M; Gündüz, H

    2016-06-01

    Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) is a value used to assess the efficacy of Warfarin treatment. The aim of our study is to determine the effective INR levels and the rate of TTR in patients on Warfarin regimen due to Atrial Fibrillation (AF) or Mechanical Prosthetic Valve (MPV). A total of 94 patients (58 female, and 36 male, mean age: 64.9±11years) on Warfarin treatment due to AF or MPV with at least 10 INR levels measurements in the last 6 months were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of the patients with Valvular AF (n=47); Group 2 included the patients with Non-Valvular AF (n=47); TTR and INR levels were compared. The average of INR values were found as 2,4 (min: 1,3, max: 4,3) in all patients; 2,3 (min: 1,3, max: 4,2) in Group 1; 2,6 (min: 1,3, max: 4,3) in Group 2. The average of TTR values was found 40.3% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in all patients; 43.8% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in Group 1; 36,8% (min: 10%, max: 80%) in Group 2. INR and TTR values are needed to assess the effectiveness of the Warfarin treatment. The patients in treatment with Warfarin should be well trained and frequently monitored. On the other hand, the underlying factors of the TTR values being determined as lower in the Turkish patient population might be due to the lower socio-economic and socio-cultural status, inadequate education levels, and the insufficient information on use of the medication provided by the doctors to the patients. PMID:27441538

  2. System for performing site characterization for test ranges containing unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. Edward; Crane, Carl D., III

    1996-05-01

    Wright Laboratory has been tasked by the Naval Explosive Ordnance Technical Division to develop robotic platforms to perform characterization of areas set aside for ordnance testing. These areas require the identification and removal of the unexploded ordnance before they can be utilized for safe, productive use. The characterization task is performed by autonomously sweeping a designated area with the autonomous tow vehicle (ATV). The ATV tows the multiple sensor platform containing a magnetometer array and a ground penetrating radar. The ATV provides the time and position stamp for sensor data. Analysts then review the post survey sensor data to determine ordnance position. The ATV makes use of several advanced technologies. A hybrid navigation and guidance system using an external Kalman filter delivers vehicle position based on information from a real time centimeter level differential global positioning system and a strapped down laser gyro inertial navigation system. A vision-based obstacle avoidance system helps to account for unknown obstacles during survey. Sophisticated path planning algorithms, and an intelligent software architecture for planning and behavior provide a measure of autonomy. A data collection system controls the functions of the various sensors used for the characterization process and manipulates the data stream to conform to an open ASCII data format and stores it to rugged removable hard disks for later analysis.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  4. Test of front-end electronics with large dynamic range coupled to SiPM for space-based calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, P.S.; Avanzini, C.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Basti, A.; Batkov, K.; Bigongiari, G.; Cecchi, R.; Kim, M.Y.; Lomtatze, T.; Maestro, P.; Millucci, V.; Morsani, F.; Zei, R.

    Recent advances in the development of silicon photodetectors working in the Geiger mode (SiPM), open new perspectives in space-based or balloon-borne calorimetry. However, present SiPM devices suffer from a number of limitations, including the instrinsic dynamic range of the photodetector and its operational stability, that have to be overcome in view of their utilization in ionization calorimetry. Test results will be presented on the readout performance of a SiPM prototype, optically coupled to scintillating fibers, and connected to low-noise front-end electronics with large dynamic range.

  5. Radiochemical data collected on events from which radioactivity escaped beyond the borders of the Nevada test range complex. [NONE

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-02-12

    This report identifies all nuclear events in Nevada that are known to have sent radioactivity beyond the borders of the test range complex. There have been 177 such tests, representing seven different types: nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, nuclear excavation events, nuclear safety events, underground nuclear events that inadvertently seeped or vented to the atmosphere, dispersion of plutonium and/or uranium by chemical high explosives, nuclear rocket engine tests, and nuclear ramjet engine tests. The source term for each of these events is given, together with the data base from which it was derived (except where the data are classified). The computer programs used for organizing and processing the data base and calculating radionuclide production are described and included, together with the input and output data and details of the calculations. This is the basic formation needed to make computer modeling studies of the fallout from any of these 177 events.

  6. Predicted Sensitivity for Tests of Short-range Gravity with a Novel Parallel-plate Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Matthew; Baxley, Brandon; Hoyle, C. D.; Leopardi, Holly; Shook, David

    2011-11-01

    The parallel-plate torsion pendulum apparatus at Humboldt State University is designed to test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) and the gravitational inverse-square law (ISL) of General Relativity at unprecedented levels in the sub-millimeter regime. Some versions of String Theory predict additional dimensions that might affect the gravitational inverse-square law (ISL) at sub-millimeter levels. Some models also predict the existence of unobserved subatomic particles, which if exist, could cause a violation in the WEP at short distances. Short-range tests of gravity and the WEP are also instrumental in investigating possible proposed mechanisms that attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe, generally attributed to Dark Energy. The weakness of the gravitational force makes measurement very difficult at small scales. Testing such a minimal force requires highly isolated experimental systems and precise measurement and control instrumentation. Moreover, a dedicated test of the WEP has not been performed below the millimeter scale. This talk will discuss the improved sensitivity that we expect to achieve in short-range gravity tests with respect to previous efforts that employ different experimental configurations.

  7. Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat.

    PubMed

    Selby, Thomas H; Hart, Kristen M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J; Pollock, Clayton J; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Lundgren, Ian; Oli, Madan K

    2016-07-01

    Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large-scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long-term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array-representative receivers for range-testing by submersing fixed delay interval range-testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0-73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4-39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef environment

  8. Can you hear me now? Range-testing a submerged passive acoustic receiver array in a Caribbean coral reef habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selby, Thomas H.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Smith, Brian J.; Pollock, Clayton J; Hillis-Star, Zandy M; Lundgren, Ian; Oli, Madan K.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data. Here, we present a method for testing a relatively large-scale receiver array in a dynamic Caribbean coastal environment intended for long-term monitoring of multiple species. The U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions in collaboration with resource management at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM), off the coast of St. Croix, recently deployed a 52 passive acoustic receiver array. We targeted 19 array-representative receivers for range-testing by submersing fixed delay interval range-testing tags at various distance intervals in each cardinal direction from a receiver for a minimum of an hour. Using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we estimated the probability of detection across the array and assessed the effect of water depth, habitat, wind, temperature, and time of day on the probability of detection. The predicted probability of detection across the entire array at 100 m distance from a receiver was 58.2% (95% CI: 44.0–73.0%) and dropped to 26.0% (95% CI: 11.4–39.3%) 200 m from a receiver indicating a somewhat constrained effective detection range. Detection probability varied across habitat classes with the greatest effective detection range occurring in homogenous sand substrate and the smallest in high rugosity reef. Predicted probability of detection across BIRNM highlights potential gaps in coverage using the current array as well as limitations of passive acoustic technology within a complex coral reef

  9. A novel two-step laser ranging technique for a precision test of the theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso

    2003-01-01

    All powered spacecraft experience residual systematic acceleration due to anisotropy of the thermal radiation pressure and fuel leakage. The residual acceleration limits the accuracy of any test of gravity that relies on the precise determination of the spacecraft trajectory. We describe a novel two-step laser ranging technique, which largely eliminates the effects of non-gravity acceleration sources and enables celestial mechanics checks with unprecedented precision.

  10. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  11. Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the May 12, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne effluent measurements and cloud physical behavior for the May 21, 1977, Titan 3 launch from the Air Force Eastern Test Range, Fla. are presented. The monitoring program included airborne effluent measurements in situ in the launch cloud, visible and infrared photography of cloud growth and physical behavior, and limited surface collection of rain samples. Airborne effluent measurements included concentrations of HCl, NO, NOx, and aerosols as a function of time in the exhaust cloud. For the first time in situ particulate mass concentration and aerosol number density were measured as a function of time and size in the size range of 0.05 to 25 micro meters diameter. Measurement results were similar to those of earlier launch monitorings. Maximum HCl and NOx concentrations ranged from 10 ppm and 500 ppb, respectively, several minutes after launch to about 1 ppm and 100 ppb at 45 minutes after launch.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 386 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 425 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 consisted of a large pile of concrete rubble from the original Hard Target and construction debris associated with the Tornado Rocket Sled Tests. CAU 425 was closed in accordance with the FFACO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2002). CAU 425 was closed by implementing the following corrective actions: The approved corrective action for this unit was clean closure. Closure activities included: (1) Removal of all the debris from the site. (2) Weighing each load of debris leaving the job site. (3) Transporting the debris to the U.S. Air Force Construction Landfill for disposal. (4) Placing the radioactive material in a U.S. Department of Transportation approved container for proper transport and disposal. (5) Transporting the radioactive material to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. (6) Regrading the job site to its approximate original contours/elevation.

  13. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Rui-Chang; Ren, Guopeng; Behm, Jocelyn E; Wang, Lin; Huang, Yong; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1) R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2) both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3) within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4) monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding of sunshine

  14. Why Does Rhinopithecus bieti Prefer the Highest Elevation Range in Winter? A Test of the Sunshine Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Wang, Lin; Huang, Yong; Long, Yongcheng; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1) R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100–4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500–4500 m; 2) both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3) within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4) monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding of sunshine

  15. Development and testing of a fast Fourier transform high dynamic-range spectral diagnostics for millimeter wave characterization.

    PubMed

    Thoen, D J; Bongers, W A; Westerhof, E; Oosterbeek, J W; de Baar, M R; van den Berg, M A; van Beveren, V; Bürger, A; Goede, A P H; Graswinckel, M F; Hennen, B A; Schüller, F C

    2009-10-01

    A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200,000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range. PMID:19895061

  16. Cycle life testing and modeling of graphite/LiCoO2 cells under different state of charge ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Hendricks, Christopher; Pecht, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are used for energy storage in a wide array of applications, and do not always undergo full charge and discharge cycling. This study quantifies the effect of partial charge-discharge cycling on Li-ion battery capacity loss by means of cycling tests conducted on graphite/LiCoO2 pouch cells under different state of charge (SOC) ranges and discharge currents. The results are used to develop a model of capacity fade for batteries under full or partial cycling conditions. This study demonstrates that all of the variables studied including mean SOC, change in SOC (ΔSOC) and discharge rate have a significant impact on capacity loss rate during the cycling operation. This study is useful in identifying the SOC ranges with slow degradation rates.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy NESHAP Annual Report for CY 2014 Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Evelo, Stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Annual Report has been prepared in a format to comply with the reporting requirements of 40 CFR 61.94 and the April 5, 1995 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to the EPA approved NESHAP Monitoring Plan for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), 40 CFR 61, subpart H, and the MOA, no additional monitoring or measurements are required at TTR in order to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP regulation.

  18. Test wells T21, T22, and T25, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Three test wells, T21, T22, and T25, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military program sponsored by the U.S. Army in September 1982. T21 and T22 were drilled as observation wells for two old landfills. T25 was drilled as an exploratory hole to obtain lithologic and borehole-geophysical data in the vicinity of the proposed replacement well for Supply Well 15. Information obtained from these wells includes borehole-geophysical and driller's logs.

  19. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  20. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: Expanding the application range

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-07-26

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010]. Here we report on a significant expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  1. Closure Report for CAU No. 430: Buried Depleted Uraniuim Artillery Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    1.1 Purpose This Closure Report presents the information obtained from investigative actions performed to justify the decision for clean closure of CAU 430 through "No Further Action." The investigative actions were performed per the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA UNO. 430: Buried Depleted Uranium Artille~ Round No. 1, Tonopah Test Range (DOE/NV, 1996a) (hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan). The Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1 is located approximately 1.1 kilometers (km) (0.7 mile [mi]) south of Avenue 13 in the test area south of Area 9 (Figure 1-2). The site was thought to consist of a potentially unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) test artillery projectile with high explosives (HE) and DU. The DU was substituted for Special Nuclear Material to prevent a nuclear explosion and yet retain the physical characteristics of uranium for ballistic and other mechanical tests. The projectile was reportedly buried in one pit, approximately 5 to 10 feet (ft) deep (Smith, 1993; Smith, 1996; Quas, 1996). The exact location of the burial pit is unknown; however, three disturbed areas (Sites A, B, and C) were identified through geophysical surveys, site visits, and employee interviews as possible locations of the test projectile (Figure 1-3). Results of the investigation are summarized within this Closure Report. Additional information about the site and investigation activities may be found in the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a). 1.2 Scope The objectives of the SAFER Plan (DOE/NV, 1996a) activities were to prepare the site for closure through locating and identi~ing the projectile (Buried DU Artillery Round No. 1), destroying the projectile and any remaining components, collecting soil samples to detect residual contamination resulting from projectile destruction, and finally, remediating residual contamination.

  2. Wind tunnel tests of modified cross, hemisflo, and disk-gap-band parachutes with emphasis in the transonic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Alexander, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Transonic wind-tunnel studies were conducted with modified cross, hemisflo, and disk-gap-band parachute models in the wake of a cone-cylinder shape forebody. The basic cross design was modified with the addition of a circumferential constraining band at the lower edge of the canopy panels. The tests covered a Mach number range of 0.3 to 1.2 and a dynamic pressure range from 479 Newtons per square meter to 5746 Newtons per square meter. The parachute models were flexible textile-type structures and were tethered to a rigid forebody with a single flexible riser. Different size models of the modified cross and disk-gap-band canopies were tested to evaluate scale effects. Model reference diameters were 0.30, 0.61, and 1.07 meters (1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 ft) for the modified cross; and nominal diameters of 0.25 and 0.52 meter (0.83 and 1.7 ft) for the disk-gap-band; and 0.55 meter (1.8 ft) for the hemisflo. Reefing information is presented for the 0.61-meter-diameter cross and the 0.52-meter-diameter disk-gap-band. Results are presented in the form of the variation of steady-state average drag coefficient with Mach number. General stability characteristics of each parachute are discussed. Included are comments on canopy coning, spinning, and fluttering motions.

