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Sample records for all-optical logic gate

  1. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  2. Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gate

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Lynford L.; Bond, Tiziana C.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2010-09-07

    A new reconfigurable cascadable all-optical on-chip device is presented. The gate operates by combining the Vernier effect with a novel effect, the gain-index lever, to help shift the dominant lasing mode from a mode where the laser light is output at one facet to a mode where it is output at the other facet. Since the laser remains above threshold, the speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal optical modulation speed of the laser, which can be on the order of up to about tens of GHz. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog optical or electrical signal at the gate selection port. Other all-optical functionality includes wavelength conversion, signal duplication, threshold switching, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, signal routing, and environment sensing. Since each gate can perform different operations, the functionality of such a cascaded circuit grows exponentially.

  3. Photonic-crystal-based all-optical NOT logic gate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we have utilized the concept of photonic crystals for the implementation of an optical NOT gate inverter. The designed structure has a hexagonal arrangement of silicon rods in air substrate. The logic function is based on the phenomenon of the existence of the photonic bandgap and resulting guided modes in defect photonic crystal waveguides. We have plotted the transmission, extinction ratio, and tolerance analysis graphs for the structure, and it has been observed that the maximum output is obtained for a telecom wavelength of 1.554 μm. Dispersion curves are obtained using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission is simulated using the finite element method. The proposed structure is applicable for photonic integrated circuits due to its simple structure and clear operating principle.

  4. Design of polarization encoded all-optical 4-valued MAX logic gate and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Nath Roy, Jitendra

    2013-07-01

    Quaternary maximum (QMAX) gate is one type of multi-valued logic gate. An all-optical scheme of polarization encoded quaternary (4-valued) MAX logic gate with the help of Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based fiber interferometric switch is proposed and described. For the quaternary information processing in optics, the quaternary number (0, 1, 2, 3) can be represented by four discrete polarized states of light. Numerical simulation result confirming the described methods is given in this paper. Some applications of MAX gate in logical operation and memory device are also given.

  5. Complete all-optical processing polarization-based binary logic gates and optical processors.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M

    2006-10-16

    We present a complete all-optical-processing polarization-based binary-logic system, by which any logic gate or processor can be implemented. Following the new polarization-based logic presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], we develop a new parallel processing technique that allows for the creation of all-optical-processing gates that produce a unique output either logic 1 or 0 only once in a truth table, and those that do not. This representation allows for the implementation of simple unforced OR, AND, XOR, XNOR, inverter, and more importantly NAND and NOR gates that can be used independently to represent any Boolean expression or function. In addition, the concept of a generalized gate is presented which opens the door for reconfigurable optical processors and programmable optical logic gates. Furthermore, the new design is completely compatible with the old one presented in [Opt. Express 14, 7253 (2006)], and with current semiconductor based devices. The gates can be cascaded, where the information is always on the laser beam. The polarization of the beam, and not its intensity, carries the information. The new methodology allows for the creation of multiple-input-multiple-output processors that implement, by itself, any Boolean function, such as specialized or non-specialized microprocessors. Three all-optical architectures are presented: orthoparallel optical logic architecture for all known and unknown binary gates, singlebranch architecture for only XOR and XNOR gates, and the railroad (RR) architecture for polarization optical processors (POP). All the control inputs are applied simultaneously leading to a single time lag which leads to a very-fast and glitch-immune POP. A simple and easy-to-follow step-by-step algorithm is provided for the POP, and design reduction methodologies are briefly discussed. The algorithm lends itself systematically to software programming and computer-assisted design. As examples, designs of all binary gates, multiple

  6. Passive all-optical polarization switch, binary logic gates, and digital processor.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Y A; Zaghloul, A R M; Adibi, A

    2011-10-10

    We introduce the passive all-optical polarization switch, which modulates light with light. That switch is used to construct all the binary logic gates of two or more inputs. We discuss the design concepts and the operation of the AND, OR, NAND, and NOR gates as examples. The rest of the 16 logic gates are similarly designed. Cascading of such gates is straightforward as we show and discuss. Cascading in itself does not require a power source, but feedback at this stage of development does. The design and operation of an SR Latch is presented as one of the popular basic sequential devices used for memory cells. That completes the essential components of an all-optical polarization digital processor. The speed of such devices is well above 10 GHz for bulk implementations and is much higher for chip-size implementations. In addition, the presented devices do have the four essential characteristics previously thought unique to the microelectronic ones.

  7. Fiber Lasers and all Optical Logic Gates for Header Processing in High-Bit Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Brandon Craig

    As information technologies push network capacities toward higher bit rates, fiber-optic communication networks will eventually be capable of transmitting data at a rate at which electronic switches cannot respond. A solution to this problem is to replace the electronics at the front and back ends of the transmission system where data enters and exists in optical format with all-optical header processors. In this thesis, I will describe how the header processor has been divided into all-optical switching modules, which will act as the basic building block for the header processing unit. Each module arises from the integration of an erbium -doped fiber laser and an all-optical logic gate. The erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) acts as a local power supply for the module. It restores the pulse shape, pulse amplitude, and timing of an incoming optical bit stream. The development of a short-pulse EDFL and a high-power EDFL for this application is described. The high-power EDFL employs a unique cavity design that eliminates multiple pulses when pumped with high powers. Data processing is performed within the module by all-optical logic gates, which switch due to the nonlinear interaction of one pulse of light with another in optical fiber. Therefore, these gates can work at the bit rate of the transmission system and avoid the bottlenecks inherent in electronic processors. The design and demonstration of a low-latency soliton-dragging gate and a low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror (low-bi NOLM) logic gate are described. The two logic gates are optimized for energy contrast, switching energy, timing sensitivity, and cascadability. Logic functionality is also demonstrated. The thesis culminates in an experiment that integrates the laser and logic gate work by driving two cascaded low -bi NOLM's with an EDFL. It is shown that this experiment utilizes all the components necessary to read the header of a high-bit-rate data packet, bringing closure to the switching

  8. High contrast all-optical logic gates based on 2D nonlinear photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebbi, Zahra; Nozhat, Najmeh; Emami, Farzin

    2015-11-01

    We have proposed the all optical XOR, XNOR, NAND and NOT logic gates based on two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs). In all structures the nonlinear Kerr effect has been used. The gates function is based on the destructive interference of the input signals. The phase difference between the input signals has been caused by the different signal travelling paths. To demonstrate the performance of the XNOR, NOT, and NAND gates a control port has been added to the structure. The gates have been operated at the frequency of 0.341(c/a) where 'a' and 'c' are the lattice constant and the speed of light in vacuum, respectively. Due to the maximum required input power of P0 = 277 (mW /μm2) for the XOR, NOT, and XNOR gates and P0 = 554 (mW /μm2) for the NAND gates, and the high contrast ratio of at least 20 dB between the ON and OFF states, these logic gates are applicable for real time communications. Simulations are based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method.

  9. Fast, all-optical logic gates and transistor functionalities using a room-temperature atomic controlled Kerr gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. B.; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate all-optical multilogic gate operations and transistor functionalities using a Kerr phase gate method in a room-temperature 85Rb vapor. Two symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers are constructed in the same vapor cell in which a Raman gain medium is established. We show three basic logic gates (and, or, and not) by controlling the output combinations from the two interferometers. With one weakly driven interferometer acting as the phase control light for a strongly driven interferometer, we further demonstrate optical field-effect transistor functionalities. More complex combinations of this Kerr phase gate method and scheme allow all eight basic logic gate operations including the controlled-not gate to be constructed and implemented.

  10. A new design procedure for all-optical photonic crystal logic gates and functions based on threshold logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Hojjat; Hamidi, Seyyedeh Mehri; Navi, Keivan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a general method is proposed to design all-optical photonic crystal logic gates and functions based on threshold logic concept that have regular pattern in inputs. In our proposed structure, a photonic crystal junction is cascaded by a threshold power level detector. Additionally, a novel mechanism is introduced to shift the threshold power level for designing different logic gates and functions. The finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods are used to evaluate the proposed structures. The proposed gates and functions occupy an area less than 150 μm2 and also, the maximum power required for the switching mechanism is 15 μW. The inputs and output in the mentioned gates and functions are homogeneous and they can operate with a bit rate of about 500 Gbits/s.

  11. Design and analysis of polarization independent all-optical logic gates in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Preeti; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have reported design and analysis of polarization independent all optical logic gates in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal consisting of two dimensional honeycomb lattices with two different air holes exhibiting photonic band gap for both TE and TM mode in the optical communication window. The proposed structures perform as an AND optical logic gate and all the optical logic gates based on the phenomenon of interference. The response period and bit rate for TE and TM polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm show improved results as reported earlier.

  12. All-optical logic gates based on cross phase modulation effect in a phase-shifted grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Song, Junfeng; Chen, Xin; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Miao; Li, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we perform a theoretical study of the all-optical logic gates based on the techniques of cross phase modulation (XPM) in a phase-shifted grating. Here the pumps are used to control the switching of a weak continuous wave (cw). In order to understand the transferring process of the information from the pump light to the cw light, we first study the switching characteristic of the device. Then, by changing the combination between two pumps, in a fiber grating with zero phase shift we have realized NOT, AND, and NAND gates, and in a phase-shifted grating with the phase shift π, the other various logic operations can be realized such as NAND gates and OR gates; when selecting Δφ=3/2π, we can realize XOR gates and XNOR gates. Thus the change of the phase shift of the phase-shifted grating will yield various logic gates. PMID:27607262

  13. All-optical photonic crystal AND, XOR, and OR logic gates using nonlinear Kerr effect and ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmanpour, Aryan; Mohammadnejad, Shahram; Bahrami, Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this article, two structures are proposed for all-optical AND, XOR, and OR logic gates based on nonlinear photonic crystals. The proposed structures include a Y-junction and ring resonator-based limiters. Two different structures are designed as the limiter in order to produce AND-XOR and AND-OR logic gates. Nonlinear rods of proposed structure have been used in order to create the frequency shift for different values of input power. Finite difference time domain method has been utilized to simulate the performance of proposed logic gates. Simulation results show that the smallest ON-OFF logic-level contrast ratio for the structures proposed for AND-XOR and AND-OR logic gates are 20.29 dB and 16.7 dB, respectively.

  14. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-08-05

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  15. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  16. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  17. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  18. Performance analysis of an all-optical logic gate based on a single I/Q modulator with direct detection.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaxue; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the performance of an all-optical logic gate scheme based on a single in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator with direct detection. The proposed scheme of an all-optical logic gate is simple, high speed, and easily reconfigured to realize 24 logic states by adjusting bias voltages, peak-to-peak voltages of the driven RF signals, and the phase shift. As the scheme to realize logic gates is based on the irregular use of a commercially available I/Q modulator and laser source, a specialized logic gate system including a laser, I/Q modulator, and driven RF module should be optimally designed to obtain the best performance. With the system's extinction ratio (ER) and Q-factor as metrics, the performance of the proposed logic gate scheme is analyzed theoretically and numerically in this paper. We first give a new theoretical model of the I/Q modulator. Next, taking the OR gate as an example, the simulations are carried out to analyze performance under the influence of some key factors in the system. Results show that the extinction ratio of the whole system is affected by the phase shift between the two arms of the I/Q modulator and the extinction ratios of two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), while Q-factor is further influenced by the output power of the laser and the insertion loss of the MZMs in the I/Q modulator. For an I/Q modulator with MZMs having an extinction ratio of 20 dB, the minimum laser output power to obtain a system's ER higher than 16 dB is 3 dBm, while in order to obtain a Q-factor higher than 6, the output power of the laser must not be <10  dBm. PMID:27607252

  19. All-optical transistors and logic gates using a parity-time-symmetric Y-junction: Design and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Shulin; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-09-28

    Classical nonlinear or quantum all-optical transistors are dependent on the value of input signal intensity or need extra co-propagating beams. In this paper, we present a kind of all-optical transistors constructed with parity-time (PT)-symmetric Y-junctions, which perform independently on the value of signal intensity in an unsaturated gain case and can also work after introducing saturated gain. Further, we show that control signal can switch the device from amplification of peaks in time to transformation of peaks to amplified troughs. By using these PT-symmetric Y-junctions with currently available materials and technologies, we can implement interesting logic functions such as NOT and XOR (exclusive OR) gates, implying potential applications of such structures in designing optical logic gates, optical switches, and signal transformations or amplifications.

  20. Controllable all-optical stochastic logic gates and their delay storages based on the cascaded VCSELs with optical-injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).

  1. Controllable all-optical stochastic logic gates and their delay storages based on the cascaded VCSELs with optical-injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).

  2. All-optical logical gates based on pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Dongqiang; Zhu, Mengyun; Tang, Xianghong; Li, Shuqin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate all-optical logical gates based on the pump-induced resonant nonlinearity in an erbium-doped fiber coupler. The resonant nonlinearity yielded by the optical transitions between the (4)I(15/2) states and (4)I(13/2) states in Er(3+) induces the refractive index to change, which leads to switching between two output ports. First, we do a study on the switching performance, and calculate the extinction ratio (Xratio) of the device. Second, using the Xratio, we obtain the truth tables of the device. The results reveal that compared with other undoped nonlinear couplers, the erbium-doped fiber coupler can drop the switching threshold power. We also obtain different logic gates and logic operations in the cases of the same phase and different phase of two initial signals by changing the pump power.

  3. All-optical ultrafast XOR/XNOR logic gates, binary counter, and double-bit comparator with silicon microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Purnima; Roy, Sukhdev

    2014-10-01

    We present designs of all-optical ultrafast YES/NOT, XOR/XNOR logic gates, binary counter, and double-bit comparator based on all-optical switching by two-photon absorption induced free-carrier injection in silicon 2 × 2 add-drop microring resonators. The proposed circuits have been theoretically analyzed using time-domain coupled-mode theory based on reported experimental values to realize low power (∼ 28 mW) ultrafast (∼ 22 ps) operation with high modulation (80%) and bit rate (45 Gb/s). The designs are complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible and provide advantages of high Q-factor, tunability, compactness, cascadibility, scalability, reconfigurability, simplicity, and minimal number of switches and inputs for realization of the desired logic. Although a two-bit counter has been shown, the scheme can easily be extended to N-bit counter through cascading.

  4. All-optical sub-ps switching and parallel logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin (BR) protein and BR-gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukhdev; Yadav, Chandresh

    2014-12-01

    We propose a model for the early sub-picosecond (sub-ps) transitions in the photochromic bacteriorhodopsin (BR) protein photocycle (B570 → H → I460 → J625 → B570) and present a detailed analysis of ultrafast all-optical switching for different pump-probe combinations. BR excitation with 120 fs pump pulses at 570 or 612 nm results in the switching of cw probe beams at 460 and 580 nm exhibiting reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and saturable absorption (SA) respectively. The effect of pump intensity, pump pulse width, lifetime of I460 state, thickness and concentration on switching has been studied in detail. It is shown that low intensity (MW cm-2), high contrast (100%), sub-ps all-optical switching can be achieved with BR-gold nanoparticle solutions. The validity of the proposed model is evident from the good agreement of theoretical simulations with reported experimental results. The switching characteristics have been optimized to design ultrafast all-optical parallel NOT, OR, AND and the universal NOR and NAND logic gates. High contrast, ultrafast switching at relatively lower pump intensities, compared to other organic molecules, opens up exciting prospects for ultrafast, all-optical information processing with BR and BR nano-biophotonic hybrid materials.

  5. All-optical XOR and OR logic gates based on line and point defects in 2-D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Kiyanoosh; Mir, Ali; Chaharmahali, Iman; Goudarzi, Dariush

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed an all-optical logic gate structure based on line and point defects created in the two dimensional square lattice of silicon rods in air photonic crystals (PhCs). Line defects are embedded in the DX and DZ directions of the momentum space. The device has two input and two output ports. It has been shown analytically whether the initial phase difference between the two input beams is π/2, they interfere together constructively or destructively to realize the logical functions. The simulation results show that the device can acts as a XOR and an OR logic gate. It is applicable in the frequency range of 0-0.45 (a/λ), however we set it at (a/λ=) 0.419 for low dispersion condition, correspondingly the lambda is equal to 1.55 μm. The maximum delay time to response to the input signals is about 0.4 ps, hence the speed of the device is about 2.5 THz. Also 6.767 dB is the maximum contrast ratio of the device.

  6. Fixed weight Hopfield Neural Network based on optical implementation of all-optical MZI-XNOR logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugamesh Mutter, Kussay; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdul Aziz, Azlan

    2010-05-01

    Many researches are conducted to improve Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) performance especially for speed and memory capacity in different approaches. However, there is still a significant scope of developing HNN using Optical Logic Gates. We propose here a new model of HNN based on all-optical XNOR logic gates for real time color image recognition. Firstly, we improved HNN toward optimum learning and converging operations. We considered each unipolar image as a set of small blocks of 3-pixels as vectors for HNN. This enables to save large number of images in the net with best reaching into global minima, and because there are only eight fixed states of weights so that only single iteration performed to construct a vector with stable state at minimum energy. HNN is useless in dealing with data not in bipolar representation. Therefore, HNN failed to work with color images. In RGB bands each represents different values of brightness, for d-bit RGB image it is simply consists of d-layers of unipolar. Each layer is as a single unipolar image for HNN. In addition, the weight matrices with stability of unity at the diagonal perform clear converging in comparison with no self-connecting architecture. Synchronously, each matrix-matrix multiplication operation would run optically in the second part, since we propose an array of all-optical XOR gates, which uses Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) for neurons setup and a controlling system to distribute timely signals with inverting to achieve XNOR function. The primary operation and simulation of the proposal HNN is demonstrated.

  7. PPLN-based all-optical 40 Gbit/s ODB/AMI/FSK wavelength conversion and FSK logic NOT gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Sun, Q.; Sun, J.; Hu, Z.

    2009-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversion for optical duobinary (ODB), alternate-mark inversion (AMI), and frequency-shift keying (FSK) signals and a logic NOT gate for a FSK signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. ODB/AMI/FSK are generated from the demodulation of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) using one-bit-delay fiber delay interferometer (FDI). PPLN-based 40 Gbit/s ODB/AMI/FSK wavelength conversion and FSK logic NOT gate are simultaneously implemented in the experiment.

  8. Ultrafast all-optical logic OR gate based on two-photon absorption with a semiconductor optical amplifier-assisted delayed interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The performance of an all-optical logic OR gate is numerically studied and simulated. This Boolean operation is realized by using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a delayed interferometer (DI) based on two-photon absorption (TPA). The input pulse intensities are high enough so that the two-photon-induced phase change is larger than the regular gain-induced phase change. The study is carried out with the effect of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) taken into account in the simulation analysis. The dependence of the output quality factor ( Q-factor) on the data signals and SOA's parameters is also investigated and discussed. The achieved results show that the OR gate is capable of operating at a data speed of 250 Gb/s with logical correctness and proper Q-factor.

  9. Analytical approach of developing the expression of output of all-optical frequency encoded different logical units and a way-out to implement the logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu

    2010-08-01

    To implement different all optical logic operations, encoding/decoding of optical signal is a very important issue. Since now there are so many types of optical signal encoding and decoding techniques have been adopted, such as intensity encoding, polarization encoding, phase encoding, symbolic substitution technique etc. All these existing techniques have their own limitations. In this context one may mention the frequency encoding/decoding technique. The basic inherent advantage of frequency encoding technique over all other existing techniques is that as the frequency of a signal is the fundamental character of it, it always preserves its identity throughout the communication of the signal, irrespective of reflection, refraction attenuation etc. Again, different optical signal has different distinct frequency which may be encoded as a distinct state of a logic system to represent the information. Adopting this technique it is possible to implement binary logic system as well as higher order logic system such as tristate logic, quaternary logic system etc. The major advantages of multivalued logic system over Boolean logic system are that in multivalued logic system the states of information is very more and as result information storage capacity is high. Again in multivalued logic system carry free and borrow free operation can be implemented which is less time consuming and therefore speed of operation is very fast. We have already developed methods of implementation of different all-optical frequency encoded logic as well as different optical processor. In this communication we propose an analytical approach to develop the expression of the outputs of frequency encoded different binary logic expression in terms of input frequencies from the stand point of basic laws of reflection, transmission and frequency conversion property of optical devices and of course mention the way-out to implement these logic operations.

  10. Femtosecond all-optical parallel logic gates based on tunable saturable to reverse saturable absorption in graphene-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sukhdev Yadav, Chandresh

    2013-12-09

    A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates.

  11. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu Shao, Jinyou; Wang, Yushu

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  12. Photonic encryption using all optical logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Blansett, Ethan L.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tang, Jason D.; Robertson, Perry J.; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tarman, Thomas David; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-12-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines two classes of all optical logic (SEED, gain competition) and how each discrete logic element can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of the SEED and gain competition devices in an optical circuit were modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model of the SEED or gain competition device takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay characteristics. These 'black box' models are interconnected and cascaded in an

  13. Demonstration and optimisation of an ultrafast all-optical AND logic gate using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Razaghi, M; Nosratpour, A; Das, N K

    2013-02-28

    We have proposed an all-optical AND logic gate based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) integrated with an optical filter. In the scheme proposed, the preferred logical function can be performed without using a continuous-wave (cw) signal. The modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MNLSE) is used for the modelling wave propagation in a SOA. The MNLSE takes into account all nonlinear effects relevant to pico- and sub-picosecond pulse durations and is solved by the finite-difference beam-propagation method (FD-BPM). Based on the simulation results, the optimal output signal with a 40-fJ energy can be obtained at a bit rate of 50 Gb s{sup -1}. In the simulations, besides the nonlinearities included in the model, the pattern effect of the signals propagating in the SOA medium and the effect of the input signal bit rate are extensively investigated to optimise the system performance. (optical logic elements)

  14. All-Optical NAND Gate Based on Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Ring Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serajmohammadi, Somaye

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we proposed a new design for all-optical NAND gate. By combining nonlinear Kerr effect with photonic crystal ring resonators first we designed a structure, whose optical behavior can be controlled via input power intensity. The switching power threshold obtained for this structure equal to 1 kW/μm2. For designing the proposed optical logic gate we employed two resonant rings with the same structures, both rings at the logic gates were designed such that their resonant wavelength be at λ=1,550 nm. Every proposed logic gate has one bias and two logic input ports.

  15. Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.

    2004-10-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple and time delay

  16. All-optical NOR and NAND gates based on photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Junjie; Xiao, Jun; Fan, Lin; Li, Xiaoxu; Hai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Chunbo

    2014-10-01

    We report a new configuration of all-optical logic gates based on two-dimensional (2D) square lattice photonic crystals (PCs) composed of silicon (Si) rods in Silica (SiO2). The proposed device is composed of cross-shaped waveguide and two photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs) without nonlinear materials and optical amplifiers. The gate has been simulated and analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) and plane wave expansion (PWE) methods. The simulation results show that the proposed all-optical logic gates could really function as NOR and NAND logic gates. This new device can potentially be used in large-scale optical integration and on-chip photonic logic integrated circuits.

  17. Cascaded all-optical operations in a hybrid integrated 80-Gb/s logic circuit.

    PubMed

    LeGrange, J D; Dinu, M; Sochor, T; Bollond, P; Kasper, A; Cabot, S; Johnson, G S; Kang, I; Grant, A; Kay, J; Jaques, J

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate logic functionalities in a high-speed all-optical logic circuit based on differential Mach-Zehnder interferometers with semiconductor optical amplifiers as the nonlinear optical elements. The circuit, implemented by hybrid integration of the semiconductor optical amplifiers on a planar lightwave circuit platform fabricated in silica glass, can be flexibly configured to realize a variety of Boolean logic gates. We present both simulations and experimental demonstrations of cascaded all-optical operations for 80-Gb/s on-off keyed data.

  18. All-optical depth coloring based on directional gating.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sungjin; Kim, Mugeon; Hahn, Joonku

    2016-09-19

    In non-contacting depth extraction there are several issues, such as the accuracy and the measurement speed. In the issue of the measurement speed, the computation cost for image processing is significant. We present an all-optical depth extraction method by coloring objects according to their depth. Our system is operated fully optically and both encoding and decoding processes are optically performed. Therefore, all-optical depth coloring has a distinct advantage to extract the depth information in real time without any computation cost. We invent a directional gating method to extract the points from the object which are positioned at the same distance. Based on this method, the objects look painted by different colors according to the distance when the objects are observed through our system. In this paper, we demonstrate the all-optical depth coloring system and verify the feasibility of our method. PMID:27661875

  19. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  20. Ultrafast all-optical NOR gate based on semiconductor optical amplifier and fiber delay interferometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Liu, Deming; Huang, Dexiu

    2006-10-30

    An ultrafast all-optical logic NOR gate based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a fiber delay interferometer (FDI) is presented. For high-speed input return-to-zero (RZ) signal, nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) switching windows which satisfy Boolean NOR operation can be formed by properly choosing the delay time and the phase shift of FDI. 40Gb/s NOR operation has been demonstrated successfully with low control optical power. The factors that degrade the NOR operation have been discussed.

  1. Ultrafast all-optical NOR gate based on semiconductor optical amplifier and fiber delay interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xinliang; Liu, Deming; Huang, Dexiu

    2006-10-01

    An ultrafast all-optical logic NOR gate based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a fiber delay interferometer (FDI) is presented. For high-speed input return-to-zero (RZ) signal, nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) switching windows which satisfy Boolean NOR operation can be formed by properly choosing the delay time and the phase shift of FDI. 40Gb/s NOR operation has been demonstrated successfully with low control optical power. The factors that degrade the NOR operation have been discussed.

  2. All-optical 4x10 Gbps NAND gate using single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode.

    PubMed

    Nakarmi, B; Zhang, X; Won, Y H

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate all-optical 4x10 Gbps NAND gate with an individual input data rate of 10 Gbps using single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode. The proposed scheme is based on the principle of multi-input injection locking. All-optical NAND gate is one of the universal logic gates which can be used for realizing all other logic gates for optical communication and networks. The output performance of the proposed all-optical multi-input NAND gate is verified with output spectrum domain results, waveforms, rising-falling time, and eye diagram measurement at 10 Gbps input. The ON/OFF contrast ratio of 41 dB is measured at the spectrum domain output when all four input beams are logic high. In all other combinations of four inputs, maximum ON/OFF contrast ratio of 1.5 dB ON/OFF is measured. Clear output waveform, output eye diagram with an extinction ratio of about 11 dB, and rising-falling time of about 35 ps are obtained. The BER measurement is carried out and we found the power penalty of about 1.7 dB at BER of 10(-9).

  3. Expanded all-optical programmable logic array based on multi-input/output canonical logic units.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Dong, Jianji; Zou, Bingrong; Wu, Zhao; Dong, Wenchan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-04-21

    We present an expanded all-optical programmable logic array (O-PLA) using multi-input and multi-output canonical logic units (CLUs) generation. Based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), two-input and three-input CLUs are simultaneously achieved in five different channels with an operation speed of 40 Gb/s. Clear temporal waveforms and wide open eye diagrams are successfully observed. The effectiveness of the scheme is validated by extinction ratio and optical signal-to-noise ratio measurements. The computing capacity, defined as the total amount of logic functions achieved by the O-PLA, is discussed in detail. For a three-input O-PLA, the computing capacity of the expanded CLUs-PLA is more than two times as large as that of the standard CLUs-PLA, and this multiple will increase to more than three and a half as the idlers are individually independent.

  4. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  5. Deoxyribozyme-based logic gates.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Milan N; Mitchell, Tiffany Elizabeth; Stefanovic, Darko

    2002-04-10

    We report herein a set of deoxyribozyme-based logic gates capable of generating any Boolean function. We construct basic NOT and AND gates, followed by the more complex XOR gate. These gates were constructed through a modular design that combines molecular beacon stem-loops with hammerhead-type deoxyribozymes. Importantly, as the gates have oligonucleotides as both inputs and output, they open the possibility of communication between various computation elements in solution. The operation of these gates is conveniently connected to a fluorescent readout.

  6. Quantum-dot all-optical logic in a structured vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xun; John, Sajeev

    2011-07-15

    We demonstrate multiwavelength channel optical logic operations on the Bloch vector of a quantum two-level system in the structured electromagnetic vacuum of a bimodal photonic crystal waveguide. This arises through a bichromatic strong-coupling effect that enables unprecedented control over single quantum-dot (QD) excitation through two beams of ultrashort femtojoule pulses. The second driving pulse (signal) with slightly different frequency and weaker strength than the first (holding) pulse leads to controllable strong modulation of the QD Bloch vector evolution path. This occurs through resonant coupling of the signal pulse with the Mollow sideband transitions created by the holding pulse. The movement of the Mollow sidebands during the passage of the holding pulse leads to an effective chirping in transition frequency seen by the signal. Bloch vector dynamics in the rotating frame of the signal pulse and within the dressed-state basis created by the holding pulse reveals that this chirped coupling between the signal pulse and the Mollow sidebands leads to either augmentation or negation of the final quantum-dot population (after pulse passage) compared to the outcome of the holding pulse alone and depending on the relative frequencies of the pulses. By making use of this extra degree of freedom for ultrafast control of QD excitations, applications in ultrafast all-optical logic and, or, and not gates are proposed in the presence of significant (0.1) THz nonradiative dephasing and (about 1%) inhomogeneous broadening.

  7. Experimental demonstration of all optical XOR and XNOR gates for differential phase modulated data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakarla, Ravikiran; Venkitesh, Deepa

    2014-05-01

    All optical logic gates play a key role in implementing an optically transparent network where the node functionalities are performed in the optical domain to reduce latency and power consumption. In this paper we present the experimental demonstration and details of optimization of all optical XOR/ XNOR gate using four-wave mixing (FWM) in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) for 10 Gbps Differential Phase Shift Keyed (DPSK) data. Two DPSK modulated signals at carrier frequencies ω1 and ω2, phases ϕ1and ϕ2and a continuous wave pump at frequency ωCW and phase ϕCW are allowed to undergo FWM in a non-linear SOA to generate additional frequency components. The phase of the generated FWM idler corresponding to the frequency ω1+ ω2-ωCW given by ϕ1+ ϕ2- CW corresponds to the XOR operation in DPSK format. Light from a DFB and tunable laser source (TLS) are combined and phase-modulated using a pseudo-random bit sequence. The bit sequences in the two carrier wavelengths are separated in time by propagating through a sufficient length of SMF; the data is combined with a CW pump from a tunable laser and allowed to undergo non-degenerate FWM in a nonlinear SOA. The relative spacing between the pump and the signal wavelengths and their polarization states are optimized to yield maximum conversion efficiency in the desired idler. The XOR output is further propagated through a delay-line interferometer (DLI) to obtain XOR and XNOR outputs in the two ports of the DLI, in the OOK format. Extinction ratio and Contrast ratio of better than 7.2 dB and 10.6 dB respectively for the XNOR gate and 6.8 dB and 7.5 dB for the XOR gaterespectively.

  8. Integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations with the help of a TOAD-based interferometer device--alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Roy, Jitendra; Gayen, Dilip Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Interferometric devices have drawn a great interest in all-optical signal processing for their high-speed photonic activity. The nonlinear optical loop mirror provides a major support to optical switching based all-optical logic and algebraic operations. The gate based on the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has added new momentum in this field. Optical tree architecture (OTA) plays a significant role in the optical interconnecting network. We have tried to exploit the advantages of both OTA- and TOAD-based switches. We have proposed a TOAD-based tree architecture, a new and alternative scheme, for integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations.

  9. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  10. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  11. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  12. 20Gbit/s all-optical logic OR in terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-01-01

    A scheme for all-optical logic OR based on transparent teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (transparent-TOAD) is proposed in this paper. In the transparent-TOAD, the SOA is biased at transparency and the gain recovery time determined by the intraband effect has the value of only a few picoseconds. Numerical analysis shows that the switching window of the transparent-TOAD is only about 0.54ps and the potential for ultrahigh speed all-optical logic processing is shown. Numerical demonstration is performed for 4-bit and 16-bit logic OR at 20Gbit/s. The results coincide with the OR truth table, showing high extinction ratio and no pattern dependency. Detailed analysis is carried out on the performance of the logic OR scheme.

  13. All-Optical Logic Gates in Organic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adbeldayem, H. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Witherow, W.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B.; Banks, E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A picosecond switch made of polydiacetylene thin film coated on the interior of a 50-micron diameter hollow fiber and a nanosecond switch made of a micron thick film of phthalocyanine on glass were developed.

  14. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-04-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy.

  15. All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As energy efficiency becomes a paramount issue in this day and age, reversible computing may serve as a critical step towards energy conservation in information technology. The inputs of reversible computing elements define the outputs and vice versa. Some reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate are also universal; that is, they may be used to produce any logic operation. It is possible to find physical representations for the information, so that when processed with reversible logic, the energy of the output is equal to the energy of the input. It is suggested that there may be devices that will do that without applying any additional power. Here, we present a formalism that may be used to produce any reversible logic gate. We implement this method over an optical design of the Fredkin gate, which utilizes only optical elements that inherently conserve energy. PMID:27113510

  16. Alternative approach of developing all-optical Fredkin and Toffoli gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dhoumendra; Mandal, Sumana; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Reversible logic gates show potential roles in communication technology, and it has a wide area of applicability such as in sequential and combinational circuit of optical computing, optical signal processing, multi-valued logic operations, etc. because of its advantageous aspects of data-recovering capabilities, low power consumption, least power dissipation, faster speed of processing, less hardware complexity, etc. In a reversible logic gate not only the outputs can be determined from the inputs, but also the inputs can be uniquely recovered from the outputs. In this article an alternative approach has been made to develop three-input-output Fredkin and Toffoli gates using the frequency conversion property of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and frequency-based beam routing by optical multiplexers and demultiplexers. Simulation results show the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  17. Design of photonic crystal-based all-optical AND gate using T-shaped waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    haq Shaik, Enaul; Rangaswamy, Nakkeeran

    2016-05-01

    We present a new configuration of all-optical AND gate based on two-dimensional photonic crystal composed of Si rods in air. Two AND gate structures with and without probe input are proposed. The proposed structures are designed with T-shaped waveguide without using nonlinear materials and optical amplifiers. The performance of the proposed AND gate structures is analyzed and simulated by plane-wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The AND gate without probe input needs only one T-shaped waveguide, whereas the AND gate with probe input needs two T-shaped waveguides. The former AND gate offers a bit rate of 6.26 Tbps with a contrast ratio of 5.74 dB, whereas the latter AND gate offers a bit rate of 3.58 Tbps whose contrast ratio is 9.66 dB. It can be expected that these small size T-shaped structures are suitable for large-scale integration and can potentially be used in on-chip photonic integrated circuits.