  3. Field test of a paradigm: hysteresis of heart rate in thermoregulation by a free-ranging lizard (Pogona barbata).

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, G C; Seebacher, F

    1999-01-01

    The discovery that changes in heart rate and blood flow allow some reptiles to heat faster than they cool has become a central paradigm in our understanding of reptilian thermoregulation. However, this hysteresis in heart rate has been demonstrated only in simplistic laboratory heating and cooling trials, leaving its functional significance in free-ranging animals unproven. To test the validity of this paradigm, we measured heart rate and body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed, free-ranging bearded dragons (Pogona barbata), the species in which this phenomenon was first described. Our field data confirmed the paradigm and we found that heart rate during heating usually exceeded heart rate during cooling at any Tb. Importantly, however, we discovered that heart rate was proportionally faster in cool lizards whose Tb was still well below the 'preferred Tb range' compared to lizards whose Tb was already close to it. Similarly, heart rate during cooling was proportionally slower the warmer the lizard and the greater its cooling potential compared to lizards whose Tb was already near minimum operative temperature. Further, we predicted that, if heart rate hysteresis has functional significance, a 'reverse hysteresis' pattern should be observable when lizards risked overheating. This was indeed the case and, during heating on those occasions when Tb reached very high levels (> 40 degrees C), heart rate was significantly lower than heart rate during the immediately following cooling phase. These results demonstrate that physiological control of thermoregulation in reptiles is more complex than has been previously recognized. PMID:10418165

  4. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  5. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health. PMID:22130127

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 461: Joint Test Assembly Sites and Corrective Action Unit 495: Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Smith

    1998-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan addresses the action necessary for the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit 461 (Test Area Joint Test Assembly Sites) and Corrective Action Unit 495 (Unconfirmed Joint Test Assembly Sites). The Corrective Action Units are located at the Tonopah Test Range in south central Nevada. Closure for these sites will be completed by excavating and evaluating the condition of each artillery round (if found); detonating the rounds (if necessary); excavating the impacted soil and debris; collecting verification samples; backfilling the excavations; disposing of the impacted soil and debris at an approved low-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site

  7. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  8. New Test of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law at the Submillimeter Range with Dual Modulation and Compensation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Du, An-Bin; Zhan, Bi-Fu; Wang, Qing-Lan; Luo, Peng-Shun; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun

    2016-04-01

    By using a torsion pendulum and a rotating eightfold symmetric attractor with dual modulation of both the interested signal and the gravitational calibration signal, a new test of the gravitational inverse-square law at separations down to 295  μm is presented. A dual-compensation design by adding masses on both the pendulum and the attractor was adopted to realize a null experiment. The experimental result shows that, at a 95% confidence level, the gravitational inverse-square law holds (|α|≤1) down to a length scale λ=59  μm. This work establishes the strongest bound on the magnitude α of Yukawa-type deviations from Newtonian gravity in the range of 70-300  μm, and improves the previous bounds by up to a factor of 2 at the length scale λ≈160  μm. PMID:27081964

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  10. New Test of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law at the Submillimeter Range with Dual Modulation and Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Du, An-Bin; Zhan, Bi-Fu; Wang, Qing-Lan; Luo, Peng-Shun; Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun

    2016-04-01

    By using a torsion pendulum and a rotating eightfold symmetric attractor with dual modulation of both the interested signal and the gravitational calibration signal, a new test of the gravitational inverse-square law at separations down to 295 μ m is presented. A dual-compensation design by adding masses on both the pendulum and the attractor was adopted to realize a null experiment. The experimental result shows that, at a 95% confidence level, the gravitational inverse-square law holds (|α |≤1 ) down to a length scale λ =59 μ m . This work establishes the strongest bound on the magnitude α of Yukawa-type deviations from Newtonian gravity in the range of 70 - 300 μ m , and improves the previous bounds by up to a factor of 2 at the length scale λ ≈160 μ m .

  11. Split-Spectrum Signal Processing for Reduction of the Effect of Dispersive Wave Modes in Long-range Ultrasonic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, S. K.; Haig, A.; Lowe, P. S.; Thornicroft, K.; Gan, L.; Mudge, P.

    This paper presents a Split-Spectrum Signal Processing (SSP) with applications to Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT). The problem of coherent noise due to Dispersive Wave Modes (DWM) in the context of ultrasonic scattering is addressed and a novel solution by utilizing the SSP technique is proposed for reduction of the effects of DWM in the received signal. The proposed technique investigates the sensitivity of SSP performance to the filter bank parameter values such as processing/filter bandwidth, and filter overlap. Therefore, as a result the optimum values are introduced that improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) significantly. The proposed method has been compared with conventional approaches for synthesized signals for a 6 inch pipe by applying the different recombination SSP techniques. The Polarity Thresholding (PT) and PT with Minimization (PTM) methods were found to give the best result and substantially improve the SNR performance by an average of 10 dB.

  12. Long-range seismic recording of the MISTY PICTURE high-explosive test, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Environmental research papers, February 1987-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Cipar, J.

    1988-02-04

    The Solid Earth Geophysics Branch of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory recorded the MISTY PICTURE high-explosive test at nine sites in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico. Each site consisted of a three-component seismometer set and a digital-event recorder. The stations were due south of the explosion between 95 and 127 km. Analysis of P-wave travel times indicates that the crust is 30-32 km thick beneath the Tularosa Basin, a side graben of the Rio Grande Rift. S-wave travel times are consistent with earlier surface-wave results. Polarization analysis indicates complex scattered and converted energy between the P- and S-wave groups.

  13. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS.

  14. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  15. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  17. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-10-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: {lg_bullet} CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations.

  19. Testing for post-copulatory selection for major histocompatibility complex genotype in a semi-free-ranging primate population.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Abbott, Kristin M; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Knapp, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotype influences mate choice. However, few studies have investigated MHC-mediated post-copulatory mate choice under natural, or even semi-natural, conditions. We set out to explore this question in a large semi-free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) using MHC-DRB genotypes for 127 parent-offspring triads. First, we showed that offspring MHC heterozygosity correlates positively with parental MHC dissimilarity suggesting that mating among MHC dissimilar mates is efficient in increasing offspring MHC diversity. Second, we compared the haplotypes of the parental dyad with those of the offspring to test whether post-copulatory sexual selection favored offspring with two different MHC haplotypes, more diverse gamete combinations, or greater within-haplotype diversity. Limited statistical power meant that we could only detect medium or large effect sizes. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for selection for heterozygous offspring when parents share a haplotype (large effect size), genetic dissimilarity between parental haplotypes (we could detect an odds ratio of ≥1.86), or within-haplotype diversity (medium-large effect). These findings suggest that comparing parental and offspring haplotypes may be a useful approach to test for post-copulatory selection when matings cannot be observed, as is the case in many study systems. However, it will be extremely difficult to determine conclusively whether post-copulatory selection mechanisms for MHC genotype exist, particularly if the effect sizes are small, due to the difficulty in obtaining a sufficiently large sample. PMID:23677678

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 487: Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, January 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-01-02

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 487, Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 487 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), RG 26-001-RGRV, Thunderwell Site. The site is located in the northwest portion of the TTR, Nevada, approximately five miles northwest of the Area 3 Control Point and closest to the Cactus Flats broad basin. Historically, Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico used CAU 487 in the early to mid-1960s for a series of high explosive tests detonated at the bottom of large cylindrical steel tubes. Historical photographs indicate that debris from these tests and subsequent operations may have been scattered and buried throughout the site. A March 2000 walk-over survey and a July 2000 geophysical survey indicated evidence of buried and surface debris in dirt mounds and areas throughout the site; however, a radiological drive-over survey also performed in July 2000 indicated that no radiological hazards were identified at this site. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that detonation activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern into the surface/subsurface soil including total volatile and total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, radionuclides, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and high explosives. Therefore, the scope of corrective action field investigation will involve excavation, drilling, and extensive soil sampling and analysis activities to determine the extent (if any) of both the lateral and vertical contamination and whether

  1. Development and Short-Range Testing of a 100 kW Side-Illuminated Millimeter-Wave Thermal Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruccoleri, Alexander; Eilers, James A.; Lambot, Thomas; Parkin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the phase described here of the Millimeter-Wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) Project was to launch a small thermal rocket into the air using millimeter waves. The preliminary results of the first MTLS flight vehicle launches are presented in this work. The design and construction of a small thermal rocket with a planar ceramic heat exchanger mounted along the axis of the rocket is described. The heat exchanger was illuminated from the side by a millimeter-wave beam and fed propellant from above via a small tank containing high pressure argon or nitrogen. Short-range tests where the rocket was launched, tracked, and heated with the beam are described. The rockets were approximately 1.5 meters in length and 65 millimeters in diameter, with a liftoff mass of 1.8 kilograms. The rocket airframes were coated in aluminum and had a parachute recovery system activated via a timer and Pyrodex. At the rocket heat exchanger, the beam distance was 40 meters with a peak power intensity of 77 watts per square centimeter. and a total power of 32 kilowatts in a 30 centimeter diameter circle. An altitude of approximately 10 meters was achieved. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-06-19

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423, Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-02-002-0308, within CAU 423. Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The UDP is approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest of the northwest corner of Building 03-60, the Auto Maintenance Shop. Corrective Action Unit 423 is comprised of the UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60. The UDP received waste oil products from the Auto Maintenance Shop, a light-duty fleet maintenance shop in the Area 3 compound, from 1965 to 1989 or 1990 (DOE/NV, 1997).

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled at

  4. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  6. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 403: Second Gas Station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 403: Second Gas Station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, September 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-004-0360, Underground Storage Tanks. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was reevaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were defined: (1) to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  8. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  9. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR THE AREA 3 LANDFILL COMPLEX, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, CAU 424, REVISION 0, MARCH 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-03-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for the Area 3 Landfill Complex (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 424) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 424 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs), each an individual landfill located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Landfill A3-1 is CAS No. 03-08-001-A301. (2) Landfill A3-2 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A302. (3) Landfill A3-3 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A303. (4) Landfill A3-4 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A304. (5) Landfill A3-5 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A305. (6) Landfill A3-6 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A306. (7) Landfill A3-7 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A307. (8) Landfill A3-8 is CAS No. 03-08-002-A308. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (6) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. In June and July 1997, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated four groupings of site characteristics as shown in Table ES-1. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for CAU No. 424: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing waste. (2) Remediate the site per

  10. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  11. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  12. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  13. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range §...

  14. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range §...

  15. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range §...

  16. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range §...

  17. 46 CFR 57.04-1 - Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test specimen requirements and definition of ranges (modifies QW 202, QW 210, QW 451, and QB 202). 57.04-1 Section 57.04-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Procedure Qualification Range §...

  18. All-electrical detection of spin dynamics in magnetic antidot lattices by the inverse spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Junjia; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of spin dynamics in laterally confined structures on sub-micron length scales has become a significant aspect of the development of novel magnetic storage technologies. Numerous ferromagnetic resonance measurements, optical characterization by Kerr microscopy and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, and x-ray studies were carried out to detect the dynamics in patterned magnetic antidot lattices. Here, we investigate Oersted-field driven spin dynamics in rectangular Ni80Fe20/Pt antidot lattices with different lattice parameters by electrical means and compare them to micromagnetic simulations. When the system is driven to resonance, a dc voltage across the length of the sample is detected that changes its sign upon field reversal, which is in agreement with a rectification mechanism based on the inverse spin Hall effect. Furthermore, we show that the voltage output scales linearly with the applied microwave drive in the investigated range of powers. Our findings have direct implications on the development of engineered magnonics applications and devices.

  19. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  20. Kinetic Testing of Nitrate-Based Sodalite Formation Over the Temperature Range of 40 to 100 Degrees Centigrade (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.

    2001-09-07

    The focus of this study was the desilication kinetics of a Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm 2H simulant over the temperature range of 40 to 100 C. Results showed that the formation of nitrate-nitrite-based sodalite over aluminum-to-silicon (Al:Si) molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 20:1 exhibited overall-second order kinetics. The Arrhenius apparent activation energy associated with the crystal growth process of the sodalite was determined to be 35 kJ/mol over the temperature range investigated. Second-order rate constants were extrapolated to the 2H evaporator working temperature of {approx} 130 C and were found to be 0.012 L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. At this operating temperature, the half-life of a limiting reactant with a 0.1 M feed would be 14 min.

  1. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  3. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Pavinich, W.A.; Yoon, K.K.; Hour, K.Y.; Hoffman, C.L.

    1999-10-01

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  4. Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the August 20, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, D. C.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne effluent measurements within the launch cloud and visible and infrared measurements of cloud physical behavior are discussed. Airborne effluent measurements include concentrations of HCl, Cl2, NO, NOX, and particulates as a function of time during each sampling pass through the exhaust cloud. The particle size distribution was measured for each pass through the cloud. Mass concentration as a function of particle diameter was measured over the size range of 0.05- to 25 micron diameter, and particle number density was measured as a function of diameter over a size range of 0.5 to 7.5 micron. Effluent concentrations in the cloud ranged from about 30 ppm several minutes after launch to about 1 to 2 ppm at 100 minutes. Maximum Cl2 concentrations were about 40 to 55 ppb and by 20 minutes were less than 1.0 ppb. A tabulated listing of the airborne data is given in the appendix. Usable cloud imaging data were limited to the first 16 minutes after launch.

  5. Do exotic plants lose resistance to pathogenic soil biota from their native range? A test with Solidago gigantea.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Luo, Wenbo; Callaway, Ragan M; Pal, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Native plants commonly suffer from strong negative plant-soil feedbacks. However, in their non-native ranges species often escape from these negative feedbacks, which indicates that these feedbacks are generated by at least partially specialized soil biota. If so, introduced plants might evolve the loss of resistance to pathogens in their former native range, as has been proposed for the loss of resistance to specialized herbivores. We compared the magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks experienced by native and exotic genotypes of the perennial forb, Solidago gigantea. Feedbacks were assessed in soil collected across 14 sites sampled across the western part of Solidago's native range in the US. Both native and exotic genotypes of Solidago suffered consistently negative and broadly similar plant-soil feedbacks when grown in North American soil. Although there was substantial variation among soils from different sites in the strength of feedbacks generated, the magnitude of feedbacks generated by North American genotypes of S. gigantea were strongly correlated with those produced in the same soil by European genotypes. Our results indicate that Solidago experiences strong negative soil feedbacks in native soil and that introduced genotypes of Solidago have not lost resistance to these negative effects of soil biota. Both genotypic and landscape-level effects can be important sources of variation in the strength of plant-soil feedbacks. PMID:26003309

  6. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison. PMID:25973619

  7. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE TESTS FOR THE DETECTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS INFECTION IN FREE-RANGING WILD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN THE ABSENCE OF A GOLD STANDARD.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, Núria; Schumaker, Brant A; Joly, Damien O; Elkin, Brett T; Stephen, Craig

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the caudal-fold skin test (CFT), the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the rapid lateral-flow test (RT) for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae), in the absence of a gold standard, by using Bayesian analysis, and then used those estimates to forecast the performance of a pairwise combination of tests in parallel. In 1998-99, 212 wood bison from Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) were tested for M. bovis infection using CFT and two serologic tests (FPA and RT). The sensitivity and specificity of each test were estimated using a three-test, one-population, Bayesian model allowing for conditional dependence between FPA and RT. The sensitivity and specificity of the combination of CFT and each serologic test in parallel were calculated assuming conditional independence. The test performance estimates were influenced by the prior values chosen. However, the rank of tests and combinations of tests based on those estimates remained constant. The CFT was the most sensitive test and the FPA was the least sensitive, whereas RT was the most specific test and CFT was the least specific. In conclusion, given the fact that gold standards for the detection of M. bovis are imperfect and difficult to obtain in the field, Bayesian analysis holds promise as a tool to rank tests and combinations of tests based on their performance. Combining a skin test with an animal-side serologic test, such as RT, increases sensitivity in the detection of M. bovis and is a good approach to enhance disease eradication or control in wild bison.

  8. A versatile transition metal salt reaction for a wide range of common biochemical reagents: an instantaneous and quantifiable color test.

    PubMed

    Fleming, N; Nixon, R A

    1986-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive spot test amenable to visual or spectrophotometric quantitation has been developed for a wide variety of biochemical reagents by utilizing the transition metal salt cupric chloride and its large number of related colored compounds. This assay is potentially a widely applicable multipurpose test for rapidly detecting the presence of unknown substances. Combination of the test sample with the working reagent results in the immediate formation of a distinctive colored product that may be precipitable. Some compounds require the further addition of sodium hydroxide in order to generate the distinctively colored product. Distinctive reactions occur with the following reagents, and their limit of visual detection is indicated in parentheses: ammonium bicarbonate (12.5 mM), ammonium acetate (25 mM), ammonium hydroxide (0.1%), ammonium sulfate (2%), ammonium persulfate (0.02 mM), L-(+)-cysteine (0.07 mM), dithiothreitol (DTT) (1.25 mM), EDTA (0.6 mM), ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid (5 mM), D-glucose (6 mM), glycerol (0.3%), imidazol (12.5 mM), DL-methionine (100 mM), mercaptoethanol (0.05%), sodium azide (19 mM, 0.1%), sodium dithionite (0.25%), sodium metabisulfite (25 mM), sodium nitrite (6.2 mM), sodium periodate (3.1 mM), sodium sulfite (12.5 mM), sodium thiosulfite (12.5 mM), sucrose (6 mM), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (0.05%). A distinctive exothermic reaction occurs with hydrogen peroxide, but without color change. Compounds reacting insignificantly include 50 mM Tris buffer, urea, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, sodium fluoride, trichloroacetic acid, phenol, mannose, K2HPO4, guanidine HCl, chloramine-T, magnesium chloride, and boric acid, where the solids were tested at approximately 10 mg/ml. Spectrophotometric standard curves were developed for DTT and sodium azide utilizing the clear supernatants resulting from these reactions. Combinations of at least

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across its native range: testing biogeographical hypotheses and their relevance to conservation.

    PubMed

    McCusker, M R; Parkinson, E; Taylor, E B

    2000-12-01

    North-western North America has been repeatedly glaciated over most of the past two million years, with the most recent glaciation occurring between 60 000 and 10 000 years ago. Intraspecific genetic variation in many species has been shaped by where they survived glaciation and what postglacial recolonization routes were used. In this study, molecular techniques were used to investigate biogeographical, taxonomic and conservation issues in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was assessed using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, focusing mainly on the previously understudied northern extent of the species' range. Two phylogenetically distinct mitochondrial lineages were found that differed from each other by up to 1.8% in sequence. Although the geographical distributions of the two clades overlap extensively, diversity and distributional analyses strongly suggest that trout survived glaciation in both coastal and inland refugia followed by postglacial gene flow and secondary contact. Postglacial dispersal into British Columbia most likely occurred from the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Columbia River. Although trout most likely also survived glaciation along the coast of Washington, Oregon and California, as well as near the Bering Strait, evidence suggests that dispersal into British Columbia from these areas was limited. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes revealed higher diversity in California than in the northern part of the species' range, indicating an ancient presence of the species in the south. Phylogeographic divergence probably predates adaptive variation in the species as suggested by evidence for parallel evolution of life history types across the range of O. mykiss. PMID:11123621

  10. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  11. A Review of Solar-Powered Aircraft Flight Activity at the Pacific Missile Range Test Facility, Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Donohue, Casey; Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    A series of solar-powered aircraft have been designed and operated by AeroVironment, Inc. (Monrovia, CA) as a part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) objectives to develop energy-efficient high-altitude long-endurance platforms for earth observations and communications applications. Flight operations have been conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards CA and at the U.S. Navy Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands, Kauai, HI. These aircraft flown at PMRF are named Pathfinder , Pathfinder Plus and Helios . Sizes of these three aircraft range from 560 lb with a 99-ft wingspan to 2300 lb with a 247-ft wingspan. Available payload capacity reaches approximately 200 lb. Pathfinder uses six engines and propellers: Pathfinder Plus 8; and Helios 14. The 2003 Helios fuel cell configurations used 10 engines and propellers. The PMRF was selected as a base of operations because if offers optimal summertime solar exposure, low prevailing wind-speeds on the runway, modest upper-air wind-speeds and the availability of suitable airspace. Between 1997 and 2001, successive altitude records of 71,530 ft, 80,200 ft, and 96,863 ft were established. Flight durations extended to 18 hours.

  12. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  13. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk. PMID:24665694

  14. Flight tests of a range-resolved airborne dial with two min-tea CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itabe, T.; Ishizu, M.; Aruga, T.; Igarashi, T.; Asai, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is important to measure regional distributions of ozone concentrations in a short time for understanding a mechanism of photo-chemical smog development. An airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system with two low-power mini-TEA CO2 lasers was developed for measuring three-dimensional distributions of ozone in the lower troposphere. The CO2 DIAL is a nadir-looking system and is designed to measure ozone profiles between ground and airplane by using atmospheric aerosols as a distributed radar target. First flight test with a single laser were conducted in February 1985 over the Tokyo area. The system was operated at an altitude of 5000 ft. Results of the first flight tests show that the height profiles of the received power in the boundary layer were different between over land and ocean. The received power has to be inverted to an expression of a single optical parameter to see real aerosol distributions. Inversion of the lidar signal to the aerosol extinction was performed by using Klett's solution.

  15. A ground-based magnetic survey of Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada: data release and preliminary interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Bethany L.; Curry-Elrod, Erika; Drellack, Sigmund

    2014-01-01

    Question 2—Does basin and range normal faulting observed in the hills north of Frenchman Flat continue southward under alluvium and possibly disrupt the Topopah Spring Tuff of the Paintbrush Group (the Topopah Spring welded tuff aquifer or TSA) east of the Pin Stripe underground nuclear test, which was conducted in Emplacement hole U11b?

  16. Lithium cell tests at Marshall Space Flight Center. [batteries for range safety and frustrum location aid in the shuttle solid rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Three 18 AH Li-CF batteries with a polypropylene separator and using dimethyl sulfite in Li as F6 for the electrolyte will be placed in each shuttle solid rocket booster for range safety and frustrum location aid. Mechanical vibration, acceleration, random and design vibration, and discharge evaluation tests are discussed.

  17. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  18. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  19. Polycrystalline lead iodide films produced by solution evaporation and tested in the mammography X-ray energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condeles, J. F.; Mulato, M.

    2016-02-01

    Lead iodide polycrystalline films have been deposited on corning glass substrates using solution evaporation in oven. Films 6 μm-thick were obtained with full coverage of the substrates as verified by scanning electron microscopy. Some pin-holes were observable. X-ray diffraction revealed a crystalline structure corresponding to the 4 H-PbI2 polytype formation. Polarized Raman scattering experiments indicated a lamellar structure. Anisotropy was also investigated using depolarization ratio calculations. The optical and electrical properties of the samples were investigated using photoluminescence and dark conductivity as a function of temperature, respectively. Activation energies of 0.10 up to 0.89 eV were related to two main electrical transport mechanisms. Films were also exposed to X-ray irradiation in the mammography X-ray energy range. The detector produced was also exposed to X-ray from 5 mR up to 1450 mR. A linear response was observed as a function of dose with a slope of 0.52 nA/mm2 per mR.

  20. Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the September 5, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force eastern test range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Bendura, R. J.; Gregory, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne effluent measurements and cloud physical behavior data are presented. The monitoring program included airborne effluent measurements in situ in the launch cloud, visible and infrared photography of cloud growth and physical behavior, and limited surface collection of rain samples. Effluent measurements included concentrations of HCl, Cl2, NO, nitric oxide, and particles as a function of time in the exhaust cloud. In situ particle mass concentration and number density were measured as a function of time and size in the range of 0.05 micron m to 30 micron m diameter. Measurement results were similar to those of previous launch monitorings. Maximum HCl and nitric oxide concentrations of Cl2 were maximum about 2 minutes after launch and by 10 to 15 minutes had decayed to less than 10 ppb (detection limit). Particle measurements showed most of the particles present to be below about 3-micron m diameter. Postlaunch analyses of collected particle samples showed significant amounts of Al (some cases Cl) from about 3-micron m to 0.04-micron m diameter.

  1. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Corrie S; Bell, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    Ants are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant group of terrestrial organisms with most species diversity currently found in tropical climates. Several explanations for the disparity of biological diversity in the tropics compared to temperate regions have been proposed including that the tropics may act as a "museum" where older lineages persist through evolutionary time or as a "cradle" where new species continue to be generated. We infer the molecular phylogenetic relationships of 295 ant specimens including members of all 21 extant subfamilies to explore the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of the ants. By constraining the topology and age of the root node while using 45 fossils as minimum constraints, we converge on an age of 139-158 Mya for the modern ants. Further diversification analyses identified 10 periods with a significant change in the tempo of diversification of the ants, although these shifts did not appear to correspond to ancestral biogeographic range shifts. Likelihood-based historical biogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Neotropics were important in early ant diversification (e.g., Cretaceous). This finding coupled with the extremely high-current species diversity suggests that the Neotropics have acted as both a museum and cradle for ant diversity.

  2. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  3. Scanning Optical Head with Nontilted Reference Beam: Assuring Nanoradian Accuracy for a New Generation Surface Profiler in the Large-Slope Testing Range

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Shinan

    2011-01-01

    Nmore » anoradian Surface Profilers (NSPs) are required for state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation optics and high-precision optical measurements.ano-radian accuracy must be maintained in the large-angle test range. However, the beams' notable lateral motions during tests of most operating profilers, combined with the insufficiencies of their optical components, generate significant errors of ∼ 1  μ rad rms in the measurements. The solution to nano-radian accuracy for the new generation of surface profilers in this range is to apply a scanning optical head, combined with nontilted reference beam. I describe here my comparison of different scan modes and discuss some test results.« less

  4. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. PMID:25780232

  5. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.

  6. Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-05-01

    Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radio-telemetry, to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod. PMID:25780232

  7. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  8. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.

  9. Establishing quality control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cornerstone to develop reference strains for Korean clinical microbiology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Kuk; Choi, Seung Jun; Shin, Saeam; Lee, Wonmok; Pinto, Naina; Shin, Nari; Lee, Kwangjun; Hong, Seong Geun; Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Heejung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) processes are being performed in the majority of clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure the performance of microbial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using ATCC strains. To obtain these ATCC strains, some inconveniences are encountered concerning the purchase cost of the strains and the shipping time required. This study was focused on constructing a database of reference strains for QC processes using domestic bacterial strains, concentrating primarily on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Three strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus) that showed legible results in preliminary testing were selected. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters (ZDs) of eight antimicrobials for each strain were determined according to the CLSI M23. All resulting MIC and ZD ranges included at least 95% of the data. The ZD QC ranges obtained by using the CLSI method were less than 12 mm, and the MIC QC ranges extended no more than five dilutions. This study is a preliminary attempt to construct a bank of Korean QC strains. With further studies, a positive outcome toward cost and time reduction can be anticipated. PMID:26354353

  10. Thyroxine treatment in patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism but thyroid function tests within the reference range: randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, M Anne; Sturrock, Alison; Marshall, Karen; Davidson, Kate M; Kelly, Christopher J G; McMahon, Alex D; McLaren, E Hamish

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether thyroxine treatment is effective in patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism but with thyroid function tests within the reference range, and to investigate the effect of thyroxine treatment on psychological and physical wellbeing in healthy participants. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Setting Outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Participants 25 patients with symptoms of hypothyroidism who had thyroid function tests within the reference range, and 19 controls. Methods Participants were given thyroxine 100 μg or placebo to take once a day for 12 weeks. Washout period was six weeks. They were then given the other to take once a day for 12 weeks. All participants were assessed physiologically and psychologically at baseline and on completion of each phase. Main outcome measures Thyroid function tests, measures of cognitive function and of psychological and physical wellbeing. Results 22 patients and 19 healthy controls completed the study. At baseline, patients' scores on 9 out of 15 psychological measures were impaired when compared with controls. Patients showed a significantly greater response to placebo than controls in 3 out of 15 psychological measures. Healthy participants had significantly lower scores for vitality when taking thyroxine compared to placebo (mean (SD) 60 (17) v 73 (16), P<0.01). However, patients' scores from psychological tests when taking thyroxine were no different from those when taking placebo except for a poorer performance on one visual reproduction test when taking thyroxine. Serum concentrations of free thyroxine increased and those of thyroid stimulating hormone decreased in patients and controls while they were taking thyroxine, confirming compliance with treatment. Although serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine increased in patients and controls taking thyroxine, the difference between the response to placebo and to thyroxine was significant only in the

  11. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. E.; MacDowall, R. D.; Burke, A. F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. When the vehicle's battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W(center dot)h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W(center dot)h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  12. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  13. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  14. Development of acoustically lined ejector technology for multitube jet noise suppressor nozzles by model and engine tests over a wide range of jet pressure ratios and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atvars, J.; Paynter, G. C.; Walker, D. Q.; Wintermeyer, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program comprising model nozzle and full-scale engine tests was undertaken to acquire parametric data for acoustically lined ejectors applied to primary jet noise suppression. Ejector lining design technology and acoustical scaling of lined ejector configurations were the major objectives. Ground static tests were run with a J-75 turbojet engine fitted with a 37-tube, area ratio 3.3 suppressor nozzle and two lengths of ejector shroud (L/D = 1 and 2). Seven ejector lining configurations were tested over the engine pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 2.40 with corresponding jet velocities between 305 and 610 M/sec. One-fourth scale model nozzles were tested over a pressure ratio range of 1.40 to 4.0 with jet total temperatures between ambient and 1088 K. Scaling of multielement nozzle ejector configurations was also studied using a single element of the nozzle array with identical ejector lengths and lining materials. Acoustic far field and near field data together with nozzle thrust performance and jet aerodynamic flow profiles are presented.

  15. Short Range Tests of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Crystal; Harter, Andrew; Hoyle, C. D.; Leopardi, Holly; Smith, David

    2014-03-01

    Gravity was the first force to be described mathematically, yet it is the only fundamental force not well understood. The Standard Model of quantum mechanics describes interactions between the fundamental strong, weak and electromagnetic forces while Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) describes the fundamental force of gravity. There is yet to be a theory that unifies inconsistencies between GR and quantum mechanics. Scenarios of String Theory predicting more than three spatial dimensions also predict physical effects of gravity at sub-millimeter levels that would alter the gravitational inverse-square law. The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP), a central feature of GR, states that all objects are accelerated at the same rate in a gravitational field independent of their composition. A violation of the WEP at any length would be evidence that current models of gravity are incorrect. At the Humboldt State University Gravitational Research Laboratory, an experiment is being developed to observe gravitational interactions below the 50-micron distance scale. The experiment measures the twist of a parallel-plate torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated within 50 microns of the pendulum, providing time varying gravitational torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque amplitude provide means to determine deviations from accepted models of gravity on untested distance scales. undergraduate.

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  17. Environmental Restoration of Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Funded by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Cabble , Mark Burmeister and Mark Krauss

    2011-03-03

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Environmental Restoration Program is to address the environmental impacts of weapons testing conducted on the Nevada National Security Site and the Nevada Test and Training Range. The large physical size of these sites, along with limits on funding and other resources available for remediation efforts, means that environmental restoration activities must be prioritized and accomplished incrementally over time. The remediation of a bomblet target area on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is located within the Nevada Test and Training Range, was originally planned in 2007 but was not carried out until funding became available in the summer of 2009 through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. This activity was implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order established between NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. This activity which was complete by the end of Fiscal Year 2010, involved the excavation of disposal pits suspected of containing submunitions and the surface clearance of submunitions on seven target areas amounting to approximately 6.7 square kilometers of land at the TTR. The TTR was used by Sandia National Laboratories from the late 1960s through the mid-1980s to conduct research into the deployment of submunitions. Although there were efforts to identify, collect, and dispose various amounts of unexploded ordnance on the TTR in the past, no comprehensive effort to remediate the entire flightline area for submunitions was undertaken before this project.