  18. Design of SOA-MZI based all-optical programmable logic device (PLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath

    2010-06-01

    Photon being the ultimate unit of information with unmatched speed and with data package in a signal of zero mass, the techniques of computing with light may provide a way out of the limitations of computational speed and complexity inherent in electronics computing. Information processing with photon as information carrying signal has shown a high level potentiality through the researches in last few decades. The driving force behind this evolution has been the utilization of interferometric configurations that employ a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as the nonlinear element in combination with cross-phase modulation to achieve switching by means of light. Here, in this paper we present an all-optical circuit of programmable logic device (PLD) with the help of SOA-MZI (Mach-Zehnder interferometer) based optical tree-structured splitter. Numerical simulation result confirming described method is reported here. This paper also explains the applicability of this scheme to perform logical and arithmetic operations in all-optical domain.

  19. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  20. Ultrafast all-optical arithmetic logic based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostimirovic, Dusan; Ye, Winnie N.

    2016-03-01

    For decades, the semiconductor industry has been steadily shrinking transistor sizes to fit more performance into a single silicon-based integrated chip. This technology has become the driving force for advances in education, transportation, and health, among others. However, transistor sizes are quickly approaching their physical limits (channel lengths are now only a few silicon atoms in length), and Moore's law will likely soon be brought to a stand-still despite many unique attempts to keep it going (FinFETs, high-k dielectrics, etc.). This technology must then be pushed further by exploring (almost) entirely new methodologies. Given the explosive growth of optical-based long-haul telecommunications, we look to apply the use of high-speed optics as a substitute to the digital model; where slow, lossy, and noisy metal interconnections act as a major bottleneck to performance. We combine the (nonlinear) optical Kerr effect with a single add-drop microring resonator to perform the fundamental AND-XOR logical operations of a half adder, by all-optical means. This process is also applied to subtraction, higher-order addition, and the realization of an all-optical arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The rings use hydrogenated amorphous silicon as a material with superior nonlinear properties to crystalline silicon, while still maintaining CMOS-compatibility and the many benefits that come with it (low cost, ease of fabrication, etc.). Our method allows for multi-gigabit-per-second data rates while maintaining simplicity and spatial minimalism in design for high-capacity manufacturing potential.

  1. All-optical AND gate with improved extinction ratio using signal induced nonlinearities in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Q; Connelly, M J

    2006-04-01

    An all-optical AND gate based on optically induced nonlinear polarization rotation of a probe light in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier is realized at a bit rate of 2.5Gbit/s. By operating the AND gate in an up and inverted wavelength conversion scheme, the extinction ratio is improved by 8dB compared with previously published work.

  2. Quantum logic gates for superconducting resonator qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2011-11-15

    We study quantum information processing using superpositions of Fock states in superconducting resonators as quantum d-level systems (qudits). A universal set of single and coupled logic gates is theoretically proposed for resonators coupled by superconducting circuits of Josephson junctions. These gates use experimentally demonstrated interactions and provide an attractive route to quantum information processing using harmonic oscillator modes.

  3. All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and designing of reconfigurable logic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-12-01

    The design of all-optical 2 × 2 Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch is proposed and described in this manuscript. Numerical simulation has been done to achieve the performance of the switch. Using this 2 × 2 TOAD based switch, cross-bar network architecture is designed. A reconfigurable logic unit is also proposed in this manuscript, which can perform 16-Boolean logical operations.

  4. Logic gates based on ion transistors.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits. PMID:22643898

  5. Logic gates based on ion transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

  6. Entanglement and Quantum Logical Gates. Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Leporini, R.; Sergioli, G.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the notion of proper unitary connective-gate and we prove that entanglement cannot be characterized by such gates. We consider then a larger class of gates (called pseudo-unitary gates), which contains both the unitary and the anti-unitary quantum operations. By using a mixed language (a proper extension of the standard quantum computational language), we show how a logical characterization of entanglement is possible in the framework of a mixed semantics, which generalizes both the unitary and the pseudo-unitary quantum computational semantics.

  7. Optical NOR logic gate design on square lattice photonic crystal platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate a new configuration of all-optical NOR logic gate with square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The logic operations are based on interference effect of optical waves. We have determined the operating frequency range by calculating the band structure for a perfectly periodic PhC using plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Response time of this logic gate is 1.98 ps and it can be operated with speed about 513 GB/s. The proposed device consists of four linear waveguides and a square ring resonator waveguides on PhC platform.

  8. Proposed new approach to design all optical AND gate using plasmonic based Mach-Zehnder interferometer for high speed communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra

    2016-04-01

    The limitation of conventional electronics is mitigated by all optical integrated circuits which have potential of high speed computing and information processing. In this work, an all optical AND gate using optical Kerr effect and optical bistability of a plasmonic based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed. An MZI is capable for switching of light according to the intensities of optical input signal. The paper constitutes with mathematical formulation of device and its study is verified using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  9. Multiphoton resonances for all-optical quantum logic with multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, Mark S.; Garraway, Barry M.

    2014-07-01

    We develop a theory for the interaction of multilevel atoms with multimode cavities yielding cavity-enhanced multiphoton resonances. The locations of the resonances are predicted from the use of effective two- and three-level Hamiltonians. As an application we show that quantum gates can be realized when photonic qubits are encoded on the cavity modes in arrangements where ancilla atoms transit the cavity. The fidelity of operations is increased by conditional measurements on the atom and by the use of a selected, dual-rail, Hilbert space. A universal set of gates is proposed, including the Fredkin gate and iswap operation; the system seems promising for scalability.

  10. Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.

  11. Universal programmable logic gate and routing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.

  12. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  13. Optical soliton-based logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Steven M.

    1998-09-01

    With the advent of high-bandwidth optical communications, the need for switching technologies capable of handling this information flow becomes imperative. Optical switches are the natural technology to investigate because they eliminate the optical/electronic conversion and their operation can scale with the data rate, unlike electronics. Additional capabilities can be provided through the development of optical logic gates, which have the further properties of data regeneration, gain, cascadability, and the ability to implement more complex operations than possible with a simple switch. The goal of this work is to study in-depth an implementation of optical logic gates based on spatial and spatio-temporal solitons. Optical solitons propagate long distances without change and have additional properties that are beneficial for the representation of binary data such as stability to perturbations and existence above a threshold power or energy. The non- diffracting nature of spatial optical solitons lends to their use in a class of angular deflection logic gates in which a weak signal can alter the propagation of a strong pump in order to change the device state from high to low, thereby implementing a controlled inverter which is cascadable to produce logically-complete, multi-input NOR. A significant portion of this work is devoted to developing a theoretical and numerical framework to describe general, multi-dimensional, nonlinear spatio- temporal wave phenomena. This is accomplished by starting directly from Maxwell's equations and deriving via the multiple-scales perturbation technique a first-order, fully-vectorial, nonlinear wave equation, that is valid beyond the standard slowly-varying amplitude, slowly- varying envelope, and paraxial approximations. In addition to coupling with the orthogonal transverse field, vector coupling with the weak longitudinally- projected field is also treated, along with the cascaded interaction with a weak third-harmonic wave

  14. Bimetal switches in an AND logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrica, Joel V.; Lubrica, Quantum Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    In this frontline, we use bimetal switches to provide inputs in an electrical AND logic gate. These switches can be obtained from the pre-heat starters of fluorescent lamps, by safely removing the glass enclosure. They may be activated by small open flames. This frontline has a historical aspect because fluorescent lamps, together with pre-heat starters, are now being replaced by compact fluorescent, halogen, and LED lamps.

  15. New configuration of photonic logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, JunZhen; Wang, Junqin; Xu, Xiaofu; Li, Junjun; Chen, Xiyao; Qiu, Yishen; Qiang, Zexuan

    2010-10-01

    We report a new configuration of logic gates based on single hexagonal-lattice PCRR composed of cylindrical silicon rods in air. Two types of inner ring including regular hexagonal and circular are numerically discussed by using 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The impact of surrounding periods and scatterers like size and relative phase at each input port was investigated. The logic '0' and '1' of hexagonal ring can be defined as less than 17% and greater than 85%, respectively, much better than early reported square-lattice results. The simulation results also proved that photonic logic gates based on this new single PCRR can really function as NOT and NOR gates, respectively. These findings make PCRRs potential applications for all-optical logic circuits and ultra-compact high density photonic integration.

  16. Fast, high-fidelity, all-optical and dynamically-controlled polarization gate using room-temperature atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Runbing; Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a fast, all-optical polarization gate in a room-temperature atomic medium. Using a Polarization-Selective-Kerr-Phase-Shift (PSKPS) technique, we selectively write a π phase shift to one circularly-polarized component of a linearly-polarized input signal field. The output signal field maintains its original strength but acquires a 90° linear polarization rotation, demonstrating fast, high-fidelity, dynamically-controlled polarization gate operation. The intensity of the polarization-switching field used in this PKSPK-based polarization gate operation is only 2 mW/cm{sup 2}, which would be equivalent to 0.5 nW of light power (λ = 800 nm) confined in a typical commercial photonic hollow-core fiber. This development opens a realm of possibilities for potential future extremely low light level telecommunication and information processing systems.

  17. Molecular level all-optical logic with chlorophyll absorption spectrum and polarization sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, B.; Bhattacharyya (Bhaumik), S.

    2008-06-01

    Chlorophyll is suggested as a suitable medium for realizing optical Boolean logic at the molecular level in view of its wavelength-selective property and polarization sensitivity in the visible region. Spectrophotometric studies are made with solutions of total chlorophyll and chromatographically isolated components, viz. chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids extracted from pumpkin leaves of different maturity stages. The absorption features of matured chlorophyll with two characteristic absorption peaks and one transmission band are molecular properties and independent of concentration. A qualitative explanation of such an absorption property is presented in terms of a ‘particle in a box’ model and the property is employed to simulate two-input optical logic operations. If both of the inputs are either red or blue, absorption is high. If either one is absent and replaced by a wavelength of the transmission band, e.g. green, absorption is low. Assigning these values as 0 s or 1 s, AND and OR operations can be performed. A NOT operation can be simulated with the transmittance instead of the absorbance. Also, the shift in absorbance values for two different polarizations of the same monochromatic light can simulate two logical states with a single wavelength. Cyclic change in absorbance is noted over a rotation of 360° for both red and blue peaks, although the difference is not very large. Red monochromatic light with polarizations apart by 90°, corresponding to maximum and minimum absorption, respectively, may be assigned as the two logical states. The fluorescence emissions for different pigment components are measured at different excitation wavelengths and the effect of fluorescence on the red absorbance is concluded to be negligible.

  18. All optical switching in henna thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, Fryad Z.; Jasim, Khalil E.

    2013-08-01

    The optical nonlinearity in henna (Lawson (2- hydroxyl-1,4 naphthoquinone) film was utilized to demonstrate all optical switching. The nonlinear absorption of the henna film was calculated by measuring the transmission of the laser beam ( λ = 488 nm) as a function of incident light intensities. The observed nonlinear absorption is attributed to a two-photon absorption process. The pump and probe technique was used to demonstrate all optical switching. The switching characteristics can be utilized to generate all-optical logic gates such as simple inverter switches (NOT) NOR, AND NAND logic functions.

  19. All-optical digital logic: Full addition or subtraction on a three-state system

    SciTech Connect

    Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.

    2006-03-15

    Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is a well-studied pump-probe control scheme for manipulating the population of quantum states of atoms or molecules. By encoding the digits to be operated on as 'on' or 'off' laser input signals we show how STIRAP can be used to implement a finite-state logic machine. The physical conditions required for an effective STIRAP operation are related to the physical conditions expected for a logic machine. In particular, a condition is derived on the mean number of photons that represent an on pulse. A finite-state machine computes Boolean expressions that depend both on the input and on the present state of the machine. With two input signals we show how to implement a full adder where the carry-in digit is stored in the state of the machine. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to store the carry-out digit as the next state and thereby return the machine to a state ready for the next full addition. Such a machine operates as a cyclical full adder. We further show how this full adder can equally well be operated as a full subtractor. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of a nanosized system that implements a full subtraction.

  20. Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate

    PubMed Central

    López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input–output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333

  1. Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, M; Neri, I; Gammaitoni, L

    2016-01-01

    In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed. PMID:27350333

  2. Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Suárez, M.; Neri, I.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2016-06-01

    In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.

  3. Block QCA Fault-Tolerant Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firjany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon

    2003-01-01

    Suitably patterned arrays (blocks) of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as fault-tolerant universal logic gates. These block QCA gates could be used to realize the potential of QCA for further miniaturization, reduction of power consumption, increase in switching speed, and increased degree of integration of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuits. The limitations of conventional VLSI circuitry, the basic principle of operation of QCA, and the potential advantages of QCA-based VLSI circuitry were described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35; and Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs (NPO-20923), which follows this article. To recapitulate the principle of operation (greatly oversimplified because of the limitation on space available for this article): A quantum-dot cellular automata contains four quantum dots positioned at or between the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantummechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Heretofore, researchers have recognized two major obstacles to realization of QCA

  4. The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-01

    The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.

  5. All optical controlled-NOT gate based on an exciton-polariton circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solnyshkov, D. D.; Bleu, O.; Malpuech, G.

    2015-07-01

    We propose an implementation of a CNOT gate for quantum computing based on a patterned microcavity polariton system, which can be manufactured using the modern technological facilities. The qubits are encoded in the spin-coherent polariton states. The structure consists of two wire cavities oriented at 45° with a micropillar between them. The polariton spin rotates due to the Longitudinal-Transverse splitting between polarization eigenstates in the wires. In the pillar, the optically generated circularly polarized polariton macrooccupied state plays the role of the control qubit. Because of the spin-anisotropic polariton interaction, it induces an effective magnetic field along the Z-direction with a sign depending on the qubit value.

  6. Design of a Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2003-01-01

    A programmable logic gate array has been designed utilizing ferroelectric field effect transistors. The design has only a small number of gates, but this could be scaled up to a more useful size. Using FFET's in a logic array gives several advantages. First, it allows real-time programmability to the array to give high speed reconfiguration. It also allows the array to be configured nearly an unlimited number of times, unlike a FLASH FPGA. Finally, the Ferroelectric Programmable Logic Gate Array (FPLGA) can be implemented using a smaller number of transistors because of the inherent logic characteristics of an FFET. The device was only designed and modeled using Spice models of the circuit, including the FFET. The actual device was not produced. The design consists of a small array of NAND and NOR logic gates. Other gates could easily be produced. They are linked by FFET's that control the logic flow. Timing and logic tables have been produced showing the array can produce a variety of logic combinations at a real time usable speed. This device could be a prototype for a device that could be put into imbedded systems that need the high speed of hardware implementation of logic and the complexity to need to change the logic algorithm. Because of the non-volatile nature of the FFET, it would also be useful in situations that needed to program a logic array once and use it repeatedly after the power has been shut off.

  7. Reprogrammable Logic Gate and Logic Circuit Based on Multistimuli-Responsive Raspberry-like Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved. PMID:27237969

  8. Cascading of molecular logic gates for advanced functions: a self-reporting, activatable photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Erbas-Cakmak, Sundus; Akkaya, Engin U

    2013-10-18

    Logical progress: Independent molecular logic gates have been designed and characterized. Then, the individual molecular logic gates were coerced to work together within a micelle. Information relay between the two logic gates was achieved through the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. Working together, these concatenated logic gates result in a self-reporting and activatable photosensitizer. GSH=glutathione. PMID:24030974

  9. G4-FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Travis; Fijany, Amir; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Vatan, Farrokh; Toomarian, Nikzad; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Blalock, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of a patented generic silicon- on-insulator (SOI) electronic device called a G4-FET has revealed that the device could be designed to function as a universal and programmable logic gate. The universality and programmability could be exploited to design logic circuits containing fewer discrete components than are required for conventional transistor-based circuits performing the same logic functions. A G4-FET is a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G4-FET can also be regarded as a single transistor having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of the SOI substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. With proper choice of the specific dimensions for the gates, channels, and ancillary features of the generic G4-FET, the device could be made to function as a three-input, one-output logic gate. As illustrated by the truth table in the top part of the figure, the behavior of this logic gate would be the inverse (the NOT) of that of a majority gate. In other words, the device would function as a NOT-majority gate. By simply adding an inverter, one could obtain a majority gate. In contrast, to construct a majority gate in conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, one would need four three-input AND gates and a four-input OR gate, altogether containing 32 transistors.

  10. Slime mould processors, logic gates and sensors.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, A

    2015-07-28

    A heterotic, or hybrid, computation implies that two or more substrates of different physical nature are merged into a single device with indistinguishable parts. These hybrid devices then undertake coherent acts on programmable and sensible processing of information. We study the potential of heterotic computers using slime mould acting under the guidance of chemical, mechanical and optical stimuli. Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioural morphological patterns in response to changing environmental conditions. Given data represented by chemical or physical stimuli, we can employ and modify the behaviour of the slime mould to make it solve a range of computing and sensing tasks. We overview results of laboratory experimental studies on prototyping of the slime mould morphological processors for approximation of Voronoi diagrams, planar shapes and solving mazes, and discuss logic gates implemented via collision of active growing zones and tactile responses of P. polycephalum. We also overview a range of electronic components--memristor, chemical, tactile and colour sensors-made of the slime mould.

  11. Quantum logic gates from Dirac quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, E. C.; Brozeguini, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    We show that one of the fundamental operations of topological quantum computation, namely the non-Abelian braiding of identical particles, can be physically realized in a general system of Dirac quasiparticles in 1 + 1D. Our method is based on the study of the analytic structure of the different Euclidean correlation functions of Dirac fields, which are conveniently expressed as functions of a complex variable. When the Dirac field is an (Abelian) anyon with statistics parameter s (2s not an integer), we show that the associated Majorana states of such a field present non-Abelian statistics. The explicit form of the unitary, non-commuting (monodromy) matrices generated upon braiding is derived as a function of s and is shown to satisfy the Yang-Baxter algebra. For the special case of s = 1/4, we show that the braiding matrices become the logic gates NOT, CNOT,… required in the algorithms of universal quantum computation. We suggest that maybe polyacetylene, alternately doped with alkali and halogen atoms, is a potential candidate for a physical material realization of the system studied here.

  12. Addendum to 'Single-photon logic gates using minimum resources'

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Qing; He Bing

    2010-12-15

    The authors call attention to a previous work [Lin and He, Phys. Rev. A 80, 042310 (2009)] on the realization of multiqubit logic gates with controlled-path and merging gates. We supplement the work by showing how to efficiently implement quantum algorithms in this approach and by providing guide rules for the task.

  13. Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.

  14. An OR logic gate based on two molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yang, Renqiang

    2012-03-01

    Design of elementary molecular logic gates is the key and the fundamental of performing complicated Boolean calculations. Herein, we report a strategy for constructing a DNA-based OR gate by using the mechanism of sequence recognition and the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In this system, the gate is entirely composed of a single strand of DNA (A, B and C) and the inputs are the molecular beacon probes (MB1 and MB2). Changes in fluorescence intensity confirm the realization of the OR logic operation and electrophoresis experiments verify these results. Our successful application of DNA to perform the binary operation represents that DNA can serve as an efficient biomaterial for designing molecular logic gates and devices.

  15. Feasibility study for a generalized gate logic software simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Unit-delay simulation, event driven simulation, zero-delay simulation, simulation techniques, 2-valued versus multivalued logic, network initialization, gate operations and alternate network representations, parallel versus serial mode simulation fault modelling, extension of multiprocessor systems, and simulation timing are discussed. Functional level networks, gate equivalent circuits, the prototype BDX-930 network model, fault models, identifying detected faults for BGLOSS are discussed. Preprocessor tasks, postprocessor tasks, executive tasks, and a library of bliss coded macros for GGLOSS are also discussed.

  16. Simple novel all-optical half-adder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixin

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of Sagnac interferometric structure, a simple novel ultrafast scheme of all-optical half-adder is proposed. The structure comprises two of the same balanced terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexers (TOADs). One TOAD is utilized to achieve an all-optical XOR gate, which is logic SUM. The other is utilized to obtain an all-optical AND gate, which is logic CARRY. Logical SUM and CARRY are simultaneously realized at 80 Gbit/s. Through numerical analysis, the operating characteristics of the scheme are illustrated at 80 Gbit/s. Furthermore, the carrier recovery time of the semiconductor optical amplifier is no longer a crucial parameter to restrict the operation speed of this scheme.

  17. Comparison of all optical forwarding packet architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Rim; Farhat, Amel; Menif, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper two all optical packet forwarding architectures based on non linear effect in semiconductor optical amplifier in Mach-Zehnder configuration SOA-MZI are studied. The first architecture consist in combing flip flop functionality with the AND logic functionality in the same unit. Error free operation at 40 Gbps for two cascaded nodes is achieved. In the second architecture two separated units namely the flip flop and the AND logic gate are used. 100 Gbps bit rate is reached. At 40 Gbps error free operation is achieved for three cascaded nodes.

  18. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  19. A two-qubit logic gate in silicon.

    PubMed

    Veldhorst, M; Yang, C H; Hwang, J C C; Huang, W; Dehollain, J P; Muhonen, J T; Simmons, S; Laucht, A; Hudson, F E; Itoh, K M; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2015-10-15

    Quantum computation requires qubits that can be coupled in a scalable manner, together with universal and high-fidelity one- and two-qubit logic gates. Many physical realizations of qubits exist, including single photons, trapped ions, superconducting circuits, single defects or atoms in diamond and silicon, and semiconductor quantum dots, with single-qubit fidelities that exceed the stringent thresholds required for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Despite this, high-fidelity two-qubit gates in the solid state that can be manufactured using standard lithographic techniques have so far been limited to superconducting qubits, owing to the difficulties of coupling qubits and dephasing in semiconductor systems. Here we present a two-qubit logic gate, which uses single spins in isotopically enriched silicon and is realized by performing single- and two-qubit operations in a quantum dot system using the exchange interaction, as envisaged in the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal. We realize CNOT gates via controlled-phase operations combined with single-qubit operations. Direct gate-voltage control provides single-qubit addressability, together with a switchable exchange interaction that is used in the two-qubit controlled-phase gate. By independently reading out both qubits, we measure clear anticorrelations in the two-spin probabilities of the CNOT gate. PMID:26436453

  20. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  1. Low-photon-number optical switch and AND/OR logic gates based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing. PMID:26750557

  2. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  3. Tackling systematic errors in quantum logic gates with composite rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Holly K.; Llewellyn, Gavin; Jones, Jonathan A.

    2003-04-01

    We describe the use of composite rotations to combat systematic errors in single-qubit quantum logic gates and discuss three families of composite rotations which can be used to correct off-resonance and pulse length errors. Although developed and described within the context of nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing, these sequences should be applicable to any implementation of quantum computation.

  4. Looking for Speed!! Go Optical Ultra-Fast Photonic Logic Gates for the Future Optical Communication and Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin; Paley, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we developed two ultra-fast all-optical switches in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The picosecond switch is made of a polydiacetylene thin film coated on the interior wall of a hollow capillary of approximately 50 micron diameter by a photo-polymerization process. In the setup a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 10 Hz and at 532 nm with a pulse duration of approximately 40 ps was sent collinearly along a cw He-Ne laser beam and both were waveguided through the hollow capillary. The setup functioned as an Exclusive OR gate. On the other hand, the material used in the nanosecond switch is a phthalocyanine thin film, deposited on a glass substrate by a vapor deposition technique. In the setup a nanosecond, 10 Hz, Nd:YAG laser of 8 ns pulse duration was sent collinearly along a cw He-Ne laser beam and both were wave-guided through the phthalocyanine thin film. The setup in this case functioned as an all-optical AND logic gate. The characteristic table of the ExOR gate in polydiacetylene film was attributed to an excited state absorption process, while that of the AND gate was attributed to a saturation process of the first excited state. Both mechanisms were thoroughly investigated theoretically and found to agree remarkably well with the experimental results. An all-optical inverter gate has been designed but has not yet been demonstrated. The combination of all these three gates form the foundation for building all the necessary gates needed to build a prototype of an all-optical system.

  5. Operating principle and integration of in-plane gate logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Y.; Saba, K.; Onomitsu, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Horikoshi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Logic devices based on in-plane gate (IPG) transistors are realized and their electrical characteristics and integration are investigated. We present logic devices based on lateral gate structures using an additional IPG transistor as a load resistance. These logic devices show clear input-output characteristics and voltage transfer curves as a logic device and the Hi/Low ratio is high enough for reliable logic operations. Furthermore, the IPG logic devices operate at low current levels. Monolithic NOT-gate is demonstrated and the number of terminals and wiring are considerably reduced by using our IPG logic devices compared to logic devices based on CMOS transistors.

  6. Genetic programs constructed from layered logic gates in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Tae Seok; Lou, Chunbo; Tamsir, Alvin; Stanton, Brynne C.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic programs function to integrate environmental sensors, implement signal processing algorithms and control expression dynamics1. These programs consist of integrated genetic circuits that individually implement operations ranging from digital logic to dynamic circuits2–6, and they have been used in various cellular engineering applications, including the implementation of process control in metabolic networks and the coordination of spatial differentiation in artificial tissues. A key limitation is that the circuits are based on biochemical interactions occurring in the confined volume of the cell, so the size of programs has been limited to a few circuits1,7. Here we apply part mining and directed evolution to build a set of transcriptional AND gates in Escherichia coli. Each AND gate integrates two promoter inputs and controls one promoter output. This allows the gates to be layered by having the output promoter of an upstream circuit serve as the input promoter for a downstream circuit. Each gate consists of a transcription factor that requires a second chaperone protein to activate the output promoter. Multiple activator–chaperone pairs are identified from type III secretion pathways in different strains of bacteria. Directed evolution is applied to increase the dynamic range and orthogonality of the circuits. These gates are connected in different permutations to form programs, the largest of which is a 4-input AND gate that consists of 3 circuits that integrate 4 inducible systems, thus requiring 11 regulatory proteins. Measuring the performance of individual gates is sufficient to capture the behaviour of the complete program. Errors in the output due to delays (faults), a common problem for layered circuits, are not observed. This work demonstrates the successful layering of orthogonal logic gates, a design strategy that could enable the construction of large, integrated circuits in single cells. PMID:23041931

  7. Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. R.; Gaebler, J. P.; Lin, Y.; Wan, Y.; Bowler, R.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. In the field of quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum networking, various proposals discuss the possibility of hybrid architectures where specific tasks are delegated to the most suitable subsystem. For example, in quantum networks, it may be advantageous to transfer information from a subsystem that has good memory properties to another subsystem that is more efficient at transporting information between nodes in the network. For trapped ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. Ions of different elements have previously been used in QIP experiments for sympathetic cooling, creation of entanglement through dissipation, and quantum non-demolition measurement of one species with another. Here we demonstrate an entangling quantum gate between ions of different elements which can serve as an important building block of QIP, quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. A geometric phase gate between a 9Be+ ion and a 25Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces induced with laser beams. Combined with single-qubit gates and same-species entangling gates, this mixed-element entangling gate provides a complete set of gates over such a hybrid system for universal QIP. Using a sequence of such gates, we demonstrate a CNOT (controlled-NOT) gate and a SWAP gate. We further demonstrate the robustness of these gates against thermal excitation and show improved detection in quantum logic spectroscopy. We also observe a strong violation of a CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt)-type Bell inequality on entangled states composed of different ion species.

  8. Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits.

    PubMed

    Tan, T R; Gaebler, J P; Lin, Y; Wan, Y; Bowler, R; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2015-12-17

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. In the field of quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum networking, various proposals discuss the possibility of hybrid architectures where specific tasks are delegated to the most suitable subsystem. For example, in quantum networks, it may be advantageous to transfer information from a subsystem that has good memory properties to another subsystem that is more efficient at transporting information between nodes in the network. For trapped ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. Ions of different elements have previously been used in QIP experiments for sympathetic cooling, creation of entanglement through dissipation, and quantum non-demolition measurement of one species with another. Here we demonstrate an entangling quantum gate between ions of different elements which can serve as an important building block of QIP, quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. A geometric phase gate between a (9)Be(+) ion and a (25)Mg(+) ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces induced with laser beams. Combined with single-qubit gates and same-species entangling gates, this mixed-element entangling gate provides a complete set of gates over such a hybrid system for universal QIP. Using a sequence of such gates, we demonstrate a CNOT (controlled-NOT) gate and a SWAP gate. We further demonstrate the robustness of these gates against thermal excitation and show improved detection in quantum logic spectroscopy. We also observe a strong violation of a CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt)-type Bell inequality on entangled states composed of different ion species. PMID:26672553

  9. N channel JFET based digital logic gate structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topography is presented which is used to create usable digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the direct current (DC) parametric distributions of those JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state of the art in high temperature, for example 300.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and higher, silicon carbide (SiC) device production. The ability to produce inverting and combinatorial logic enables the production of pulse and edge triggered latches. This scale of logic synthesis would bring digital logic and state machine capabilities to devices operating in extremely hot environments, such as the surface of Venus, near hydrothermal vents, within nuclear reactors (SiC is inherently radiation hardened), and within internal combustion engines. The basic logic gate can be configured as a driver for oscillator circuits allowing for time bases and simple digitizers for resistive or reactive sensors. The basic structure of this innovation, the inverter, can be reconfigured into various analog circuit topographies through the use of feedback structures.

  10. Three-input majority logic gate and multiple input logic circuit based on DNA strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2013-06-12

    In biomolecular programming, the properties of biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids are harnessed for computational purposes. The field has gained considerable attention due to the possibility of exploiting the massive parallelism that is inherent in natural systems to solve computational problems. DNA has already been used to build complex molecular circuits, where the basic building blocks are logic gates that produce single outputs from one or more logical inputs. We designed and experimentally realized a three-input majority gate based on DNA strand displacement. One of the key features of a three-input majority gate is that the three inputs have equal priority, and the output will be true if any of the two inputs are true. Our design consists of a central, circular DNA strand with three unique domains between which are identical joint sequences. Before inputs are introduced to the system, each domain and half of each joint is protected by one complementary ssDNA that displays a toehold for subsequent displacement by the corresponding input. With this design the relationship between any two domains is analogous to the relationship between inputs in a majority gate. Displacing two or more of the protection strands will expose at least one complete joint and return a true output; displacing none or only one of the protection strands will not expose a complete joint and will return a false output. Further, we designed and realized a complex five-input logic gate based on the majority gate described here. By controlling two of the five inputs the complex gate can realize every combination of OR and AND gates of the other three inputs.

  11. Orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions for resettable electronic logic gates

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced electronic functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable electronic logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design. PMID:24394717

  12. Magnetic skyrmion logic gates: conversion, duplication and merging of skyrmions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichao; Ezawa, Motohiko; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions, which are topological particle-like excitations in ferromagnets, have attracted a lot of attention recently. Skyrmionics is an attempt to use magnetic skyrmions as information carriers in next generation spintronic devices. Proposals of manipulations and operations of skyrmions are highly desired. Here, we show that the conversion, duplication and merging of isolated skyrmions with different chirality and topology are possible all in one system. We also demonstrate the conversion of a skyrmion into another form of a skyrmion, i.e., a bimeron. We design spin logic gates such as the AND and OR gates based on manipulations of skyrmions. These results provide important guidelines for utilizing the topology of nanoscale spin textures as information carriers in novel magnetic sensors and spin logic devices. PMID:25802991

  13. Characteristics Of Ferroelectric Logic Gates Using a Spice-Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Phillips, Thomas A.; Ho, Fat D.

    2005-01-01

    A SPICE-based model of an n-channel ferroelectric field effect transistor has been developed based on both theoretical and empirical data. This model was used to generate the I-V characteristic of several logic gates. The use of ferroelectric field effect transistors in memory circuits is being developed by several organizations. The use of FFETs in other circuits, both analog and digital needs to be better understood. The ability of FFETs to have different characteristics depending on the initial polarization can be used to create logic gates. These gates can have properties not available to standard CMOS logic gates, such as memory, reconfigurability and memory. This paper investigates basic properties of FFET logic gates. It models FFET inverter, NAND gate and multi-input NAND gate. The I-V characteristics of the gates are presented as well as transfer characteristics and timing. The model used is a SPICE-based model developed from empirical data from actual Ferroelectric transistors. It simulates all major characteristics of the ferroelectric transistor, including polarization, hysteresis and decay. Contrasts are made of the differences between FFET logic gates and CMOS logic gates. FFET parameters are varied to show the effect on the overall gate. A recodigurable gate is investigated which is not possible with CMOS circuits. The paper concludes that FFETs can be used in logic gates and have several advantages over standard CMOS gates.

  14. An enzyme-free and DNA-based Feynman gate for logically reversible operation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Wu, Changtong; Liu, Dali; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-06-28

    A logically reversible Feynman gate was successfully realized under enzyme-free conditions by integrating graphene oxide and DNA for the first time. The gate has a one-to-one mapping function to identify inputs from the corresponding outputs. This type of reversible logic gate may have great potential applications in information processing and biosensing systems.

  15. An enzyme-free and DNA-based Feynman gate for logically reversible operation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunyang; Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Wu, Changtong; Liu, Dali; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-06-28

    A logically reversible Feynman gate was successfully realized under enzyme-free conditions by integrating graphene oxide and DNA for the first time. The gate has a one-to-one mapping function to identify inputs from the corresponding outputs. This type of reversible logic gate may have great potential applications in information processing and biosensing systems. PMID:26028329

  16. Parallel Transport Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    de Clercq, Ludwig E; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2016-02-26

    We demonstrate single-qubit operations by transporting a beryllium ion with a controlled velocity through a stationary laser beam. We use these to perform coherent sequences of quantum operations, and to perform parallel quantum logic gates on two ions in different processing zones of a multiplexed ion trap chip using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate individually addressed single-qubit gates by local control of the speed of each ion. The fidelities we observe are consistent with operations performed using standard methods involving static ions and pulsed laser fields. This work therefore provides a path to scalable ion trap quantum computing with reduced requirements on the optical control complexity. PMID:26967401

  17. Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049

  18. Rational Design of a Fusion Protein to Exhibit Disulfide-Mediated Logic Gate Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic cellular logic gates are primarily built from gene circuits owing to their inherent modularity. Single proteins can also possess logic gate functions and offer the potential to be simpler, quicker, and less dependent on cellular resources than gene circuits. However, the design of protein logic gates that are modular and integrate with other cellular components is a considerable challenge. As a step toward addressing this challenge, we describe the design, construction, and characterization of AND, ORN, and YES logic gates built by introducing disulfide bonds into RG13, a fusion of maltose binding protein and TEM-1 β-lactamase for which maltose is an allosteric activator of enzyme activity. We rationally designed these disulfide bonds to manipulate RG13’s allosteric regulation mechanism such that the gating had maltose and reducing agents as input signals, and the gates could be toggled between different gating functions using redox agents, although some gates performed suboptimally. PMID:25144732

  19. Orthogonal Ambipolar Semiconductor Nanostructures for Complementary Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiguo; Markwart, Jens C; Briseno, Alejandro L; Hayward, Ryan C

    2016-09-27

    We report orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors that exhibit hole and electron transport in perpendicular directions based on aligned films of nanocrystalline "shish-kebabs" containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and N,N'-di-n-octyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as p- and n-type components, respectively. Polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements reveal a high degree of in-plane alignment. Relying on the orientation of interdigitated electrodes to enable efficient charge transport from either the respective p- or n-channel materials, we demonstrate semiconductor films with high anisotropy in the sign of charge carriers. Films of these aligned crystalline semiconductors were used to fabricate complementary inverter devices, which exhibited good switching behavior and a high noise margin of 80% of 1/2 Vdd. Moreover, complementary "NAND" and "NOR" logic gates were fabricated and found to exhibit excellent voltage transfer characteristics and low static power consumption. The ability to optimize the performance of these devices, simply by adjusting the solution concentrations of P3HT and PDI, makes this a simple and versatile method for preparing ambipolar organic semiconductor devices and high-performance logic gates. Further, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to mixtures of PDI with another conjugated polymer, poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene]) (PBTTT), with better hole transport characteristics than P3HT, opening the door to orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors with higher performance.