  18. Mitigation of Atmospheric Delay in SAR Absolute Ranging Using Global Numerical Weather Prediction Data: Corner Reflector Experiments at 3 Different Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Balss, Ulrich; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric delay due to vertical stratification, the so-called stratified atmospheric delay, has a great impact on both interferometric and absolute range measurements. In our current researches [1][2][3], centimeter-range accuracy has been proven based on Corner Reflector (CR) based measurements by applying atmospheric delay correction using the Zenith Path Delay (ZPD) corrections derived from nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. For a global usage, an effective method has been introduced to estimate the stratified delay based on global 4-dimensional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products: the direct integration method [4][5]. Two products, ERA-Interim and operational data, provided by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) are used to integrate the stratified delay. In order to access the integration accuracy, a validation approach is investigated based on ZPD derived from six permanent GPS stations located in different meteorological conditions. Range accuracy at centimeter level is demonstrated using both ECMWF products. Further experiments have been carried out in order to determine the best interpolation method by analyzing the temporal and spatial correlation of atmospheric delay using both ECMWF and GPS ZPD. Finally, the integrated atmospheric delays in slant direction (Slant Path Delay, SPD) have been applied instead of the GPS ZPD for CR experiments at three different test sites with more than 200 TerraSAR-X High Resolution SpotLight (HRSL) images. The delay accuracy is around 1-3 cm depending on the location of test site due to the local water vapor variation and the acquisition time/date. [1] Eineder M., Minet C., Steigenberger P., et al. Imaging geodesy - Toward centimeter-level ranging accuracy with TerraSAR-X. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2011, 49(2): 661-671. [2] Balss U., Gisinger C., Cong X. Y., et al. Precise Measurements on the Absolute Localization Accuracy of TerraSAR-X on the

  19. Design and Testing of a Novel Wide Range - Segmented Gamma Scanner Incorporating Tomographic Gamma Scanning for Measuring Both Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Drums - 13470

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Odell, Lawrence V.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Hong, Dae-Seok; Jang, Won-Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Seo, Seung-Min; Piotrowski, Matt

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a novel automated Wide Range Segmented Gamma ray Scanning (WR-SGS) assay instrument that also incorporates Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS). The instrument is designed for the measurement of both Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW) in 200 litre drums and other waste containers covering a wide range of density. Like earlier ANTECH WR-SGS instruments, the system employs a single shielded and collimated high purity germanium (HPGe) detector to quantify the radionuclide content of the waste and like conventional SGS instruments it is suitable for the measurement of relatively homogeneous waste matrices. Also, like earlier WR-SGS systems the instrument incorporates an automated variable aperture collimator, which allows the vertical segment height to be adjusted in order to measure both high dose-rate and very low activity drums. The instrument employs both conventional discrete SGS vertical segment measurements as well as vertical segment measurement by continuous helical-scanning of the drum as it rotates. This latter method reduces measurement times for SGS measurements. In order to determine the density corrections for both low and high-density drums, a high activity Eu-152 transmission source is employed. When not in use, and in place of a conventional shutter mechanism, the shielded transmission source is moved to a shielded storage position to eliminate background radiation from the source. Due to its novel features, the WR-SGS is applicable to the measurement of both very low and very high activity waste drums as well as waste drums with a wide range of density. If located in a low background position and with the effective shielding of the strong transmission source, the instrument can be used to measure very low level or exempt waste. In order to extend the range of applicability to the measurement of heterogeneous drums, TGS measurement capability has been included in the basic WR-SGS design. This is

  20. Validation of the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens by using cat and mouse bioassay.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Laurin, E; Kwowk, O C H

    2016-03-01

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) is one of the most commonly used tests for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human sera. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the MAT and bioassay in free-range/backyard (FR) chickens (Gallus domesticus). Previously-published T. gondii test results from 2066 chickens from 19 countries were compiled for the present study. The frequency of isolation of T. gondii increased for MAT titres between 1:5 and 1:160, and ranged from 61 to 75% for antibody titres of 1:160, 1:320, and ⩾1:640. Twenty-three cats fed pooled hearts from a total of 802 FR seronegative (MAT, <1:5) chickens from several countries did not excrete oocysts, indicating a high negative predictive value of MAT because FR chickens would have been exposed to many microbes; cats are the most sensitive indicators of T. gondii infection in tissues and can excrete millions of oocysts after ingesting even a few bradyzoites. Of the 29 cats in this study, six cats, fed hearts pooled from 15-122 FR chickens, excreted oocysts; but these identifications were likely related to misidentification or prozone. Results of the present study support the validity of MAT for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  2. Observation of the inverse spin Hall effect in ZnO thin films: An all-electrical approach to spin injection and detection

    SciTech Connect

    Prestgard, Megan C.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-03-24

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) is a newly discovered, quantum mechanical phenomenon where an applied spin current results in the generation of an electrical voltage in the transverse direction. It is anticipated that the ISHE can provide a more simple way of measuring spin currents in spintronic devices. The ISHE was first observed in noble metals that exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling. However, recently, the ISHE has been detected in conventional semiconductors (such as Si and Ge), which possess weak spin-orbit coupling. This suggests that large-spin orbit coupling is not a requirement for observing the ISHE. In this paper, we are reporting the observation of the ISHE in an alternative semiconductor material, zinc oxide (ZnO) using all-electrical means. In our study, we found that when a spin-polarized current is injected into the ZnO film from a NiFe ferromagnetic injector via an MgO tunnel barrier layer, a voltage transverse to both the direction of the current as well as its spin-polarization is generated in the ZnO layer. The polarity of this voltage signal was found to flip on reversing the direction of the injected current as well as on reversing the polarization of the current, consistent with the predictions of the ISHE process. Through careful analysis of the ISHE data, we determined a spin-Hall angle of approximately 1.651 × 10{sup −2} for ZnO, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of silicon. Observation of a detectable room-temperature ISHE signal in ZnO via electrical injection and detection is a groundbreaking step that opens a path towards achieving transparent spin detectors for next-generation spintronic device technology.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  4. Isolation of Phages for Phage Therapy: A Comparison of Spot Tests and Efficiency of Plating Analyses for Determination of Host Range and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S.

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection. PMID:25761060

  5. Calibration of the Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with Binary Pseudorandom Test Standards: Expanding the Application Range to Fizeau Interferometers and Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, V.V.; Takacs, P.; Anderson, E.H.; Barber, S.K.; Bouet, N.; Cambie, R.; Conley, R.; McKinney, W.R.; Voronov, D.L.

    2011-09-16

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudorandom (BPR) gratings and arrays has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 in. phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to the BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  6. The association between loss of ankle dorsiflexion range of movement, and hip adduction and internal rotation during a step down test.

    PubMed

    Bell-Jenje, T; Olivier, B; Wood, W; Rogers, S; Green, A; McKinon, W

    2016-02-01

    A pattern of excessive hip adduction and internal rotation with medial deviation of the knee has been associated with numerous musculo-skeletal dysfunctions. Research into the role that ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) play in lower limb kinematics is lacking. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to investigate the relationship between ankle DF ROM, and hip adduction and hip internal rotation during a step-down test with and without heel elevation in a healthy female population. Hip and ankle ROM was measured kinematically using a ten-camera Optitrack motion analysis system. Thirty healthy female participants (mean age = 20.4 years; SD = 0.9 years) first performed a step-down test with the heel of the weight bearing foot flat on the step and then with the heel elevated on a platform. Ankle DF, hip adduction and hip internal rotation were measured kinematically for the supporting leg. Participants who had 17° or less of ankle DF ROM displayed significantly more hip adduction ROM (p = 0.001; Cohen's d effect size = 1.2) than the participants with more than 17° of DF during the step-down test. Participants with limited DF ROM showed a significant reduction in hip adduction ROM during the elevated-heel step-down test (p = 0.008). Hip internal rotation increased in both groups during the EHSD compared to the step-down test (p > 0.05) Reduced ankle DF ROM is associated with increased hip adduction utilised during the step-down test. Ankle DF should be taken into account when assessing patients with aberrant frontal plane lower limb alignment.

  7. The association between loss of ankle dorsiflexion range of movement, and hip adduction and internal rotation during a step down test.

    PubMed

    Bell-Jenje, T; Olivier, B; Wood, W; Rogers, S; Green, A; McKinon, W

    2016-02-01

    A pattern of excessive hip adduction and internal rotation with medial deviation of the knee has been associated with numerous musculo-skeletal dysfunctions. Research into the role that ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) play in lower limb kinematics is lacking. The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to investigate the relationship between ankle DF ROM, and hip adduction and hip internal rotation during a step-down test with and without heel elevation in a healthy female population. Hip and ankle ROM was measured kinematically using a ten-camera Optitrack motion analysis system. Thirty healthy female participants (mean age = 20.4 years; SD = 0.9 years) first performed a step-down test with the heel of the weight bearing foot flat on the step and then with the heel elevated on a platform. Ankle DF, hip adduction and hip internal rotation were measured kinematically for the supporting leg. Participants who had 17° or less of ankle DF ROM displayed significantly more hip adduction ROM (p = 0.001; Cohen's d effect size = 1.2) than the participants with more than 17° of DF during the step-down test. Participants with limited DF ROM showed a significant reduction in hip adduction ROM during the elevated-heel step-down test (p = 0.008). Hip internal rotation increased in both groups during the EHSD compared to the step-down test (p > 0.05) Reduced ankle DF ROM is associated with increased hip adduction utilised during the step-down test. Ankle DF should be taken into account when assessing patients with aberrant frontal plane lower limb alignment. PMID:26432547

  8. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  9. A piecewise linear modeling approach for testing competing theories of habitat selection: an example with mule deer in northern winter ranges.

    PubMed

    Manning, Jeffrey A; Garton, Edward O

    2013-07-01

    Habitat selection fundamentally drives the distribution of organisms across landscapes; density-dependent habitat selection (DDHS) is considered a central component of ecological theories explaining habitat use and population regulation. A preponderance of DDHS theories is based on ideal distributions, such that organisms select habitat according to either the ideal free, despotic, or pre-emptive distributions. Models that can be used to simultaneously test competing DDHS theories are desirable to help improve our understanding of habitat selection. We developed hierarchical, piecewise linear models that allow for simultaneous testing of DDHS theories and accommodate densities from multiple habitats and regional populations, environmental covariates, and random effects. We demonstrate the use of these models with data on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) abundance and net energy costs in different snow depths within winter ranges of five regional populations in western Idaho, USA. Regional population density explained 40% of the variation in population growth, and we found that deer were ideal free in winter ranges. Deer occupied habitats with lowest net energy costs at higher densities and at a higher rate than compared to habitats with intermediate and high energy costs. The proportion of a regional population in low energy cost habitat the previous year accounted for a significant amount of variation in population growth (17%), demonstrating the importance of winter habitat selection in regulating deer populations. These linear models are most appropriate for empirical data collected from centralized habitat patches within the local range of a species where individuals are either year-round residents or migratory (but have already arrived from migration).

  10. Comparison of selected ultrasound performance tests with varying overall receiver gain and dynamic range, using conventional and magnified field of view.

    PubMed

    Kanal, K M; Kofler, J M; Groth, D S

    1998-05-01

    Most ultrasound (US) scanner vendors currently offer a feature that allows a region of the ultrasound image to be magnified or zoomed. Although the methods of magnification vary among vendors, the ability to "zoom in" on a selected portion of the image has gained clinical acceptance. However, using this feature introduces additional steps in the quality assurance (QA) measurement procedures. No studies exist that demonstrate the advantage of a magnified field of view (FOV) over the conventional FOV for QA purposes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a magnified versus nonmagnified FOV on various common QA performance tests as a function of the overall receiver gain and dynamic range. Additionally, since the performance tests are subject to variations caused by scanner settings, sets of QC tests were recorded using several different scanner settings to investigate any change in the sensitivity of the QC measurements with respect to the magnified and nonmagnified fields of view. The lateral and axial resolution, slice thickness, and caliper accuracy (vertical and horizontal) as a function of varying overall receiver gain and dynamic range, were obtained using conventional (no zoom) as well as a magnified (zoom) field of view (FOV). Each measurement was performed three times by a single observer using a 4 MHz "vector" format transducer on a single diagnostic medical ultrasound scanner. The results show no statistical significance in the variability of most recorded masurements when using the conventional versus the magnified FOV. However, in some cases, such as lateral resolution, the average value measured using the magnified FOV was typically 0.5 mm lower than when using a conventional FOV. PMID:9608473

  11. Hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial compression tests on unpoled "Chem-prep" PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic within temperature range of -55 to 75 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeuch, David Henry; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Sandia is currently developing a lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic 95/5-2Nb (or PNZT) from chemically prepared ('chem-prep') precursor powders. Previous PNZT ceramic was fabricated from the powders prepared using a 'mixed-oxide' process. The specimens of unpoled PNZT ceramic from batch HF803 were tested under hydrostatic, uniaxial, and constant stress difference loading conditions within the temperature range of -55 to 75 C and pressures to 500 MPa. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain mechanical properties and phase relationships so that the grain-scale modeling effort can develop and test its models and codes using realistic parameters. The stress-strain behavior of 'chem-prep' PNZT under different loading paths was found to be similar to that of 'mixed-oxide' PNZT. The phase transformation from ferroelectric to antiferroelectric occurs in unpoled ceramic with abrupt increase in volumetric strain of about 0.7 % when the maximum compressive stress, regardless of loading paths, equals the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise takes place. The stress-volumetric strain relationship of the ceramic undergoing a phase transformation was analyzed quantitatively using a linear regression analysis. The pressure (P{sub T1}{sup H}) required for the onset of phase transformation with respect to temperature is represented by the best-fit line, P{sub T1}{sup H} (MPa) = 227 + 0.76 T (C). We also confirmed that increasing shear stress lowers the mean stress and the volumetric strain required to trigger phase transformation. At the lower bound (-55 C) of the tested temperature range, the phase transformation is permanent and irreversible. However, at the upper bound (75 C), the phase transformation is completely reversible as the stress causing phase transformation is removed.

  12. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  13. COMPARISON OF RANGE OF MOTION, STRENGTH, AND HOP TEST PERFORMANCE OF DANCERS WITH AND WITHOUT A CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Carcia, Christopher R.; Christoforetti, John J.; Martin, RobRoy L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dancers commonly experience anterior hip pain caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) that interrupts training and performance in dance. A paucity of literature exists to guide appropriate evaluation and management of FAI among dancers. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if dancers with clinical signs of FAI have differences in hip range of motion, strength, and hop test performance compared to healthy dancers. Study Design Quasi-experimental, cohort comparison. Methods Fifteen dancers aged between 18- 21 years with clinical signs of FAI that included anterior hip pain and provocative impingement tests were compared to 13 age-matched dancers for passive hip joint range of motion, isometric hip strength, and performance of the medial triple hop, lateral triple hop, and cross-over hop tests. Results No statistically significant differences in range of motion were noted for flexion (Healthy = 145° + 7°; FAI = 147° + 10°; p=0.59), internal rotation (Healthy = 63° + 7°; FAI = 61° + 11°; p=0.50), and external rotation (Healthy = 37° + 9°; FAI = 34° + 12°; p=0.68) between the two groups. Hip extension strength was significantly less in the dancers with FAI (224 + 55 Newtons) compared to the healthy group (293 ± 58 Newtons; F(1,26) = 10.2; p=0.004). No statistically significant differences were noted for flexion, internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, or adduction isometric strength. The medial triple hop test was significantly less in the FAI group (354 ± 43 cm) compared to the healthy group (410 ± 50 cm; F(1,26) = 10.3; p = 0.004). Similar results were observed for the lateral hop test, as the FAI group (294 ± 38 cm) performed worse than the healthy controls (344 ± 54cm; F(1,26) = 7.8; p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the FAI group (2.7 ± 0.92 seconds) and the healthy

  14. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  15. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the liver in healthy patients: test location, reference range and influence of gender and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Liao, Li-Ying; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chiang, Huei-Shin; Lin, Chong-Zong; Lin, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chih-Lin

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the best test location and study factors associated with acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography measurements in healthy individuals. When ARFI elastography was performed on 68 healthy patients after controlling for all known test condition factors except segmental location, the median shear wave velocities (SWVs) derived from five valid measurements in the area between S5 and S8 in patients in the supine position had a significantly lower mean and the narrowest 95% confidence interval, followed by those for the S8 supine and S8 semidecubitus locations (p = 0.045). Analysis of mean SWVs revealed similar, although statistically insignificant, findings (p = 0.078). Male patients had significantly higher median SWVs (p = 0.0073) and mean SWVs (p = 0.0043) than female patients. Patients with body mass indexes >22 had significantly lower median SWVs (p = 0.0033) and mean SWVs (p = 0.0008) than those with body mass indexes ≤22. S5/8 supine was the better test location for ARFI. The reference ranges for median and mean SWV were 0.81-1.27 and 0.82-1.27 m/s, respectively. Gender and body mass index, but not age, were the significant factors associated with ARFI SWV values. PMID:25638317

  16. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Etyemezian, Vic; McCurdy, Greg; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Plutonium (Pu) and Depleted Uranium (DU) Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Cactus Spring Ranch on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, CAU 485 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-39-001-TAGR. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 485. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the preliminary assessment investigation (PAI) performed in January and February 1998 showed no evidence of contamination at the site. In the past, this CAU included holding pens which housed sheep and burros used to test inhalation uptake from atmospheric releases of Pu and DU, and the animals were sacrificed after the tests. Specifically, the investigation focused on data to determine: if surface activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were present; if potential contaminants of concern (COCs) such as Pu and DU were present; and if plutonium was present in the soil and dung at levels significantly above background levels. Investigation results concluded that surface radiological activities of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides were within range of typical background levels. Evaluation of process knowledge determined plutonium to be the only potential COC, but soil and dung samples tested were not positive for plutonium-238 and only two samples had positive concentrations of plutonium 239/240 (subsequent plutonium alpha spectroscopy results demonstrated that there was no plutonium contamination in the Cactus Spring surface soil or dung). Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 485; further, no Corrective Action

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  20. Altitude Test Chamber Investigation of Performance of a 28-inch Ram-jet Engine II : Effects of Gutter Width and Blocked Area on Operating Range and Combustion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillito, T B; Jones, W L; Kahn, R W

    1950-01-01

    Altitude-test-chamber investigation of effects of flame-holder blocked area and gutter width on performance of 28-inch diameter ram jet at simulated flight Mach number of 2.0 for altitudes from 40,000 to 55,000 feet was conducted at NACA Lewis laboratory. Ten flame holders investigated covered gutter widths from 1.00 to 2.50 inches and blocked areas from 40.5 to 62.0 percent of combustion-chamber area. Gutter width did not appreciably affect combustion efficiency. Increase in blocked area from 40 to 62 percent resulted in 5- to 10-percent increase in combustion efficiency. Increasing gutter width resulted in improvement in fuel-air-ratio operating range.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  2. Compliant layer acetabular cups: friction testing of a range of materials and designs for a new generation of prosthesis that mimics the natural joint.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Burgess, I C; Marsden, H R; Unsworth, A; Jones, E; Smith, N

    2006-07-01

    Total joint replacements (TJRs) have a limited lifetime, but the introduction of components that exhibit good lubricating properties with low friction and low wear could extend the life of TJRs. A novel acetabular cup design using polyurethane (PU) as a compliant layer (to mimic the natural joint) has been developed. This study describes a series of friction tests that have been used to select the most appropriate material, optimize the design parameters, and fine-tune the manufacturing processes of these joints. To determine accurately the mode of lubrication under which these joints operate, a synthetic lubricant was used in all these tests. Friction tests were carried out to assess the lubrication of four PU bearing materials. Corethane 80A was the preferred material and was subjected to subsequent testing. Friction tests conducted on acetabular cups, manufactured using Corethane 80A articulating against standard, commercially available femoral heads, demonstrated friction factors approaching those for full-fluid-film lubrication with only approximately 1 per cent asperity contact. As the joint produces these low friction factors within less than half a walking cycle after prolonged periods of loading, start-up friction was not considered to be a critical factor. Cups performed well across the full range of femoral head sizes, but a number of samples manufactured with reduced radial clearances performed with higher than expected friction. This was caused by the femoral head being gripped around the equator by the low clearance cup. To avoid this, the cup design was modified by increasing the flare at the rim. In addition to this the radial clearance was increased. As the material is incompressible, a radial clearance of 0.08 mm was too small for a cup diameter of 32 mm. A clearance of between 0.10 and 0.25 mm produced a performance approaching full-fluid-film lubrication. This series of tests acted as a step towards the optimization of the design of these joints

  3. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California.

  4. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California. PMID:26470214

  5. Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994

  6. Multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests as tools in igneous petrology: application to the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt).

    PubMed

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994

  7. Multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests as tools in igneous petrology: application to the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt).

    PubMed

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures).

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, REVISION 0, march 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-03-26

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 428 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03- 05- 002- SW01 and 03- 05- 002- SW05, respectively known as Area 3 Septic Waste System 1 and Septic Waste System 5. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada , Rev. 1 (DOE/ NV, 1998c). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 428. A system of leachfields and associated collection systems was used for wastewater disposal at Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990 to replace the discrete septic waste systems. Operations within various buildings at Area 3 generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with contaminants of potential concern and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Corrective Action Unit 428 is composed of two leachfield systems in the northern portion of Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include oil/ diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation

  12. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

  13. Spectral Modulation Effect in Teleseismic P-waves from North Korean Nuclear Tests Recorded in Broad Azimuthal Range and Possible Source Depth Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S. G.; Hofstetter, R.

    2016-04-01

    Three underground nuclear explosions, conducted by North Korea in 2006, 2009 and 2013, are analyzed. The last two tests were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P -waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth, this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. This effect was also observed at ISN stations for a Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz and the PNE Rubin-2 in West Siberia at 1 Hz, indicating a source-effect and not a site-effect. Similar spectral minima having essentially the same frequency, as at ISN, were observed in teleseismic P-waves for all the three North Korean explosions recorded at networks and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NNSN), Australia (ASAR, WRA) and Canada (YKA), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of 2009 and 2013 tests at WRA and KURK arrays showed harmonic spectral modulation with three multiple minima frequencies, evidencing the clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korean tests was estimated about 2.0-2.1 km. It was shown that the observed null frequencies and the obtained source depth estimates correspond to P- pP interference phenomena in both cases of a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift in a mountain. This unusual depth estimation needs additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  14. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. PMID:27496718

  15. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. � Prevent

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence of soil

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  19. Geohydrology of the High Energy Laser System Test Facility site, White Sands Missile Range, Tularosa Basin, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basabilvazo, G.T.; Nickerson, E.L.; Myers, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Yesum-HoHoman and Gypsum land (hummocky) soils at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF) represent wind deposits from recently desiccated lacustrine deposits and deposits from the ancestral Lake Otero. The upper 15-20 feet of the subsurface consists of varved gypsiferous clay and silt. Below these surfidai deposits the lithology consists of interbedded clay units, silty-clay units, and fine- to medium-grained quartz arenite units in continuous and discontinuous horizons. Clay horizons can cause perched water above the water table. Analyses of selected clay samples indicate that clay units are composed chiefly of kaolinire and mixed-layer illite/ smectite. The main aquifer is representative of a leaky-confined aquifer. Estimated aquifer properties are: transmissivity (T) = 780 feet squared per day, storage coefficient (S) = 3.1 x 10-3, and hydraulic conductivity (K) = 6.0 feet per day. Ground water flows south and southwest; the estimated hydraulic gradient is 5.3 feet per mile. Analyses of water samples indicate that ground water at the HELSTF site is brackish to slightly saline at the top of the main aquifer. Dissolved-solids concentration near the top of the main aquifer ranges from 5,940 to 11,800 milligrams per liter. Predominant ions are sodium and sulfate. At 815 feet below land surface, the largest dissolved-solids concentration measured is 111,000 milligrams per liter, which indicates increasing salinity with depth. Predominant ions are sodium and chloride.

  20. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  2. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Area 9 Unexploded Ordinance Landfill (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 453) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--284, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 5 , 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on September 10,1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 453 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections are conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover. (2) Verification that the site is secure and the condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 15, 2001 and November 6, 2001. Both site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOENV-56 1, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. As stated in Section 5.1 of the NDEP-approved CR, the annual Post-Closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: (1) Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers. (2) Verification that all warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C.

  4. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  5. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-02-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 426) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226, August 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CRY Post-Closure Monitoring Plan, site monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover and plant development. (2) Verification that the site is secure and condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  10. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 404) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404. Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench. Tonopah Test Range. Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187, September 1998. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CRY post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Visual site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the cover and plant development. (2) Verification that the site is secure and condition of the fence and posted warning signs. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized excavation, etc., deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. In addition to the above activities, vegetative monitoring of the cover (a plant census) will be done in the first, third and fifth year following revegetation. (Vegetative monitoring will done in fiscal year 2001, and the results reported in the 2002 Post-Closure Inspection Report.) Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  13. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety [global positioning system (GPS) metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay] and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit (RSU) provided real-time video for three days during the historic Global Flyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California, USA) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This paper discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  14. Space-Based Range Safety and Future Space Range Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to demonstrate the performance, flexibility and cost savings that can be realized by using space-based assets for the Range Safety (global positioning system metric tracking data, flight termination command and range safety data relay) and Range User (telemetry) functions during vehicle launches and landings. Phase 1 included flight testing S-band Range Safety and Range User hardware in 2003 onboard a high-dynamic aircraft platform at Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) using the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System as the communications link. The current effort, Phase 2, includes hardware and packaging upgrades to the S-band Range Safety system and development of a high data rate Ku-band Range User system. The enhanced Phase 2 Range Safety Unit provided real-time video for three days during the historic GlobalFlyer (Scaled Composites, Mojave, California) flight in March, 2005. Additional Phase 2 testing will include a sounding rocket test of the Range Safety system and aircraft flight testing of both systems. Future testing will include a flight test on a launch vehicle platform. This report discusses both Range Safety and Range User developments and testing with emphasis on the Range Safety system. The operational concept of a future space-based range is also discussed.

  15. Bayesian estimation of sensitivity and specificity of the modified agglutination test and bioassay for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Serological tests, including the modified agglutination test (MAT), are often used to determine exposure to the parasite. The MAT can be used for all hosts because it does not need species-specific reagents and has been shown to...

  16. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  17. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2009-02-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons. This UR was established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and was based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This reevaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR for CAS TA-03

  18. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 1998, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS TA-03-001-TARC Roller Coaster Lagoons • CAS TA-21-001-TARC Roller Coaster N. Disposal Trench These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The

  19. Effectiveness of Rose Bengal test and fluorescence polarization assay in the diagnosis of Brucella spp. infections in free range cattle reared in endemic areas in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Muma, J B; Lund, A; Nielsen, K; Matope, G; Munyeme, M; Mwacalimba, K; Skjerve, E

    2009-06-01

    The effectiveness of Rose Bengal test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) in diagnosing cattle brucellosis in endemic areas was assessed and RBT and FPA test agreement was compared (n = 319). The sensitivity of RBT and FPA in detecting low Brucella titres were evaluated in paired sera (n = 34). A logistic regression model was constructed to predict cattle test result in FPA using RBT as the main predictor and incorporating bio-data and animal history. There was 79.3% agreement between the RBT and FPA (Kappa = 0.59; Std error = 0.05; p = 0.000) and a high correspondence between high RBT scores and positive FPA results suggesting that sera with high RBT score may not require confirmation with tests such as competitive-ELISA or CFT. High FPA cut-off points were more likely to miss animals with low antibody titres. The RBT had a reduced ability in detecting low antibody titres compared to the FPA. FPA test interpretation was improved if a priori information, such as sex and age was used. Under the challenging disease surveillance conditions prevailing in rural Africa, field-testing methods that are sensitive and specific; allow single animal contact, low technical skills in data interpretation are suitable.

  20. Report of tests carried out on Viton O-ring seals to assess suitability for operation over the temperature range {minus}40 C to +220 C when used in Package Design 2863B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    To satisfy the requirements of US Regulatory bodies the O-ring seals in the containment vessels of Package Design 2863B have to be shown to operate satisfactorily (i.e. remain leaktight) at the extremes of temperature that they are expected to experience during both normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. For Package Design 2863B this effectively means that the seals must remain leaktight over the temperature range {minus}40 C to + 220 C, but to ensure that an adequate safety margin exists the seals should preferably remain leaktight over the range {minus}50 C to +250 C. This test report describes the procedures and results of tests carried out on Viton seals over the temperature range {minus}50 C to +250 C. The variability of the results at low temperature, by both pressure drop and helium leakage testing, would indicate that the particular formulation of Viton tested cannot be used to provide a reliable leaktight seal at {minus}40 C. Although the results of the pressure drop tests at high temperature were satisfactory, insufficient testing has been carried out using helium leakage testing to draw a firm conclusion about the high temperature performance of the material tested.

  1. Labor Supply And Consumption Of Food In A Closed Economy Under A Range Of Fixed- And Random-Ratio Schedules: Tests Of Unit Price

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J; Dake, Jamie M; Mauel, Ellie C; Rowe, Ryan R

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic concept of unit price predicts that consumption and response output (labor supply) are determined by the unit price at which a good is available regardless of the value of the cost and benefit components of the unit price ratio. Experiment 1 assessed 4 pigeons' consumption and response output at a range of unit prices. In one condition, food was available according to a range of fixed-ratio schedules, whereas in the other condition, food was available according to a range of random-ratio schedules. Consistent with unit price predictions, consumption and response output were approximately equivalent across schedule types within the lower range of unit prices. However, at Unit Prices 64 (ratio value = 192) and greater, considerably more consumption and response output were observed in the random-ratio condition. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with 4 pigeons using the rapid demand curve assay procedure that is commonly used in the behavioral economics literature. Findings are integrated with two mathematical models of behavior under variable reinforcer delays. PMID:15828589

  2. Labor Supply and Consumption of Food in a Closed Economy under a Range of Fixed- and Random-Ratio Schedules: Tests of Unit Price

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Gregory J.; Dake, Jamie M.; Mauel, Ellie C.; Rowe, Ryan R.