  20. Construction of a fuzzy and Boolean logic gates based on DNA.

    PubMed

    Zadegan, Reza M; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Birkedal, Victoria; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-04-17

    Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics.

  1. MOSFET-like CNFET based logic gate library for low-power application: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowri Sankar, P. A.; Udhayakumar, K.

    2014-07-01

    The next generation of logic gate devices are expected to depend upon radically new technologies mainly due to the increasing difficulties and limitations of existing CMOS technology. MOSFET like CNFETs should ideally be the best devices to work with for high-performance VLSI. This paper presents results of a comprehensive comparative study of MOSFET-like carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) technology based logic gate library for high-speed, low-power operation than conventional bulk CMOS libraries. It focuses on comparing four promising logic families namely: complementary-CMOS (C-CMOS), transmission gate (TG), complementary pass logic (CPL) and Domino logic (DL) styles are presented. Based on these logic styles, the proposed library of static and dynamic NAND-NOR logic gates, XOR, multiplexer and full adder functions are implemented efficiently and carefully analyzed with a test bench to measure propagation delay and power dissipation as a function of supply voltage. This analysis provides the right choice of logic style for low-power, high-speed applications. Proposed logic gates libraries are simulated using Synopsys HSPICE based on the standard 32 nm CNFET model. The simulation results demonstrate that, it is best to use C-CMOS logic style gates that are implemented in CNFET technology which are superior in performance compared to other logic styles, because of their low average power-delay-product (PDP). The analysis also demonstrates how the optimum supply voltage varies with logic styles in ultra-low power systems. The robustness of the proposed logic gate library is also compared with conventional and state-art of CMOS logic gate libraries.

  2. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  3. SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB (http://bioinformatics.ac.cn/synbiolgdb/) aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells.

  4. SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB (http://bioinformatics.ac.cn/synbiolgdb/) aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells. PMID:25627341

  5. SynBioLGDB: a resource for experimentally validated logic gates in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Qian, Kun; Huang, Yan; Jin, Nana; Lai, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Chunhua; Zhang, Chunrui; Bi, Xiaoman; Wu, Deng; Wang, Changliang; Wu, Hao; Tan, Puwen; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Liqun; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB (http://bioinformatics.ac.cn/synbiolgdb/) aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells. PMID:25627341

  6. All-optical flip-flop based on coupled SOA-PSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lina; Wang, Yongjun; Wu, Chen; Wang, Fu

    2016-07-01

    The semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) has obvious advantages in all-optical signal processing, because of the simple structure, strong non-linearity, and easy integration. A variety of all-optical signal processing functions, such as all-optical wavelength conversion, all-optical logic gates and all-optical sampling, can be completed by SOA. So the SOA has been widespread concerned in the field of all-optical signal processing. Recently, the polarization rotation effect of SOA is receiving considerable interest, and many researchers have launched numerous research work utilizing this effect. In this paper, a new all-optical flip-flop structure using polarization switch (PSW) based on polarization rotation effect of SOA is presented.

  7. Aptazyme-based riboswitches and logic gates in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoko; Yokobayashi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes a screening strategy to engineer synthetic riboswitches that can chemically regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Riboswitch libraries are constructed by randomizing the key nucleotides that couple the molecular recognition function of an aptamer with the self-cleavage activity of a ribozyme. The allosteric ribozyme (aptazyme) candidates are cloned in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter gene mRNA. The plasmid-encoded riboswitch candidates are transfected into a mammalian cell line to screen for the desired riboswitch function. Furthermore, multiple aptazymes can be cloned into the 3' UTR of a desired gene to obtain a logic gate response to multiple chemical signals. This screening strategy complements other methods to engineer robust mammalian riboswitches to control gene expression. PMID:25967059

  8. Simple and universal platform for logic gate operations based on molecular beacon probes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Soo; Seo, Myung Wan; Jung, Cheulhee; Lee, Joon Young; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2012-07-23

    A new platform technology is herein described with which to construct molecular logic gates by employing the hairpin-structured molecular beacon probe as a basic work unit. In this logic gate operation system, single-stranded DNA is used as the input to induce a conformational change in a molecular beacon probe through a sequence-specific interaction. The fluorescent signal resulting from the opening of the molecular beacon probe is then used as the output readout. Importantly, because the logic gates are based on DNA, thus permitting input/output homogeneity to be preserved, their wiring into multi-level circuits can be achieved by combining separately operated logic gates or by designing the DNA output of one gate as the input to the other. With this novel strategy, a complete set of two-input logic gates is successfully constructed at the molecular level, including OR, AND, XOR, INHIBIT, NOR, NAND, XNOR, and IMPLICATION. The logic gates developed herein can be reversibly operated to perform the set-reset function by applying an additional input or a removal strand. Together, these results introduce a new platform technology for logic gate operation that enables the higher-order circuits required for complex communication between various computational elements.

  9. Programming the quorum sensing-based AND gate in Shewanella oneidensis for logic gated-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao

    2015-03-11

    An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells.

  10. Fine-Grained Power Gating Based on the Controlling Value of Logic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Horiyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Kimura, Shinji

    Leakage power consumption of logic elements has become a serious problem, especially in the sub-100-nanometer process. In this paper, a novel power gating approach by using the controlling value of logic elements is proposed. In the proposed method, sleep signals of the power-gated blocks are extracted completely from the original circuits without any extra logic element. A basic algorithm and a probability-based heuristic algorithm have been developed to implement the basic idea. The steady maximum delay constraint has also been introduced to handle the delay issues. Experiments on the ISCAS'85 benchmarks show that averagely 15-36% of logic elements could be power gated at a time for random input patterns, and 3-31% of elements could be stopped under the steady maximum delay constraints. We also show a power optimization method for AND/OR tree circuits, in which more than 80% of gates can be power-gated.

  11. Logical Gates Implemented by Solitons at the Junctions Between One-Dimensional Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    We study propagation of solitons on one-dimensional lattices of nodes with Morse interaction between the neighboring nodes. In numerical integration, we demonstrate that solitons colliding at junctions of two lattices can implement AND, OR and NOT Boolean logic gates. The gates are determined by the geometry of the junctions and phase difference of the colliding solitons. We evaluate the feasibility of casing gates in the design of NOR gate.

  12. Fast all-optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Poliakov, Evgeni Y. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method wherein polarization rotation in alkali vapors or other mediums is used for all-optical switching and digital logic and where the rate of operation is proportional to the amplitude of the pump field. High rates of speed are accomplished by Rabi flopping of the atomic states using a continuously operating monochromatic atomic beam as the pump.

  13. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  14. Slime mould logic gates based on frequency changes of electrical potential oscillation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, James G H; de Lacy Costello, Ben P J; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a large single amoeba cell, which in its plasmodial phase, forages and connects nearby food sources with protoplasmic tubes. The organism forages for food by growing these tubes towards detected foodstuff, this foraging behaviour is governed by simple rules of photoavoidance and chemotaxis. The electrical activity of the tubes oscillates, creating a peristaltic like action within the tubes, forcing cytoplasm along the lumen; the frequency of this oscillation controls the speed and direction of growth. External stimuli such as light and food cause changes in the oscillation frequency. We demonstrate that using these stimuli as logical inputs we can approximate logic gates using these tubes and derive combinational logic circuits by cascading the gates, with software analysis providing the output of each gate and determining the input of the following gate. Basic gates OR, AND and NOT were correct 90%, 77.8% and 91.7% of the time respectively. Derived logic circuits XOR, half adder and full adder were 70.8%, 65% and 58.8% accurate respectively. Accuracy of the combinational logic decreases as the number of gates is increased, however they are at least as accurate as previous logic approximations using spatial growth of P. polycephalum and up to 30 times as fast at computing the logical output. The results shown here demonstrate a significant advancement in organism-based computing, providing a solid basis for hybrid computers of the future.

  15. Bioelectronic Interface Connecting Reversible Logic Gates Based on Enzyme and DNA Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guz, Nataliia; Fedotova, Tatiana A; Fratto, Brian E; Schlesinger, Orr; Alfonta, Lital; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-18

    It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic logic gates with reversible DNA-based logic gates. The enzyme-based Fredkin gate with three input and three output signals was connected to the DNA-based Feynman gate with two input and two output signals-both representing logically reversible computing elements. In the reversible Fredkin gate, the routing of two data signals between two output channels was controlled by the control signal (third channel). The two data output signals generated by the Fredkin gate were directed toward two electrochemical flow cells, responding to the output signals by releasing DNA molecules that serve as the input signals for the next Feynman logic gate based on the DNA reacting cascade, producing, in turn, two final output signals. The Feynman gate operated as the controlled NOT gate (CNOT), where one of the input channels controlled a NOT operation on another channel. Both logic gates represented a highly sophisticated combination of input-controlled signal-routing logic operations, resulting in redirecting chemical signals in different channels and performing orchestrated computing processes. The biomolecular reaction cascade responsible for the signal processing was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another, including the reacting flow cells and electrochemical flow cells, which were organized in a specific network mimicking electronic computing circuitries. The designed system represents the first example of high complexity biocomputing processes integrating enzyme and DNA reactions and performing logically reversible signal processing.

  16. Bioelectronic Interface Connecting Reversible Logic Gates Based on Enzyme and DNA Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guz, Nataliia; Fedotova, Tatiana A; Fratto, Brian E; Schlesinger, Orr; Alfonta, Lital; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-18

    It is believed that connecting biomolecular computation elements in complex networks of communicating molecules may eventually lead to a biocomputer that can be used for diagnostics and/or the cure of physiological and genetic disorders. Here, a bioelectronic interface based on biomolecule-modified electrodes has been designed to bridge reversible enzymatic logic gates with reversible DNA-based logic gates. The enzyme-based Fredkin gate with three input and three output signals was connected to the DNA-based Feynman gate with two input and two output signals-both representing logically reversible computing elements. In the reversible Fredkin gate, the routing of two data signals between two output channels was controlled by the control signal (third channel). The two data output signals generated by the Fredkin gate were directed toward two electrochemical flow cells, responding to the output signals by releasing DNA molecules that serve as the input signals for the next Feynman logic gate based on the DNA reacting cascade, producing, in turn, two final output signals. The Feynman gate operated as the controlled NOT gate (CNOT), where one of the input channels controlled a NOT operation on another channel. Both logic gates represented a highly sophisticated combination of input-controlled signal-routing logic operations, resulting in redirecting chemical signals in different channels and performing orchestrated computing processes. The biomolecular reaction cascade responsible for the signal processing was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another, including the reacting flow cells and electrochemical flow cells, which were organized in a specific network mimicking electronic computing circuitries. The designed system represents the first example of high complexity biocomputing processes integrating enzyme and DNA reactions and performing logically reversible signal processing. PMID:27145731

  17. FPGA-based gating and logic for multichannel single photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G; Williams, Brian P; Schaake, Jason; Humble, Travis S

    2012-01-01

    We present results characterizing multichannel InGaAs single photon detectors utilizing gated passive quenching circuits (GPQC), self-differencing techniques, and field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based logic for both diode gating and coincidence counting. Utilizing FPGAs for the diode gating frontend and the logic counting backend has the advantage of low cost compared to custom built logic circuits and current off-the-shelf detector technology. Further, FPGA logic counters have been shown to work well in quantum key distribution (QKD) test beds. Our setup combines multiple independent detector channels in a reconfigurable manner via an FPGA backend and post processing in order to perform coincidence measurements between any two or more detector channels simultaneously. Using this method, states from a multi-photon polarization entangled source are detected and characterized via coincidence counting on the FPGA. Photons detection events are also processed by the quantum information toolkit for application testing (QITKAT)

  18. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong

    2015-03-16

    The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  19. Realization of a quantum Hamiltonian Boolean logic gate on the Si(001):H surface.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafal; Dridi, Ghassen; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    The design and construction of the first prototypical QHC (Quantum Hamiltonian Computing) atomic scale Boolean logic gate is reported using scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip-induced atom manipulation on an Si(001):H surface. The NOR/OR gate truth table was confirmed by dI/dU STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) tracking how the surface states of the QHC quantum circuit on the Si(001):H surface are shifted according to the input logical status. PMID:26144212

  20. A reversible fluorescent logic gate for sensing mercury and iodide ions based on a molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Chen, Jiao; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2013-09-21

    A simple, rapid, and reversible fluorescent DNA INHIBIT logic gate has been developed for sensing mercury (Hg(2+)) and iodide (I(-)) ions based on a molecular beacon (MB). In this logic gate, a mercury ion was introduced as the first input into the MB logic gate system to assist in the hybridization of the MB with an assistant DNA probe through the thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine interaction, which eventually restored the fluorescence of MB as the output. With this signal-on process, mercury ions can be detected with a limit of detection as low as 7.9 nM. Furthermore, when iodide ions were added to the Hg(2+)/MB system as the second input, the fluorescence intensity decreased because Hg(2+) in the thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine complex was grabbed by I(-) due to a stronger binding force. Iodide ions can be detected with a limit of detection of 42 nM. Meanwhile, we studied the feasibility and basic performance of the DNA INHIBIT logic gate, optimized the logic gate conditions, and investigated its sensitivity and selectivity. The results showed that the MB based logic gate is highly selective and sensitive for the detection of Hg(2+) and I(-) over other interfering cations and anions.

  1. Piezo-phototronic Boolean logic and computation using photon and strain dual-gated nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhaona; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-02-01

    Using polarization charges created at the metal-cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli.

  2. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.

    PubMed

    Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C

    2015-08-28

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor. PMID:26234709

  3. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.

    PubMed

    Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C

    2015-08-28

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.

  4. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, G.; Julien, R.; Hliwa, M.; Joachim, C.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.

  5. 2D photonic crystal logic gates based on self-collimated effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ranran; Yang, Xiulun; Meng, Xiangfeng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-08-01

    Four kinds of logic gates are proposed using interference between the self-collimated beams in photonic crystals, namely NOT, OR, AND and XOR gates, which can be used in the design of photonic integrated circuits. The radius of the splitter and the optical path difference between splitters are adjusted to produce certain phase difference between the reflected and transmitted beams, which may interfere constructively or destructively to realize logical operation. They have high contrast ratios and low power consumption, the extinction ratio between logic 1 and logic 0 for NOT and AND gates can reach 24.7 dB, 30 dB and 12.6 dB for the wavelength used by optical communication (1550 nm), respectively, which makes it potentially applicable for photonic integrated circuits.

  6. Noise-Based Logic and Computing: From Boolean Logic Gates to Brain Circuitry and Its Possible Hardware Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Bezrukov, S. M.; Khatri, S. P.; Gingl, Z.; Sethuraman, S.

    When noise dominates an information system, like in nano-electronic systems of the foreseeable future, a natural question occurs: Can we perhaps utilize the noise as information carrier? Another question is: Can a deterministic logic scheme be constructed that may explain how the brain efficiently processes information, with random neural spike trains of less than 100 Hz frequency, and with a similar number of human brain neurons as the number of transistors in a 16 GB Flash dive? The answers to these questions are yes. Related developments indicate reduced power consumption with noise-based deterministic Boolean logic gates and the more powerful multivalued logic versions with an arbitrary number of logic values. Similar schemes as the Hilbert space of quantum informatics can also be constructed with noise-based logic by utilizing the noise-bits and their multidimensional hyperspace without the limitations of quantum-collapse of wavefunctions. A noise-based string search algorithm faster than Grover's quantum search algorithm can be obtained, with the same hardware complexity class as the quantum engine. This logic hyperspace scheme has also been utilized to construct the noise-based neuro-bits and a deterministic multivalued logic scheme for the brain. Some of the corresponding circuitry of neurons is shown. Some questions and answers about a chip realization of such a random spike based deterministic multivalued logic scheme are presented.

  7. All-optical analog comparator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  8. All-optical analog comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  9. All-optical analog comparator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  10. All-optical analog comparator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  11. G-quadruplex DNAzyme based molecular catalytic beacon for label-free colorimetric logic gates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinbo; Li, Tao; Zhang, Libing; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2011-10-01

    Efficient and economic DNA nanomaterials that can work as logic components are necessary for the development of DNA computers with high speed and outstanding data storage capacity. A new molecular catalytic beacon (MCB) and a series of label-free colorimetric logic gates based on the formation and dissociation of G-quadruplex DNAzyme were established in this work. These logic gates (NOT, NOR, IMPLICATION, AND, OR and INHIBIT) were realized by the interaction between the special designed oligonucleotide hairpins and the short input single strand complementary DNA. We were able to recognize the logic output signals effortlessly by our naked eyes. It is a simple, economic and safe approach for the design of complex multiple input DNA logic molecular device.

  12. Biosensors with Built-In Biomolecular Logic Gates for Practical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yu-Hsuan; Sun, Sin-Cih; Chuang, Min-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Molecular logic gates, designs constructed with biological and chemical molecules, have emerged as an alternative computing approach to silicon-based logic operations. These molecular computers are capable of receiving and integrating multiple stimuli of biochemical significance to generate a definitive output, opening a new research avenue to advanced diagnostics and therapeutics which demand handling of complex factors and precise control. In molecularly gated devices, Boolean logic computations can be activated by specific inputs and accurately processed via bio-recognition, bio-catalysis, and selective chemical reactions. In this review, we survey recent advances of the molecular logic approaches to practical applications of biosensors, including designs constructed with proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, nanomaterials, and organic compounds, as well as the research avenues for future development of digitally operating “sense and act” schemes that logically process biochemical signals through networked circuits to implement intelligent control systems. PMID:25587423

  13. Quantum logical gates with four-level superconducting quantum interference devices coupled to a superconducting resonator

    SciTech Connect

    He Xiaoling; Luo Junyan; Yang Chuiping; Li Sheng; Han Siyuan

    2010-08-15

    We propose a way for realizing a two-qubit controlled phase gate with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. In this proposal, the two lowest levels of each SQUID serve as the logical states and two intermediate levels of each SQUID are used for the gate realization. We show that neither adjustment of SQUID level spacings during the gate operation nor uniformity in SQUID parameters is required by this proposal. In addition, this proposal does not require the adiabatic passage or a second-order detuning and thus the gate is much faster.

  14. Fluorescent nanoparticle beacon for logic gate operation regulated by strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Shen, Lingjing; Ma, Jingjing; Schlaberg, H Inaki; Liu, Shi; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Cheng

    2013-06-26

    A mechanism is developed to construct a logic system by employing DNA/gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugates as a basic work unit, utilizing a fluorescent beacon probe to detect output signals. To implement the logic circuit, a self-assembly DNA structure is attached onto nanoparticles to form the fluorescent beacon. Moreover, assisted by regulation of multilevel strand displacement, cascaded logic gates are achieved. The computing results are detected by methods using fluorescent signals, gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). This work is expected to demonstrate the feasibility of the cascaded logic system based on fluorescent nanoparticle beacons, suggesting applications in DNA computation and biotechnology.

  15. Realization of morphing logic gates in a repressilator with quorum sensing feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vidit; Kang, Shivpal Singh; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate how a genetic ring oscillator network with quorum sensing feedback can operate as a robust logic gate. Specifically we show how a range of logic functions, namely AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR, can be realized by the system, thus yielding a versatile unit that can morph between different logic operations. We further demonstrate the capacity of this system to yield complementary logic operations in parallel. Our results then indicate the computing potential of this biological system, and may lead to bio-inspired computing devices.

  16. Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure

    PubMed Central

    Murapaka, C.; Sethi, P.; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by using a current-controlled magnetic gate, which generates a local Oersted field. The field generated at the magnetic gate influences the trajectory of the DW within the structure by exploiting its inherent transverse charge distribution. DW transformation from vortex to transverse configuration close to the output branch plays a pivotal role in governing the DW chirality and hence the output. By simply switching the current direction through the magnetic gate, two universal logic gate functionalities can be obtained in this device. Using magnetic force microscopy imaging and magnetoresistance measurements, all basic logic functionalities are demonstrated. PMID:26839036

  17. Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murapaka, C.; Sethi, P.; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-02-01

    An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by using a current-controlled magnetic gate, which generates a local Oersted field. The field generated at the magnetic gate influences the trajectory of the DW within the structure by exploiting its inherent transverse charge distribution. DW transformation from vortex to transverse configuration close to the output branch plays a pivotal role in governing the DW chirality and hence the output. By simply switching the current direction through the magnetic gate, two universal logic gate functionalities can be obtained in this device. Using magnetic force microscopy imaging and magnetoresistance measurements, all basic logic functionalities are demonstrated.

  18. Reversible logic gates based on enzyme-biocatalyzed reactions and realized in flow cells: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-18

    Reversible logic gates, such as the double Feynman gate, Toffoli gate and Peres gate, with 3-input/3-output channels are realized using reactions biocatalyzed with enzymes and performed in flow systems. The flow devices are constructed using a modular approach, where each flow cell is modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzes one chemical reaction. The multi-step processes mimicking the reversible logic gates are organized by combining the biocatalytic cells in different networks. This work emphasizes logical but not physical reversibility of the constructed systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and potential use in biosensing systems, rather than in computing devices, is suggested. PMID:25778455

  19. Explicit construction of single input-single output logic gates from three soliton solution of Manakov system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayajayanthi, M.; Kanna, T.; Lakshmanan, M.; Murali, K.

    2016-07-01

    We construct single input logic gates using the energy sharing collisions of a minimal number of (three) bright optical solitons associated with the three soliton solution of the integrable Manakov system. As computation requires state changes to represent binary logic, here we make use of the state change of a particular soliton during its sequential collision with other two solitons for constructing single input gates. As a consequence, we clearly demonstrate the construction of various one-input logic gates such as COPY gate, NOT gate and ONE gate using energy sharing three soliton collision of Manakov system. This type of realization of logic gates just from a three soliton collision (pair-wise interaction) is clearly distinct from the earlier studies which require separate collisions of four solitons.

  20. DNAzyme-Based Logic Gate-Mediated DNA Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-13

    Controlling DNA self-assembly processes using rationally designed logic gates is a major goal of DNA-based nanotechnology and programming. Such controls could facilitate the hierarchical engineering of complex nanopatterns responding to various molecular triggers or inputs. Here, we demonstrate the use of a series of DNAzyme-based logic gates to control DNA tile self-assembly onto a prescribed DNA origami frame. Logic systems such as "YES," "OR," "AND," and "logic switch" are implemented based on DNAzyme-mediated tile recognition with the DNA origami frame. DNAzyme is designed to play two roles: (1) as an intermediate messenger to motivate downstream reactions and (2) as a final trigger to report fluorescent signals, enabling information relay between the DNA origami-framed tile assembly and fluorescent signaling. The results of this study demonstrate the plausibility of DNAzyme-mediated hierarchical self-assembly and provide new tools for generating dynamic and responsive self-assembly systems. PMID:26647640

  1. DNAzyme-Based Logic Gate-Mediated DNA Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-13

    Controlling DNA self-assembly processes using rationally designed logic gates is a major goal of DNA-based nanotechnology and programming. Such controls could facilitate the hierarchical engineering of complex nanopatterns responding to various molecular triggers or inputs. Here, we demonstrate the use of a series of DNAzyme-based logic gates to control DNA tile self-assembly onto a prescribed DNA origami frame. Logic systems such as "YES," "OR," "AND," and "logic switch" are implemented based on DNAzyme-mediated tile recognition with the DNA origami frame. DNAzyme is designed to play two roles: (1) as an intermediate messenger to motivate downstream reactions and (2) as a final trigger to report fluorescent signals, enabling information relay between the DNA origami-framed tile assembly and fluorescent signaling. The results of this study demonstrate the plausibility of DNAzyme-mediated hierarchical self-assembly and provide new tools for generating dynamic and responsive self-assembly systems.

  2. A spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Lähderanta, Erkki

    2015-03-09

    An electric current controlled spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal is realized. The device utilizes a spin-wave waveguide fabricated from a single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet film and two conducting wires attached to the film surface. Application of electric currents to the wires provides a means for dynamic control of the effective geometry of waveguide and results in a suppression of the magnonic band gap. The performance of the magnonic crystal as an AND logic gate is demonstrated.

  3. Phase-shift-controlled logic gates in Y-shaped nonlinearly coupled chains.

    PubMed

    Assunção, T F; Nascimento, E M; Sombra, A S B; Lyra, M L

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a model system composed of two input discrete chains nonlinearly coupled to a single output chain which mimics the geometry of Y-shaped carbon nanotubes, photonic crystal wave guides, and DNA junctions. We explore the capability of the proposed system to perform logic gate operations based on the transmission of phase-shifted harmonic incoming waves. Within a tight-binding approach, we determine the exact transmission spectrum which exhibits a nonlinear induced bistability. Using a digitalization scheme of the output signal based on amplitude modulation, we show that AND, OR, and XOR logic operations can be achieved. Nonlinearity strongly favors the realization of logic operations in the regime of large wavelengths, while phase shifting is required for the OR logic gate to be realizable. A detailed analysis of the contrast ratio shows that optimal operation of the AND and OR logic gates takes place when the nonlinear response is the predominant physical property distinguishing the coupling and regular sites. These results point towards the possibility of Y-branched junctions to perform logic operations based on the transmission of traveling waves.

  4. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. J.; Harty, T. P.; Linke, N. M.; Sepiol, M. A.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99 % minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μ s and 520 μ s , and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  5. Organic nanodielectrics for low voltage carbon nanotube thin film transistors and complementary logic gates.

    PubMed

    Hur, Seung-Hyun; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gaur, Anshu; Shim, Moonsub; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Rogers, John A

    2005-10-12

    We report the implementation of three dimensionally cross-linked, organic nanodielectric multilayers as ultrathin gate dielectrics for a type of thin film transistor device that uses networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes as effective semiconductor thin films. Unipolar n- and p-channel devices are demonstrated by use of polymer coatings to control the behavior of the networks. Monolithically integrating these devices yields complementary logic gates. The organic multilayers provide exceptionally good gate dielectrics for these systems and allow for low voltage, low hysteresis operation. The excellent performance characteristics suggest that organic dielectrics of this general type could provide a promising path to SWNT-based thin film electronics.

  6. Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-01

    Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity).

  7. Notes on stochastic (bio)-logic gates: computing with allosteric cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Agliari, Elena; Altavilla, Matteo; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental breakthroughs have finally allowed to implement in-vitro reaction kinetics (the so called enzyme based logic) which code for two-inputs logic gates and mimic the stochastic AND (and NAND) as well as the stochastic OR (and NOR). This accomplishment, together with the already-known single-input gates (performing as YES and NOT), provides a logic base and paves the way to the development of powerful biotechnological devices. However, as biochemical systems are always affected by the presence of noise (e.g. thermal), standard logic is not the correct theoretical reference framework, rather we show that statistical mechanics can work for this scope: here we formulate a complete statistical mechanical description of the Monod-Wyman-Changeaux allosteric model for both single and double ligand systems, with the purpose of exploring their practical capabilities to express noisy logical operators and/or perform stochastic logical operations. Mixing statistical mechanics with logics, and testing quantitatively the resulting findings on the available biochemical data, we successfully revise the concept of cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity) for allosteric systems, with particular emphasis on its computational capabilities, the related ranges and scaling of the involved parameters and its differences with classical cooperativity (and anti-cooperativity). PMID:25976626

  8. Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor Digital Logic Gates Demonstrated at 600 deg. C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1998-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing silicon carbide (SiC) for use in harsh conditions where silicon, the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics, cannot function. The HTIES team recently fabricated and demonstrated the first semiconductor digital logic gates ever to function at 600 C.

  9. A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.

    PubMed

    Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2016-06-28

    Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.

  10. A tetrastable naphthalenediimide: anion induced charge transfer, single and double electron transfer for combinational logic gates.

    PubMed

    Ajayakumar, M R; Hundal, Geeta; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2013-09-11

    Herein we demonstrate the formation of the first tetrastable naphthalenediimide (NDI, 1a) molecule having multiple distinctly readable outputs. Differential response of 1a to fluoride anions induces intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), single/double electron transfer (SET/DET) leading to a set of combinational logic gates for the first time with a NDI moiety. PMID:23752683

  11. Self-assembled nanodielectrics and silicon nanomembranes for low voltage, flexible transistors, and logic gates on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoon-Sik; Won, Sang Min; Ha, Young-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.; Rogers, John A.

    2009-11-01

    This letter reports the fabrication and electrical characterization of mechanically flexible and low operating voltage transistors and logic gates (NOT, NAND, and NOR gates) using printed silicon nanomembranes and self-assembled nanodielectrics on thin plastic substrates. The transistors exhibit effective linear mobilities of ˜680 cm2/V s, on/off ratios >107, gate leakage current densities <2.8×10-7 A/cm2, and subthreshold slopes ˜120 mV/decade. The inverters show voltage gains as high as 4.8. Simple digital logic gates (NAND and NOR gates) demonstrate the possible application of this materials combination in digital integrated circuits.

  12. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Takinoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Yutaro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs “1” and “0” as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND) operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26890568

  13. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Yasuga, Hiroki; Kawano, Ryuji; Takinoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Yutaro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND) operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26890568

  14. Genomic Mining of Prokaryotic Repressors for Orthogonal Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Brynne C.; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Tamsir, Alvin; Clancy, Kevin; Peterson, Todd; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic circuits perform computational operations based on interactions between freely diffusing molecules within a cell. When transcription factors are combined to build a circuit, unintended interactions can disrupt its function. Here, we apply “part mining” to build a library of 73 TetR-family repressors gleaned from prokaryotic genomes. The operators of a subset were determined using an in vitro method and this information was used to build synthetic promoters. The promoters and repressors were screened for cross-reactions. Of these, 16 were identified that both strongly repress their cognate promoter (5- to 207-fold) and do not interact with other promoters. Each repressor:promoter pair was converted to a NOT gate and characterized. Used as a set of 16 NOR gates, there are >1054 circuits that could be built by changing the pattern of input and output promoters. This represents a large set of compatible gates that can be used to construct user-defined circuits. PMID:24316737

  15. Wavelet analysis and HHG in nanorings: their applications in logic gates and memory mass devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cricchio, Dario; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    We study the application of one nanoring driven by a laser field in different states of polarization in logic circuits. In particular we show that assigning Boolean values to different states of the incident laser field and to the emitted signals, we can create logic gates such as OR, XOR and AND. We also show the possibility of making logic circuits such as half-adder and full-adder using one and two nanorings respectively. Using two nanorings we made the Toffoli gate. Finally we use the final angular momentum acquired by the electron to store information and hence show the possibility of using an array of nanorings as a mass memory device.

  16. Control of electrochemical signals from quantum dots conjugated to organic materials by using DNA structure in an analog logic gate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Yoo, Si-Youl; Chung, Yong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Young; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Various bio-logic gates have been studied intensively to overcome the rigidity of single-function silicon-based logic devices arising from combinations of various gates. Here, a simple control tool using electrochemical signals from quantum dots (QDs) was constructed using DNA and organic materials for multiple logic functions. The electrochemical redox current generated from QDs was controlled by the DNA structure. DNA structure, in turn, was dependent on the components (organic materials) and the input signal (pH). Independent electrochemical signals from two different logic units containing QDs were merged into a single analog-type logic gate, which was controlled by two inputs. We applied this electrochemical biodevice to a simple logic system and achieved various logic functions from the controlled pH input sets. This could be further improved by choosing QDs, ionic conditions, or DNA sequences. This research provides a feasible method for fabricating an artificial intelligence system. PMID:27116705

  17. All-optical steering of the interactions between multiple spatial solitons in isotropic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-fen; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Qing-li; Wang, Hong-cheng; Zhang, Yao-ju

    2010-11-01

    All-optical steering of the nonlinear interactions between multiple spatial solitons can be performed in an isotropic photoisomerization polymer, by propagating an external control beam in perpendicular direction. Fusing, giving birth to another new soliton, and transferring energy can take place in the interactions of signal beams, which can be achieved by changing the incident position of the control beam, the initial relative phase and the power ratio between the signal beams and the control beam. These phenomena are physically explained, and they have significantly potential applications in optical signal readdressing, logic gating, and all-optical switching, etc.

  18. Performance projections and design optimization of planar double gate SOI MOSFETs for logic technology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranti, Abhinav; Hao, Ying; Armstrong, G. Alastair

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, by investigating the influence of source/drain extension region engineering (also known as gate-source/drain underlap) in nanoscale planar double gate (DG) SOI MOSFETs, we offer new insights into the design of future nanoscale gate-underlap DG devices to achieve ITRS projections for high performance (HP), low standby power (LSTP) and low operating power (LOP) logic technologies. The impact of high-κ gate dielectric, silicon film thickness, together with parameters associated with the lateral source/drain doping profile, is investigated in detail. The results show that spacer width along with lateral straggle can not only effectively control short-channel effects, thus presenting low off-current in a gate underlap device, but can also be optimized to achieve lower intrinsic delay and higher on-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff). Based on the investigation of on-current (Ion), off-current (Ioff), Ion/Ioff, intrinsic delay (τ), energy delay product and static power dissipation, we present design guidelines to select key device parameters to achieve ITRS projections. Using nominal gate lengths for different technologies, as recommended from ITRS specification, optimally designed gate-underlap DG MOSFETs with a spacer-to-straggle (s/σ) ratio of 2.3 for HP/LOP and 3.2 for LSTP logic technologies will meet ITRS projection. However, a relatively narrow range of lateral straggle lying between 7 to 8 nm is recommended. A sensitivity analysis of intrinsic delay, on-current and off-current to important parameters allows a comparative analysis of the various design options and shows that gate workfunction appears to be the most crucial parameter in the design of DG devices for all three technologies. The impact of back gate misalignment on Ion, Ioff and τ is also investigated for optimized underlap devices.