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic concept of unit price predicts that consumption and response output (labor supply) are determined by the unit price at which a good is available regardless of the value of the cost and benefit components of the unit price ratio. Experiment 1 assessed 4 pigeons' consumption and response output at a range of unit prices. In…

  3. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  4. Comparison of Performance Characteristics of Aspergillus PCR in Testing a Range of Blood-Based Samples in Accordance with International Methodological Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Springer, Jan; White, P Lewis; Hamilton, Shanna; Michel, Denise; Barnes, Rosemary A; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Standardized methodologies for the molecular detection of invasive aspergillosis (IA) have been established by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative for the testing of whole blood, serum, and plasma. While some comparison of the performance of Aspergillus PCR when testing these different sample types has been performed, no single study has evaluated all three using the recommended protocols. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on 423 whole-blood pellets (WBP), 583 plasma samples, and 419 serum samples obtained from hematology patients according to the recommendations. This analysis formed a bicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with diagnosis according to the revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (11 probable cases and 36 controls). Values for clinical performance using individual and combined samples were calculated. For all samples, PCR positivity was significantly associated with cases of IA (for plasma, P = 0.0019; for serum, P = 0.0049; and for WBP, P = 0.0089). Plasma PCR generated the highest sensitivity (91%); the sensitivities for serum and WBP PCR were 80% and 55%, respectively. The highest specificity was achieved when testing WBP (96%), which was significantly superior to the specificities achieved when testing serum (69%, P = 0.0238) and plasma (53%, P = 0.0002). No cases were PCR negative in all specimen types, and no controls were PCR positive in all specimens. This study confirms that Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma provides robust performance while utilizing commercial automated DNA extraction processes. Combining PCR testing of different blood fractions allows IA to be both confidently diagnosed and excluded. A requirement for multiple PCR-positive plasma samples provides similar diagnostic utility and is technically less demanding. Time

  5. Characterization and potential of three temperature ranges for hydrogen fermentation of cellulose by means of activity test and 16s rRNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Samir I; Jiang, Hongyu; Li, Yu-You

    2016-06-01

    A series of standardized activity experiments were performed to characterize three different temperature ranges of hydrogen fermentation from different carbon sources. 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the bacteria were close to Enterobacter genus in the mesophilic mixed culture (MMC) and Thermoanaerobacterium genus in the thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic mixed cultures (TMC and HMC). The MMC was able to utilize the glucose and cellulose to produce methane gas within a temperature range between 25 and 45 °C and hydrogen gas from 35 to 60°C. While, the TMC and HMC produced only hydrogen gas at all temperature ranges and the highest activity of 521.4mlH2/gVSSd was obtained by TMC. The thermodynamic analysis showed that more energy is consumed by hydrogen production from cellulose than from glucose. The experimental results could help to improve the economic feasibility of cellulosic biomass energy using three-phase technology to produce hythane.

  6. Application of Rapid Serologic Tests for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Free-Ranging Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus)--Implications for Antemortem Disease Screening.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Hausler, Guy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lane, Emily P; Botha, Louise; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) have been implicated as potential maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis. Our preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in three warthogs describes pathologic findings and associated positive serologic results in two infected animals. This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species.

  7. Cycloconverter on the all-electric airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a cycloconverter to a permanent magnet generator. Recent developments, advanced concepts, and advanced technology systems will be covered. Recent developments include permanent magnets, permanent magnet motors and generators, and power semiconductors.

  8. Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

  9. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  10. The Role of Female Search Behaviour in Determining Host Plant Range in Plant Feeding Insects: A Test of the Information Processing Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Soren

    1997-05-01

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that host range in herbivorous insects may be more restricted by constraints on information processing on the ovipositing females than by trade-offs in larval feeding efficiency. We have investigated if females from polyphagous species have to pay for their ability to localize and evaluate plants from different species with a lower ability to discriminate between conspecific host plants with differences in quality. Females of the monophagous butterflies Polygonia satyrus, Vanessa indica and Inachis io and the polyphagous P. c-album and Cynthia cardui (all in Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) were given a simultaneous choice of stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) of different quality. In addition, the same choice trial was given to females from two populations of P. c-album with different degrees of specificity. As predicted from the information processing hypothesis, all specialists discriminated significantly against the bad quality nettle, whereas the generalists laid an equal amount of eggs on both types of nettle. There were no corresponding differences between specialist and generalist larvae in their ability to utilize poor quality leaves. Our study therefore suggests that female host-searching behaviour plays an important role in determining host plant range.

  11. Systems for producing precise movements of a joint over a wide range of speeds and displacements for tests of a static-position sense.

    PubMed

    Clark, F J; Burgess, R C

    1987-03-01

    This report describes 3 types of apparatus that were used to produce precise movements of a joint over a wide range of speeds and angles. The designs feature an ability for ultra slow rotation of the joint (fractions of a degree per min) with a minimum of extraneous cues. Two designs use servo-controlled DC motors configured as velocity servos and a third design uses a galvanometer motor configured as a position servo. Originally designed for use with humans in studies of proprioception with the ankle and two joints of the index finger (the metacarpophalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal joint), the apparatuses should be useful in a variety of applications where precise control of velocity and position is needed. PMID:3573811

  12. Distribution of sexual and asexual Ostracoda (Crustacea) from different altitudinal ranges in the Ordu region of Turkey: testing the Rapoport Rule.

    PubMed

    Külköylüoğlu, Okan; Sari, Necmettin; Akdemir, Derya; Yavuzatmaca, Mehmet; Altinbağ, Ceren

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated Rapoport's rule which states a negative correlation between species richness and altitude. To understand the relationship between altitude and reproductive modes (a/sexual) of non-marine ostracods, 166 aquatic bodies in Ordu region, Turkey were randomly sampled from July 11 to July 16, 2010. A total of 26 species of ostracods were found from 133 out of 166 sites. Except for one species (Heterocypris incongruens), the other 25 species were new reports for the region. Candona improvisa was also a new report for Turkish ostracod fauna. Three species (Psychrodromus olivaceus, H. incongruens, and C. neglecta) occurred most frequently as 43, 46, and 76 times, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses exhibited two variables [Habitat type (p=0.014; F=2.171) and water temperature (p=0.018; F=2.248)] as having the most effect on species. Correlation of species' reproductive modes to those of environmental variables measured was not significant. UPGMA dendrogram displayed 15 most frequently occurring species into four clusters where most species (11) were asexual. Although a small group (asexual species without swimming setae) showed a tendency to habitat type and electrical conductivity, such variables are believed to play secondary role on species distribution. Highest species diversity (13 species) was observed at the range of 1200 and 1400 m (a.s.l.), where numbers of stations sampled was not the highest (22). Numbers of asexual species (19) were higher than the sexual (11) but there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the frequencies of their occurrences at different altitudinal ranges. Accordingly, our findings do not support the Rapoport Rule. Results yield that reproductive modes of species (sexual and asexual) was not directly correlated to altitude or any environmental variables measured during this study. A better explanation of ostracod diversity appears to be suitability of habitats.

  13. Distribution and partitioning of depleted uranium (DU) in soils at weapons test ranges - investigations combining the BCR extraction scheme and isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ian W; Graham, Margaret C; Mackenzie, Angus B; Ellam, Robert M; Farmer, John G

    2008-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has become a soil contaminant of considerable concern in many combat zones and weapons-testing sites around the world, including locations in Europe, the Middle East and the USA, arising from its dispersion via the application of DU-bearing munitions. Once DU is released into the environment its mobility and bioavailability will, like that of other contaminants, largely depend on the type of associations it forms in soil and on the nature of the soil components to which it binds. In this study we used the BCR sequential extraction scheme to determine the partitioning of DU amongst soil fractions of texturally varying soils from locations affected by weapons-testing activities. Isotopic analyses (MC-ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry) were performed to verify the presence of DU in whole soils and soil fractions and to determine any preferential partitioning of the contaminant. Results identified soil organic matter as being consistently the most important component in terms of DU retention, accounting for 30-100% of DU observed in the soils examined. However, at greater distances from known contamination points, DU was also found to be largely associated with the exchangeable fraction, suggesting that DU can be mobilised and transported by surface and near-surface water and does remain in an exchangeable (and thus potentially bioavailable) form in soils.

  14. Evolutionary Drivers of Diversification and Distribution of a Southern Temperate Stream Fish Assemblage: Testing the Role of Historical Isolation and Spatial Range Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Gouws, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    This study used phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences to investigate genetic diversity within three broadly co-distributed freshwater fish genera (Galaxias, Pseudobarbus and Sandelia) to shed some light on the processes that promoted lineage diversification and shaped geographical distribution patterns. A total of 205 sequences of Galaxias, 177 sequences of Pseudobarbus and 98 sequences of Sandelia from 146 localities across nine river systems in the south-western Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) were used. The data were analysed using phylogenetic and haplotype network methods and divergence times for the clades retrieved were estimated using *BEAST. Nine extremely divergent (3.5–25.3%) lineages were found within Galaxias. Similarly, deep phylogeographic divergence was evident within Pseudobarbus, with four markedly distinct (3.8–10.0%) phylogroups identified. Sandelia had two deeply divergent (5.5–5.9%) lineages, but seven minor lineages with strong geographical congruence were also identified. The Miocene-Pliocene major sea-level transgression and the resultant isolation of populations in upland refugia appear to have driven widespread allopatric divergence within the three genera. Subsequent coalescence of rivers during the Pleistocene major sea-level regression as well as intermittent drainage connections during wet periods are proposed to have facilitated range expansion of lineages that currently occur across isolated river systems. The high degree of genetic differentiation recovered from the present and previous studies suggest that freshwater fish diversity within the south-western CFR may be vastly underestimated, and taxonomic revisions are required. PMID:23951050

  15. Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on multi-atlas likelihood fusion: testing using data with a broad range of anatomical and photometric profiles

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Crocetti, Deana; Kutten, Kwame; Ceritoglu, Can; Albert, Marilyn S.; Mori, Susumu; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical pipeline for skull-stripping and segmentation of anatomical structures of interest from T1-weighted images of the human brain. The pipeline is constructed based on a two-level Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm called multi-atlas likelihood fusion (MALF). In MALF, estimation of the parameter of interest is performed via maximum a posteriori estimation using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The likelihoods of multiple atlases are fused in the E-step while the optimal estimator, a single maximizer of the fused likelihoods, is then obtained in the M-step. There are two stages in the proposed pipeline; first the input T1-weighted image is automatically skull-stripped via a fast MALF, then internal brain structures of interest are automatically extracted using a regular MALF. We assess the performance of each of the two modules in the pipeline based on two sets of images with markedly different anatomical and photometric contrasts; 3T MPRAGE scans of pediatric subjects with developmental disorders vs. 1.5T SPGR scans of elderly subjects with dementia. Evaluation is performed quantitatively using the Dice overlap as well as qualitatively via visual inspections. As a result, we demonstrate subject-level differences in the performance of the proposed pipeline, which may be accounted for by age, diagnosis, or the imaging parameters (particularly the field strength). For the subcortical and ventricular structures of the two datasets, the hierarchical pipeline is capable of producing automated segmentations with Dice overlaps ranging from 0.8 to 0.964 when compared with the gold standard. Comparisons with other representative segmentation algorithms are presented, relative to which the proposed hierarchical pipeline demonstrates comparative or superior accuracy. PMID:25784852

  16. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  17. A test of Allen's rule in ectotherms: the case of two south American Melanopline Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with partially overlapping geographic ranges.

    PubMed

    Bidau, Claudio J; Martí, Dardo A

    2008-01-01

    We studied the geographic variation of three morphometric characters in relation to body size in two South American grasshoppers (Acrididae), Dichroplus vittatus Bruner and D. pratensis Bruner to test Allen's rule in these ectotherms. Since both species follow the converse to Bergmann's rule owing to latitudinal and/or altitudinal variation in time available for growth and reproduction, geographic variation in body size proportions of protruding parts may obey to differential allometric growth in different geographic areas. Alternatively, it could reflect true Allenian variation related to thermoregulation. Body proportions were studied by correlation/regression analyses with geographic and climatic variables. In D. pratensis, body proportions increased with latitude and decreased with altitude. These results probably obey to the effects of water balance and seasonality on final body size, and on the allometric growth of the three studied characters not being related to thermoregulation. In D. vittatus, a generally non-significant trend towards the decrease of the mean proportions of all three characters with increasing latitude was observed. Nevertheless, also in this species, it is probable that the environmental gradient responds to seasonality factors (although not to water balance) that affect the length of growing season and, in consequence, body size and its allometric relationships. We conclude that the regularities in the geographic distribution of body proportions of D. pratensis and D. vittatus do not follow Allen's rule in the sense of thermoregulation, and result from variables that determine growing season length and the allometric growth of different body parts.

  18. The impact of frequency of patient self-testing of prothrombin time on time in target range within VA Cooperative Study #481: The Home INR Study (THINRS), a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Matchar, David B; Love, Sean R; Jacobson, Alan K; Edson, Robert; Uyeda, Lauren; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Dolor, Rowena J

    2015-07-01

    Anticoagulation (AC) is effective in reducing thromboembolic events for individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) or mechanical heart valve (MHV), but maintaining patients in target range for international normalized ratio (INR) can be difficult. Evidence suggests increasing INR testing frequency can improve time in target range (TTR), but this can be impractical with in-clinic testing. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that more frequent patient-self testing (PST) via home monitoring increases TTR. This planned substudy was conducted as part of The Home INR Study, a randomized controlled trial of in-clinic INR testing every 4 weeks versus PST at three different intervals. The setting for this study was 6 VA centers across the United States. 1,029 candidates with AF or MHV were trained and tested for competency using ProTime INR meters; 787 patients were deemed competent and, after second consent, randomized across four arms: high quality AC management (HQACM) in a dedicated clinic, with venous INR testing once every 4 weeks; and telephone monitored PST once every 4 weeks; weekly; and twice weekly. The primary endpoint was TTR at 1-year follow-up. The secondary endpoints were: major bleed, stroke and death, and quality of life. Results showed that TTR increased as testing frequency increased (59.9 ± 16.7 %, 63.3 ± 14.3 %, and 66.8 ± 13.2 % [mean ± SD] for the groups that underwent PST every 4 weeks, weekly and twice weekly, respectively). The proportion of poorly managed patients (i.e., TTR <50 %) was significantly lower for groups that underwent PST versus HQACM, and the proportion decreased as testing frequency increased. Patients and their care providers were unblinded given the nature of PST and HQACM. In conclusion, more frequent PST improved TTR and reduced the proportion of poorly managed patients.

  19. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Influence of airplane components for model D. [Langley spin tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralston, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of airplane components, as well as wing location and tail length, on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6 scale general aviation airplane model. The airplane was tested in a built-up fashion (i.e., body, body-wing, body-wing-vertical, etc.) in the presence of two wing locations and two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  20. Fact Sheet: Range Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelson, C.; Fretter, E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Ames has a long tradition in leadership with the use of ballistic ranges and shock tubes for the purpose of studying the physics and phenomena associated with hypervelocity flight. Cutting-edge areas of research run the gamut from aerodynamics, to impact physics, to flow-field structure and chemistry. This legacy of testing began in the NACA era of the 1940's with the Supersonic Free Flight Tunnel, and evolved dramatically up through the late 1950s with the pioneering work in the Ames Hypersonic Ballistic Range. The tradition continued in the mid-60s with the commissioning of the three newest facilities: the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) in 1964, the Hypervelocity Free Flight Facility (HFFF) in 1965 and the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) in 1966. Today the Range Complex continues to provide unique and critical testing in support of the Nation's programs for planetary geology and geophysics; exobiology; solar system origins; earth atmospheric entry, planetary entry, and aerobraking vehicles; and various configurations for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft.