  19. Light-effect transistor (LET) with multiple independent gating controls for optical logic gates and optical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmon, Jason; Rai, Satish; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Modern electronics are developing electronic-optical integrated circuits, while their electronic backbone, e.g. field-effect transistors (FETs), remains the same. However, further FET down scaling is facing physical and technical challenges. A light-effect transistor (LET) offers electronic-optical hybridization at the component level, which can continue Moore’s law to quantum region without requiring a FET’s fabrication complexity, e.g. physical gate and doping, by employing optical gating and photoconductivity. Multiple independent gates are therefore readily realized to achieve unique functionalities without increasing chip space. Here we report LET device characteristics and novel digital and analog applications, such as optical logic gates and optical amplification. Prototype CdSe-nanowire-based LETs show output and transfer characteristics resembling advanced FETs, e.g. on/off ratios up to ~1.0x106 with a source-drain voltage of ~1.43 V, gate-power of ~260 nW, and subthreshold swing of ~0.3 nW/decade (excluding losses). Our work offers new electronic-optical integration strategies and electronic and optical computing approaches.

  20. N Channel JFET Based Digital Logic Gate Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus is provided that includes a first field effect transistor with a source tied to zero volts and a drain tied to voltage drain drain (Vdd) through a first resistor. The apparatus also includes a first node configured to tie a second resistor to a third resistor and connect to an input of a gate of the first field effect transistor in order for the first field effect transistor to receive a signal. The apparatus also includes a second field effect transistor configured as a unity gain buffer having a drain tied to Vdd and an uncommitted source.

  1. A Rhizobium radiobacter Histidine Kinase Can Employ Both Boolean AND and OR Logic Gates to Initiate Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Lin, Yi-Han; Pierce, B Daniel; Lynn, David G

    2015-10-12

    The molecular logic gates that regulate gene circuits are necessarily intricate and highly regulated, particularly in the critical commitments necessary for pathogenesis. We now report simple AND and OR logic gates to be accessible within a single protein receptor. Pathogenesis by the bacterium Rhizobium radiobacter is mediated by a single histidine kinase, VirA, which processes multiple small molecule host signals (phenol and sugar). Mutagenesis analyses converged on a single signal integration node, and finer functional analyses revealed that a single residue could switch VirA from a functional AND logic gate to an OR gate where each of two signals activate independently. Host range preferences among natural strains of R. radiobacter correlate with these gate logic strategies. Although the precise mechanism for the signal integration node requires further analyses, long-range signal transmission through this histidine kinase can now be exploited for synthetic signaling circuits.

  2. An error-resilient non-volatile magneto-elastic universal logic gate with ultralow energy-delay product

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ayan K.; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing goal of computer technology is to process and store digital information with the same device in order to implement new architectures. One way to accomplish this is to use nanomagnetic logic gates that can perform Boolean operations and then store the output data in the magnetization states of nanomagnets, thereby doubling as both logic and memory. Unfortunately, many of these nanomagnetic devices do not possess the seven essential characteristics of a Boolean logic gate : concatenability, non-linearity, isolation between input and output, gain, universal logic implementation, scalability and error resilience. More importantly, their energy-delay products and error rates tend to vastly exceed that of conventional transistor-based logic gates, which is unacceptable. Here, we propose a non-volatile voltage-controlled nanomagnetic logic gate that possesses all the necessary characteristics of a logic gate and whose energy-delay product is two orders of magnitude less than that of other nanomagnetic (non-volatile) logic gates. The error rate is also superior. PMID:25532757

  3. A computational paradigm for dynamic logic-gates in neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Goldental, Amir; Guberman, Shoshana; Vardi, Roni; Kanter, Ido

    2014-01-01

    In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gates are time dependent, i.e., dynamic logic-gates (DLGs). The truth tables of the DLGs depend on the history of their activity and the stimulation frequencies of their input neurons. Our experimental results are based on a procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in-vitro. We demonstrate that the underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latencies to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays. The limited experimental results are confirmed and extended by simulations and theoretical arguments based on identical neurons with a fixed increase of the neuronal response latency per evoked spike. We anticipate our results to lead to better understanding of the suitability of this computational paradigm to account for the brain's functionalities and will require the development of new systematic mathematical methods beyond the methods developed for traditional Boolean algebra. PMID:24808856

  4. A computational paradigm for dynamic logic-gates in neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Goldental, Amir; Guberman, Shoshana; Vardi, Roni; Kanter, Ido

    2014-01-01

    In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gates are time dependent, i.e., dynamic logic-gates (DLGs). The truth tables of the DLGs depend on the history of their activity and the stimulation frequencies of their input neurons. Our experimental results are based on a procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in-vitro. We demonstrate that the underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latencies to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays. The limited experimental results are confirmed and extended by simulations and theoretical arguments based on identical neurons with a fixed increase of the neuronal response latency per evoked spike. We anticipate our results to lead to better understanding of the suitability of this computational paradigm to account for the brain's functionalities and will require the development of new systematic mathematical methods beyond the methods developed for traditional Boolean algebra. PMID:24808856

  5. Logic-gate devices based on printed polymer semiconducting nanostripes.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Denis; Sonar, Prashant; Liscio, Fabiola; Cramer, Tobias; Ferlauto, Laura; Leonardi, Francesca; Milita, Silvia; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2013-08-14

    The applications of organic semiconductors in complex circuitry such as printed CMOS-like logic circuits demand miniaturization of the active structures to the submicrometric and nanoscale level while enhancing or at least preserving the charge transport properties upon processing. Here, we addressed this issue by using a wet lithographic technique, which exploits and enhances the molecular order in polymers by spatial confinement, to fabricate ambipolar organic field effect transistors and inverter circuits based on nanostructured single component ambipolar polymeric semiconductor. In our devices, the current flows through a precisely defined array of nanostripes made of a highly ordered diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzothiadiazole copolymer with high charge carrier mobility (1.45 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electrons and 0.70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for holes). Finally, we demonstrated the functionality of the ambipolar nanostripe transistors by assembling them into an inverter circuit that exhibits a gain (105) comparable to inverters based on single crystal semiconductors.

  6. All-optical repeater.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  7. Modular, Multi-Input Transcriptional Logic Gating with Orthogonal LacI/GalR Family Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes, the construction of synthetic, multi-input promoters is constrained by the number of transcription factors that can simultaneously regulate a single promoter. This fundamental engineering constraint is an obstacle to synthetic biologists because it limits the computational capacity of engineered gene circuits. Here, we demonstrate that complex multi-input transcriptional logic gating can be achieved through the use of ligand-inducible chimeric transcription factors assembled from the LacI/GalR family. These modular chimeras each contain a ligand-binding domain and a DNA-binding domain, both of which are chosen from a library of possibilities. When two or more chimeras have the same DNA-binding domain, they independently and simultaneously regulate any promoter containing the appropriate operator site. In this manner, simple transcriptional AND gating is possible through the combination of two chimeras, and multiple-input AND gating is possible with the simultaneous use of three or even four chimeras. Furthermore, we demonstrate that orthogonal DNA-binding domains and their cognate operators allow the coexpression of multiple, orthogonal AND gates. Altogether, this work provides synthetic biologists with novel, ligand-inducible logic gates and greatly expands the possibilities for engineering complex synthetic gene circuits. PMID:25035932

  8. The combination of gold nanorods and nanoparticles with DNA nanodevices for logic gates construction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongbao; Song, Tingjie; Zheng, Bin; Xiao, Shiyan; Huang, Fujian; Liang, Haojun

    2015-10-23

    In this work, two DNA nanodevices were constructed utilizing a DNA strand displacement reaction. With the assistance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs), the autonomous reactions can be reflected from the aggregation states of nanoparticles. By sequence design and the two non-overlapping double hump-like UV-vis spectral peaks of AuNPs and AuNRs, two logic gates with multiple inputs and outputs were successfully run with expected outcomes. This method not only shows how to achieve computing with multiple logic calculations but also has great potential for multiple targets detection.

  9. Design of optical reversible logic gates using electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-07-20

    In recent years reversible logic has come as a promising solution in the optical computing domain. In reversible gates, there is one-to-one mapping between input and output, causing no loss of information. Reversible gates are useful for application in low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductors, with less dissipation, and in quantum computing. These benefits can be utilized by implementing reversible gate structures in the optical domain. In this paper, basic reversible Feynman and Fredkin logic gates using a lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer are proposed. The different applications utilizing the proposed structures are also explained in this study.

  10. Design of optical reversible logic gates using electro-optic effect of lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Chanderkanta; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-07-20

    In recent years reversible logic has come as a promising solution in the optical computing domain. In reversible gates, there is one-to-one mapping between input and output, causing no loss of information. Reversible gates are useful for application in low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductors, with less dissipation, and in quantum computing. These benefits can be utilized by implementing reversible gate structures in the optical domain. In this paper, basic reversible Feynman and Fredkin logic gates using a lithium niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometer are proposed. The different applications utilizing the proposed structures are also explained in this study. PMID:27463925

  11. Logic gates with bright dissipative polariton solitons in Bragg cavity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancellieri, E.; Chana, J. K.; Sich, M.; Krizhanovskii, D. N.; Skolnick, M. S.; Whittaker, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    Optical solitons are an ideal platform for the implementation of communication lines, since they can be packed extremely close one to another without risking partial loss of the encoded information due to their interaction. On the other hand, soliton-soliton interactions are needed to implement computations and achieve all-optical information processing. Here, we study how bright dissipative polariton solitons interact and exploit their interaction to implement and and or gates with state of the art technology. Moreover, we show that the soliton-soliton interaction can be used to determine the sign of α2, the parameter describing the interaction between polaritons with opposite spin.

  12. Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni

    2015-01-01

    Recently, S. Bravyi and R. König [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.170503] have shown that there is a trade-off between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant-depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault tolerant by construction. In particular, they show that, for local stabilizer codes in D spatial dimensions, locality-preserving gates are restricted to a set of unitary gates known as the D th level of the Clifford hierarchy. In this paper, we explore this idea further by providing several extensions and applications of their characterization to qubit stabilizer and subsystem codes. First, we present a no-go theorem for self-correcting quantum memory. Namely, we prove that a three-dimensional stabilizer Hamiltonian with a locality-preserving implementation of a non-Clifford gate cannot have a macroscopic energy barrier. This result implies that non-Clifford gates do not admit such implementations in Haah's cubic code and Michnicki's welded code. Second, we prove that the code distance of a D -dimensional local stabilizer code with a nontrivial locality-preserving m th -level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by O (LD +1 -m) . For codes with non-Clifford gates (m >2 ), this improves the previous best bound by S. Bravyi and B. Terhal [New. J. Phys. 11, 043029 (2009), 10.1088/1367-2630/11/4/043029]. Topological color codes, introduced by H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 180501 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501; Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 160502 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.160502; Phys. Rev. B 75, 075103 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.075103], saturate the bound for m =D . Third, we prove that the qubit erasure threshold for codes with a nontrivial transversal m th -level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by 1 /m . This implies that no family of fault-tolerant codes with

  13. Interference based square lattice photonic crystal logic gates working with different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new configuration of interference based OR, XOR, NOT and AND optical logic gates on a two dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) platform. The working of these devices was analyzed by the FDTD method and the operating frequency range was explored using the plane wave expansion method. The XOR and NOT gates have high contrast ratio which is more than 35 dB between high and low logic states, for a particular wavelength. All these devices are operating with multiple wavelengths. The impact of structural parameter like radius on the operating wavelength and Contrast Ratio (CR) was analyzed. It is found that the optimization of structural parameters makes it possible to obtain the operating wavelength allowed by band structure. These proposed devices were made up of linear waveguides and square ring resonator waveguides, without using nonlinear materials, optical amplifiers and external phase shifters.

  14. A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Shawn M; Bachelet, Ido; Church, George M

    2012-02-17

    We describe an autonomous DNA nanorobot capable of transporting molecular payloads to cells, sensing cell surface inputs for conditional, triggered activation, and reconfiguring its structure for payload delivery. The device can be loaded with a variety of materials in a highly organized fashion and is controlled by an aptamer-encoded logic gate, enabling it to respond to a wide array of cues. We implemented several different logical AND gates and demonstrate their efficacy in selective regulation of nanorobot function. As a proof of principle, nanorobots loaded with combinations of antibody fragments were used in two different types of cell-signaling stimulation in tissue culture. Our prototype could inspire new designs with different selectivities and biologically active payloads for cell-targeting tasks.

  15. Glutathione-facilitated design and fabrication of gold nanoparticle-based logic gates and keypad lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Haonan; Yang, Wensheng

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we describe how we developed a simple design and fabrication method for logic gates and a device by using a commercially available tripeptide, namely glutathione (GSH), together with metal ions and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to control the dispersion and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (NPs). With the fast adsorption of GSH on gold NPs and the strong coordination of GSH with metal ions, the addition of GSH and Pb2+ ions immediately resulted in the aggregation of gold NPs, giving rise to an AND function. Either Pb2+ or Ba2+ ions induced the aggregation of gold NPs in the presence of GSH, supporting an OR gate. Based on the fact that EDTA has a strong capacity to bind metal ions, thus preventing the aggregation of gold NPs, an INHIBIT gate was also fabricated. More interestingly, we found that the addition sequence of GSH and Hg2+ ions influenced the aggregation of gold NPs in a controlled manner, which was used to design a sequential logic gate and a three-input keypad lock for potential use in information security. The GSH strategy addresses concerns of low cost, simple fabrication, versatile design and easy operation, and offers a promising platform for the development of functional logic systems.In this paper, we describe how we developed a simple design and fabrication method for logic gates and a device by using a commercially available tripeptide, namely glutathione (GSH), together with metal ions and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) to control the dispersion and aggregation of gold nanoparticles (NPs). With the fast adsorption of GSH on gold NPs and the strong coordination of GSH with metal ions, the addition of GSH and Pb2+ ions immediately resulted in the aggregation of gold NPs, giving rise to an AND function. Either Pb2+ or Ba2+ ions induced the aggregation of gold NPs in the presence of GSH, supporting an OR gate. Based on the fact that EDTA has a strong capacity to bind metal ions, thus preventing the

  16. A single-device universal logic gate based on a magnetically enhanced memristor.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Mirko; Riminucci, Alberto; Graziosi, Patrizio; Bergenti, Ilaria; Rakshit, Rajib; Cecchini, Raimondo; Vianelli, Anna; Borgatti, Francesco; Haag, Norman; Willis, M; Drew, Alan J; Gillin, William P; Dediu, Valentin A

    2013-01-25

    Memristors are one of the most promising candidates for future information and communications technology (ICT) architectures. Two experimental proofs of concept are presented based on the intermixing of spintronic and memristive effects into a single device, a magnetically enhanced memristor (MEM). By exploiting the interaction between the memristance and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR), a universal implication (IMP) logic gate based on a single MEM device is realized.

  17. An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Widely varying logic gates invented over a century are all finite. As data deluge problem looms large on the information processing and communication industry, the thrust to explore radical concepts is increasing rapidly. Here, we design and synthesis a molecule, wherein, the input energy transmits in a cycle inside the molecular system, just like an oscillator, then, we use the molecule to make a jelly that acts as chain of oscillators with a fractal like resonance band. Hence, with the increasing detection resolution, in the vacant space between two energy levels of a given resonance band, a new band appears, due to fractal nature, generation of newer energy levels never stops. This is natural property of a linear chain oscillator. As we correlate each energy level of the resonance band of organic jelly, as a function of pH and density of the jelly, we realize a logic gate, whose truth table is finite, but if we zoom any small part, a new truth table appears. In principle, zooming of truth table would continue forever. Thus, we invent a new class of infinite logic gate for the first time. PMID:26086417

  18. An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-06-18

    Widely varying logic gates invented over a century are all finite. As data deluge problem looms large on the information processing and communication industry, the thrust to explore radical concepts is increasing rapidly. Here, we design and synthesis a molecule, wherein, the input energy transmits in a cycle inside the molecular system, just like an oscillator, then, we use the molecule to make a jelly that acts as chain of oscillators with a fractal like resonance band. Hence, with the increasing detection resolution, in the vacant space between two energy levels of a given resonance band, a new band appears, due to fractal nature, generation of newer energy levels never stops. This is natural property of a linear chain oscillator. As we correlate each energy level of the resonance band of organic jelly, as a function of pH and density of the jelly, we realize a logic gate, whose truth table is finite, but if we zoom any small part, a new truth table appears. In principle, zooming of truth table would continue forever. Thus, we invent a new class of infinite logic gate for the first time.

  19. An organic jelly made fractal logic gate with an infinite truth table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Fujita, Daisuke; Bandyopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-06-01

    Widely varying logic gates invented over a century are all finite. As data deluge problem looms large on the information processing and communication industry, the thrust to explore radical concepts is increasing rapidly. Here, we design and synthesis a molecule, wherein, the input energy transmits in a cycle inside the molecular system, just like an oscillator, then, we use the molecule to make a jelly that acts as chain of oscillators with a fractal like resonance band. Hence, with the increasing detection resolution, in the vacant space between two energy levels of a given resonance band, a new band appears, due to fractal nature, generation of newer energy levels never stops. This is natural property of a linear chain oscillator. As we correlate each energy level of the resonance band of organic jelly, as a function of pH and density of the jelly, we realize a logic gate, whose truth table is finite, but if we zoom any small part, a new truth table appears. In principle, zooming of truth table would continue forever. Thus, we invent a new class of infinite logic gate for the first time.

  20. Graphene-ferroelectric metadevices for nonvolatile memory and reconfigurable logic-gate operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Teun-Teun; Park, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Namkyoo; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Memory metamaterials are artificial media that sustain transformed electromagnetic properties without persistent external stimuli. Previous memory metamaterials were realized with phase-change materials, such as vanadium dioxide or chalcogenide glasses, which exhibit memory behaviour with respect to electrically/optically induced thermal stimuli. However, they require a thermally isolated environment for longer retention or strong optical pump for phase-change. Here we demonstrate electrically programmable nonvolatile memory metadevices realised by the hybridization of graphene, a ferroelectric and meta-atoms/meta-molecules, and extend the concept further to establish reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. For a memory metadevice having a single electrical input, amplitude, phase and even the polarization multi-states were clearly distinguishable with a retention time of over 10 years at room temperature. Furthermore, logic-gate functionalities were demonstrated with reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices having two electrical inputs, with each connected to separate ferroelectric layers that act as the multi-level controller for the doping level of the sandwiched graphene layer.

  1. Graphene–ferroelectric metadevices for nonvolatile memory and reconfigurable logic-gate operations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Teun-Teun; Park, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Namkyoo; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Memory metamaterials are artificial media that sustain transformed electromagnetic properties without persistent external stimuli. Previous memory metamaterials were realized with phase-change materials, such as vanadium dioxide or chalcogenide glasses, which exhibit memory behaviour with respect to electrically/optically induced thermal stimuli. However, they require a thermally isolated environment for longer retention or strong optical pump for phase-change. Here we demonstrate electrically programmable nonvolatile memory metadevices realised by the hybridization of graphene, a ferroelectric and meta-atoms/meta-molecules, and extend the concept further to establish reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. For a memory metadevice having a single electrical input, amplitude, phase and even the polarization multi-states were clearly distinguishable with a retention time of over 10 years at room temperature. Furthermore, logic-gate functionalities were demonstrated with reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices having two electrical inputs, with each connected to separate ferroelectric layers that act as the multi-level controller for the doping level of the sandwiched graphene layer. PMID:26813710

  2. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits.

    PubMed

    Ballance, C J; Harty, T P; Linke, N M; Sepiol, M A; Lucas, D M

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99% minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8  μs and 520  μs, and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity. PMID:27541450

  3. Compact transformable acoustic logic gates for broadband complex Boolean operations based on density-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Bao-Guo; Guo, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The extraordinary transmission in density-near-zero (DNZ) acoustic metamaterials (AMs) provides possibilities to manipulate acoustic signals with extremely large effective phase velocity and wavelength. Here, we report compact transformable acoustic logic gates with a subwavelength size as small as 0.82λ based on DNZ AMs. The basic acoustic logic gates, composed of a tri-port structure filled with space-coiling DNZ AMs, enable precise direct linear interference of input signals with considerably small phase lag and wavefront distortion. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the basic Boolean logic operations such as OR, AND, XOR, and NOT with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability, by adjusting the phase difference between two input signals. More complex logic calculus, such as "I1 + I2 × I3," are also realized by cascading of the basic logic gates. Our proposal provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  4. Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinesh; Mohammad, Azhar; Singh, Vijay; Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2016-01-01

    Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.

  5. Double gate (DG)-SOI ratioed logic with symmetric DG load??a novel approach for sub 50 nm low-voltage/low-power circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Salman, A.; Ioannou, D. P.; Tretz, C.; Ioannou, D. E.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel logic gate family based on Double Gate (DG) SOI MOSFETs for low voltage/low power circuits. The logic gates are based on ratioed logic with depletion-mode (i.e., intrinsically on) Symmetric DG (SDG) load transistors and inversion-mode Asymmetric DG (ADG) driver transistors. Using this technique a basic inverter was designed, with better performance compared to "classical" CMOS DG design. This technique was extended to create a complete set of basic logic gates including NOR2, NAND2 and XOR2 gates.

  6. Enzyme-based logic gates switchable between OR, NXOR and NAND Boolean operations realized in a flow system.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Roby, Lucas J; Guz, Nataliia; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-10-18

    The enzyme-based system performing a biocatalytic cascade reaction was realized in a flow device and was used to mimic Boolean logic operations. Chemical inputs applied to the system resulted in the activation of additional reaction steps, allowing the reversible switch of the logic operations between OR, NXOR and NAND gates for processing of two other biomolecular inputs.

  7. Logic Gates Made of N-Channel JFETs and Epitaxial Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Prototype logic gates made of n-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) and epitaxial resistors have been demonstrated, with a view toward eventual implementation of digital logic devices and systems in silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits (ICs). This development is intended to exploit the inherent ability of SiC electronic devices to function at temperatures from 300 to somewhat above 500 C and withstand large doses of ionizing radiation. SiC-based digital logic devices and systems could enable operation of sensors and robots in nuclear reactors, in jet engines, near hydrothermal vents, and in other environments that are so hot or radioactive as to cause conventional silicon electronic devices to fail. At present, current needs for digital processing at high temperatures exceed SiC integrated circuit production capabilities, which do not allow for highly integrated circuits. Only single to small number component production of depletion mode n-channel JFETs and epitaxial resistors on a single substrate is possible. As a consequence, the fine matching of components is impossible, resulting in rather large direct-current parameter distributions within a group of transistors typically spanning multiples of 5 to 10. Add to this the lack of p-channel devices to complement the n-channel FETs, the lack of precise dropping diodes, and the lack of enhancement mode devices at these elevated temperatures and the use of conventional direct coupled and buffered direct coupled logic gate design techniques is impossible. The presented logic gate design is tolerant of device parameter distributions and is not hampered by the lack of complementary devices or dropping diodes. In addition to n-channel JFETs, these gates include level-shifting and load resistors (see figure). Instead of relying on precise matching of parameters among individual JFETS, these designs rely on choosing the values of these resistors and of supply potentials so as to make the circuits perform

  8. Skyrmion domain wall collision and domain wall-gated skyrmion logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiangjun; Pong, Philip W. T.; Zhou, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Skyrmions and domain walls are significant spin textures of great technological relevance to magnetic memory and logic applications, where they can be used as carriers of information. The unique topology of skyrmions makes them display emergent dynamical properties as compared with domain walls. Some studies have demonstrated that the two topologically inequivalent magnetic objects could be interconverted by using cleverly designed geometric structures. Here, we numerically address the skyrmion domain wall collision in a magnetic racetrack by introducing relative motion between the two objects based on a specially designed junction. An electric current serves as the driving force that moves a skyrmion toward a trapped domain wall pair. We see different types of collision dynamics depending on the driving parameters. Most importantly, the modulation of skyrmion transport using domain walls is realized in this system, allowing a set of domain wall-gated logical NOT, NAND, and NOR gates to be constructed. This work provides a skyrmion-based spin-logic architecture that is fully compatible with racetrack memories.

  9. Stretchable carbon nanotube charge-trap floating-gate memory and logic devices for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Park, Minjoon; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-26

    Electronics for wearable applications require soft, flexible, and stretchable materials and designs to overcome the mechanical mismatch between the human body and devices. A key requirement for such wearable electronics is reliable operation with high performance and robustness during various deformations induced by motions. Here, we present materials and device design strategies for the core elements of wearable electronics, such as transistors, charge-trap floating-gate memory units, and various logic gates, with stretchable form factors. The use of semiconducting carbon nanotube networks designed for integration with charge traps and ultrathin dielectric layers meets the performance requirements as well as reliability, proven by detailed material and electrical characterizations using statistics. Serpentine interconnections and neutral mechanical plane layouts further enhance the deformability required for skin-based systems. Repetitive stretching tests and studies in mechanics corroborate the validity of the current approaches.

  10. Dynamically Arranging Gold Nanoparticles on DNA Origami for Molecular Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Song, Zhichao; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-08-31

    In molecular engineering, DNA molecules have been extensively studied owing to their capacity for accurate structural control and complex programmability. Recent studies have shown that the versatility and predictability of DNA origami make it an excellent platform for constructing nanodevices. In this study, we developed a strand-displacing strategy to selectively and dynamically release specific gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on a rectangular DNA origami. A set of DNA logic gates ("OR", "AND", and "three-input majority gate") were established based on this strategy, in which computing results were identified by disassembly between the AuNPs and DNA origami. The computing results were detected using experimental approaches such as gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method can be used to assemble more complex nanosystems and may have potential applications for molecular engineering. PMID:27501932

  11. Logic with memory: and gates made of organic and inorganic memristive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, G.; Battistoni, S.; Attolini, G.; Bosi, M.; Collini, C.; Iannotta, S.; Lorenzelli, L.; Mosca, R.; Ponraj, J. S.; Verucchi, R.; Erokhin, V.

    2014-10-01

    Logic elements endowed with memory are realized with two types of memristors: organic and inorganic ones. The organic devices are based on a polyaniline/polyethylene oxide heterostructure, while the inorganic ones are based on a Pt/Al2O3/Ti heterostructure. The memristors are characterized by measuring cyclic voltage-current characteristics. They are then used to make AND gates showing memory abilities, exhibiting different behaviors. In the case of the inorganic devices the OFF/ON transitions are very fast when two inputs are applied simultaneously, while they are slow, with a gradual increase of the conductivity, in the case of the organic devices. The two types of devices are suggested as logic elements for future neuromorphic computers combining memory and processing properties.

  12. Design of Logic Module Based on Magnetic-Tunnel-Junction Elements for Nonvolatile Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Sojeong; Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2009-04-01

    Magnetologic using a magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) element is a very hopeful candidate for universal logic technology because it can be used to build both logic circuits and nonvolatile memories. A structure of single-layer (SL) MTJ with a novel current driver previously presented by the authors improved both functional flexibility and uniformity of magnetologic. In this paper, the design of a nonvolatile logic module using SL MTJ is presented, which can be used as a basic logic cell for nonvolatile field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The S-module is a basic logic cell for Act3 family of FPGAs by Actel, which can implement arbitrary five-input logic functions. We designed an S-module using SL MTJ elements such that it can work as a programmable logic module with nonvolatility. The functional verification has been carried out by HSPICE simulator on the basis of a macro-model of SL MTJ.

  13. Realization of optimized quantum controlled-logic gate based on the orbital angular momentum of light.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Tao; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-18

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimized setup to implement quantum controlled-NOT operation using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits. This device is more adaptive to inputs with various polarizations, and can work both in classical and quantum single-photon regime. The logic operations performed by such a setup not only possess high stability and polarization-free character, they can also be easily extended to deal with multi-qubit input states. As an example, the experimental implementation of generalized three-qubit Toffoli gate has been presented. PMID:27137257

  14. Defect Dynamics in Artificial Colloidal Ice: Real-Time Observation, Manipulation, and Logic Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehr, Johannes; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-10-01

    We study the defect dynamics in a colloidal spin ice system realized by filling a square lattice of topographic double well islands with repulsively interacting magnetic colloids. We focus on the contraction of defects in the ground state, and contraction or expansion in a metastable biased state. Combining real-time experiments with simulations, we prove that these defects behave like emergent topological monopoles obeying a Coulomb law with an additional line tension. We further show how to realize a completely resettable "nor" gate, which provides guidelines for fabrication of nanoscale logic devices based on the motion of topological magnetic monopoles.

  15. Reconfigurable OR and XOR logic gates based on dual responsive on-off-on micromotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yonggang; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report a hemisphere-like micromotor. Intriguingly, the micromotor exhibits controllable on-off-on motion, which can be actuated by two different external stimuli (UV and NH3). Moreover, the moving direction of the micromotor can be manipulated by the direction in which UV and NH3 are applied. As a result, the motion accelerates when both stimuli are applied in the same direction and decelerates when the application directions are opposite to each other. More interestingly, the dual stimuli responsive micromotor can be utilized as a reconfigurable logic gate with UV and NH3 as the inputs and the motion of the micromotor as the output. By controlling the direction of the external stimuli, OR and XOR dual logic functions can be realized.In this study, we report a hemisphere-like micromotor. Intriguingly, the micromotor exhibits controllable on-off-on motion, which can be actuated by two different external stimuli (UV and NH3). Moreover, the moving direction of the micromotor can be manipulated by the direction in which UV and NH3 are applied. As a result, the motion accelerates when both stimuli are applied in the same direction and decelerates when the application directions are opposite to each other. More interestingly, the dual stimuli responsive micromotor can be utilized as a reconfigurable logic gate with UV and NH3 as the inputs and the motion of the micromotor as the output. By controlling the direction of the external stimuli, OR and XOR dual logic functions can be realized. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6 and Videos S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00752j

  16. Electro-optical logic gates based on graphene-silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Pengjun; Zhang, Yawei; Zhou, Liqiang; Yang, Tianjun; Wang, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, designs of electro-optical AND/NAND, OR/ NOR, XOR/XNOR logic gates based on cascaded silicon graphene switches and regular 2×1 multimode interference combiners are presented. Each switch consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which silicon slot waveguides embedded with graphene flakes are designed for phase shifters. High-speed switching function is achieved by applying an electrical signal to tune the Fermi levels of graphene flakes causing the variation of modal effective index. Calculation results show the crosstalk in the proposed optical switch is lower than -22.9 dB within a bandwidth from 1510 nm to 1600 nm. The designed six electro-optical logic gates with the operation speed of 10 Gbit/s have a minimum extinction ratio of 35.6 dB and a maximum insertion loss of 0.21 dB for transverse electric modes at 1.55 μm.

  17. Source-Coupled, N-Channel, JFET-Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A circuit topography is used to create usable, digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs), load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the DC parametric distributions of these JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state-of-the-art in high-temperature (300 to 500 C and higher) silicon carbide (SiC) device production, and defines an adaptation to the logic gate described in U.S. Patent 7,688,117 in that, by removing the level shifter from the output of the gate structure described in the patent (and applying it to the input of the same gate), a source-coupled gate topography is created. This structure allows for the construction AND/OR (sum of products) arrays that use far fewer transistors and resistors than the same array as constructed from the gates described in the aforementioned patent. This plays a central role when large multiplexer constructs are necessary; for example, as in the construction of memory. This innovation moves the resistive level shifter from the output of the basic gate structure to the front as if the input is now configured as what would be the output of the preceding gate, wherein the output is the two level shifting resistors. The output of this innovation can now be realized as the lone follower transistor with its source node as the gate output. Additionally, one may leave intact the resistive level shifter on the new gate topography. A source-coupled to direct-coupled logic translator will be the result.

  18. Optical logic gates based on electro-optic modulation with Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Zhu, Mengyun; Li, Dongqiang; Zhang, Zhen; Wei, Yizhen; Hu, Miao; Zhou, Xuefang; Tang, Xianghong

    2014-07-20

    In this work, we present a new structure to realize optical logic operation in a Sagnac interferometer with electro-optical modulation. In the scheme, we divide two counterpropagation signals in a Sagnac loop to two different arms with the electro-optical crystal by using two circulators. Lithium niobate materials whose electro-optical coefficient can be as large as 32.2×10(-12)  m/V make up the arms of the waveguides. Using the transfer matrix of the fiber coupler, we analyze the propagation of signals in this system and obtain the transmission characteristic curves and the extinction ratio. The results indicate that this optical switching has a high extinction ratio of about 60 dB and an ultrafast response time of 2.036 ns. In addition, the results reveal that the change of the dephasing between the two input signals and the modification of the modulation voltage added to the electro-optical crystal leads to the change of the extinction ratio. We also conclude that, in cases of the dephasing of two initial input signals Δφ=0, we can obtain the various logical operations, such as the logical operations D=A¯·B, D=A·B¯, C=A+B, and D=A⊕B in ports C and D of the system by adjusting the modulation voltage. When Δφ≠0, we obtain the arithmetic operations D=A+B, C=A⊕B, D=A·B¯, and C=A¯·B in ports C and D. This study is significant for the design of all optical networks by adjusting the modulation voltage.

  19. Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.

    2013-12-21

    Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.

  20. Intelligent layered nanoflare: ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'' for multiple DNA logic gate operations and efficient intracellular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Kang, Li-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-07-01

    DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of Boolean logic gate operations, including three basic logic gates, one three-input AND gate, and two complex logic operations, in a digital non-leaky way. In addition, the layered nanoflare can serve as a programmable strategy to sequentially tune the size of nanoparticles, as well as a new fingerprint spectrum technique for intelligent multiplex biosensing. More importantly, the nanoflare developed here can also act as a single entity for intracellular DNA logic gate delivery, without the need of commercial transfection agents or other auxiliary carriers. By incorporating DNA circuits on nanoparticles, the presented layered nanoflare will broaden the applications of DNA circuits in biological systems, and facilitate the development of DNA nanotechnology.DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of

  1. All-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences based on cascaded TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) is demonstrated with all-optical wavelength conversion and optical logic gate 'OR' based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexers (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by multiplication experiments from 500 Mb/s to 4 Gb/s for 23-1 PRBS and from 1 Gb/s to 4 Gb/s for 27-1 PRBS. This scheme can be employed for rate multiplication for much longer cycle PRBS at much higher bit rate over 40 Gb/s when the time-delay, the loss and the dispersion of the optical delay line are all precisely managed. The upper limit of bit rate will be restricted by the recovery time of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) finally.

  2. Ultrasensitive DNA detection by cycle isothermal amplification based on nicking endonuclease and its application to logic gates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Ding, Tianrong; Sun, Li; Mao, Changming

    2011-12-15

    In recent years, an intense interest has grown in the DNA logic gates having high potential for computation at literally the "nano-size" level. A limitation of traditional DNA logic gates is that each target strand hybridizes with only a single copy of the probe. This 1:1 hybridization radio limits the gain of the approach and thus its sensitivity. The exponential amplification of nucleic acids has become a core technology in medical diagnostics and has been widely used for the construction of DNA sensor, DNA nanomachine and DNA sequencing. It would be of great interest to develop DNA-based logic systems with exponential amplification for the output signal. In the present study, a series of three-input DNA logic gates with the cycle isothermal amplification based on nicking endonuclease (NEase) are designed. Very low concentrations of the analytes were sufficient to initiate an autocatalytic cascade, achieving a significant improvement of the detection limit, 100-fold improvement compared to the non-autocatalytic system. This was achieved by engineering a simple and flexible biological circuit designed to initiate a cascade of events to detect and amplify a specific DNA sequence. This procedure has the potential to greatly simplify the logic operation because amplification can be performed in "one-pot".