  1. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the area of crop specie identification, it has been found that temporal data analysis, preliminary stratification, and unequal probability analysis were several of the factors that contributed to high identification accuracies. Single data set accuracies on fields of greater than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) are in the 70- to 90-percent range; however, with the use of temporal data, accuracies of 95 percent have been reported. Identification accuracy drops off significantly on areas of less than 80,000 sq m (20 acres) as does measurement accuracy. Forest stratification into coniferous and deciduous areas has been accomplished to a 90- to 95-percent accuracy level. Using multistage sampling techniques, the timber volume of a national forest district has been estimated to a confidence level and standard deviation acceptable to the Forest Service at a very favorable cost-benefit time ratio. Range specie/plant community vegetation mapping has been accomplished at various levels of success (69- to 90-percent accuracy). However, several investigators have obtained encouraging initial results in range biomass (forage production) estimation and range readiness predictions. Soil association map correction and soil association mapping in new area appear to have been proven feasible on large areas; however, testing in a complex soil area should be undertaken.

  2. Laser ranging data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Center for Space Research efforts have focused on the near real-time analysis of Lageos laser ranging data and on the production of predictive ephemerides. The data are analyzed in terms of range bias, time bias, and internal precision, and estimates for the Earth orientation parameters X(sub p), Y(sub p) and UT1 are obtained. The results of these analyses are reported in a variety of formats. In addition several additional stations began sending not only quick-look observations but also normal points created on-site with new software. These normal points are transmitted in a new standard format different from either current quick-look or MERIT-II full-rate formats. Thus new preprocessing software was written and successfully tested on these data. Inspection of the Bendix produced Lageos full-rate normal points continued, with detailed analyses and filtering of all 1991 A and B release normal points for Lageos through the beginning of 1992. A summary of the combined full-rate and quick-look normal point data set created for 1991 is provided. New long-term ephemerides for Lageos satellite, as well as for Etalon-1 and Etalon-2 (the so-called high satellites used for laser ranging) were produced and distributed to the network stations in cooperation with the Crustal Dynamics Project and Eurolas. These predictions are used by essentially every laser ranging site obtaining regular returns from any of these three satellites.

  3. Field tests for round-trip imaging at a 1.4  km distance with change detection and ranging using a short-wave infrared super-continuum laser.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Freeman, Michael J; Peterson, Lauren M; Ke, Kevin; Ifarraguerri, Agustin; Bailey, Christopher; Baxley, Frank; Wager, Michael; Absi, Anthony; Leonard, James; Baker, Hyatt; Rucci, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Field tests have been conducted of a broadband illuminator for active hyperspectral imaging (HSI) using a short-wave infrared supercontinuum laser (SWIR-SCL). We demonstrated irradiance comparable to the sun for two-way measurements at a 1.4 km distance between laser and target, and performed change detection and ranging. The experimental results suggest that the range resolution of our method is ∼1.5  cm even at the 1.4 km distance. Hence, we demonstrated the possibility to perform HSI with active broadband illumination using the SWIR-SCL. To our knowledge, this experiment is the first-ever to test two-way propagation of the active HSI illumination over a long distance. The 64 W SWIR-SCL provides near sunlight-equivalent illumination over multiple square meters, and the laser could enable HSI 24 h a day, even under a cloud cover, as well as enhanced capabilities such as change detection and ranging. PMID:26974617

  4. A preliminary test of the application of the Lightning Detection and Ranging System (LDAR) as a thunderstorm warning and location device for the FHA including a correlation with updrafts, turbulence, and radar precipitation echoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a test of the use of a Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) remote display in the Patrick AFB RAPCON facility are presented. Agreement between LDAR and radar precipitation echoes of the RAPCON radar was observed, as well as agreement between LDAR and pilot's visual observations of lightning flashes. A more precise comparison between LDAR and KSC based radars is achieved by the superposition of LDAR precipitation echoes. Airborne measurements of updrafts and turbulence by an armored T-28 aircraft flying through the thunderclouds are correlated with LDAR along the flight path. Calibration and measurements of the accuracy of the LDAR System are discussed, and the extended range of the system is illustrated.

  5. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  6. Some properties of U-Si alloys in the composition range U/sub 3/Si to U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/. [For Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Domadgala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Thresh, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    U/sub 3/Si (3.9 wt % Si) and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ (7.3 wt % Si) have emerged as compounds which may satisfy the goals of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. In the course of generating powders of these materials and the fabrication of miniplates containing them for irradiation, a number of peripheral studies were conducted. This paper presents information on the hardness, density, microstructural appearance, and, to a limited extent, compatibility with air of alloys in the composition range from 4.0 to 7.5 wt % Si.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  8. 49 CFR 229.25 - Tests: Every periodic inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Steam pressure gauges shall be tested by comparison with a dead-weight tester or a test gauge designed... mechanical gauges used by the engineer to aid in the control or braking of the train or locomotive, except... dead-weight tester or a test gauge designed for this purpose. (b) All electrical devices and...

  9. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  10. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  11. Laser Ranging Experiment on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Clocks and Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Rowlands, D. D.; McGarry, J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Sun, X.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Cavanaugh, J. F.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate ranges from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft Laser Ranging (LR) system supplement the precision orbit determination (POD) of LRO. LRO is tracked by ten LR stations from the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), using H-maser, GPS steered Rb, and Cs standard oscillators as reference clocks. The LR system routinely makes one-way range measurements via laser time-of-flight from Earth to LRO. Uplink photons are received by a telescope mounted on the high-gain antenna on LRO , transferred through a fiber optic cable to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and timed-tagged by the spacecraft clock. The range from the LR Earth station to LRO is derived from paired outgoing and received times. Accurate ranges can only be obtained after solving for both the spacecraft and ground station clock errors. The drift rate and aging rate of the LRO clock are calculated from data provided by the primary LR station, NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) in Greenbelt, Maryland. The results confirm the LRO clock oscillator mid to long term stability measured during ground testing. These rates also agree well with those determined through POD. Simultaneous and near-simultaneous ranging to LRO from multiple LR stations in America, Europe, and Australia has been successfully achieved within a 10 hour window. Data analysis of these ranging experiments allows for precision modeling of the clock behaviors of each LR ground station and characterization of the station ground fire times.

  12. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  13. Tests of species-specific models reveal the importance of drought in postglacial range shifts of a Mediterranean-climate tree: insights from integrative distributional, demographic and coalescent modelling and ABC model selection.

    PubMed

    Bemmels, Jordan B; Title, Pascal O; Ortego, Joaquín; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-10-01

    Past climate change has caused shifts in species distributions and undoubtedly impacted patterns of genetic variation, but the biological processes mediating responses to climate change, and their genetic signatures, are often poorly understood. We test six species-specific biologically informed hypotheses about such processes in canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) from the California Floristic Province. These hypotheses encompass the potential roles of climatic niche, niche multidimensionality, physiological trade-offs in functional traits, and local-scale factors (microsites and local adaptation within ecoregions) in structuring genetic variation. Specifically, we use ecological niche models (ENMs) to construct temporally dynamic landscapes where the processes invoked by each hypothesis are reflected by differences in local habitat suitabilities. These landscapes are used to simulate expected patterns of genetic variation under each model and evaluate the fit of empirical data from 13 microsatellite loci genotyped in 226 individuals from across the species range. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we obtain very strong support for two statistically indistinguishable models: a trade-off model in which growth rate and drought tolerance drive habitat suitability and genetic structure, and a model based on the climatic niche estimated from a generic ENM, in which the variables found to make the most important contribution to the ENM have strong conceptual links to drought stress. The two most probable models for explaining the patterns of genetic variation thus share a common component, highlighting the potential importance of seasonal drought in driving historical range shifts in a temperate tree from a Mediterranean climate where summer drought is common.

  14. Tests of species-specific models reveal the importance of drought in postglacial range shifts of a Mediterranean-climate tree: insights from integrative distributional, demographic and coalescent modelling and ABC model selection.

    PubMed

    Bemmels, Jordan B; Title, Pascal O; Ortego, Joaquín; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-10-01

    Past climate change has caused shifts in species distributions and undoubtedly impacted patterns of genetic variation, but the biological processes mediating responses to climate change, and their genetic signatures, are often poorly understood. We test six species-specific biologically informed hypotheses about such processes in canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis) from the California Floristic Province. These hypotheses encompass the potential roles of climatic niche, niche multidimensionality, physiological trade-offs in functional traits, and local-scale factors (microsites and local adaptation within ecoregions) in structuring genetic variation. Specifically, we use ecological niche models (ENMs) to construct temporally dynamic landscapes where the processes invoked by each hypothesis are reflected by differences in local habitat suitabilities. These landscapes are used to simulate expected patterns of genetic variation under each model and evaluate the fit of empirical data from 13 microsatellite loci genotyped in 226 individuals from across the species range. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we obtain very strong support for two statistically indistinguishable models: a trade-off model in which growth rate and drought tolerance drive habitat suitability and genetic structure, and a model based on the climatic niche estimated from a generic ENM, in which the variables found to make the most important contribution to the ENM have strong conceptual links to drought stress. The two most probable models for explaining the patterns of genetic variation thus share a common component, highlighting the potential importance of seasonal drought in driving historical range shifts in a temperate tree from a Mediterranean climate where summer drought is common. PMID:27540890

  15. Telemetry Ranging: Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Telemetry ranging is a proposed alternative to conventional two-way ranging for determining the two-way time delay between a Deep Space Station (DSS) and a spacecraft. The advantage of telemetry ranging is that the ranging signal on the uplink is not echoed to the downlink, so that telemetry alone modulates the downlink carrier. The timing information needed on the downlink, in order to determine the two-way time delay, is obtained from telemetry frames. This article describes the phase and timing estimates required for telemetry ranging, and how two-way range is calculated from these estimates. It explains why the telemetry ranging architecture does not require the spacecraft transponder to have a high-frequency or high-quality oscillator, and it describes how a telemetry ranging system can be infused in the Deep Space Network.

  16. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Nieset, R.T.

    1961-05-16

    A radio ranging device is described. It utilizes a super regenerative detector-oscillator in which echoes of transmitted pulses are received in proper phase to reduce noise energy at a selected range and also at multiples of the selected range.

  17. SAR ambiguous range suppression.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Pulsed Radar systems suffer range ambiguities, that is, echoes from pulses transmitted at different times arrive at the receiver simultaneously. Conventional mitigation techniques are not always adequate. However, pulse modulation schemes exist that allow separation of ambiguous ranges in Doppler space, allowing easy filtering of problematic ambiguous ranges.

  18. APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Johnson, N. H.; McMillan, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2012-09-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for decades stood at the forefront of tests of gravitational physics, including tests of the equivalence principle (EP). Current LLR results on the EP achieve a sensitivity of Δa/a ≈ 10-13 based on few-centimeter data/model fidelity. A recent push in LLR, called APOLLO (the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) produces millimeter-quality data. This paper demonstrates the few-millimeter range precision achieved by APOLLO, leading to an expectation that LLR will be able to extend EP sensitivity by an order-of-magnitude to Δa/a ˜ 10-14, once modeling efforts improve to this level.

  19. Telemetry Ranging: Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.; Kinman, P.; Xie, H.; Vilnrotter, V.; Dolinar, S.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the details of the signal processing used in a telemetry ranging system in which timing information is extracted from the downlink telemetry signal in order to compute spacecraft range. A previous article describes telemetry ranging concepts and architecture, which are a slight variation of a scheme published earlier. As in that earlier work, the telemetry ranging concept eliminates the need for a dedicated downlink ranging signal to communicate the necessary timing information. The present article describes the operation and performance of the major receiver functions on the spacecraft and the ground --- many of which are standard tracking loops already in use in JPL's flight and ground radios --- and how they can be used to provide the relevant information for making a range measurement. It also describes the implementation of these functions in software, and performance of an end-to-end software simulation of the telemetry ranging system.

  20. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  1. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  2. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  3. Automatic range selector

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, Clyde E.

    1977-01-04

    A device is provided for automatically selecting from a plurality of ranges of a scale of values to which a meter may be made responsive, that range which encompasses the value of an unknown parameter. A meter relay indicates whether the unknown is of greater or lesser value than the range to which the meter is then responsive. The rotatable part of a stepping relay is rotated in one direction or the other in response to the indication from the meter relay. Various positions of the rotatable part are associated with particular scales. Switching means are sensitive to the position of the rotatable part to couple the associated range to the meter.

  4. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  5. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  6. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  7. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test for wider range of HPV types. 2009 Mar 13. US Food and Drug Administration. Available online ... approves two DNA tests to detect HPV. 2009 Mar 17. Infectious Disease News. Available online at http:// ...

  8. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada(April 2001, Rev. 0) with Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 405 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW03, 03-05-002-SW04, and 03-05-002-SW07 (also collectively known as: Septic Waste Systems [SWSs] 3, 4, and 7). Located in Area 3 in the northwest section of the TTR, approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, this location was historically (between 1960 and 1990) used as a research facility with the mission to perform defense-related projects, and whose operations generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with COPCs and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Though Septic Waste Systems 3, 4, and 7 were origin ally constructed to receive sanitary sewage, they may have inadvertently received effluent containing potentially hazardous and radiological constituents containing acetone, benzene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, xylenes, volatile organic compound constituents, phenols, arsenic, barium, lead, mercury, hydrocarbons of oil and grease, and uranium-234, -235, and -238. The Area 3 septic systems were documented in a DOE/NV 1996 report as being included in the septic tank abandonment program conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1993; however, this program was not completed and the possibility exists that some of the Area 3 septic tanks may not have been abandoned. Even though all of the SWSs addressed in this CAIP are inactive, geophysical surveys conducted in 1993 were generally inconclusive and did not provide useful data for the purposes of this investigation. The scope of this current investigation, therefore, will be to determine the existence of the identified

  10. Mu-2 ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    The Mu-II Dual-Channel Sequential Ranging System designed as a model for future Deep Space Network ranging equipment is described. A list of design objectives is followed by a theoretical explanation of the digital demodulation techniques first employed in this machine. Hardware and software implementation are discussed, together with the details relating to the construction of the device. Two appendixes are included relating to the programming and operation of this equipment to yield the maximum scientific data.

  11. Laser Ranging Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazolla, Sabino; Hemmati, Hamid; Tratt, David

    2003-01-01

    Laser Ranging Simulation Program (LRSP) is a computer program that predicts selected aspects of the performances of a laser altimeter or other laser ranging or remote-sensing systems and is especially applicable to a laser-based system used to map terrain from a distance of several kilometers. Designed to run in a more recent version (5 or higher) of the MATLAB programming language, LRSP exploits the numerical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB. LRSP generates a graphical user interface that includes a pop-up menu that prompts the user for the input of data that determine the performance of a laser ranging system. Examples of input data include duration and energy of the laser pulse, the laser wavelength, the width of the laser beam, and several parameters that characterize the transmitting and receiving optics, the receiving electronic circuitry, and the optical properties of the atmosphere and the terrain. When the input data have been entered, LRSP computes the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of range, signal and noise currents, and ranging and pointing errors.