  3. Taking electrons out of bioelectronics: bioprotonic memories and enzymatic logic gates (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolandi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In living systems, protonic and ionic currents are the basis for all information processing. As such, artificial devices based on protonic and ionic currents offer an exciting opportunity for bioelectronics. Proton transport in nature is important for ATP oxidative phosphorylation, the HCVN1 voltage gated proton channel, light activated proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin, and the proton conducting single water file of the antibiotic gramicidin. In these systems, protons move along hydrogen bond networks formed by water and the hydrated biomolecules (proton wires). We have previously demonstrated complementary H+- and OH-- FETs with acid and base doped biopolymer proton wires and PdHx proton conducting contacts. Here, I will discuss proton-conducting devices based oh highly conductive proton wires that emulate brain synapses, display memristive behaviour, and are connected to form shift registries. Furthermore, I will present the integration of these devices with enzymatic logic gates for integrated biotic-abiotic protonic information processing. Preliminary results on using these devices to affect biological function will be discussed.

  4. Proposal for a graphene-based all-spin logic gate

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Li; Zhao, Weisheng; Zhang, Yue; Querlioz, Damien; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Dollfus, Philippe; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Youguang

    2015-02-16

    In this work, we present a graphene-based all-spin logic gate (G-ASLG) that integrates the functionalities of perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with spin transport in graphene-channel. It provides an ideal integration of logic and memory. The input and output states are defined as the relative magnetization between free layer and fixed layer of p-MTJs. They can be probed by the tunnel magnetoresistance and controlled by spin transfer torque effect. Using lateral non-local spin valve, the spin information is transmitted by the spin-current interaction through graphene channels. By using a physics-based spin current compact model, the operation of G-ASLG is demonstrated and its performance is analyzed. It allows us to evaluate the influence of parameters, such as spin injection efficiency, spin diffusion length, contact area, the device length, and their interdependence, and to optimize the energy and dynamic performance. Compared to other beyond-CMOS solutions, longer spin information transport length (∼μm), higher data throughput, faster computing speed (∼ns), and lower power consumption (∼μA) can be expected from the G-ASLG.

  5. Proposal for a graphene-based all-spin logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li; Zhao, Weisheng; Zhang, Yue; Querlioz, Damien; Zhang, Youguang; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Dollfus, Philippe; Bournel, Arnaud

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we present a graphene-based all-spin logic gate (G-ASLG) that integrates the functionalities of perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with spin transport in graphene-channel. It provides an ideal integration of logic and memory. The input and output states are defined as the relative magnetization between free layer and fixed layer of p-MTJs. They can be probed by the tunnel magnetoresistance and controlled by spin transfer torque effect. Using lateral non-local spin valve, the spin information is transmitted by the spin-current interaction through graphene channels. By using a physics-based spin current compact model, the operation of G-ASLG is demonstrated and its performance is analyzed. It allows us to evaluate the influence of parameters, such as spin injection efficiency, spin diffusion length, contact area, the device length, and their interdependence, and to optimize the energy and dynamic performance. Compared to other beyond-CMOS solutions, longer spin information transport length (˜μm), higher data throughput, faster computing speed (˜ns), and lower power consumption (˜μA) can be expected from the G-ASLG.

  6. Ferritin-templated quantum dots for quantum logic gates (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.

    2005-05-01

    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. This technology is essential for NASA, DoD, and industrial nanotechnology applications such as: ultra-high density data storage, quantum electronic devices, biomedical nanorobots, molecular tagging, terahertz radiation sources, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), etc. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. By either the magnetic or electrical property of reconstituted core materials, the QD can be used for logic gates which are fundamental building blocks for quantum computing. However, QLGs are in an incubation stage and still have many potential obstacles that need to be addressed, such as an error collection, a decoherence, and a hardware architecture. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The other methods known so far, such as self-assembled QD grown in the Stranski-Krastanov mode, are usually randomly organized. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconstitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagon-shaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various

  7. A biomimetic colorimetric logic gate system based on multi-functional peptide-mediated gold nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Li, Wang; He, Kai-Yu; Li, Pei; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular activities. Building biomimetic peptide-based bio-logic systems is highly intriguing but remains relatively unexplored due to limited logic recognition elements and complex signal outputs. In this proof-of-principle work, we attempted to address these problems by utilizing multi-functional peptide probes and the peptide-mediated nanoparticle assembly system. Here, the rationally designed peptide probes function as the dual-target responsive element specifically responsive to metal ions and enzymes as well as the mediator regulating the assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Taking advantage of Zn2+ ions and chymotrypsin as the model inputs of metal ions and enzymes, respectively, we constructed the peptide logic system computed by the multi-functional peptide probes and outputted by the readable colour change of AuNPs. In this way, the representative binary basic logic gates (AND, OR, INHIBIT, NAND, IMPLICATION) have been achieved by delicately coding the peptide sequence, demonstrating the versatility of our logic system. Additionally, we demonstrated that the three-input combinational logic gate (INHIBIT-OR) could also be successfully integrated and applied as a multi-tasking biosensor for colorimetric detection of dual targets. This nanoparticle-based peptide logic system presents a valid strategy to illustrate peptide information processing and provides a practical platform for executing peptide computing or peptide-related multiplexing sensing, implying that the controllable nanomaterial assembly is a promising and potent methodology for the advancement of biomimetic bio-logic computation.In natural biological systems, proteins exploit various functional peptide motifs to exert target response and activity switch, providing a functional and logic basis for complex cellular

  8. High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Qin; Xu, Jing-Ping; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple all-optical diode which is comprised of an asymmetric ring cavity containing a two-level atomic ensemble. Attributed to spatial symmetry breaking of the ring cavity, direction-dependent optical bistability is obtained in a classical bistable system. Therefore, a giant optical non-reciprocity is generated, which guarantees an all-optical diode with a high contrast up to 22 dB. Furthermore, its application as an all-optical logic AND gate is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274242, 11474221, and 11574229), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1330203), and the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922203 and 2013CB632701).

  9. High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Qin; Xu, Jing-Ping; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple all-optical diode which is comprised of an asymmetric ring cavity containing a two-level atomic ensemble. Attributed to spatial symmetry breaking of the ring cavity, direction-dependent optical bistability is obtained in a classical bistable system. Therefore, a giant optical non-reciprocity is generated, which guarantees an all-optical diode with a high contrast up to 22 dB. Furthermore, its application as an all-optical logic AND gate is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274242, 11474221, and 11574229), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1330203), and the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922203 and 2013CB632701).

  10. All optical OFDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lim, Seong-Jin; Kserawi, Malaz

    2011-12-01

    All-optical OFDM data transmission opens up a new realm of advanced optical transmission at extreme data rates, as subcarriers are multiplexed and demultiplexed by all optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT). This paper reviews the principles of all optical OFDM transmission and its system application techniques, providing the generic ideas and the practical implementation issues to achieve 100Gbps or higher data rates with a spectral efficiency of 1 bps/Hz or better. This paper also include discussions on all-optical OFDM implementation variants such as an AWG-based OFDM multiplexer and demultiplexer, a receiver design without optical sampling, a transmitter design with frequency-locked cw lasers, an OFDM cyclic prefix designs, and a chromatic dispersion mitigation technique.

  11. A survey of advancements in nucleic acid-based logic gates and computing for applications in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun; Tan, Weihong

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gate and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications.

  12. A Survey of Advancements in Nucleic Acid-based Logic Gates and Computing for Applications in Biotechnology and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gating and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications. PMID:25597946

  13. Compact and low-power optical logic NOT gate based on photonic crystal waveguides without optical amplifiers and nonlinear materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih Jung; Liu, Chung Ping; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2012-02-10

    An optical logic NOT gate (OLNG) is presented based on photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides without nonlinear materials and optical amplifiers. Also, a way of determining the operating parameters is presented. It is demonstrated through finite-difference time-domain simulations that the structure presented can operate as an OLNG. The optimized contrast ratio, defined as the logic-"1" output power divided by the logic-"0" output power, is found to be 297.07 or 24.73 dB. The size of the OLNG can be as small as 7a×7a, where a is the lattice constant of the PhC. Further, the OLNG presented in this paper can operate at a bit rate as high as 2.155 Tbit/s, which is much higher than that of electronic or optical logic gates developed until now. Moreover, as it is not based on the nonlinear effect, the OLNG can operate at very low powers and a relatively large operating bandwidth. This is favorable for large-scale optical integration and for developing multiwavelength parallel-processing optical logic systems.

  14. Design and analysis of an all-optical Demultiplexer based on photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, K.; Mir, A.

    2015-01-01

    An all-optical 1of 2 De-multiplexer (D-mux) based on silicon rods in the air, created by two dimensional square lattice photonic crystals (PCs), is proposed and demonstrated. The device operation is because of line and point defects and phase difference between input beams that created by point defects. The device has a selection line, S, an input data port, A, and three output data ports, Q0, Q1 and Q2. Photonic band gap (PBG) calculation is done by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and electrical field distribution (EFD) in the device by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Power levels lower than "0.25P0" is considered as "0" logic value and higher than "0.4P0" as "1" logic value. When S = 0, the data of port A, is directed to Q0 and when S = 1, is directed to Q1. Moreover, one of the output ports, Q1 or Q2, can be used as an AND logic gate. The device is applicable for all-optical processors and integrated circuit.

  15. Rapid engineering of versatile molecular logic gates using heterologous genetic transcriptional modules† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary methods, gene regulatory sequences used, the characterised dose responses of the single-input Buffer gate and the three promoter inputs under various cognate chemical induction levels. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc05264a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We designed and constructed versatile modular genetic logic gates in bacterial cells. These function as digital logic 1-input Buffer gate, 2-input and 3-input AND gates with one inverted input and integrate multiple chemical input signals in customised logic manners. Such rapidly engineered devices serve to achieve increased sensing signal selectivity. PMID:25062273

  16. Grafting polyethylenimine with quinoline derivatives for targeted imaging of intracellular Zn(2+) and logic gate operations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Junying; Wong, Chap-Mo; Zhang, Heng; Li, Mei-Jin; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly sensitive and selective fluorescent Zn(2+) probe which exhibited excellent biocompatibility, water solubility, and cell-membrane permeability, was facilely synthesized in a single step by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) with quinoline derivatives. The primary amino groups in the branched PEI can increase water solubility and cell permeability of the probe PEIQ, while quinoline derivatives can specifically recognize Zn(2+) and reduce the potential cytotoxicity of PEI. Basing on fluorescence off-on mechanism, PEIQ demonstrated excellent sensing capability towards Zn(2+) in absolute aqueous solution, where a high sensitivity with a detection limit as low as 38.1nM, and a high selectivity over competing metal ions and potential interfering amino acids, were achieved. Inspired by these results, elementary logic operations (YES, NOT and INHIBIT) have been constructed by employing PEIQ as the gate while Zn(2+) and EDTA as chemical inputs. Together with the low cytotoxicity and good cell-permeability, the practical application of PEIQ in living cell imaging was satisfactorily demonstrated, emphasizing its wide application in fundamental biology research. PMID:27612748

  17. Europium Luminescence Used for Logic Gate and Ions Sensing with Enoxacin As the Antenna.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lixia; Chen, Chuanxia; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Jian; Yang, Xiurong

    2016-01-19

    Luminescent lanthanide ion complexes have received increasing attention because of their unique optical properties. Herein, we discovered that the luminescence of europium(III) (Eu(3+)) could be regulated by Ag(+) and SCN(-) in seconds with enoxacin (ENX) as the antenna. Under given conditions, only the simultaneous introduction of Ag(+) and SCN(-) could remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of Eu(3+)-ENX complexes. This phenomenon has been exploited to design an "AND" logic gate and specific luminescence turn-on assays for sensitively sensing Ag(+) and SCN(-) for the first time. Furthermore, the addition of S(2-) resulted in efficient luminescence quenching of the Eu(3+)/ENX/Ag(+)/SCN(-) system due to the strong affinity between Ag(+) and S(2-). Thus, a new luminescent sensing platform for S(2-) was established, which exhibited excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. S(2-) could be detected within the concentration range of 100 nM to 12.5 μM with a detection limit of 60 nM. Such sensing system features simplicity, rapidity, and flexibility. Moreover, this proposed Eu(3+)-based luminescent assay could be successfully applied in the real environmental water sample analysis.

  18. A Cu2+-selective fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY with two pyridine ligands and logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liuqian; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoxiu; Ma, Yifan; Huang, Tianjiao; Shen, Xi; Qiu, Huayu; He, Xingxing; Yin, Shouchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY (Py-1) has been synthesized and characterized. Py-1 displays high selectivity and sensitivity for sensing Cu2+ over other metal ions in acetonitrile. Upon addition of Cu2+ ions, the maximum absorption band of Py-1 in CH3CN displays a red shift from 603 to 608 nm, which results in a visual color change from pink to blue. When Py-1 is excited at 600 nm in the presence of Cu2+, the fluorescent emission intensity of Py-1 at 617 nm is quenched over 86%. Notably, the complex of Py-1-Cu2+ can be restored with the introduction of EDTA or S2-. Consequently, an IMPLICATION logic gate at molecular level operating in fluorescence mode with Cu2+ and S2- as chemical inputs can be constructed. Finally, based on the reversible and reproducible system, a nanoscale sequential memory unit displaying "Writing-Reading-Erasing-Reading" functions can be integrated.

  19. Misalignment-free signal propagation in nanomagnet arrays and logic gates with 45°-clocking field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheng; Kwon, Byung Seok; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2014-05-07

    A key obstacle for the application of Magnetic Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) is the misalignment of clocking field, which results in low stability for both signal propagations within nanomagnet array and logic operation in majority gates. Here, we demonstrate that a reversal clocking field applied at 45° off the hard axis, with progressively reduced amplitude, applied to a shape-tuned nanomagnet array fabricated by e-beam lithography, helps intrinsically eliminate the misalignment sensitivity of the elements and results in correct signal propagation. Further, least reversal steps and reduced field amplitude was required owing to the 45°-clocking field. This clocking field was also tested for majority gates (OR function) and characterized by Magnetic Force Microscopy demonstrating correct output. This novel design provides high stability for signal propagation and logic operation of MQCA and potentially paves way for its application.

  20. Design of all-optical read-only memory.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Jin; Park, Namkyoo; Jhon, Young Min; Lee, Seok

    2009-11-01

    A semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical read-only memory (ROM) is successfully demonstrated through simulations using a one-level simplification method optimized for optical logic circuits. Design details are presented, and advantages are discussed in comparison with an all-optical ROM-employing decoder. We demonstrate that eight characters can be stored at each address in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. PMID:19881640

  1. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  2. All-optical reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-01

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm which uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  3. A versatile molecular beacon-like probe for multiplexed detection based on fluorescence polarization and its application for a resettable logic gate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Wang, Ping; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2012-10-14

    A versatile molecular beacon (MB)-like probe was developed for multiplexed detection based on fluorescence polarization by target-induced allosteric effect and furthermore for resettable logic gate operation.

  4. Mask enhancer technology with source mask optimization (SMO) for 2Xnm-node logic layout gate fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Irie, Shigeo; Shimizu, Tadami; Yuito, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuko; Nonami, Yuuji; Misaka, Akio; Koizumi, Taichi; Sasago, Masaru

    2011-04-01

    Strong resolution enhancement technologies (RETs) combined with hyper-NA ArF immersion lithography with source and mask optimization (SMO) have become necessary to achieve sufficient resolution in 2Xnm node devices. Conventional SMO methods have focused on minimizing the edge placement error and/or the cost functions of dose, focus, and mask errors. This has not, however, resolved the conflict between line and gap patterns on logic gate layouts. One issue remaining in particular is the mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Furthermore, the pattern shapes at the line end gaps of SRAM gates remain a major challenge for logic device manufacturers. To overcome these problems, we explain the importance of controlling the light intensity profiles at line end gaps, focusing on a Panasonic product called "Mask Enhancer" that comprises an attenuated mask with a phase shifting aperture and enables light intensity profiles to be controlled easily. We demonstrate the product's effectiveness in printing gates with optimized illumination source shapes. A simulation experiment and a feasibility study confirmed that Mask Enhancer can improve the MEEF and pattern shapes at the line ends of SRAM gates.

  5. Self-assembled dual in-plane gate thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conductors for logic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Sun, Jia; Wu, Guo Dong; Zhang, Hong Liang; Wan, Qing

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorus (P)-doped nanogranular SiO(2) films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature, and a high proton conductivity of ~5.6 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) is measured at room temperature with a relative humidity of 70%. The accumulation of protons at the SiO(2)/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) interface induces a large electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with two in-plane gates are self-assembled on transparent conducting glass substrates. The large EDL capacitance can effectively modulate the IZO channel with a current ON/OFF ratio of >10(7). Such TFTs calculate dual input signals at the gate level coupled with a floating gate, analogous to that of neuron MOS (vMOS). AND logic is demonstrated on the neuron TFTs. Such neuron TFTs gated by P-doped nanogranular SiO(2) shows an effective electrostatic modulation on conductivities of oxide semiconductors, which is meaningful for portable chemical-biological sensing applications. PMID:23364424

  6. Self-assembled dual in-plane gate thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conductors for logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Sun, Jia; Wu, Guo Dong; Zhang, Hong Liang; Wan, Qing

    2013-02-01

    Phosphorus (P)-doped nanogranular SiO2 films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature, and a high proton conductivity of ~5.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 is measured at room temperature with a relative humidity of 70%. The accumulation of protons at the SiO2/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) interface induces a large electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with two in-plane gates are self-assembled on transparent conducting glass substrates. The large EDL capacitance can effectively modulate the IZO channel with a current ON/OFF ratio of >107. Such TFTs calculate dual input signals at the gate level coupled with a floating gate, analogous to that of neuron MOS (vMOS). AND logic is demonstrated on the neuron TFTs. Such neuron TFTs gated by P-doped nanogranular SiO2 shows an effective electrostatic modulation on conductivities of oxide semiconductors, which is meaningful for portable chemical-biological sensing applications.

  7. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies.

  8. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26676608

  9. Mixed-Species Logic Gates and High-Fidelity Universal Gate Set for Trapped-Ion Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ting Rei

    2016-05-01

    Precision control over hybrid physical systems at the quantum level is important for the realization of many quantum-based technologies. For trapped-ions, a hybrid system formed of different species introduces extra degrees of freedom that can be exploited to expand and refine the control of the system. We demonstrate an entangling gate between two atomic ions of different elements that can serve as an important building block of quantum information processing (QIP), quantum networking, precision spectroscopy, metrology, and quantum simulation. An entangling geometric phase gate between a 9 Be+ ion and a 25 Mg+ ion is realized through an effective spin-spin interaction generated by state-dependent forces. A mixed-species Bell state is thereby created with a fidelity of 0 . 979(1) . We use the gate to construct a SWAP gate that interchanges the quantum states of the two dissimilar qubits. We also report a high-fidelity universal gate set for 9 Be+ ion qubits, achieved through a combination of improved laser beam quality and control, improved state preparation, and reduced electric potential noise on trap electrodes. Supported by Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  10. Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ospelkaus, C; Langer, C E; Amini, J M; Brown, K R; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2008-08-29

    Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multiqubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP). With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ion crystal and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser-beam control and motional-state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates.

  11. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe{sub 2} thin-film switches and logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Yan, Z.; Samnakay, R.; Goli, P.; Pope, T. R.; Salguero, T. T.; Wickramaratne, D.; Lake, R. K.; Khitun, A. G.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-01-21

    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe{sub 2} were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe{sub 2}–Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials.

  12. A new 28 nm high-k metal gate CMOS logic one-time programmable memory cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Woan Yun; Mei, Chin Yu; Chao Shen, Wen; Der Chih, Yue; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high density high-k metal gate (HKMG) one-time programmable (OTP) cell. Without additional processes and steps, this OTP cell is fully compatible to 28 nm HKMG CMOS process. The OTP cell adopts high-k dielectric breakdown as programming mechanism to obtain more than 105 times of on/off read window. Moreover, it features low power and fast program speed by 4.5 V program voltage in 100 µs. In addition to the ultrasmall cell area of 0.0425 µm2, the superior performance of disturb immunities and data retention further support the new logic OTP cell to be a very promising solution in advanced logic non-volatile memory (NVM) applications.

  13. DNA Triplexes-Guided Assembly of G-Quadruplexes for Constructing Label-free Fluorescent Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Hong, Shanni; Shen, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Jine; Zhang, Jianye; Pei, Renjun

    2016-07-01

    Assembly of G-quadruplexes guided by DNA triplexes in a controlled manner is achieved for the first time. The folding of triplex sequences in acidic conditions brings two separated guanine-rich sequences together and subsequently a G-quadruplex structure is formed in the presence of K(+) . Based on this novel platform, label-free fluorescent logic gates, such as AND, INHIBIT, and NOR, are constructed with ions as input and the fluorescence of a G-quadruplex-specific fluorescent probe NMM as output.

  14. A multiaddressable photochromic bisthienylethene with sequence-dependent responses: construction of an INHIBIT logic gate and a keypad lock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shangjun; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhu, Shiqin; Shi, Wen-e; Zhu, Weihong

    2013-06-26

    A photochromic bisthienylethene derivative (BIT) containing two imidazole units has been synthesized and fully characterized. When triggered by chemical ions (Ag(+)), protons, and light, BIT can behave as an absorbance switch, leading to a multiaddressable system. BIT exhibits sequence-dependent responses via efficient interaction of the specific imidazole unit with protons and Ag(+). Furthermore, an INHIBIT logic gate and a keypad lock with three inputs are constructed with the unimolecular platform by employing an absorption mode at different wavelengths as outputs on the basis of an appropriate combination of chemical and photonic stimuli. PMID:23734835

  15. DNA Triplexes-Guided Assembly of G-Quadruplexes for Constructing Label-free Fluorescent Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Hong, Shanni; Shen, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Jine; Zhang, Jianye; Pei, Renjun

    2016-07-01

    Assembly of G-quadruplexes guided by DNA triplexes in a controlled manner is achieved for the first time. The folding of triplex sequences in acidic conditions brings two separated guanine-rich sequences together and subsequently a G-quadruplex structure is formed in the presence of K(+) . Based on this novel platform, label-free fluorescent logic gates, such as AND, INHIBIT, and NOR, are constructed with ions as input and the fluorescence of a G-quadruplex-specific fluorescent probe NMM as output. PMID:27224871

  16. Ultra low-power straintronics with multiferroic nanomagnets: magnetization dynamics, universal logic gates and associated energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi-Fashami, Mohammad; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-02-01

    Stress induced magnetization dynamics of dipole coupled multiferroic nanomagnet arrays is modeled by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. We show that in such multiferroic nanomagnets, consisting of magnetostrictive layers elastically coupled to piezoelectric layers, the single domain magnetization can be rotated by a large angle (˜ 90^o) in ˜ 1 ns if a tiny voltage of a few tens of millivolts is applied across the piezoelectric layer [Nanotechnology, 22, 155201, 2011, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 063108, 2011]. Arrays of such multiferroic nanomagnets can be laid out in specific geometric patterns to implement combinational and sequential logic circuits by exploiting inter-magnet dipole coupling and Bennett clocked with specific stress cycles to propagate logic bits and implement dynamic logic. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate logic propagation in and fan-out characteristics of a universal NAND gate and discuss energy dissipation in the magnet and in the external clock. We show that this energy dissipation can be 3 orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than current CMOS technology for a reasonable clock speed of 1 GHz. This work is supported by the NSF under grant ECCS-1124714.

  17. Design of two and three input molecular logic gates using non-Watson-Crick base pairing-based molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-03-21

    This study presents a single, resettable, and sensitive molecular beacon (MB) used to operate molecular-scale logic gates. The MB consists of a random DNA sequence, a fluorophore at the 5'-end, and a quencher at the 3'-end. The presence of Hg(2+), Ag(+), and coralyne promoted the formation of stable T-Hg(2+)-T, C-Ag(+)-C, and A2-coralyne-A2 coordination in the MB probe, respectively, thereby driving its conformational change. The metal ion or small molecule-mediated coordination of mismatched DNA brought the fluorophore and the quencher into close proximity, resulting in collisional quenching of fluorescence between the two organic dyes. Because thiol can bind Hg(2+) and remove it from the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB, adding thiol to a solution of the T-Hg(2+)-T-based MB allowed the fluorophore and the quencher to be widely separated. A similar phenomenon was observed when replacing Hg(2+) with Ag(+). Because Ag(+) strongly binds to iodide, cyanide, and cysteine, they were capable of removing Ag(+) from the C-Ag(+)-C-based MB, restoring the fluorescence of the MB. Moreover, the fluorescence of the A2-coralyne-A2-based MB could be switched on by adding polyadenosine. Using these analytes as inputs and the MB as a signal transducer, we successfully developed a series of two-input, three-input, and set-reset logic gates at the molecular level.

  18. Laser-induced Bessel beams can realize fast all-optical switching in gold nanosol prepared by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Santhi Ani; Hari, Misha; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the possibility of realizing, all-optical switching in gold nanosol. Two overlapping laser beams are used for this purpose, due to which a low-power beam passing collinear to a high-power beam will undergo cross phase modulation and thereby distort the spatial profile. This is taken to advantage for performing logic operations. We have also measured the threshold pump power to obtain a NOT gate and the minimum response time of the device. Contrary to the general notion that the response time of thermal effects used in this application is of the order of milliseconds, we prove that short pump pulses can result in fast switching. Different combinations of beam splitters and combiners will lead to the formation of other logic functions too.

  19. Construction of logic gates with the fluorene-based small molecule/DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Ting; Yang, Renqiang

    2012-09-01

    Fluorene-based small molecules (FSMs) have optical properties and can interact with DNA. In this paper, the integrated "INH" and "AND" gates operating in parallel are developed with the fluorene-based small molecule (FSM)/DNA probe. They are activated by taking advantage of the two-step fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process and the sequence-recognition mechanism of DNA. Then, a "NOT" gate is obtained with a molecular beacon-like probe (FSM-MB) by using the FSM as the fluorophore. Moreover, the "NOT" gate based on the FSM-MB probe can be used as a biosensor and has potential applications in label-free detection of target molecules.

  20. All-optical fast random number generator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-09-13

    We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.

  1. NOT and CNOT gates for photon logical qubits on different frequency states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, M.; Andrianov, S. N.; Kalachev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Starting from Hamiltonian of three level atom interacting with photons, we calculate effective Hamiltonian by Schrieffer-Wolff transformation. We obtain the operation of photon frequency conversion solving appropriate Schrodinger equation. Based on this operation, an efficient protocol is proposed for implementing quantum NOT and CNOT gates for applications in quantum information processing.

  2. Ultra-low-power carbon nanotube FET-based quaternary logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Fazel; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents low-power carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET)-based quaternary logic circuits. The proposed quaternary circuits are designed based on the CNTFET unique properties, such as the same carrier mobility for N- and P-type devices and also providing desirable threshold voltages by adopting proper diameters for the nanotubes. In addition, no paths exist between supply and ground rails in the steady states of the proposed designs, which eliminates the ON state static current and also the stacking technique is utilised in order to significantly reduce the leakage currents. The results of the simulations, conducted using Synopsys HSPICE with the standard 32 nm CNTFET technology, confirm the significantly lower power consumption, higher energy efficiency and lower sensitivity to process variation of the proposed designs compared to the state-of-the-art quaternary logic circuits. The proposed quaternary logic circuits have on average 92, 99 and 91% less total power, static power and PDP, respectively, compared with the most low-power and energy-efficient CNTFET-based quaternary logic circuits, recently presented in the literature.

  3. Design of Multiple Logic Gates Based on Chemically Triggered Fluorescence Switching of Functionalized Polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Shi, Yupeng; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Junying; Hou, Mengfei; Chen, Zhanpeng; Li, Cheuk-Wing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-04-13

    In this study, two new functionalized polyethylenimine (PEI), PEIR and PEIQ, have been synthesized by covalently conjugating rhodamine 6G (R6G) or 8-chloroacetyl-aminoquinoline (CAAQ) and have been investigated for their sensing capabilities toward metal ions and anions basing on fluorescence on-off and off-on mechanisms. When triggered by protons, metal ions, or anions, functionalized PEIs can behave as a fluorescence switch, leading to a multiaddressable system. Inspired by these results, functionalized PEI-based logic systems capable of performing elementary logic operations (YES, NOT, NOR, and INHIBIT) and integrative logic operations (OR + INHIBIT) have been constructed by observing the change in the fluorescence with varying the chemical inputs such as protons, metal ions, and anions. Due to its characteristics, such as high sensitivity and fast response, developing functionalized PEI as a new material to perform logic operations may pave a new avenue to construct the next generation of molecular devices with better applicability for biomedical research. PMID:27007856

  4. Enhancement of ambipolar characteristics in single-walled carbon nanotubes using C{sub 60} and fabrication of logic gates

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Steve; Nam, Ji Hyun; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lei, Ting; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate a technique to convert p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network transistor into ambipolar transistor by thermally evaporating C{sub 60} on top. The addition of C{sub 60} was observed to have two effects in enhancing ambipolar characteristics. First, C{sub 60} served as an encapsulating layer that enhanced the ambipolar characteristics of SWNTs. Second, C{sub 60} itself served as an electron transporting layer that contributed to the n-type conduction. Such a dual effect enables effective conversion of p-type into ambipolar characteristics. We have fabricated inverters using our SWNT/C{sub 60} ambipolar transistors with gain as high as 24, along with adaptive NAND and NOR logic gates.

  5. Flexible logic circuits based on top-gate thin film transistors with printed semiconductor carbon nanotubes and top electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Jianwen; Xu, Wenya; Gu, Weibing; Zhang, Xiang; Qian, Long; Cui, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism was investigated in detail. The flexible partially-printed top-gate SWCNT TFTs display ambipolar characteristics with slightly strong p-type when using 50 nm HfOx thin films as dielectric layer, as well as the encapsulation layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 120 °C. The hole mobility, on/off ratio and subthreshold swing (SS) are ~46.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, 105 and 109 mV per decade, respectively. Furthermore, partially-printed TFTs show small hysteresis, low operating voltage (2 V) and high stability in air. Flexible partially-printed inverters show good performance with voltage gain up to 33 with 1.25 V supply voltage, and can work at 10 kHz. The frequency of flexible partially-printed five-stage ring oscillators can reach 1.7 kHz at supply voltages of 2 V with per stage delay times of 58.8 μs. This work paves a way to achieve printed SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems on flexible substrates.In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism

  6. Aggregation-induced fabrication of fluorescent organic nanorings: selective biosensing of cysteine and application to molecular logic gate.

    PubMed

    Mati, Soumya Sundar; Chall, Sayantani; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2015-05-12

    Self-aggregation behavior in aqueous medium of four naphthalimide derivatives has exhibited substitution-dependent, unusual, aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) phenomena. Absorption, emission, and time-resolved study initially indicated the formation of J-type fluorescent organic nanoaggregates (FONs). Simultaneous applications of infrared spectroscopy, theoretical studies, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements explored the underlying mechanism of such substitution-selective aggregation of a chloro-naphthalimide organic molecule. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) visually confirmed the formation of ring like FONs with average size of 7.5-9.5 nm. Additionally, naphthalimide FONs also exhibited selective and specific cysteine amino acid sensing property. The specific behavior of NPCl aggregation toward amino acids was also employed as a molecular logic gate in information technology (IT). PMID:25893428

  7. Vibrational resonance and implementation of dynamic logic gate in a piecewise-linear Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, P. R.; Venkatesan, A.

    2016-10-01

    We report the occurrence of vibrational resonance in piecewise-linear non-autonomous system. Especially, we show that an optimal amplitude of the high frequency second harmonic driving enhances the response of a piece-wise linear non-autonomous Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua (MLC) system to a low frequency first harmonic signal. This phenomenon is illustrated with the analytical solutions of circuit equations characterising the system and finally compared with the numerical method. Further, it has been enunciated explicitly, the implementation of the fundamental NOR/NAND gate via vibrational resonance, both by numerical and analytical solutions. In addition, these logical behaviours (AND/NAND/OR/NOR) can be decided by the amplitude of the input square waves without altering the system parameters.

  8. Chemically enhanced double-gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistor with neutral channel for logic applications.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Agarwal, Tarun K; Klekachev, Alexander; Asselberghs, Inge; Cantoro, Mirco; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Heyns, Marc; Verhelst, Marian; Thean, Aaron; De Gendt, Stefan

    2014-08-29

    In this article, we present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a novel bilayer graphene field-effect transistor exhibiting electron mobility up to ~1600 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a room temperature I on/I off ≈ 60, and the lowest total charge (~10(11) cm(-2)) reported to date. This is achieved by combined electrostatic and chemical doping of bilayer graphene, which enables one to switch off the device at zero top-gate voltage. Using density functional theory and atomistic simulations, we obtain physical insight into the impact of chemical and electrostatic doping on bandgap opening of bilayer graphene and the effect of metal contacts on the operation of the device. Our results represent a step forward in the use of bilayer graphene for high-performance logic devices in the beyond-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology paradigm. PMID:25101635

  9. Chemically enhanced double-gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistor with neutral channel for logic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Agarwal, Tarun K.; Klekachev, Alexander; Asselberghs, Inge; Cantoro, Mirco; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Heyns, Marc; Verhelst, Marian; Thean, Aaron; De Gendt, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we present the simulation, fabrication, and characterization of a novel bilayer graphene field-effect transistor exhibiting electron mobility up to ˜1600 cm2 V-1 s-1, a room temperature I on/I off ≈ 60, and the lowest total charge (˜1011 cm-2) reported to date. This is achieved by combined electrostatic and chemical doping of bilayer graphene, which enables one to switch off the device at zero top-gate voltage. Using density functional theory and atomistic simulations, we obtain physical insight into the impact of chemical and electrostatic doping on bandgap opening of bilayer graphene and the effect of metal contacts on the operation of the device. Our results represent a step forward in the use of bilayer graphene for high-performance logic devices in the beyond-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology paradigm.

  10. A reversible DNA-silver nanoclusters-based molecular fluorescence switch and its use for logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-03-01

    Molecule-like silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) with few to tens of atoms are highly sensitive to the sequence and structure of DNA stabilizers. In this paper, a novel pH-triggered reversible molecular fluorescence switch is developed by taking advantage of the DNA-dependent fluorescence pH response of AgNCs. The DNA-AgNCs fluorescence switch simultaneously addresses concerns of simple construction strategy, efficient design and organic-solvent-free operation. Moreover, the excellent photostability and biocompatibility of AgNCs provide great potential for application of the DNA-AgNCs fluorescence switch in the development of functional molecular devices. Specifically, we apply the DNA-AgNCs fluorescence switch combined with the DNA sequence-dependent pH response pattern of AgNCs for construction of molecular logic gates.

  11. Surface-confined heterometallic triads on the basis of terpyridyl complexes and design of molecular logic gates.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Singh, Vikram; Jeyachandran, Yekkoni Lakshmanan; Zharnikov, Michael

    2015-04-29

    Surface-confined heterometallic molecular triads (SURHMTs) were fabricated on SiOx-based solid substrates using optically rich and redox-active Fe-, Os-, and Ru-based terpyridyl complexes as metalloligands and Cu(2+) ions as linkers. Optical and electrochemical studies reveal efficient electronic intramolecular communication in these assemblies. The UV-vis spectra of the triads exhibit a superposition of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands of individual complexes, providing a significant enlargement of the optical window, useful for application. Similarly, cyclic voltammograms of SURHMT layers show a variety of redox peaks corresponding to individual complexes as well as multi-redox states at a low potential. Interaction of a representative SURHMT assembly with redox-active NOBF4 was investigated and used as a basis for configuring molecular logic gates. PMID:25853640

  12. Logic gates realized by nonvolatile GeTe/Sb2Te3 super lattice phase-change memory with a magnetic field input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Feng, Jinlong; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui

    2016-07-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices or circuits that can implement both storage and calculation are a crucial requirement for the efficiency improvement of modern computer. In this work, we realize logic functions by using [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice phase change memory (PCM) cell in which higher threshold voltage is needed for phase change with a magnetic field applied. First, the [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice cells were fabricated and the R-V curve was measured. Then we designed the logic circuits with the super lattice PCM cell verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. Seven basic logic functions are first demonstrated in this letter; then several multi-input logic gates are presented. The proposed logic devices offer the advantages of simple structures and low power consumption, indicating that the super lattice PCM has the potential in the future nonvolatile central processing unit design, facilitating the development of massive parallel computing architecture.

  13. All-optical signal processing at 10 GHz using a photonic crystal molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Junay, Alexandra; De Rossi, Alfredo; Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano; Ménager, Loic; Peter Reithmaier, Johann

    2013-11-04

    We report on 10 GHz operation of an all-optical gate based on an Indium Phosphide Photonic Crystal Molecule. Wavelength conversion and all-optical mixing of microwave signals are demonstrated using the 2 mW output of a mode locked diode laser. The spectral separation of the optical pump and signal is crucial in suppressing optical cross-talk.

  14. Upconversion luminescent logic gates and turn-on sensing of glutathione based on two-photon excited quantum dots conjugated with dopamine.

    PubMed

    Gui, Rijun; Jin, Hui; Liu, Xifeng; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Feifei; Xia, Jianfei; Yang, Min; Bi, Sai

    2014-12-01

    Under the two-photon excitation, upconversion luminescent "INHIBIT" and "OR" logic gates of water-dispersed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were constituted by conjugating the QDs with dopamine. This facilitated the development of a novel QDs-based upconversion luminescent probe for efficient turn-on sensing of glutathione. PMID:25325081

  15. A universal lateral flow biosensor for proteins and DNAs based on the conformational change of hairpin oligonucleotide and its use for logic gate operations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Wen, Wei; Du, Dan; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-11-15

    A universal lateral flow biosensor for proteins and DNAs was designed on the base of target-induced conformational changes of hairpin oligonucleotide (HO). CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) protein and c-DNA were detected both with the naked eye and a strip reader. The scheme of detecting proteins and DNAs were based on the unique molecular recognition properties of HO to the targets to form different quantities of "active" biotin groups on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The output of the strip is the color of the test line, which inspired us to combine strip biosensor with logic gate. Two strip logic gates ("OR" and "INH") were designed in our paper and the combinatorial logic gates in our paper could be used to make high-throughput judgment about what targets were present in the input samples according to the output results. The biosensor facilitates a portable analysis at ambient temperature as it is simple to be conducted and no requirement of training is needed. The strip logic system is proved an excellent selection and can operate effectively as well as in human serum samples. Therefore, we indicate that such logic strips a foreseeable promise in application of intelligent point-of-care and in-field diagnostics. PMID:24967748

  16. Near-Infrared Ag2S Quantum Dots-Based DNA Logic Gate Platform for miRNA Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Meng, Fanyu

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of miRNA expression is correlated with the development and progression of many diseases. These miRNAs are regarded as promising biomarkers. However, it is challenging to measure these low abundant molecules without employing time-consuming radioactive labeling or complex amplification strategies. Here, we present a DNA logic gate platform for miRNA diagnostics with fluorescence outputs from near-infrared (NIR) Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). Carefully designed toehold exchange-mediated strand displacements with different miRNA inputs occur on a solid-state interface, which control QDs release from solid-state interface to solution, responding to multiplex information on initial miRNAs. Excellent fluorescence emission properties of NIR Ag2S QDs certify the great prospect for amplification-free and sensitive miRNA assay. We demonstrate the potential of this platform by achieving femtomolar level miRNA analysis and the versatility of a series of logic circuits computation. PMID:27368143

  17. Auto- and hetero-associative memory using a 2-D optical logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    An optical associative memory system suitable for both auto- and hetero-associative recall is demonstrated. This system utilizes Hamming distance as the similarity measure between a binary input and a memory image with the aid of a two-dimensional optical EXCLUSIVE OR (XOR) gate and a parallel electronics comparator module. Based on the Hamming distance measurement, this optical associative memory performs a nearest neighbor search and the result is displayed in the output plane in real-time. This optical associative memory is fast and noniterative and produces no output spurious states as compared with that of the Hopfield neural network model.

  18. All-optical digital 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, Tamer A.

    2016-04-01

    The photonic crystals draw significant attention to build all-optical logic devices and are considered one of the solutions for the opto-electronic bottleneck via speed and size. The paper presents a novel optical 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods. The main realization of optical encoder is based on the photonic crystal ring resonator NOR gates. The proposed structure has four logic input ports, two output ports, and two bias input port. The photonic crystal structure has a square lattice of silicon rods with a refractive index of 3.39 in air. The structure has lattice constant 'a' equal to 630 nm and bandgap range from 0.32 to 044. The total size of the proposed 4 × 2 encoder is equal to 35 μm × 35 μm. The simulation results using the dimensional finite difference time domain and Plane Wave Expansion methods confirm the operation and the feasibility of the proposed optical encoder for ultrafast optical digital circuits.

  19. Injection-locking laser-diode-based OC-192 optical non-return-to-zero-to-return-to-zero OR logic gate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Cheng; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2005-08-15

    An OC-192 optical return-to-zero- (RZ-) formatted OR logic gate is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically interpreted for the first time to our knowledge. It is implemented by using a data format converter based on an optically injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) modulated in below-threshold condition. By injecting two non-return-to-zero data streams into the FPLD-based OR gate, a peak-power-equalized RZ-formatted OR logic data stream extinction ratio of >8 dB is obtained from the FPLD with optimized rf-modulating and optical injecting powers of 24.7 and >-4 dBm, respectively. The highest data rate of up to 12.5 Gbits/s with a bit error rate (BER) of 10(-13) at a received optical power of >-16 dBm can be achieved by increasing the dc bias current of the FPLD-based RZ-formatted OR logic gate to 8 mA. The OR-gated RZ data stream exhibits a duty cycle (pulse width) of approximately 27% (27 ps) and a 0.5 dB power penalty at a BER of 10(-9) at a data rate of 9.953 Gbits/s.

  20. Auto and hetero-associative memory using a 2-D optical logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An optical system for auto-associative and hetero-associative recall utilizing Hamming distance as the similarity measure between a binary input image vector V(sup k) and a binary image vector V(sup m) in a first memory array using an optical Exclusive-OR gate for multiplication of each of a plurality of different binary image vectors in memory by the input image vector. After integrating the light of each product V(sup k) x V(sup m), a shortest Hamming distance detection electronics module determines which product has the lowest light intensity and emits a signal that activates a light emitting diode to illuminate a corresponding image vector in a second memory array for display. That corresponding image vector is identical to the memory image vector V(sup m) in the first memory array for auto-associative recall or related to it, such as by name, for hetero-associative recall.

  1. Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Nenashev, A. V. Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Zinovieva, A. F.; Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S.

    2015-03-21

    We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.

  2. Programmable logic controller performance enhancement by field programmable gate array based design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhruv; Bhatt, Jignesh; Trivedi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    PLC, the core element of modern automation systems, due to serial execution, exhibits limitations like slow speed and poor scan time. Improved PLC design using FPGA has been proposed based on parallel execution mechanism for enhancement of performance and flexibility. Modelsim as simulation platform and VHDL used to translate, integrate and implement the logic circuit in FPGA. Xilinx's Spartan kit for implementation-testing and VB has been used for GUI development. Salient merits of the design include cost-effectiveness, miniaturization, user-friendliness, simplicity, along with lower power consumption, smaller scan time and higher speed. Various functionalities and applications like typical PLC and industrial alarm annunciator have been developed and successfully tested. Results of simulation, design and implementation have been reported.

  3. Small RNA-based feedforward loop with AND-gate logic regulates extrachromosomal DNA transfer in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Papenfort, Kai; Espinosa, Elena; Casadesús, Josep; Vogel, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation is a major driving force in microbial evolution but constitutes a complex process that requires synchronization with the physiological state of the host bacteria. Although several host transcription factors are known to regulate plasmid-borne transfer genes, RNA-based regulatory circuits for host–plasmid communication remain unknown. We describe a posttranscriptional mechanism whereby the Hfq-dependent small RNA, RprA, inhibits transfer of pSLT, the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica. RprA employs two separate seed-pairing domains to activate the mRNAs of both the sigma-factor σS and the RicI protein, a previously uncharacterized membrane protein here shown to inhibit conjugation. Transcription of ricI requires σS and, together, RprA and σS orchestrate a coherent feedforward loop with AND-gate logic to tightly control the activation of RicI synthesis. RicI interacts with the conjugation apparatus protein TraV and limits plasmid transfer under membrane-damaging conditions. To our knowledge, this study reports the first small RNA-controlled feedforward loop relying on posttranscriptional activation of two independent targets and an unexpected role of the conserved RprA small RNA in controlling extrachromosomal DNA transfer. PMID:26307765

  4. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Facile Detection of Human Serum Albumin and Its Application as an INHIBIT Logic Gate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Haonan; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a facile colorimetric method is developed for quantitative detection of human serum albumin (HSA) based on the antiaggregation effect of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of HSA. The citrate-capped Au NPs undergo a color change from red to blue when melamine is added as a cross-linker to induce the aggregation of the NPs. Such an aggregation is efficiently suppressed upon the adsorption of HSA on the particle surface. This method provides the advantages of simplicity and cost-efficiency for quantitative detection of HSA with a detection limit of ∼1.4 nM by monitoring the colorimetric changes of the Au NPs with UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, this approach shows good selectivity for HSA over various amino acids, peptides, and proteins and is qualified for detection of HSA in a biological sample. Such an antiaggregation effect can be further extended to fabricate an INHIBIT logic gate by using HSA and melamine as inputs and the color changes of Au NPs as outputs, which may have application potentials in point-of-care medical diagnosis. PMID:25850684

  5. A Cu²⁺-selective fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY with two pyridine ligands and logic gate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liuqian; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoxiu; Ma, Yifan; Huang, Tianjiao; Shen, Xi; Qiu, Huayu; He, Xingxing; Yin, Shouchun

    2015-06-15

    A novel near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor based on BODIPY (Py-1) has been synthesized and characterized. Py-1 displays high selectivity and sensitivity for sensing Cu(2+) over other metal ions in acetonitrile. Upon addition of Cu(2+) ions, the maximum absorption band of Py-1 in CH3CN displays a red shift from 603 to 608 nm, which results in a visual color change from pink to blue. When Py-1 is excited at 600 nm in the presence of Cu(2+), the fluorescent emission intensity of Py-1 at 617 nm is quenched over 86%. Notably, the complex of Py-1-Cu(2+) can be restored with the introduction of EDTA or S(2-). Consequently, an IMPLICATION logic gate at molecular level operating in fluorescence mode with Cu(2+) and S(2-) as chemical inputs can be constructed. Finally, based on the reversible and reproducible system, a nanoscale sequential memory unit displaying "Writing-Reading-Erasing-Reading" functions can be integrated. PMID:25766475

  6. Si-nanowire CMOS inverter logic fabricated using gate-all-around (GAA) devices and top-down approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddharaju, K. D.; Singh, N.; Rustagi, S. C.; Teo, Selin H. G.; Lo, G. Q.; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, D. L.

    2008-09-01

    We present the monolithic integration of gate-all-around (GAA) Si-nanowire FETs into CMOS logic using top-down approach. Inverters are chosen as the test vehicles for demonstration. Empirically optimized designs show sharp ON-OFF transitions with high voltage-gains (e.g., ΔVOUT/ΔVIN up to ∼45) and symmetric pull-up and pull-down characteristics. The matching of the drive currents of n- and p-MOSFETs is achieved using different number of nanowire channels for N- and P-MOS transistors. The inverter maintains its good transfer characteristics and noise margins for wide range of VDD tested down to 0.2 V. The detailed experimental characterization is discussed along with the electrical characteristics of the individual transistors comprising the inverter. The performances of the inverters are discussed vis-à-vis those reported in the literature using advanced non-classical device architectures such as FinFETs. The integration potential of GAA Si-nanowire transistors to realize CMOS circuit functionality using top-down approach is thus demonstrated.

  7. Low voltage logic circuits exploiting gate level dynamic body biasing in 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taco, Ramiro; Levi, Itamar; Lanuzza, Marco; Fish, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the recently proposed gate level body bias (GLBB) technique is evaluated for low voltage logic design in state-of-the-art 28 nm ultra-thin body and box (UTBB) fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology. The inherent benefits of the low-granularity body-bias control, provided by the GLBB approach, are emphasized by the efficiency of forward body bias (FBB) in the FD-SOI technology. In addition, the possibility to integrate PMOS and NMOS devices into a single common well configuration allows significant area reduction, as compared to an equivalent triple well implementation. Some arithmetic circuits were designed using GLBB approach and compared to their conventional CMOS and DTMOS counterparts under different running conditions at low voltage regime. Simulation results shows that, for 300 mV of supply voltage, a 4 × 4-bit GLBB Baugh Wooley multiplier allows performance improvement of about 30% and area reduction of about 35%, while maintaining low energy consumption as compared to the conventional CMOS ⧹ DTMOS solutions. Performance and energy benefits are maintained over a wide range of process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations.

  8. Visual & reversible sensing of cyanide in real samples by an effective ratiometric colorimetric probe & logic gate application.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Shubhrajyotsna; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-15

    A novel anion probe 3 (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazono) methyl) phenol) has been unveiled as an effective ratiometric and colorimetric sensor for selective and rapid detection of cyanide. The sensing behavior was demonstrated by UV-vis experiments and NMR studies. This sensory system exhibited prominent visual color change toward cyanide ion over other testing anions in DMSO (90%) solvent, with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and a detection limit down to 3.6×10(-8) mol L(-1). Sensor reveals specific anti-jamming activity and reversible in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. This concept has been applied to design a logic gate circuit at the molecular level. Further we developed coated graphite electrode using probe 3 as ionophore and studied the performance characteristics of electrode. The sensitivity of ratiometric-based colorimetric assay is below the 1.9 μM, accepted by the World Health Organization as the highest permissible cyanide concentration in drinking water. So it can be applied for both quantitative determination and qualitative supervising of cyanide concentrations in real samples.

  9. ‘AND’ logic gates at work: Crystal structure of Rad53 bound to Dbf4 and Cdc7

    PubMed Central

    Almawi, Ahmad W.; Matthews, Lindsay A.; Larasati; Myrox, Polina; Boulton, Stephen; Lai, Christine; Moraes, Trevor; Melacini, Giuseppe; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Duncker, Bernard P.; Guarné, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are phosphopeptide recognition modules found in many signaling proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Rad53 is a key regulator of the DNA damage checkpoint and uses its two FHA domains to interact with multiple binding partners during the checkpoint response. One of these binding partners is the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), a heterodimer composed of the Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit Dbf4. Binding of Rad53 to DDK, through its N-terminal FHA (FHA1) domain, ultimately inhibits DDK kinase activity, thereby preventing firing of late origins. We have previously found that the FHA1 domain of Rad53 binds simultaneously to Dbf4 and a phosphoepitope, suggesting that this domain functions as an ‘AND’ logic gate. Here, we present the crystal structures of the FHA1 domain of Rad53 bound to Dbf4, in the presence and absence of a Cdc7 phosphorylated peptide. Our results reveal how the FHA1 uses a canonical binding interface to recognize the Cdc7 phosphopeptide and a non-canonical interface to bind Dbf4. Based on these data we propose a mechanism to explain how Rad53 enhances the specificity of FHA1-mediated transient interactions. PMID:27681475

  10. [The Ion Identification and Molecular Logic Gate of a Thiacalix[4]arene Fluorescent Probe].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu-yong; Yu, Mei; Mu, Lan; Zeng, Xi; Wang, Rui-xiao; Takehiko Yamato

    2016-01-01

    A disubstituted phthalimide-based thiacalix[4] arene derivative (probe s1) was synthesized from cone 1, 3-thiacalix[4] arene and hydroxyethyl phthalimide, with benzyl appended the lower edge of thiacalix[4]-arene by triazole ring in the 2,4 position. The relative fluorescence quantum yield of probe s1 is 0.43 in CH3CN solvent. The strong fluorescence emission of probe s1 at 390 nm wavelength can be selectively quenched by Fe3+ in DMF/H2O solution. Similarly, the presence of I- also induced a significant fluorescence quenching of probe s1 at 310 nm wavelength in CH3CN solution. Spectral titration and isothermal titration calorimetry were showed that probe s1 with Fe3+ or I- both form 1 : 1 complexes, the binding constants up to 10(5) and coordinate process were spontaneous. The linear ranges of fluorescence detect Fe3+ or I- were 1.0 x 10(-7) - 1.6 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-7) - 8.5 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), detection limits were up to 2.30 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, take advantage of identification and coordination action, a logic circuit constructed at the molecular level by controlling two input signals of Fe3+ and F-, which causing probe s1 cycling of fluorescence emission or quenching. IR spectrum speculated that the nitrogen atoms of triazole groups are involved in the complexation with Fe3+, while the hydrogen atoms of triazole groups were complexed with I- by hydrogen bonding. PMID:27228760

  11. Simultaneous all-optical half-adder, half-subtracter, comparator, and decoder based on nonlinear effects harnessing in highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Karamdeep; Kaur, Gurmeet; Singh, Maninder Lal

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional combinational logic module capable of performing several signal manipulation tasks all-optically, such as half-addition/subtraction, single-bit comparison, and 2-to-4 decoding simultaneously is proposed. Several logic functions (A+B¯, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B) between two input signals A and B are implemented by harnessing a number of nonlinear effects, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), cross-gain modulation (XGM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) inside only two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) arranged in a parallel structure. The NOR gate (A+B¯) is realized by the means of XPM effect in the first HNLF, whereas, A‾.B, A.B¯, and A.B logics have relied on utilization of XGM and FWM processes, respectively, in parametric medium made up of the second HNLF of parallel arrangement. The remaining A⊕B and A⊙B logics required for successful implementation of the proposed simultaneous scheme are attained by temporally combining previously achieved (A‾.B and A.B‾) and (A.B and A+B‾) logics. Quality-factor ≥7.4 and extinction ratio ≥12.30 dB have been achieved at repetition rates of 100 Gbps for all logic functions (A+B‾, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B), suggesting successful simultaneous implementation.

  12. High-sensitivity assay for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection: A new class of droplet digital PCR logic gates for an intelligent DNA calculator.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Yang, Zhansen; Xu, Wentao

    2016-10-15

    The first example of droplet digital PCR logic gates ("YES", "OR" and "AND") for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection has been constructed based on two amplification events triggered by a metal-ion-mediated base mispairing (T-Hg(II)-T and C-Ag(I)-C). In this work, Hg(II) and Ag(I) were used as the input, and the "true" hierarchical colors or "false" green were the output. Through accurate molecular recognition and high sensitivity amplification, positive droplets were generated by droplet digital PCR and viewed as the basis of hierarchical digital signals. Based on this principle, YES gate for Hg(II) (or Ag(I)) detection, OR gate for Hg(II) or Ag(I) detection and AND gate for Hg(II) and Ag(I) detection were developed, and their sensitively and selectivity were reported. The results indicate that the ddPCR logic system developed based on the different indicators for Hg(II) and Ag(I) ions provides a useful strategy for developing advanced detection methods, which are promising for multiplex metal ion analysis and intelligent DNA calculator design applications.

  13. Construction of high-dimensional universal quantum logic gates using a Λ system coupled with a whispering-gallery-mode microresonator.

    PubMed

    He, Ling Yan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-07-11

    High-dimensional quantum system provides a higher capacity of quantum channel, which exhibits potential applications in quantum information processing. However, high-dimensional universal quantum logic gates is difficult to achieve directly with only high-dimensional interaction between two quantum systems and requires a large number of two-dimensional gates to build even a small high-dimensional quantum circuits. In this paper, we propose a scheme to implement a general controlled-flip (CF) gate where the high-dimensional single photon serve as the target qudit and stationary qubits work as the control logic qudit, by employing a three-level Λ-type system coupled with a whispering-gallery-mode microresonator. In our scheme, the required number of interaction times between the photon and solid state system reduce greatly compared with the traditional method which decomposes the high-dimensional Hilbert space into 2-dimensional quantum space, and it is on a shorter temporal scale for the experimental realization. Moreover, we discuss the performance and feasibility of our hybrid CF gate, concluding that it can be easily extended to a 2n-dimensional case and it is feasible with current technology. PMID:27410818

  14. High-sensitivity assay for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection: A new class of droplet digital PCR logic gates for an intelligent DNA calculator.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Yang, Zhansen; Xu, Wentao

    2016-10-15

    The first example of droplet digital PCR logic gates ("YES", "OR" and "AND") for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection has been constructed based on two amplification events triggered by a metal-ion-mediated base mispairing (T-Hg(II)-T and C-Ag(I)-C). In this work, Hg(II) and Ag(I) were used as the input, and the "true" hierarchical colors or "false" green were the output. Through accurate molecular recognition and high sensitivity amplification, positive droplets were generated by droplet digital PCR and viewed as the basis of hierarchical digital signals. Based on this principle, YES gate for Hg(II) (or Ag(I)) detection, OR gate for Hg(II) or Ag(I) detection and AND gate for Hg(II) and Ag(I) detection were developed, and their sensitively and selectivity were reported. The results indicate that the ddPCR logic system developed based on the different indicators for Hg(II) and Ag(I) ions provides a useful strategy for developing advanced detection methods, which are promising for multiplex metal ion analysis and intelligent DNA calculator design applications. PMID:27140307

  15. A logic gate-based fluorogenic probe for Hg(2+) detection and its applications in cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiwen; Hu, Zhangjun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gao, Hong-Wen; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2016-05-01

    A new colorimetric and fluorogenic probe (RN3) based on rhodamine-B has been successfully designed and synthesized. It displays a selective response to Hg(2+) in the aqueous buffer solution over the other competing metals. Upon addition of Hg(2+), the solution of RN3 exhibits a 'naked eye' observable color change from colorless to red and an intensive fluorescence with about 105-fold enhancement. The changes in the color and fluorescence are ascribed to the ring-opening of spirolactam in rhodamine fluorophore, which is induced by a binding of the constructed receptor to Hg(2+) with the association and dissociation constants of 0.22 × 10(5) M(-1) and 25.2 μM, respectively. The Job's plot experiment determines a 1:1 binding stoichiometry between RN3 and Hg(2+). The resultant "turn-on" fluorescence in buffer solution, allows the application of a method to determine Hg(2+) levels in the range of 4.0-15.0 μM, with the limit of detection (LOD) calculated at 60.7 nM (3σ/slope). In addition, the fluorescence 'turn-off' and color 'fading-out' happen to the mixture of RN3-Hg(2+) by further addition of I(-) or S(2-). The reversible switching cycles of fluorescence intensity upon alternate additions of Hg(2+) and S(2-) demonstrate that RN3 can perform as an INHIBIT logic gate. Furthermore, the potential of RN3 as a fluorescent probe has been demonstrated for cellular imaging. PMID:27086103

  16. Levels of pro-apoptotic regulator Bad and anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL determine the type of the apoptotic logic gate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a tightly regulated process: cellular survive-or-die decisions cannot be accidental and must be unambiguous. Since the suicide program may be initiated in response to numerous stress stimuli, signals transmitted through a number of checkpoints have to be eventually integrated. Results In order to analyze possible mechanisms of the integration of multiple pro-apoptotic signals, we constructed a simple model of the Bcl-2 family regulatory module. The module collects upstream signals and processes them into life-or-death decisions by employing interactions between proteins from three subgroups of the Bcl-2 family: pro-apoptotic multidomain effectors, pro-survival multidomain restrainers, and pro-apoptotic single domain BH3-only proteins. Although the model is based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs), it demonstrates that the Bcl-2 family module behaves akin to a Boolean logic gate of the type dependent on levels of BH3-only proteins (represented by Bad) and restrainers (represented by Bcl-xL). A low level of pro-apoptotic Bad or a high level of pro-survival Bcl-xL implies gate AND, which allows for the initiation of apoptosis only when two stress stimuli are simultaneously present: the rise of the p53 killer level and dephosphorylation of kinase Akt. In turn, a high level of Bad or a low level of Bcl-xL implies gate OR, for which any of these stimuli suffices for apoptosis. Conclusions Our study sheds light on possible signal integration mechanisms in cells, and spans a bridge between modeling approaches based on ODEs and on Boolean logic. In the proposed scheme, logic gates switching results from the change of relative abundances of interacting proteins in response to signals and involves system bistability. Consequently, the regulatory system may process two analogous inputs into a digital survive-or-die decision. PMID:23883471

  17. A Time-Dependent SPICE Model for Single Electron Box and Its Application to Logic Gates at Low and High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gooraji, Farzad Ahmadi; Sharifi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrepour, Davoud

    2011-05-25

    In this paper, for the first time, a circuit model for single electron box (SEB) is introduced. The main feature of the proposed model is mapping the master equation, which explains the behavior of a single electron device, to a novel circuit model. The proposed model can be utilized in a circuit simulator such as SPICE. The proposed circuit model is a time dependent model which can be used in order to calculate the intrinsic time latency of the SEB. In addition, it is able to calculate the operation of a gate circuit in high temperatures. The correct operation of the proposed model is studied by utilizing the model for simulating two digital logic gates based on the SEB. The obtained results are compared with SIMON.

  18. A 2*4 all optical decoder switch based on photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour-Banaei, Hamed; Mehdizadeh, Farhad; Serajmohammadi, Somaye; Hassangholizadeh-Kashtiban, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Based on photonic crystal ring resonators and nonlinear Kerr effect in this paper, we proposed a 2*4 all optical decoder switch. Our proposed structure has two logic input ports and one bias input port. This decoder switch has four output ports. Via these two logic input ports, we control the bias signal to transfer toward which output port. We employed numerical methods such as plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods for analyzing the proposed structure.

  19. Pencil beam all-optical ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alles, Erwin J.; Noimark, Sacha; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-01-01

    A miniature, directional fibre-optic acoustic source is presented that employs geometrical focussing to generate a nearly-collimated acoustic pencil beam. When paired with a fibre-optic acoustic detector, an all-optical ultrasound probe with an outer diameter of 2.5 mm is obtained that acquires a pulse-echo image line at each probe position without the need for image reconstruction. B-mode images can be acquired by translating the probe and concatenating the image lines, and artefacts resulting from probe positioning uncertainty are shown to be significantly lower than those observed for conventional synthetic aperture scanning of a non-directional acoustic source. The high image quality obtained for excised vascular tissue suggests that the all-optical ultrasound probe is ideally suited for in vivo, interventional applications. PMID:27699130

  20. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron. PMID:25032923

  1. All-Optical Vector Atomic Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Zhivun, E.; Hovde, D. C.; Budker, D.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ˜65 fT/√Hz in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5 mrad /√Hz in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12 fT /√Hz and 10 μrad /√Hz , respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  2. Pencil beam all-optical ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Alles, Erwin J.; Noimark, Sacha; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-01-01

    A miniature, directional fibre-optic acoustic source is presented that employs geometrical focussing to generate a nearly-collimated acoustic pencil beam. When paired with a fibre-optic acoustic detector, an all-optical ultrasound probe with an outer diameter of 2.5 mm is obtained that acquires a pulse-echo image line at each probe position without the need for image reconstruction. B-mode images can be acquired by translating the probe and concatenating the image lines, and artefacts resulting from probe positioning uncertainty are shown to be significantly lower than those observed for conventional synthetic aperture scanning of a non-directional acoustic source. The high image quality obtained for excised vascular tissue suggests that the all-optical ultrasound probe is ideally suited for in vivo, interventional applications.

  3. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Patton, B; Zhivun, E; Hovde, D C; Budker, D

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field using nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in cesium vapor. Vector capability is added by effective modulation of the field along orthogonal axes and subsequent demodulation of the magnetic-resonance frequency. This modulation is provided by the ac Stark shift induced by circularly polarized laser beams. The sensor exhibits a demonstrated rms noise floor of ∼65  fT/√[Hz] in measurement of the field magnitude and 0.5  mrad/√[Hz] in the field direction; elimination of technical noise would improve these sensitivities to 12  fT/√[Hz] and 10  μrad/√[Hz], respectively. Applications for this all-optical vector magnetometer would include magnetically sensitive fundamental physics experiments, such as the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  4. All-optical control of molecular fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2010-01-15

    We present a quantum electrodynamical procedure to demonstrate the all-optical control of molecular fluorescence. The effect is achieved on passage of an off-resonant laser beam through an optically activated system; the presence of a surface is not required. Following the derivation and analysis of the all-optical control mechanism, calculations are given to quantify the significant modification of spontaneous fluorescent emission with input laser irradiance. Specific results are given for molecules whose electronic spectra are dominated by transitions between three electronic levels, and suitable laser experimental methods are proposed. It is also shown that the phenomenon is sensitive to the handedness of circularly polarized throughput, producing a conferred form of optical activity.

  5. Plasmonic All-Optical Tunable Wavelength Shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Flugel, B.; Macararenhas, A.; Snoke, D. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K.

    2007-12-01

    At present, wavelength-division-multiplexed fibre lines routinely operate at 10 Gbit s{sup -1} per channel. The transition from static-path networks to true all-optical networks encompassing many nodes, in which channels are added/dropped and efficiently reassigned, will require improved tools for all-optical wavelength shifting. Specifically, one must be able to shift the carrier wavelength (frequency) of an optical data signal over tens of nanometres (a THz range) without the bottleneck of electrical conversion. Popular approaches to this problem make use of the nonlinear interaction between two wavelengths within a semiconductor optical amplifier whereas more novel methods invoke terahertz-frequency electro-optic modulation and polaritons. Here we outline the principles and demonstrate the use of optically excited plasmons as a tunable frequency source that can be mixed with a laser frequency through Raman scattering. The scheme is all-optical and enables dynamical control of the output carrier wavelength simply by varying the power of a control laser.

  6. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary R-S flip-flop using binary latch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Chakraborty, Ajoy Kumar

    2009-04-01

    The developments of different multi-valued logic (MVL) systems have received considerable interests in recent years all over the world. In electronics, efforts have already been made to incorporate multi-valued system in logic and arithmetic data processing. But, very little efforts have been given in realization of MVL with optics. In this paper we present novel designs of certain all-optical circuits that can be used for realizing multi-valued logic functions. Polarization encoded all-optical quaternary (4-valued) R-S flip-flop is proposed and described. Two key circuits (all-optical encoder/decoder and a binary latch) are designed first. They are used to realize quaternary flip-flop in all-optical domain. Here the different quaternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch can take an important role. Computer simulation result confirming described methods and conclusion are given in this paper.

  7. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  8. All-optical nanomechanical heat engine.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Andreas; Kiesel, Nikolai; Lutz, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a nanomechanical heat engine. We show how a levitated nanoparticle in an optical trap inside a cavity can be used to realize a Stirling cycle in the underdamped regime. The all-optical approach enables fast and flexible control of all thermodynamical parameters and the efficient optimization of the performance of the engine. We develop a systematic optimization procedure to determine optimal driving protocols. Further, we perform numerical simulations with realistic parameters and evaluate the maximum power and the corresponding efficiency. PMID:26001001

  9. All-optical nanomechanical heat engine.

    PubMed

    Dechant, Andreas; Kiesel, Nikolai; Lutz, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a nanomechanical heat engine. We show how a levitated nanoparticle in an optical trap inside a cavity can be used to realize a Stirling cycle in the underdamped regime. The all-optical approach enables fast and flexible control of all thermodynamical parameters and the efficient optimization of the performance of the engine. We develop a systematic optimization procedure to determine optimal driving protocols. Further, we perform numerical simulations with realistic parameters and evaluate the maximum power and the corresponding efficiency.

  10. All-Optical Nanomechanical Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, Andreas; Kiesel, Nikolai; Lutz, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a nanomechanical heat engine. We show how a levitated nanoparticle in an optical trap inside a cavity can be used to realize a Stirling cycle in the underdamped regime. The all-optical approach enables fast and flexible control of all thermodynamical parameters and the efficient optimization of the performance of the engine. We develop a systematic optimization procedure to determine optimal driving protocols. Further, we perform numerical simulations with realistic parameters and evaluate the maximum power and the corresponding efficiency.

  11. Scan direction induced charging dynamics and the application for detection of gate to S/D shorts in logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Tian, Qing; Wu, Kevin; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Gate to source/drain (S/D) short is the most common and detrimental failure mechanism for advanced process technology development in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) device manufacturing. Especially for sub-1Xnm nodes, MOSFET device is more vulnerable to gate-S/D shorts due to the aggressive scaling. The detection of this kind of electrical short defect is always challenging for in-line electron beam inspection (EBI), especially new shorting mechanisms on atomic scale due to new material/process flow implementation. The second challenge comes from the characterization of the shorts including identification of the exact shorting location. In this paper, we demonstrate unique scan direction induced charging dynamics (SDCD) phenomenon which stems from the transistor level response from EBI scan at post metal contact chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) layers. We found that SDCD effect is exceptionally useful for gate-S/D short induced voltage contrast (VC) defect detection, especially for identification of shorting locations. The unique SDCD effect signatures of gate-S/D shorts can be used as fingerprint for ground true shorting defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from EBI scan shows consistent results from various shorting mechanism. A practical work flow to implement the application of SDCD effect for in-line EBI monitor of critical gate-S/D short defects is also proposed, together with examples of successful application use cases which mostly focus on static random-access memory (SRAM) array regions. Although the capability of gate-S/D short detection as well as expected device response is limited to passing transistors and pull-down transistors due to the design restriction from standard 6-cell SRAM structure, SDCD effect is proven to be very effective for gate-S/D short induced VC defect detection as well as yield learning for advanced technology development.