  12. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  13. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  14. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  15. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  16. Satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, J. P.

    1992-03-01

    Laser ranging to satellites is one of the most precise methods for positio ning on the surface of the Earth. Reference is made to the need for precise posi tioning and to the improvement brought by the use of space techniques. Satellite Laser Ranging system is then described and in view of the high precision of the results derived from its measurements comments are made to some of the more important applications: high precision networks tectonic plate motion polar motion and earth''s rotation. Finally plans for system improvement in the near future are also presented.

  17. RADIO RANGING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Bogle, R.W.

    1960-11-22

    A description is given of a super-regenerative oscillator ranging device provided with radiating and receiving means and being capable of indicating the occurrence of that distance between itself and a reflecting object which so phases the received echo of energy of a preceding emitted oscillation that the intervals between oscillations become uniform.

  18. Agriculture, forest, and range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the panel for developing a satellite remote-sensing global information system in the next decade are reported. User requirements were identified in five categories: (1) cultivated crops, (2) land resources, (3)water resources, (4)forest management, and (5) range management. The benefits from the applications of satellite data are discussed.

  19. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  20. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  1. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  2. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  3. Mobile satellite ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review of the constraints which have limited satellite ranging hardware and an outline of the steps which are underway to improve the status of the equipment in this area are given. In addition, some suggestions are presented for the utilization of newer instruments and for possible future research and development work in this area.

  4. 2006 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TenHaken, Ron; Daniels, B.; Becker, M.; Barnes, Zack; Donovan, Shawn; Manley, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Throughout 2006, Range Safety was involved in a number of exciting and challenging activities and events, from developing, implementing, and supporting Range Safety policies and procedures-such as the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing Plans, the Range Safety Variance Process, and the Expendable Launch Vehicle Safety Program procedures-to evaluating new technologies. Range Safety training development is almost complete with the last course scheduled to go on line in mid-2007. Range Safety representatives took part in a number of panels and councils, including the newly formed Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel, the Range Commanders Council and its subgroups, the Space Shuttle Range Safety Panel, and the unmanned aircraft systems working group. Space based range safety demonstration and certification (formerly STARS) and the autonomous flight safety system were successfully tested. The enhanced flight termination system will be tested in early 2007 and the joint advanced range safety system mission analysis software tool is nearing operational status. New technologies being evaluated included a processor for real-time compensation in long range imaging, automated range surveillance using radio interferometry, and a space based range command and telemetry processor. Next year holds great promise as we continue ensuring safety while pursuing our quest beyond the Moon to Mars.

  5. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  6. Light beam range finder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  7. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  8. Relativity in Satellite Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, John C.

    2009-05-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is the measurement of the round-trip light time of ultra-short laser pulses to satellites deploying specifically designed retroreflectors. The ranging data are used to determine cm-precision satellite orbits, temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field, mm/yr accuracy determinations of station motion on a global scale, and fundamental physical constants. The SLR stations form an important part of the international network of space geodetic observatories that define and maintain the International Terrestrial Reference System. Starting in 1964, the precision of satellite laser ranging has improved from a few meters to a few mm for the better stations. With a measurement accuracy better than the part-per-billion level, the effects General Relativity must be considered. These include additional perturbations to the orbit dynamics, corrections to the round-trip light-time computation, and fundamental aspects of space-time in the definition of the geocentric reference frame. While these effects are significant, they are generally not large enough to provide useful tests of General Relativity. An important exception, however, is the relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring orbit precession, i.e the effect of `frame-dragging’ on the satellite orbit due to the spinning Earth's mass. While the signal is large enough to be easily observed with satellite laser ranging, the Lense-Thirring measurement uncertainty is limited by the knowledge of the even zonal harmonics of the Earth's gravity field that also produce Newtonian secular orbit precessions. However, this problem has been overcome with the dramatically improved models resulting from the joint NASA-DLR Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Using laser ranging to the LAGEOS satellites, it is possible to confirm the General Relativity prediction of the Lense-Thirring precession with an uncertainty better than 15%. This research was supported by the National

  9. Monocular visual ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn

    2008-04-01

    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  10. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  11. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  12. Long-range connectomics.

    PubMed

    Jbabdi, Saad; Behrens, Timothy E

    2013-12-01

    Decoding neural algorithms is one of the major goals of neuroscience. It is generally accepted that brain computations rely on the orchestration of neural activity at local scales, as well as across the brain through long-range connections. Understanding the relationship between brain activity and connectivity is therefore a prerequisite to cracking the neural code. In the past few decades, tremendous technological advances have been achieved in connectivity measurement techniques. We now possess a battery of tools to measure brain activity and connections at all available scales. A great source of excitement are the new in vivo tools that allow us to measure structural and functional connections noninvasively. Here, we discuss how these new technologies may contribute to deciphering the neural code.

  13. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  14. Capacity fade of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode for lithium-ion batteries during accelerated calendar and cycle life tests (surface analysis of LiAlyNi1-x-yCoxO2 cathode after cycle tests in restricted depth of discharge ranges)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shoichiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Takashi; Morigaki, Kenichi; Nakura, Kensuke

    2014-07-01

    Cycle performance at 60 °C for a Li Al0.10Ni0.76Co0.14O2 (NCA) cathode/graphite cell was greatly improved when a DOD range in charge-discharge cycling (ΔDOD) was restricted. The deterioration mechanism was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS). Only after the cycle test in the ΔDOD of 0-100%, many micro-cracks were generated in the inter-surface between the primary particles which aggregated to form the secondary particles, and a NiO-like resistance layer with Fm3m rock salt structure was formed on each primary particle which was contact with other primary particles and electrolyte. It can be concluded that the lack of contact between the primary particles with the micro-crack generation and the formation of the new resistance layer are responsible for the capacity fading and the rise in impedance during charge-discharge cycle in the wide ΔDOD.

  15. Case History: The All-Electric School. Building Committee Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Better Heating-Cooling Council, Berkeley Heights, NJ.

    This document analyzes the causes of a discrepancy between expected electric costs of $19,460 annually based on full occupancy and usage, compared with a 1972 total billing of $49,819, and the fear of a 1974 $53,000 electric bill. A review was made of detailed proposals for 1967 and 1968 submitted to the building commettee to guide them in…

  16. All-Electric School Profile: Washington Elementary Educational Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Existing elementary schools in Washington, Pennsylvania, were replaced by an educational park with two two-story buildings. A heat recovery system and an additional thickness of insulation conserve energy. (MLF)

  17. Power for all? Electricity and uneven development in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Conor M.

    Many towns in eastern North Carolina face a number of challenges common to the rural South, including high rates of poverty and diminishing employment opportunities. However, some residents of this region also confront a unique hardship---electricity prices that are vastly higher than those of surrounding areas. This dissertation examines the origins of pricing inequalities in the electricity market of eastern North Carolina---namely how such inequalities developed and their role in the production of racial and economic disparities in the South. This dissertation examines the evolving relations between federal and state agencies, corporations, and electric utilities, and asks why these interactions produced varying social outcomes across different places and spatial settings. The research focuses on the origins and subsequent development of electric utilities in eastern North Carolina, and examines how electricity as a material technology interacted with geographies of race and class, as well as the dictates of capital accumulation. This approach enables a rethinking of several concepts that are rarely examined by scholars of electric utilities, most notably the monopoly service territory, which I argue served as a spatial fix to accumulation problems in the industry. Further, examining the way that electric utilities developed in North Carolina during the 20th century brings to the forefront the at times contradictory relationships among systems of electricity provision, Jim Crow segregation, the Progressive Era, and the New Deal. Such a focus highlights the important role that the control of electricity provision played in shaping racial inequalities that continue to persist in the region. With most urban areas were electrified in the 1930s, the research also traces the electricity distribution lines as they moved out of cities through rural electrification programs, a shift that highlights the state as a multi-scalar and variegated actor that both aided and impeded electrification efforts by various institutional and corporate entities. Ultimately, I argue that the historical geography of electricity is a critical factor that must be considered in order to adequately understand and address the issues of inequality and poverty that continue to persist in the region.

  18. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) models of representative PEM fuel cell stack and components were developed and integrated into the virtual reality environment along with an Excel-based model used to calculate fuel cell electrical performance on the basis of cell dimensions (see the figure). CAD models of a representative general aviation aircraft were also developed and added to the environment. With the use of special headgear, users will be able to virtually manipulate the fuel cell s physical characteristics and its placement within the aircraft while receiving information on the resultant fuel cell output power and performance. As the systems analysis effort progresses, we will add more component models to the GRUVE environment to help us more fully understand the effect of various system configurations on the aircraft.

  19. An investigation of several NACA 1 series axisymmetric inlets at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.29. [wind tunnel tests over range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the performance of seven inlets having NACA 1-series contours and one inlet having an elliptical contour over a range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack. The inlet diameter ratio varied from 0.81 to 0.89; inlet length ratio varied from 0.75 to 1.25; and internal contraction ratio varied from 1.009 to 1.093. Reynolds number based on inlet maximum diameter varied from 3.4 million at a Mach number of 0.4 to 5.6 million at a Mach number of 1.29.

  20. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  1. Some Effects of Roll Rate on the Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a Cruciform Missile Configuration as Determined from Flight Test for a Mach Number Range of 1.1. to 1.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, Reginald R; Baber, Hal T , Jr

    1956-01-01

    A model of a cruciform missile configuration having a low-aspect-ratio wing equipped with flap-type controls was flight tested in order to determine stability and control characteristics while rolling at about 5 radians per second. Comparison is made with results from a similar model which rolled at a much lower rate. Results showed that, if the ratio of roll rate to natural circular frequency in pitch is not greater than about 0.3, the motion following a step disturbance in pitch essentially remains in a plane in space. The slope of normal- force coefficient against angle of attack C(sub N(sub alpha)) was the same as for the slowly rolling model at 0 degrees control deflection but C(sub N(sub alpha)) was much higher for the faster rolling model at about 5 degrees control deflection. The slope of pitching-moment coefficient against angle of attack C(sub m(sub alpha)) as determined from the model period of oscillation was the same for both models at 0 degrees control deflection but was lower for the faster rolling model at about 5 degrees control deflection. Damping data for the faster rolling model showed considerably more scatter than for the slowly rolling model.

  2. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  3. Conductance measurement circuit with wide dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Von Esch, Myron (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A conductance measurement circuit to measure conductance of a solution under test with an output voltage proportional to conductance over a 5-decade range, i.e., 0.01 uS to 1000 uS or from 0.1 uS to 10,000 uS. An increase in conductance indicates growth, or multiplication, of the bacteria in the test solution. Two circuits are used each for an alternate half-cycle time periods of an alternate squarewave in order to cause alternate and opposite currents to be applied to the test solution. The output of one of the two circuits may be scaled for a different range optimum switching frequency dependent upon the solution conductance and to enable uninterrupted measurement over the complete 5-decade range. This circuitry provides two overlapping ranges of conductance which can be read simultaneously without discontinuity thereby eliminating range switching within the basic circuitry. A VCO is used to automatically change the operating frequency according to the particular value of the conductance being measured, and comparators indicate which range is valid and also facilitate computer-controlled data acquisition. A multiplexer may be used to monitor any number of solutions under test continuously.

  4. Ranging/tracking system for proximity operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, P.; Udalov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hardware development and testing phase of a hand held radar for the ranging and tracking for Shuttle proximity operations are considered. The radar is to measure range to a 3 sigma accuracy of 1 m (3.28 ft) to a maximum range of 1850 m (6000 ft) and velocity to a 3 sigma accuracy of 0.03 m/s (0.1 ft/s). Size and weight are similar to hand held radars, frequently seen in use by motorcycle police officers. Meeting these goals for a target in free space was very difficult to obtain in the testing program; however, at a range of approximately 700 m, the 3 sigma range error was found to be 0.96 m. It is felt that much of this error is due to clutter in the test environment. As an example of the velocity accuracy, at a range of 450 m, a 3 sigma velocity error of 0.02 m/s was measured. The principles of the radar and recommended changes to its design are given. Analyses performed in support of the design process, the actual circuit diagrams, and the software listing are included.

  5. 1995 Site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other organizations environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  6. Optics At White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.

    1985-11-01

    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  7. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-08-02

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  8. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-01-01

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  9. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    DOEpatents

    Burnside, W.D.; Rudduck, R.C.; Yu, J.S.

    1987-02-27

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector. 2 figs.

  10. Evaluation of OMV ranging and docking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will serve as a shuttle-based or permanent space station-based vehicle designed to rendezvous and soft dock with various other free-flying space vehicles for purposes of inspection, support, and retrieval. This study is concerned primarily with the eventual need for the OMV to rendezvous and dock softly with the Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope (ST). Utilizing the available capabilities of the large microwave anechoic chamber facility at Marshall Space Flight Center for simulating docking target vehicle motions in a free-space environment, a program is being devised for benchmark testing of rendezvous and docking sensor systems proposed for use on the OMV. A testing regimen suitable for evaluating the accuracy and tracking agility in sensing range, range rate, and angle information at close ranges (0 R 30m) has been developed.

  11. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  12. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The osmolality test may not be needed. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  13. 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the 2013 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides an Agency overview for current and potential range users. This report contains articles which cover a variety of subject areas, summaries of various activities performed during the past year, links to past reports, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be conducted in the future. Specific topics discussed in the 2013 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2013 highlights, Range Safety Training, Independent Assessments, support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations, a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies, and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. As is the case each year, we had a wide variety of contributors to this report from across our NASA Centers and the national range safety community at large, and I wish to thank them all. On a sad note, we lost one of our close colleagues, Dr. Jim Simpson, due to his sudden passing in December. His work advancing the envelope of autonomous flight safety systems software/hardware development leaves a lasting impression on our community. Such systems are being flight tested today and may one day be considered routine in the range safety business. The NASA family has lost a pioneer in our field, and he will surely be missed. In conclusion, it has been a very busy and productive year, and I look forward to working with all of you in NASA Centers/Programs/Projects and with the national Range Safety community in making Flight/Space activities as safe as they can be in the upcoming year.

  14. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  15. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  16. Study on evaluation of photoelectric jamming effectiveness on ranging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jinxi; Yang, Haiqiang; Gao, Bo

    2015-11-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Range) is a brand-new field and research hotspot. Ranging lidar is studied in this paper. Specifically, its basic working principle and photoelectric jamming mechanism are introduced. Then, the ranging error jamming success rate rule is developed for laser distance deception jamming. And the effectiveness evaluation of laser blinding jamming is based on the influence level on ranging accuracy and ranging function. The results have some reference value to evaluation of jamming test effectiveness.

  17. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  18. PN ranging/telemetry transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerkoski, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    System can transmit range-indicating pseudonoise (PN) codes and simultaneously transmit auxiliary information as binary data at a rate at least on order of pseudonoise chipping rate. PN code is modulated by data stream with relatively low bit rate. Data stream with high bit rate can be transmitted in same frequency band as PN ranging code.

  19. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  20. Institutional Long-Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, John G.

    This booklet presents a general outline for conducting a long-range planning study that can be adapted for use by any institution of higher education. The basic components of an effective long-range plan should include: (1) purposes of the plan, which define the scope of the study and provide the setting in which it will be initiated; (2) a set of…