  12. CROWNs: all-optical WDM multiring topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Fumagalli, Andrea F.

    1993-10-01

    Ring networks present an attractive solution for optical, high speed local and metropolitan area networks due to the simplicity of network interfaces and access control. Two problems need to be overcome to obtain an all optical network. One, the limitation on power budget resulting from optical losses that occur when data passes through intermediate nodes. The other, a reduced network throughput related to the linearity of the ring topology. Recent progress in WDM techniques has opened the possibility of overcoming this problem by an optical multi- channel solution. WDM taps the large fiber bandwidth by using different portions of the optical spectrum to realize (omega) different channels on the same fiber. However, in extant electronic node based architectures, even though high bandwidth optical transmission can be used to propagate packets between the nodes, the electronic elaboration of data at each node creates a performance bottleneck for the whole communication system. This leads to network throughput that is a mere fraction of the optical bandwidth potential. This work presents an approach to obtaining a concurrently accessed multi-ring all-optical WDM network (CROWN) with a node architecture in which packets pass through the node without being converted into the electronic domain. Using a single high speed transmitter and receiver, CROWN allows the data to be maintained in optical format while resolving receiver contentions.

  13. All-optical buffering for DPSK packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Chongqing; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Fu; Mao, Yaya; Sun, Zhenchao

    2013-12-01

    Advanced modulation formats, such as DPSK, DQPSK, QAM, have become the mainstream technologies in the optical network over 40Gb/s, the DPSK format is the fundamental of all advanced modulation formats. Optical buffers, as a key element for temporarily storing packets in order to synchronization or contention resolution in optical nodes, must be adapted to this new requirement. Different from other current buffers to store the NRZ or RZ format, an all-optical buffer of storing DPSK packets based on nonlinear polarization rotation in SOA is proposed and demonstrated. In this buffer, a section of PMF is used as fiber delay line to maintain the polarization states unchanged, the driver current of SOA is optimized, and no amplifier is required in the fiber loop. A packet delay resolution of 400ns is obtained and storage for tens rounds is demonstrated without significant signal degradation. Using proposed the new tunable DPSK demodulator, bit error rate has been measured after buffering for tens rounds for 10Gb/s data payload. Configurations for First-in First-out (FIFO) buffer or First-in Last-out (FILO) buffer are proposed based on this buffer. The buffer is easy control and suitable for integration. The terminal contention caused by different clients can be mitigated by managing packets delays in future all-optical network, such as optical packet switching network and WDM switching network.

  14. All-optical OFDM network coding scheme for all-optical virtual private communication in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijun; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Bai, Lin; Huang, Zhitong

    2014-03-01

    A novel optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) network coding scheme is proposed over passive optical network (PON) system. The proposed scheme for all-optical virtual private network (VPN) does not only improve transmission efficiency, but also realize full-duplex communication mode in a single fiber. Compared with the traditional all-optical VPN architectures, the all-optical OFDM network coding scheme can support higher speed, more flexible bandwidth allocation, and higher spectrum efficiency. In order to reduce the difficulty of alignment for encoding operation between inter-communication traffic, the width of OFDM subcarrier pulse is stretched in our proposed scheme. The feasibility of all-optical OFDM network coding scheme for VPN is verified, and the relevant simulation results show that the full-duplex inter-communication traffic stream can be transmitted successfully. Furthermore, the tolerance of misalignment existing in inter-ONUs traffic is investigated and analyzed for all-optical encoding operation, and the difficulty of pulse alignment is proved to be lower.

  15. All-optical vector atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivun, Elena; Patton, Brian; Hovde, Chris; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    Alkali-vapor magnetometers are among the most precise magnetic sensors today, reaching sensitivities on the scale of fT/√{Hz}. In general, alkali-vapor magnetometers operating in finite fields can only measure the scalar magnitude of the field (not its direction or projection). In this work we demonstrate an all-optical vector cesium magnetometer with 0 . 2pT /√{Hz} sensitivity to the field magnitude and 4mrad /√{Hz} angular precision in the field direction. Although this can be accomplished by applying orthogonal magnetic fields to the sensor and measuring the change in Larmor frequency, in our sensor we employ the vector light shift induced by orthogonal laser beams to achieve the same effect. We will present results from such a sensor operating in a 10 mG magnetic field and discuss its applications to fundamental physics experiments and remote magnetometry.

  16. A novel zinc(II) and hydrogen sulphate selective fluorescent "turn-on" chemosensor based on isonicotiamide: INHIBIT type's logic gate and application in cancer cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Kundan; Bondhopadhyay, Banashree; Keshav, Karunesh; Sahoo, Suban K; Basu, Anupam; Singh, Jasmider; Singh, Narinder; Nehete, Dileep T; Kuwar, Anil

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel isonicotiamide-based fluorescent "turn-on" chemosensor 1 for the selective detection of Zn(2+) and HSO4(-). The sensor 1 can detect Zn(2+) and HSO4(-) with a detection limit down to the nanomolar level by forming a complex in 1 : 1 stoichiometry in the presence of other anions and 2 : 1 in presence of cations in aqueous solution. Density functional theory calculations on 1 and the 1-Zn(2+)/HSO4(-) complexes are consistent with the experimental results. We have successfully utilized the above cation and anion for the fabrication of INHIBIT molecular logic gates. Furthermore the receptor 1 successfully detected the Zn(2+) and HSO4(-) ions in HeLa cells cultured in Zn(2+) and HSO4(-) enriched medium.

  17. A gold nanocluster-based fluorescent probe for simultaneous pH and temperature sensing and its application to cellular imaging and logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun-Tse; Shanmugam, Chandirasekar; Tseng, Wei-Bin; Hiseh, Ming-Mu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-05-01

    Metal nanocluster-based nanomaterials for the simultaneous determination of temperature and pH variations in micro-environments are still a challenge. In this study, we develop a dual-emission fluorescent probe consisting of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as temperature- and pH-responsive fluorescence signals. Under single wavelength excitation the FITC/BSA-AuNCs exhibited well-separated dual emission bands at 525 and 670 nm. When FITC was used as a reference fluorophore, FITC/BSA-AuNCs showed a good linear response over the temperature range 1-71 °C and offered temperature-independent spectral shifts, temperature accuracy, activation energy, and reusability. The possible mechanism for high temperature-induced fluorescence quenching of FITC/BSA-AuNCs could be attributed to a weakening of the Au-S bond, thereby lowering the charge transfer from BSA to AuNCs. Additionally, the pH- and temperature-responsive properties of FITC/BSA-AuNCs allow simultaneous temperature sensing from 21 to 41 °C (at intervals of 5 °C) and pH from 6.0 to 8.0 (at intervals of 0.5 pH unit), facilitating the construction of two-input AND logic gates. Three-input AND logic gates were also designed using temperature, pH, and trypsin as inputs. The practicality of using FITC/BSA-AuNCs to determine the temperature and pH changes in HeLa cells is also validated.Metal nanocluster-based nanomaterials for the simultaneous determination of temperature and pH variations in micro-environments are still a challenge. In this study, we develop a dual-emission fluorescent probe consisting of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as temperature- and pH-responsive fluorescence signals. Under single wavelength excitation the FITC/BSA-AuNCs exhibited well-separated dual emission bands at 525 and 670 nm. When FITC was used as a reference fluorophore, FITC/BSA-AuNCs showed a

  18. Synthesis and sensing integration: A novel enzymatic reaction modulated Nanoclusters Beacon (NCB) "Illumination" strategy for label-free biosensing and logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lu; Zhou, Fu; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-12-15

    A novel fluorescent label-free "turn-on" NAD(+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosensing strategy is proposed by fully exploiting ligation triggered Nanocluster Beacon (NCB). In the presence of the target, the split NCB was brought to intact, which brought the C-rich sequence and enhancer sequence in close proximity resulting in the lightening of dark DNA/AgNCs ("On" mode). Further application was presented for logic gate operation and aptasensor construction. The feasibility was investigated by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fluorescence, lifetime and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) etc. The strategy displayed good performance in the detection of NAD(+) and ATP, with the detection limit of 0.002nM and 0.001mM, the linear range of 10-1000nM and 0.003-0.01mM, respectively. Due to the DNA/AgNCs as fluorescence reporter, the completely label-free fluorescent strategy boasts the features of simplicity and low cost, and showing little reliance on the sensing environment. Meanwhile, the regulation by overhang G-rich sequence not relying on Förster energy transfer quenching manifests the high signal-to-background ratios (S/B ratios). This method not only provided a simple, economical and reliable fluorescent NAD(+) assay but also explored a flexible G-rich sequence regulated NCB probe for the fluorescent biosensors. Furthermore, this sensing mode was expanded to the application of a logic gate design, which exhibited a high performance for not only versatile biosensors construction but also for molecular computing application. PMID:27453987

  19. Synthesis and sensing integration: A novel enzymatic reaction modulated Nanoclusters Beacon (NCB) "Illumination" strategy for label-free biosensing and logic gate operation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lu; Zhou, Fu; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-12-15

    A novel fluorescent label-free "turn-on" NAD(+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biosensing strategy is proposed by fully exploiting ligation triggered Nanocluster Beacon (NCB). In the presence of the target, the split NCB was brought to intact, which brought the C-rich sequence and enhancer sequence in close proximity resulting in the lightening of dark DNA/AgNCs ("On" mode). Further application was presented for logic gate operation and aptasensor construction. The feasibility was investigated by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fluorescence, lifetime and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) etc. The strategy displayed good performance in the detection of NAD(+) and ATP, with the detection limit of 0.002nM and 0.001mM, the linear range of 10-1000nM and 0.003-0.01mM, respectively. Due to the DNA/AgNCs as fluorescence reporter, the completely label-free fluorescent strategy boasts the features of simplicity and low cost, and showing little reliance on the sensing environment. Meanwhile, the regulation by overhang G-rich sequence not relying on Förster energy transfer quenching manifests the high signal-to-background ratios (S/B ratios). This method not only provided a simple, economical and reliable fluorescent NAD(+) assay but also explored a flexible G-rich sequence regulated NCB probe for the fluorescent biosensors. Furthermore, this sensing mode was expanded to the application of a logic gate design, which exhibited a high performance for not only versatile biosensors construction but also for molecular computing application.

  20. A gold nanocluster-based fluorescent probe for simultaneous pH and temperature sensing and its application to cellular imaging and logic gates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Tse; Shanmugam, Chandirasekar; Tseng, Wei-Bin; Hiseh, Ming-Mu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanocluster-based nanomaterials for the simultaneous determination of temperature and pH variations in micro-environments are still a challenge. In this study, we develop a dual-emission fluorescent probe consisting of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) as temperature- and pH-responsive fluorescence signals. Under single wavelength excitation the FITC/BSA-AuNCs exhibited well-separated dual emission bands at 525 and 670 nm. When FITC was used as a reference fluorophore, FITC/BSA-AuNCs showed a good linear response over the temperature range 1-71 °C and offered temperature-independent spectral shifts, temperature accuracy, activation energy, and reusability. The possible mechanism for high temperature-induced fluorescence quenching of FITC/BSA-AuNCs could be attributed to a weakening of the Au-S bond, thereby lowering the charge transfer from BSA to AuNCs. Additionally, the pH- and temperature-responsive properties of FITC/BSA-AuNCs allow simultaneous temperature sensing from 21 to 41 °C (at intervals of 5 °C) and pH from 6.0 to 8.0 (at intervals of 0.5 pH unit), facilitating the construction of two-input AND logic gates. Three-input AND logic gates were also designed using temperature, pH, and trypsin as inputs. The practicality of using FITC/BSA-AuNCs to determine the temperature and pH changes in HeLa cells is also validated.

  1. All-Optical Interrogation of Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There have been two recent revolutionary advances in neuroscience: First, genetically encoded activity sensors have brought the goal of optical detection of single action potentials in vivo within reach. Second, optogenetic actuators now allow the activity of neurons to be controlled with millisecond precision. These revolutions have now been combined, together with advanced microscopies, to allow “all-optical” readout and manipulation of activity in neural circuits with single-spike and single-neuron precision. This is a transformational advance that will open new frontiers in neuroscience research. Harnessing the power of light in the all-optical approach requires coexpression of genetically encoded activity sensors and optogenetic probes in the same neurons, as well as the ability to simultaneously target and record the light from the selected neurons. It has recently become possible to combine sensors and optical strategies that are sufficiently sensitive and cross talk free to enable single-action-potential sensitivity and precision for both readout and manipulation in the intact brain. The combination of simultaneous readout and manipulation from the same genetically defined cells will enable a wide range of new experiments as well as inspire new technologies for interacting with the brain. The advances described in this review herald a future where the traditional tools used for generations by physiologists to study and interact with the brain—stimulation and recording electrodes—can largely be replaced by light. We outline potential future developments in this field and discuss how the all-optical strategy can be applied to solve fundamental problems in neuroscience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This review describes the nexus of dramatic recent developments in optogenetic probes, genetically encoded activity sensors, and novel microscopies, which together allow the activity of neural circuits to be recorded and manipulated entirely using light. The

  2. The GALAXIE all-optical FEL project

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Arab, E.; Andonian, G.; Cahill, A.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Jovanovic, I.; Marcus, G.; Marinelli, A.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Naranjo, B.; O'Shea, B.; O'Shea, F.; Ovodenko, A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Putterman, S.; Roberts, K.; Shumail, M.; and others

    2012-12-21

    We describe a comprehensive project, funded under the DARPA AXiS program, to develop an all-optical table-top X-ray FEL based on dielectric acceleration and electromagnetic undulators, yielding a compact source of coherent X-rays for medical and related applications. The compactness of this source demands that high field (>GV/m) acceleration and undulation-inducing fields be employed, thus giving rise to the project's acronym: GV/m AcceLerator And X-ray Integrated Experiment (GALAXIE). There are numerous physics and technical hurdles to surmount in this ambitious scenario, and the integrated solutions include: a biharmonic photonic TW structure, 200 micron wavelength electromagnetic undulators, 5 {mu}m laser development, ultra-high brightness magnetized/asymmetric emittance electron beam generation, and SASE FEL operation. We describe the overall design philosophy of the project, the innovative approaches to addressing the challenges presented by the design, and the significant progress towards realization of these approaches in the nine months since project initialization.

  3. A terbium(III)-complex-based on-off fluorescent chemosensor for phosphate anions in aqueous solution and its application in molecular logic gates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Wen; Liu, Shun-Bang; Yang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Peng-Zhi; Zhang, Ai-Jiang; Peng, Yu

    2015-02-25

    A new Tb(III) complex based on a tripodal carboxylate ligand has been synthesized for the selective fluorescent recognition of phosphate anions, including inorganic phosphates and nucleoside phosphates (e.g., ATP), in Tris buffer solution. The resulting L · Tb complex shows the characteristic emission bands centered at about 495 and 550 nm from the Tb(III)-centered (5)D4 excited state to (7)FJ transitions with J = 6 and 5, where the chelating ligand acts only as an "antenna". Upon the addition of phosphate anions to the aqueous solution of Tb(III) complex, significant "on-off" fluorescence changes were observed, which were attributed to the inhibition of the "antenna" effect between the ligand and Tb(III) after the incorporation of phosphate anions. Furthermore, this unique Tb(III) complex has been successfully utilized to detect phosphate anions with filter papers and hydrogels. Notably, the Tb(III) complex also can be used for the construction of molecular logic gates with TRANSFER and INHIBIT logic functions by using the above fluorescence changes.

  4. [Design and synthesis of imine compound for metal cation logical gates recognition and setup of double-control fluorescent molecule switch].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Zhu, Yu-lian; Dai, Xue-qin; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yan

    2011-07-01

    The Schiff base's reduced product N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine, which was used as a receptor L, was designed and synthesized for the first time in the present article. It was found that Cu2+ and Fe3+ could quench L in fluorescence observably and Zn2+ and Cd2+ could enhance L remarkably. So the two pair metal cation could set up "OR" logical gate relation with the receptor molecule L, then a logical recognition system be formed. The data of resolved ZnL's single crystal indicated that ZnL belonged to monoclinic (CCDC No. 747994). Integrated spectrum instrument was used to characterize the structure of its alike series of complex compound. According to ZnL's excellent fluorescence character and the ability to exchange with contiguous metal cation, ZnZ+/ZnL/Co2+, Zn2+/ZnL/Nit+ fluorescent molecule switch was designed. It is hoped that the work above could be positive for the development of molecule computer, bio-intellectualized inspection technology (therapy) and instrument.

  5. [Design and synthesis of imine compound for metal cation logical gates recognition and setup of double-control fluorescent molecule switch].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Zhu, Yu-lian; Dai, Xue-qin; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yan

    2011-07-01

    The Schiff base's reduced product N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine, which was used as a receptor L, was designed and synthesized for the first time in the present article. It was found that Cu2+ and Fe3+ could quench L in fluorescence observably and Zn2+ and Cd2+ could enhance L remarkably. So the two pair metal cation could set up "OR" logical gate relation with the receptor molecule L, then a logical recognition system be formed. The data of resolved ZnL's single crystal indicated that ZnL belonged to monoclinic (CCDC No. 747994). Integrated spectrum instrument was used to characterize the structure of its alike series of complex compound. According to ZnL's excellent fluorescence character and the ability to exchange with contiguous metal cation, ZnZ+/ZnL/Co2+, Zn2+/ZnL/Nit+ fluorescent molecule switch was designed. It is hoped that the work above could be positive for the development of molecule computer, bio-intellectualized inspection technology (therapy) and instrument. PMID:21942034

  6. Optical logic: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-05-01

    Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.

  7. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm(2) V(-1) sec(-)1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 10(4)), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process. PMID:27184121

  8. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V−1 sec−1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process. PMID:27184121

  9. Logic circuits composed of flexible carbon nanotube thin-film transistor and ultra-thin polymer gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Seong, Hyejeong; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Printing electronics has become increasingly prominent in the field of electronic engineering because this method is highly efficient at producing flexible, low-cost and large-scale thin-film transistors. However, TFTs are typically constructed with rigid insulating layers consisting of oxides and nitrides that are brittle and require high processing temperatures, which can cause a number of problems when used in printed flexible TFTs. In this study, we address these issues and demonstrate a method of producing inkjet-printed TFTs that include an ultra-thin polymeric dielectric layer produced by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) at room temperature and highly purified 99.9% semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Our integrated approach enables the production of flexible logic circuits consisting of CNT-TFTs on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate that have a high mobility (up to 9.76 cm2 V‑1 sec‑1), a low operating voltage (less than 4 V), a high current on/off ratio (3 × 104), and a total device yield of 90%. Thus, it should be emphasized that this study delineates a guideline for the feasibility of producing flexible CNT-TFT logic circuits with high performance based on a low-cost and simple fabrication process.

  10. All-optical multibit address recognition at 20 Gb/s based on TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-04-01

    All-optical multibit address recognition at 20 Gb/s is demonstrated based on a special AND logic of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD). The semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) used in the TOAD is biased at transparency status to accelerate the gain recovery. This is the highest bit rate that multibit address recognition is demonstrated with SOA-based interferometer. The experimental results show low pattern dependency. With this method, address recognition can be performed without separating address and payload beforehand.

  11. Photonic NOT and NOR gates based on a single compact photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jibo; Wang, Junqin; Jiang, Junzhen; Chen, Xiyao; Li, Hui; Qiu, Yishen; Qiang, Zexuan

    2009-12-20

    New all-optical NOT and NOR logic gates based on a single ultracompact photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) have been proposed. The PCRR was formed by removing the line defect along the GammaM direction instead of the conventional GammaX direction in a square-pattern cylindrical silicon-rod photonic crystal structure. The behavior of the proposed logic gates is qualitatively analyzed with the theory of beam interference and then numerically investigated by use of the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. No nonlinear material is required with less than a 2.2 microm effective ring radius. The wavelengths of the input signal and the probe signal are the same. This new device can potentially be used in on-chip photonic logic-integrated circuits. PMID:20029593

  12. Optically controlled waveplate at a telecom wavelength using a ladder transition in Rb atoms for all-optical switching and high speed Stokesmetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Tu, Y; Wang, Y; Tseng, S; Shahriar, M S

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate an optically controlled waveplate at ~1323 nm using the 5S(1/2)-5P(1/2)-6S(1/2) ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the transitions represents the control beam, while the upper leg represents the signal beam. We show that we can place the signal beam in any arbitrary polarization state with a suitable choice of polarization of the control beam. Specifically, we demonstrate a differential phase retardance of ~180 degrees between the two circularly polarized components of a linearly polarized signal beam. We also demonstrate that the system can act as a Quarter Wave plate. The optical activity responsible for the phase retardation process is explained in terms of selection rules involving the Zeeman sublevels. As such, the system can be used to realize a fast Stokesmetric imaging system with a speed of ~3 MHz. When implemented using a tapered nano fiber embedded in a vapor cell, this system can be used to realize an ultra-low power all-optical switch as well as a Quantum Zeno Effect based all-optical logic gate by combining it with an optically controlled polarizer, previously demonstrated by us. We present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, using a novel algorithm recently developed by us for efficient computation of the evolution of an arbitrary large scale quantum system. PMID:25402129

  13. Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.

  14. Optical Computing Using Interference Filters as Nonlinear Optical Logic Gates and Holographic Optical Elements as Optical Interconnects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lon A.

    This dissertation experimentally explores digital optical computing and optical interconnects with theoretical supports, from the physics of materials and the optimization of devices to system realization. The trend of optical computing is highlighted with the emphasis on the current development of its basic constituent elements, and a couple of algorithms selected to pave the way for utilizing bistable devices for their optical implementations. Optical bistable devices function as "optical transistors" in optical computing. The physics of dispersive optical bistability is briefly described. Bistable ZnS interference filters are discussed in detail regarding their linear and nonlienar characteristics. The optimization of switching characteristics for a bistable ZnS interference filter is discussed, and experimental results are shown. Symbolic substitution which fully takes advantage of regular optical interconnects constitutes two steps: pattern recognition and symbol scription. Two experiments on two digital pattern recognitions and one on a simple but complete symbolic substitution have been demonstrated. The extension of these experiments is an implementation of a binary adder. A one-bit full adder which is a basic block for a computer has been explored experimentally and demonstrated in an all-optical way. The utilization of a bistable device as a nonlinear decision-making element is further demonstrated in an associative memory experiment by incorporating a Vander Lugt matched filter to discriminate two partial fingerprints. The thresholding function of a bistable device enhances the S/N ratio and helps discrimination in associative memory. As the clocking speed of a computer goes higher, e.g. greater than several GHz, the clock signal distribution and packaging become serious problems in VLSI technology. The use of optical interconnects introduces a possible solution. A unique element for holographic optical interconnects, which combines advantages of

  15. Integrated logic gate for fluorescence turn-on detection of histidine and cysteine based on Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters-Cu²⁺ ensemble.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Chuanxia; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-04-01

    By means of employing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) as a reducing agent and protecting ligand, we present straightforward one-pot preparation of fluorescent Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters (namely AgAuNCs@11-MUA) from AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in alkaline aqueous solution at room temperature. It is found that the fluorescence of AgAuNCs@11-MUA has been selectively quenched by Cu(2+) ions, and the nonfluorescence off-state of the as-prepared AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble can be effectively switched on upon the addition of histidine and cysteine. By incorporating Ni(2+) ions and N-ethylmaleimide, this phenomenon is further exploited as an integrated logic gate and a specific fluorescence turn-on assay for selectively and sensitively sensing histidine and cysteine has been designed and established based on the original noncovalent AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble. Under the optimal conditions, histidine and cysteine can be detected in the concentration ranges of 0.25-9 and 0.25-7 μM; besides, the detection limits are found to be 87 and 111 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed AgAuNCs@11-MUA-based fluorescent assay can be successfully utilized for biological fluids sample analysis.

  16. Integrated logic gate for fluorescence turn-on detection of histidine and cysteine based on Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters-Cu²⁺ ensemble.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Dan; Chen, Chuanxia; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-04-01

    By means of employing 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) as a reducing agent and protecting ligand, we present straightforward one-pot preparation of fluorescent Ag/Au bimetallic nanoclusters (namely AgAuNCs@11-MUA) from AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in alkaline aqueous solution at room temperature. It is found that the fluorescence of AgAuNCs@11-MUA has been selectively quenched by Cu(2+) ions, and the nonfluorescence off-state of the as-prepared AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble can be effectively switched on upon the addition of histidine and cysteine. By incorporating Ni(2+) ions and N-ethylmaleimide, this phenomenon is further exploited as an integrated logic gate and a specific fluorescence turn-on assay for selectively and sensitively sensing histidine and cysteine has been designed and established based on the original noncovalent AgAuNCs@11-MUA-Cu(2+) ensemble. Under the optimal conditions, histidine and cysteine can be detected in the concentration ranges of 0.25-9 and 0.25-7 μM; besides, the detection limits are found to be 87 and 111 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed AgAuNCs@11-MUA-based fluorescent assay can be successfully utilized for biological fluids sample analysis. PMID:25761537

  17. Fundamentals of Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, Monica L.

    This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

  18. Studies in optical parallel processing. [All optical and electro-optic approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Threshold and A/D devices for converting a gray scale image into a binary one were investigated for all-optical and opto-electronic approaches to parallel processing. Integrated optical logic circuits (IOC) and optical parallel logic devices (OPA) were studied as an approach to processing optical binary signals. In the IOC logic scheme, a single row of an optical image is coupled into the IOC substrate at a time through an array of optical fibers. Parallel processing is carried out out, on each image element of these rows, in the IOC substrate and the resulting output exits via a second array of optical fibers. The OPAL system for parallel processing which uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer for image thresholding and analog-to-digital conversion, achieves a higher degree of parallel processing than is possible with IOC.

  19. Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Cheng, J. L.; Sipe, J. E.; Ang, L. K.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene plasmonic waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2 optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene plasmonic waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear graphene plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.

  20. All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih; Fan, Shanhui; Soljacić, Marin; Joannopoulos, J D

    2003-12-15

    We demonstrate all-optical switching action in a nonlinear photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry with instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity, in which the transmission of a signal can be reversibly switched on and off by a control input. Our geometry accomplishes both spatial and spectral separation between the signal and the control in the nonlinear regime. The device occupies a small footprint of a few micrometers squared and requires only a few milliwatts of power at a 10-Gbit/s switching rate by use of Kerr nonlinearity in AlGaAs below half the electronic bandgap. We also show that the switching dynamics, as revealed by both coupled-mode theory and finite-difference time domain simulations, exhibits collective behavior that can be exploited to generate high-contrast logic levels and all-optical memory.

  1. Spectrally-efficient all-optical OFDM by WSS and AWG.

    PubMed

    Hoxha, J; Morosi, J; Shimizu, S; Martelli, P; Boffi, P; Wada, N; Cincotti, G

    2015-05-01

    We report on the transmission experiment of seven 12.5-GHz spaced all optical-orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (AO-OFDM) subcarriers over a 35-km fiber link, using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) modulation and direct detection. The system does not require chromatic dispersion compensation, optical time gating at the receiver (RX) or cyclic prefix (CP), achieving the maximum spectral efficiency. We use a wavelength selective switch (WSS) at the transmitter (TX) to allow subcarrier assignment flexibility and optimal filter shaping; an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) AO-OFDM demultiplexer is used at the RX, to reduce the system cost and complexity. PMID:25969193

  2. 40Gb/s all-optical binary-coded-decimal decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Yin; Dong, Jianji; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2011-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a 40Gb/s all-optical binary-coded-decimal (BCD) decoder for the first time, utilizing delay interferometers (DIs) and cascading semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) without any assisting light. Extinction ratios (ERs) of the intermediate results after the first SOA are all over 11dB which ensures the capability to cascade to the second one. The final results are in the form of return-to-zero (RZ) format with correct and clear temporal waveforms. The proposed scheme could be extended to 1-of-16 decoder, logic minterms and read only memory (ROM).

  3. Dynamics of an all-optical atomic spin gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Yuan, Heng

    2013-10-20

    We present the transfer function of an all-optical atomic spin gyroscope through a series of differential equations and validate the transfer function by experimental test. A transfer function is the basis for further control system design. We build the differential equations based on a complete set of Bloch equations describing the all-optical atomic spin gyroscope, and obtain the transfer function through application of the Laplace transformation to these differential equations. Moreover, we experimentally validate the transfer function in an all-optical Cs-Xe129 atomic spin gyroscope through a series of step responses. This transfer function is convenient for analysis of the form of control system required. Furthermore, it is available for the design of the control system specifically to improve the performance of all-optical atomic spin gyroscopes.

  4. All-optical modulation in gallium arsenide integrated optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    McWright, G.; Ross, B.; Guthreau, W.; Lafaw, D.; Lowry, M.; Tindall, W.

    1988-01-27

    We have investigated all-optical modulators in gallium arsenide integrated optical waveguides; these modulators use electron-hole pair generation to alter the propagation characteristics of a guided light beam. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  5. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    PubMed Central

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159

  6. All-optical information processing in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    This thesis covers coherent and incoherent all-optical information processing using photonic bandgap nanostructures and microcavities. The first 3 chapters introduce all-optical bistable switching, transistor and memory elements with sub-micron scale dimensions. A strategy for large scale integration without optical isolators is also described. In chapters 4 and 5, dynamically modulated photonic crystal structures are introduced. It is shown that light pulses can be stopped and stored all-optically without requiring any coherent or resonant light-matter interaction. In chapter 6, it is shown that light pulses can be coherently time-reversed by using only index modulations and linear optics. In chapter 7, a supercomputer implementation of an object oriented finite difference time domain simulation is described to simulate photonic nanostructures with arbitrary material & geometric features.

  7. All-optical controlling based on nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Tao, Jin; Chen, Zan Hui; Huang, Xu Guang

    2016-09-19

    We give the effective refractive index of graphene plasmonic waveguides with both linear and nonlinear effects based on the nonlinear cross-phase modulation, and address the effects of photo-induced refractive index change and absorption change. A non-resonant all-optical nonlinear graphene plasmonic switch with an ultra-compact size of 0.25 μm2 is proposed and numerically analyzed based on the dynamics of the photo-induced absorption change. The results show that the all-optical graphene plasmonic switch can realize a broad bandwidth over 5 THz, a potentially very high switching speed and an extinction ratio of 18.14 dB with the electric amplitude of the pump light of 1.5 × 107 V/m at the signal frequency of 28 THz. Our study could provide a possibility for future all-optical highly integrated optical components. PMID:27661951

  8. A nanomechanical Fredkin gate.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Josef-Stefan; Dunn, Tyler; Toffoli, Tommaso; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible logic operations inevitably discard information, setting fundamental limitations on the flexibility and the efficiency of modern computation. To circumvent the limit imposed by the von Neumann-Landauer (VNL) principle, an important objective is the development of reversible logic gates, as proposed by Fredkin, Toffoli, Wilczek, Feynman, and others. Here, we present a novel nanomechanical logic architecture for implementing a Fredkin gate, a universal logic gate from which any reversible computation can be built. In addition to verifying the truth table, we demonstrate operation of the device as an AND, OR, NOT, and FANOUT gate. Excluding losses due to resonator dissipation and transduction, which will require significant improvement in order to minimize the overall energy cost, our device requires an energy of order 10(4) kT per logic operation, similar in magnitude to state-of-the-art transistor-based technologies. Ultimately, reversible nanomechanical logic gates could play a crucial role in developing highly efficient reversible computers, with implications for efficient error correction and quantum computing. PMID:24328764

  9. Plasmonic enhancement of ultrafast all-optical magnetization reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Neely, Lauren N.; Allin, Leigh J.; Kochergin, Eugene V.; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-10-01

    Ultrafast all optical magnetization switching in GdFeCo layers on the basis of Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE) was demonstrated recently and suggested as a possible path toward next generation magnetic data storage medium with much faster writing time. However, to date, the demonstrations of ultrafast all-optical magnetization switching were performed with powerful femtosecond lasers, hardly useful for practical applications in data storage and data processing. Here we show that utilization of IFE enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures enables fast all-optical magnetization switching with smaller/cheaper laser sources with longer pulse durations. Our modeling results predict significant enhancement of IFE around all major types of plasmonic nanostructures for a circularly polarized incident light. Unlike the IFE in uniform bulk materials, nonzero value of IFE is predicted in plasmonic nanostructures even with a linearly polarized excitation. Experimentally, all-optical magnetization switching at 20 times lower laser fluence and roughly 100 times lower value of laser fluence/pulse duration ratio is demonstrated in plasmonic samples to verify the model predictions. The path to achieve higher levels of enhancement experimentally is discussed.

  10. "Molecular beacon"-directed fluorescence of Hoechst dyes for visual detection of Hg(II) and biothiols and its application for a logic gate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Jiang, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-03-14

    A molecular beacon (MB)-like DNA hairpin biosensor based on the reversible directing fluorescence of Hoechst dyes was developed for fluorescent detection of Hg(2+) and biothiols and furthermore for logic operation.

  11. Bufferless Ultra-High Speed All-Optical Packet Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttagi, Shrihari; Prince, Shanthi

    2011-10-01

    All-Optical network is still in adolescence to cope up with steep rise in data traffic at the backbone network. Routing of packets in optical network depends on the processing speed of the All-Optical routers, thus there is a need to enhance optical processing to curb the delay in packet forwarding unit. In the proposed scheme, the header processing takes place on fly, therefore processing delay is at its lower limit. The objective is to propose a framework which establishes high data rate transmission with least latency in data routing from source to destination. The Routing table and optical header pulses are converted into Pulse Position (PP) format, thus reducing the complexity and in turn the processing delay. Optical pulse matching is exercised which results in multi-output transmission. This results in ultra-high speed packet forwarding unit. In addition, this proposed scheme includes dispersion compensation unit, which makes the data reliable.

  12. Monolithically integrated nonlinear interferometers for all-optical switching

    SciTech Connect

    Jahn, E.; Agrawal, N.; Ehrke, H.J.; Pieper, W.; Franke, D.; Fuerst, W.; Weinert, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    All-optical switching devices are expected to play an important role in future optical communication networks. For example, nonlinear interferometer (NLI) arrangements consisting of one or two semiconductor laser amplifiers (SLA) are very attractive. Here, the cross-phase modulation due to the gain-saturation nonlinearity of SLAs could be used for switching in time, space, and wavelength domains. The first of such devices was configured as a nonlinear Sagnac interferometer (NSI) by using an SLA in a fiber loop mirror (SLALOM) for time domain switching. So far, these devices have been assembled using discrete SLA components. Other arrangements like Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with SLAs provide additional flexibility but require their realization as integrated devices for stable operation. In this paper the authors report on the development of monolithically integrated NLIs for all-optical signal processing in high bit-rate optical time division multiplexing systems. Both NSI and MZI configurations are considered.

  13. All-optically simultaneous slow and fast light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjie; Luo, Bin; Liu, Yu; Guo, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous slow and fast light can be realized all-optically by connecting a four-level closed-loop atom-light interaction scheme to Λ-type electromagnetically induced transparency system. Through manipulation of the relative phase of one of the coupling lights, probe light can be switched among dual-slow light, dual-fast light and simultaneous slow and fast light. A theoretical analysis based on dressed state picture is given.

  14. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2014-06-30

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  15. Nonlinear fiber applications for ultrafast all-optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Konstantin

    In the present dissertation different aspects of all-optical signal processing, enabled by the use of nonlinear fibers, are studied. In particular, we focus on applications of a novel heavily GeO2-doped (HD) nonlinear fiber, that appears to be superior to many other types of nonlinear fibers because of its high nonlinearity and suitability for the use in nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLMs). Different functions, such as all-optical switching, thresholding, and wavelength conversion, are demonstrated with the HD fibers in the NOLM configuration. These basic functions are later used for realization of ultrafast time-domain demultiplexers, clock recovery, detectors of short pulses in stealth communications, and primitive elements for analog computations. Another important technology that benefits from the use of nonlinear fiber-based signal processing is optical code-division multiple access (CDMA). It is shown in both theory and experiment that all-optical thresholding is a unique way of improving existing detection methods for optical CDMA. Also, it is the way of implementation of true asynchronous optical spread-spectrum networks, which allows full realization of optical CDMA potential. Some aspects of quantum signal processing and manipulation of quantum states are also studied in this work. It is shown that propagation and collisions of Thirring solitons lead to a substantial squeezing of quantum states, which may find applications for generation of squeezed light.

  16. Coherent all-optical control of ultracold atoms arrays in permanent magnetic traps.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Mukai, Tetsuya; Häffner, Hartmut; Byrnes, Tim

    2014-02-10

    We propose a hybrid architecture for quantum information processing based on magnetically trapped ultracold atoms coupled via optical fields. The ultracold atoms, which can be either Bose-Einstein condensates or ensembles, are trapped in permanent magnetic traps and are placed in microcavities, connected by silica based waveguides on an atom chip structure. At each trapping center, the ultracold atoms form spin coherent states, serving as a quantum memory. An all-optical scheme is used to initialize, measure and perform a universal set of quantum gates on the single and two spin-coherent states where entanglement can be generated addressably between spatially separated trapped ultracold atoms. This allows for universal quantum operations on the spin coherent state quantum memories. We give detailed derivations of the composite cavity system mediated by a silica waveguide as well as the control scheme. Estimates for the necessary experimental conditions for a working hybrid device are given. PMID:24663640

  17. All-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching using polarization bistable VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Kazuya; Katayama, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    We propose and evaluate an all-optical 2-bit header recognition and packet switching method using two 1.55-µm polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and three optical switches. Polarization bistable VCSELs acted as flip-flop devices by using AND-gate operations of the header and set pulses, together with the reset pulses. Optical packets including 40-Gb/s non-return-to-zero pseudo-random bit-sequence payloads were successfully sent to one of four ports according to the state of two bits in the headers with a 4-bit 500-Mb/s return-to-zero format. The input pulse powers were 17.2 to 31.8 dB lower than the VCSEL output power. We also examined an extension of this method to multi-bit header recognition and packet switching.

  18. All optical active high decoder using integrated 2D square lattice photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniem, Tamer A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper introduces a novel all optical active high 2 × 4 decoder based on 2D photonic crystals (PhC) of silicon rods with permittivity of ε = 10.1 × 10-11 farad/m. The main structure of optical decoder is designed using a combination of five nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator, set of T-type waveguide, and line defect of Y and T branch splitters. The proposed structure has two logic input ports, four output ports, and one bias input port. The total size of the proposed 2 × 4 decoder is equal to 40 μm × 38 μm. The PhC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The overall design and the results are discussed through the realization and the numerically simulation to confirm its operation and feasibility.

  19. All-optical processes in double quantum dot structure.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Ektefaa; Al-Khursan, Amin H

    2016-09-10

    The ladder-plus-Y double quantum dot structure was modeled for all-optical processing by combining the density matrix theory with the pulse width description of the applied pulse. The momentum matrix elements are calculated including the wetting layer. The ladder-plus-Y structure exhibits pattern-free output with high bit rate (50 Tbps), which is critical in optical communication applications. It is shown that very high ground-state occupation with periodic shape for state occupations is critical in obtaining a pattern-free eye diagram.

  20. Protection method of all-optical mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Min; Liu, Junwei; Gu, Wanyi

    2001-10-01

    A protection scheme that chooses protection routes in advance in All-Optical Mesh network is proposed in this paper. Two rules, minimum relativity among routes and minimum the number of hops, are given and analyzed in detail. In order to perform protection quickly and correctly, the compromise between two principles must be considered when choosing protection routes. The protection method that appointing ring networks in mesh networks is proposed too. In addition, some key technologies such as avoiding oscillation, line protection and misconnect squelched are also proposed in this paper.

  1. Ultrafast all-optical technologies for bidirectional optical wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A; Collier, Christopher M; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Born, Brandon; Holzman, Jonathan F

    2015-04-01

    In this Letter, a spherical retro-modulator architecture is introduced for operation as a bidirectional transceiver in passive optical wireless communication links. The architecture uses spherical retroreflection to enable retroreflection with broad directionality (2π steradians), and it uses all-optical beam interaction to enable modulation on ultrafast timescales (120 fs duration). The spherical retro-modulator is investigated from a theoretical standpoint and is fabricated for testing with three glasses, N-BK7, N-LASF9, and S-LAH79. It is found that the S-LAH79 structure provides the optimal refraction and nonlinearity for the desired retroreflection and modulation capabilities.

  2. All-optical nonlinear switching cell made of photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Wirth Lima, A; da Silva, Marcio G; Ferreira, A C; Sombra, A S B

    2009-07-01

    We analyze and propose a directional optical coupler embedded in photonic crystal, which is driven by an external command signal. Therefore, this switching cell can work in an all-optical switch. The switching method uses a low-power external command signal, inserted in the central coupling region, which acts as another waveguide. The switching process is based on the change from the bar state to the cross state due to the external command signal. In our simulations we used the plane wave expansion method, finite-difference time-domain method, and our own binary propagation method.

  3. All-optical processes in double quantum dot structure.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Ektefaa; Al-Khursan, Amin H

    2016-09-10

    The ladder-plus-Y double quantum dot structure was modeled for all-optical processing by combining the density matrix theory with the pulse width description of the applied pulse. The momentum matrix elements are calculated including the wetting layer. The ladder-plus-Y structure exhibits pattern-free output with high bit rate (50 Tbps), which is critical in optical communication applications. It is shown that very high ground-state occupation with periodic shape for state occupations is critical in obtaining a pattern-free eye diagram. PMID:27661371

  4. Realization of an all optical exciton-polariton router

    SciTech Connect

    Marsault, Félix; Nguyen, Hai Son; Tanese, Dimitrii; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Sagnes, Isabelle; Amo, Alberto

    2015-11-16

    We report on the experimental realization of an all optical router for exciton-polaritons. This device is based on the design proposed by Flayac and Savenko [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201105 (2013)], in which a zero-dimensional island is connected through tunnel barriers to two periodically modulated wires of different periods. Selective transmission of polaritons injected in the island, into either of the two wires, is achieved by tuning the energy of the island state across the band structure of the modulated wires. We demonstrate routing of ps polariton pulses using an optical control beam which controls the energy of the island quantum states, thanks to polariton-exciton interactions.

  5. In-fiber all-optical fractional differentiator.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Andrés, M V

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate that an asymmetrical pi phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating operated in reflection can provide the required spectral response for implementing an all-optical fractional differentiator. There are different (but equivalent) ways to design it, e.g., by using different gratings lengths and keeping the same index modulation depth at both sides of the pi phase shift, or vice versa. Analytical expressions were found relating the fractional differentiator order with the grating parameters. The device shows a good accuracy calculating the fractional time derivatives of the complex field of an arbitrary input optical waveform. The introduced concept is supported by numerical simulations.

  6. All-optical processing in coherent nonlinear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oron, Dan; Dudovich, Nirit; Silberberg, Yaron

    2004-08-01

    In spectroscopy, the fingerprint of a substance is usually comprised of a sequence of spectral lines with characteristic frequencies and strengths. Identification of substances often involves postprocessing, where the measured spectrum is compared with tabulated fingerprint spectra. Here we suggest a scheme for nonlinear spectroscopy, where, through coherent control of the nonlinear process, the information from the entire spectrum can be practically collected into a single coherent entity. We apply this for all-optical analysis of coherent Raman spectra and demonstrate enhanced detection and effective background suppression using coherent processing.

  7. All-optical flip-flop and control methods thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Maywar, Drew; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2010-03-23

    Embodiments of the invention pertain to remote optical control of holding beam-type, optical flip-flop devices, as well as to the devices themselves. All-optical SET and RE-SET control signals operate on a cw holding beam in a remote manner to vary the power of the holding beam between threshold switching values to enable flip-flop operation. Cross-gain modulation and cross-polarization modulation processes can be used to change the power of the holding beam.

  8. All-Optical Flip-Flop Operation of VCSOA

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, A.M.; Agrawal, G.P.; Maywar, D.N.

    2009-01-22

    An all-optical flip-flop, the memory of which is based on dispersive bistability in a single vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifier, is demonstrated experimentally. Flip-flop control is achieved using two mechanisms: cross-phase modulation to set the flip-flop and cross-gain modulation of the holding beam within a remote SOA to reset it. Optical control signals are sub-milliwatt in power and derived from a single 5 ns, 1539 nm initial pulse. Flip-flop operation at 1542 nm is polarisation insensitive to control signals and achieved with an on-off contrast greater than 3 dB.

  9. On the fly all-optical packet switching based on hybrid WDM/OCDMA labeling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Houssem; Giannoulis, Giannis; Menif, Mourad; Katopodis, Vasilis; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Kouloumentas, Christos; Groumas, Panos; Kanakis, Giannis; Stamatiadis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Erasme, Didier

    2014-02-01

    We introduce a novel design of an all-optical packet routing node that allows for the selection and forwarding of optical packets based on the routing information contained in hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) labels. A stripping paradigm of optical code-label is adopted. The router is built around an optical-code gate that consists in an optical flip-flop controlled by two fiber Bragg grating correlators and is combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based forwarding gate. We experimentally verify the proof-of-principle operation of the proposed self-routing node under NRZ and OCDMA packet traffic conditions. The successful switching of elastic NRZ payload at 40 Gb/s controlled by DS-OCDMA coded labels and the forwarding operation of encoded data using EQC codes are presented. Proper auto-correlation functions are obtained with higher than 8.1 dB contrast ratio, suitable to efficiently trigger the latching device with a contrast ratio of 11.6 dB and switching times below 3.8 ns. Error-free operation is achieved with 1.5 dB penalty for 40 Gb/s NRZ data and with 2.1 dB penalty for DS-OCDMA packets. The scheme can further be applied to large-scale optical packet switching networks by exploiting efficient optical coders allocated at different WDM channels.

  10. Photonic ququart logic assisted by the cavity-QED system.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun; Li, Hui-Ran; Ma, Song-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions of qubit systems, we investigate the possibility of ququart systems (four-dimensional states) dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We propose some useful one-parameter four-dimensional quantum transformations for the construction of universal ququart logic gates. The interface between the spin of a photon and an electron spin confined in a quantum dot embedded in a microcavity is applied to build universal ququart logic gates on the photon system with two freedoms. Our elementary controlled-ququart gates cost no more than 8 CNOT gates in a qubit system, which is far less than the 104 CNOT gates required for a general four-qubit logic gate. The ququart logic is also used to generate useful hyperentanglements and hyperentanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting code, which may be available in modern physical technology. PMID:26272869

  11. Label-free fluorescent enzymatic assay of citrate synthase by CoA-Au(I) co-ordination polymer and its application in a multi-enzyme logic gate cascade.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Huixia; Dai, Futao; Li, Pei; Jin, Xin; Huang, Yan; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-12-15

    Citrate synthase (CS) is one of the key metabolic enzymes in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It regulates energy generation in mitochondrial respiration by catalysing the reaction between oxaloacetic acid (OAA) and acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) to generate citrate and coenzyme A (CoA). CS has been shown to be a biomarker of neurological diseases and various kinds of cancers. Here, a label-free fluorescent assay has been developed for homogeneously detecting CS and its inhibitor based on the in situ generation of CoA-Au(I) co-ordination polymer (CP) and the fluorescence signal-on by SYBR Green II-stained CoA-Au(I) CP. Because of the unique property of the CoA-Au(I) CP, this CS activity assay method could achieve excellent selectivity and sensitivity, with a linear range from 0.0033 U/μL to 0.264 U/μL and a limit of detection to be 0.00165 U/μL. Meanwhile, this assay method has advantages of being facile and cost effective with quick detection. Moreover, based on this method, a biomimetic logic system was established by rationally exploiting the cascade enzymatic interactions in TCA cycle for chemical information processing. In the TCA cycle-derived logic system, an AND-AND-AND-cascaded gate was rigorously operated step by step in one pot, and is outputted by a label-free fluorescent signal with visualized readout. PMID:27501341

  12. Spin-polarization and spin-dependent logic gates in a double quantum ring based on Rashba spin-orbit effect: Non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eslami, Leila Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2014-02-28

    Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted.

  13. Protected gates for topological quantum field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverland, Michael E.; Buerschaper, Oliver; Koenig, Robert; Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John; Sijher, Sumit

    2016-02-01

    We study restrictions on locality-preserving unitary logical gates for topological quantum codes in two spatial dimensions. A locality-preserving operation is one which maps local operators to local operators — for example, a constant-depth quantum circuit of geometrically local gates, or evolution for a constant time governed by a geometrically local bounded-strength Hamiltonian. Locality-preserving logical gates of topological codes are intrinsically fault tolerant because spatially localized errors remain localized, and hence sufficiently dilute errors remain correctable. By invoking general properties of two-dimensional topological field theories, we find that the locality-preserving logical gates are severely limited for codes which admit non-abelian anyons, in particular, there are no locality-preserving logical gates on the torus or the sphere with M punctures if the braiding of anyons is computationally universal. Furthermore, for Ising anyons on the M-punctured sphere, locality-preserving gates must be elements of the logical Pauli group. We derive these results by relating logical gates of a topological code to automorphisms of the Verlinde algebra of the corresponding anyon model, and by requiring the logical gates to be compatible with basis changes in the logical Hilbert space arising from local F-moves and the mapping class group.

  14. An SEU immune logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canaris, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.

  15. All-optical investigation of tunable picosecond magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic nanostripes with a width down to 50 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Otani, Yoshichika; Barman, Anjan

    2015-10-01

    Ferromagnetic nanostripes are important elements for a number of interesting technologies including magnetic racetrack memory, spin logic and magnonics. Understanding and controlling magnetization dynamics in such nanostripes are hence important problems in nanoscience and technology. Here we present an all-optical excitation and detection of ultrafast magnetization dynamics, including spin waves, in 5 μm long Ni80Fe20 nanostripes with varying stripe widths from 200 nm down to 50 nm. We observed a strong width dependent variation in the frequency, anisotropy and the spatial nature of spin waves in these systems. The effect of inter-stripe interaction is also studied and the 50 nm wide stripe is found to be nearly magnetostatically isolated, allowing us to detect the dynamics of a 50 nm wide individual stripe using an all-optical measurement technique. The tunability in magnetization dynamics with stripe widths is important for their applications in various spin based technologies.

  16. All-optical generation of surface plasmons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, T. J.; Hornett, S. M.; Chang, D. E.; Hendry, E.

    2016-02-01

    Surface plasmons in graphene offer a compelling route to many useful photonic technologies. As a plasmonic material, graphene offers several intriguing properties, such as excellent electro-optic tunability, crystalline stability, large optical nonlinearities and extremely high electromagnetic field concentration. As such, recent demonstrations of surface plasmon excitation in graphene using near-field scattering of infrared light have received intense interest. Here we present an all-optical plasmon coupling scheme which takes advantage of the intrinsic nonlinear optical response of graphene. Free-space, visible light pulses are used to generate surface plasmons in a planar graphene sheet using difference frequency wave mixing to match both the wavevector and energy of the surface wave. By carefully controlling the phase matching conditions, we show that one can excite surface plasmons with a defined wavevector and direction across a large frequency range, with an estimated photon efficiency in our experiments approaching 10-5.

  17. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers. PMID:24921786

  18. Bandwidth analysis of all-optical turbo-switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xuelin; Hu, Xiaonan; Hu, Weisheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a frequency-domain model to analyze the bandwidth of all-optical turbo-switch. The model has taken the spatial inhomogeneity of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) into consideration for the first time. The simulations based on the model show that the 3-dB bandwidth of turbo-switch could reach up to ~270 GHz when the second SOA is oversaturated. However, the overshoot will be higher, which may result in the distortion of the output signal. There is a trade-off between the bandwidth and the flatness of frequency response characteristics for turbo-switch operation. In addition, the optimum position of the delay-interferometer (DI) is investigated, showing that the level of the overshoot is relatively lower if the DI is placed between the two SOAs.

  19. Integrated all-optical infrared switchable plasmonic quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Kohoutek, John; Bonakdar, Alireza; Gelfand, Ryan; Dey, Dibyendu; Nia, Iman Hassani; Fathipour, Vala; Memis, Omer Gokalp; Mohseni, Hooman

    2012-05-01

    We report a type of infrared switchable plasmonic quantum cascade laser, in which far field light in the midwave infrared (MWIR, 6.1 μm) is modulated by a near field interaction of light in the telecommunications wavelength (1.55 μm). To achieve this all-optical switch, we used cross-polarized bowtie antennas and a centrally located germanium nanoslab. The bowtie antenna squeezes the short wavelength light into the gap region, where the germanium is placed. The perturbation of refractive index of the germanium due to the free carrier absorption produced by short wavelength light changes the optical response of the antenna and the entire laser intensity at 6.1 μm significantly. This device shows a viable method to modulate the far field of a laser through a near field interaction.

  20. All-optical reservoir computer based on saturation of absorption.

    PubMed

    Dejonckheere, Antoine; Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Fang, Li; Oudar, Jean-Louis; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation. Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

  1. All-Optical Implementation of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Kan; Shum, Perry Ping; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Soci, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    We report all-optical implementation of the optimization algorithm for the famous "ant colony" problem. Ant colonies progressively optimize pathway to food discovered by one of the ants through identifying the discovered route with volatile chemicals (pheromones) secreted on the way back from the food deposit. Mathematically this is an important example of graph optimization problem with dynamically changing parameters. Using an optical network with nonlinear waveguides to represent the graph and a feedback loop, we experimentally show that photons traveling through the network behave like ants that dynamically modify the environment to find the shortest pathway to any chosen point in the graph. This proof-of-principle demonstration illustrates how transient nonlinearity in the optical system can be exploited to tackle complex optimization problems directly, on the hardware level, which may be used for self-routing of optical signals in transparent communication networks and energy flow in photonic systems. PMID:27222098

  2. Graphene based All-Optical Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Tian, Wei; Mao, Qi; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Qing-Hui; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical terahertz modulator based on single-layer graphene on germanium (GOG), which can be driven by a 1.55 μm CW laser with a low-level photodoping power. Both the static and dynamic THz transmission modulation experiments were carried out. A spectrally wide-band modulation of the THz transmission is obtained in a frequency range from 0.25 to 1 THz, and a modulation depth of 94% can be achieved if proper pump power is applied. The modulation speed of the modulator was measured to be ~200 KHz using a 340 GHz carrier. A theoretical model is proposed for the modulator and the calculation results indicate that the enhanced THz modulation is mainly due to the third order nonlinear effect in the optical conductivity of the graphene monolayer. PMID:25491194

  3. All-optical optoacoustic microscope based on wideband pulse interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wissmeyer, Georg; Soliman, Dominik; Shnaiderman, Rami; Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-05-01

    Optical and optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy have been recently joined in hybrid implementations that resolve extended tissue contrast compared to each modality alone. Nevertheless, the application of the hybrid technique is limited by the requirement to combine an optical objective with ultrasound detection collecting signal from the same micro-volume. We present an all-optical optoacoustic microscope based on a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-FBG) with coherence-restored pulsed interferometry (CRPI) used as the interrogation method. The sensor offers an ultra-small footprint and achieved higher sensitivity over piezoelectric transducers of similar size. We characterize the spectral bandwidth of the ultrasound detector and interrogate the imaging performance on phantoms and tissues. We show the first optoacoustic images of biological specimen recorded with π-FBG sensors. We discuss the potential uses of π-FBG sensors based on CRPI. PMID:27128047

  4. All-Optical Implementation of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Kan; Shum, Perry Ping; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Soci, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    We report all-optical implementation of the optimization algorithm for the famous “ant colony” problem. Ant colonies progressively optimize pathway to food discovered by one of the ants through identifying the discovered route with volatile chemicals (pheromones) secreted on the way back from the food deposit. Mathematically this is an important example of graph optimization problem with dynamically changing parameters. Using an optical network with nonlinear waveguides to represent the graph and a feedback loop, we experimentally show that photons traveling through the network behave like ants that dynamically modify the environment to find the shortest pathway to any chosen point in the graph. This proof-of-principle demonstration illustrates how transient nonlinearity in the optical system can be exploited to tackle complex optimization problems directly, on the hardware level, which may be used for self-routing of optical signals in transparent communication networks and energy flow in photonic systems. PMID:27222098

  5. All-Optical Implementation of the Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Kan; Shum, Perry Ping; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Soci, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    We report all-optical implementation of the optimization algorithm for the famous “ant colony” problem. Ant colonies progressively optimize pathway to food discovered by one of the ants through identifying the discovered route with volatile chemicals (pheromones) secreted on the way back from the food deposit. Mathematically this is an important example of graph optimization problem with dynamically changing parameters. Using an optical network with nonlinear waveguides to represent the graph and a feedback loop, we experimentally show that photons traveling through the network behave like ants that dynamically modify the environment to find the shortest pathway to any chosen point in the graph. This proof-of-principle demonstration illustrates how transient nonlinearity in the optical system can be exploited to tackle complex optimization problems directly, on the hardware level, which may be used for self-routing of optical signals in transparent communication networks and energy flow in photonic systems.

  6. Resource allocation in circuit-switched all-optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Douglas; Barry, Richard A.; Finn, Steven G.; Parikh, Salil A.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston area, and research surrounding the allocation of optical resources -- frequencies and time slots -- within the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes tea support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Of particular interest for this work is the 'B-service,' which simultaneously hops frequency and time slots on each optical terminal to allow frequency sharing within the AON. B-service provides 1.244 Gbps per optical terminal, with bandwidth for individual connections divided in increments as small as 10 Mbps. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. The packet switches provide FDDI (datacomm), T3 (telecomm), and ATM/SONET switching at backplane rates of over 3 Gbps. We show results on network applications that dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users. Bandwidth allocation granularity is proportional to B-Service slots (10-1244 Mbps), and switching times are on the order of one second. We have also studied the effects of wavelength changers upon the network capacity and blocking probabilities in wide area all-optical networks. Wavelength changers allow a change in the carrier frequency (within the network) without disturbing the data modulation. The study includes both a theoretical model of blocking probabilities based on network design parameters, and a computer simulation of blocking in networks with and

  7. All-optical wavelength conversion for mode division multiplexed superchannels.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jiaxin; Xu, Jing; Luo, Ming; Li, Xiang; Qiu, Ying; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Xinliang; Yu, Shaohua

    2016-04-18

    We report in this work the first all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a mode division multiplexed (MDM) superchannel consisting of 2N modes by dividing the superchannel into N single-mode (SM) tributaries, wavelength converting N SM signals using well developed SM-AOWC techniques, and finally combining the N SM tributaries back to an MDM superchannel at the converted wavelength, inspired by the idea of using SM filtering techniques to filter multimode signals in astronomy. The conversions between multimode and SM are realized by 3D laser-writing photonic lanterns and SM-AOWCs are realized based on polarization insensitive four wave mixing (FWM) configuration in N semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). As a proof of concept demonstration, the conversion of a 6-mode MDM superchannel with each mode modulated with orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)/16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals is demonstrated in this work, indicating that the scheme is transparent to data format, polarization and compatible with multi-carrier signals. Data integrity of the converted superchannel has been verified by using coherent detection and digital signal processing (DSP). Bit error rates (BERs) below the forward error correction (FEC) hard limit (3.8 × 10-3) have been obtained for QPSK modulation at a net bitrate of 104.2 Gbit/s and BERs below the soft decision FEC threshold (1.98 × 10-2) have been achieved for 16-QAM format, giving a total aggregate bit rate of 185.8 Gbit/s when taking 20% coding overhead into account. Add and drop functionalities that usually come along with wavelength conversion in flexible network nodes have also been demonstrated. The working conditions of the SOAs, especially the pump and signal power levels, are critical for the quality of the converted signal and have been thoroughly discussed. The impact of imbalanced FWM conversion efficiency among different SM

  8. All-optical clock recovery, photonic balancing, and saturated asymmetric filtering for fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Earl Ryan

    In this dissertation I investigated a multi-channel and multi-bit rate all-optical clock recovery device. This device, a birefringent Fabry-Perot resonator, had previously been demonstrated to simultaneously recover the clock signal from 10 wavelength channels operating at 10 Gb/s and one channel at 40 Gb/s. Similar to clock signals recovered from a conventional Fabry-Perot resonator, the clock signal from the birefringent resonator suffers from a bit pattern effect. I investigated this bit pattern effect for birefringent resonators numerically and experimentally and found that the bit pattern effect is less prominent than for clock signals from a conventional Fabry-Perot resonator. I also demonstrated photonic balancing which is an all-optical alternative to electrical balanced detection for phase shift keyed signals. An RZ-DPSK data signal was demodulated using a delay interferometer. The two logically opposite outputs from the delay interferometer then counter-propagated in a saturated SOA. This process created a differential signal which used all the signal power present in two consecutive symbols. I showed that this scheme could provide an optical alternative to electrical balanced detection by reducing the required OSNR by 3 dB. I also show how this method can provide amplitude regeneration to a signal after modulation format conversion. In this case an RZ-DPSK signal was converted to an amplitude modulation signal by the delay interferometer. The resulting amplitude modulated signal is degraded by both the amplitude noise and the phase noise of the original signal. The two logically opposite outputs from the delay interferometer again counter-propagated in a saturated SOA. Through limiting amplification and noise modulation this scheme provided amplitude regeneration and improved the Q-factor of the demodulated signal by 3.5 dB. Finally I investigated how SPM provided by the SOA can provide a method to reduce the in-band noise of a communication signal. The

  9. All-optical regulation of gene expression in targeted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yisen; He, Hao; Li, Shiyang; Liu, Dayong; Lan, Bei; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-06-01

    Controllable gene expression is always a challenge and of great significance to biomedical research and clinical applications. Recently, various approaches based on extra-engineered light-sensitive proteins have been developed to provide optogenetic actuators for gene expression. Complicated biomedical techniques including exogenous genes engineering, transfection, and material delivery are needed. Here we present an all-optical method to regulate gene expression in targeted cells. Intrinsic or exogenous genes can be activated by a Ca2+-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) driven by a short flash of femtosecond-laser irradiation. When applied to mesenchymal stem cells, expression of a differentiation regulator Osterix can be activated by this method to potentially induce differentiation of them. A laser-induced ``Ca2+-comb'' (LiCCo) by multi-time laser exposure is further developed to enhance gene expression efficiency. This noninvasive method hence provides an encouraging advance of gene expression regulation, with promising potential of applying in cell biology and stem-cell science.

  10. Enhanced all-optical switching with double slow light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Ching; Wu, Meng-Chang; Shiau, Bor-Wen; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Yong-Fan; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical switching (AOS) scheme based on double slow light (DSL) pulses, in which one pulse is switched by another due to the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. The interaction time is prolonged by optically dense atomic media and matched group velocities. The interaction strength is maintained at a high level by keeping both fields at their electromagnetically-induced-transparency resonances to minimize the linear loss. In the AOS without the DSL scheme, the group velocity mismatch sets an upper limit on the switching efficiency of two photons per atomic cross section as discussed by Harris and Hau [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.82.4611 82, 4611 (1999)]. Compared to that limit, we have obtained an enhanced switching efficiency by a factor of 3 with our DSL scheme. The nonlinear efficiency can be further improved by increasing the optical depth of the medium. Our work advances low-light-level nonlinear optics and provides essential ingredients for quantum many-body physics using strongly interacting photons.

  11. Flexible all-optical frequency allocation of OFDM subcarriers.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James; Schröder, Jochen; Du, Liang B

    2014-01-13

    We investigate the underlying mechanism that allows OFDM subcarriers in an all-optical OFDM system to be assigned to any optical frequency using an optical filter, even if that frequency is not generated by the comb-line source feeding the filters. We confirm our analysis using simulations, and present experimental results from a 252-subcarrier system that uses a mode-locked laser (MLL) as the comb source and a wavelength selective switch. The experimental results show that there is no correlation between the programmed frequency offset between a subcarrier and nearest comb line, and the received signal quality. Thus, subcarriers could be inserted into unused portions of an optical transmission system's spectrum without restriction on their particular center frequencies. Any percentage of cyclic prefix can be added to the OFDM symbol simply by reprogramming the optical filter to give wider subcarrier frequency spacing than the comb line spacing, which is useful for tailoring the CP to the dispersion of various optical transmission paths, to maximize the spectral efficiency. Finally, the MLL's center frequency need not be locked to a system reference. PMID:24515064

  12. All-optical broadband ultrasonography of single cells

    PubMed Central

    Dehoux, T.; Ghanem, M. Abi; Zouani, O. F.; Rampnoux, J.-M.; Guillet, Y.; Dilhaire, S.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Audoin, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell mechanics play a key role in several fundamental biological processes, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. In addition, many diseased conditions of the cell are correlated with altered cell mechanics, as in the case of cancer progression. For this there is much interest in methods that can map mechanical properties with a sub-cell resolution. Here, we demonstrate an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope (iPOM) that operates in the 10 to 100 GHz range. These frequencies allow mapping quantitatively cell structures as thin as 10 nm and resolving the fibrillar details of cells. Using this non-invasive all-optical system, we produce high-resolution images based on mechanical properties as the contrast mechanisms, and we can observe the stiffness and adhesion of single migrating stem cells. The technique should allow transferring the diagnostic and imaging abilities of ultrasonic imaging to the single-cell scale, thus opening new avenues for cell biology and biomaterial sciences. PMID:25731090

  13. White emission magnetic nanoparticles as chemosensors for sensitive colorimetric and ratiometric detection, and degradation of ClO- and SCN- in aqueous solutions based on a logic gate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Lihua; Wang, Zhiyi; Liu, Jian; Liu, Weisheng; Zhang, Haoli; Chen, Fengjuan; Wang, Baodui

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescent chemosensors for detecting single anions have been largely synthesized. However, the simultaneous detection and degradation of multiple anions remain a major challenge. Herein we report the synthesis of a white emission nanoprobe on the basis of a Coumarin-Rhodamine CR1-Eu complex coordinated to dipicolinic acid (dpa)-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles for the selective detection of ClO- and SCN- ions on controlling by a logic gate. The obtained nanoprobe exhibits three individual primary colors (blue, green, and red) as well as white emission at different excitation energies. Interestingly, this nanoprobe shows a marked rose red to violet emission color change in response to ClO-, a reversible violet to rose red emission color change in response to SCN-, and high ClO- and SCN- selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.037 and 0.250 nM, respectively. Furthermore, the SCN- and ClO- can degrade simultaneously through the redox reaction between ClO- and SCN-.Fluorescent chemosensors for detecting single anions have been largely synthesized. However, the simultaneous detection and degradation of multiple anions remain a major challenge. Herein we report the synthesis of a white emission nanoprobe on the basis of a Coumarin-Rhodamine CR1-Eu complex coordinated to dipicolinic acid (dpa)-PEG-Fe3O4 nanoparticles for the selective detection of ClO- and SCN- ions on controlling by a logic gate. The obtained nanoprobe exhibits three individual primary colors (blue, green, and red) as well as white emission at different excitation energies. Interestingly, this nanoprobe shows a marked rose red to violet emission color change in response to ClO-, a reversible violet to rose red emission color change in response to SCN-, and high ClO- and SCN- selectivity and sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.037 and 0.250 nM, respectively. Furthermore, the SCN- and ClO- can degrade simultaneously through the redox reaction between ClO- and SCN-. Electronic supplementary

  14. All-Optical Two-Dimensional Serial-to-Parallel Pulse Converter Using an Organic Film with Femtosecond Optical Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuura, Satoshi; Wada, Osamu; Furuki, Makoto; Tian, Minquan; Sato, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Izumi; Pu, Lyong Sun

    2001-04-01

    In this study, we introduce a new concept of all-optical two-dimensional serial-to-parallel pulse converters. Femtosecond optical pulses can be understood as thin plates of light traveling in space. When a femtosecond signal-pulse train and a single gate pulse were fed onto a material with a finite incident angle, each signal-pulse plate met the gate-pulse plate at different locations in the material due to the time-of-flight effect. Meeting points can be made two-dimensional by adding a partial time delay to the gate pulse. By placing a nonlinear optical material at an appropriate position, two-dimensional serial-to-parallel conversion of a signal-pulse train can be achieved with a single gate pulse. We demonstrated the detection of parallel outputs from a 1-Tb/s optical-pulse train through the use of a BaB2O4 crystal. We also succeeded in demonstrating 1-Tb/s serial-to-parallel operation through the use of a novel organic nonlinear optical material, squarylium-dye J-aggregate film, which exhibits ultrafast recovery of bleached absorption.

  15. Tangled nonlinear driven chain reactions of all optical singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Soskin, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamics of polarization optical singularities chain reactions in generic elliptically polarized speckle fields created in photorefractive crystal LiNbO3 was investigated in details Induced speckle field develops in the tens of minutes scale due to photorefractive 'optical damage effect' induced by incident beam of He-Ne laser. It was shown that polarization singularities develop through topological chain reactions of developing speckle fields driven by photorefractive nonlinearities induced by incident laser beam. All optical singularities (C points, optical vortices, optical diabolos,) are defined by instantaneous topological structure of the output wavefront and are tangled by singular optics lows. Therefore, they have develop in tangled way by six topological chain reactions driven by nonlinear processes in used nonlinear medium (photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe in our case): C-points and optical diabolos for right (left) polarized components domains with orthogonally left (right) polarized optical vortices underlying them. All elements of chain reactions consist from loop and chain links when nucleated singularities annihilated directly or with alien singularities in 1:9 ratio. The topological reason of statistics was established by low probability of far enough separation of born singularities pair from existing neighbor singularities during loop trajectories. Topology of developing speckle field was measured and analyzed by dynamic stokes polarimetry with few seconds' resolution. The hierarchy of singularities govern scenario of tangled chain reactions was defined. The useful space-time data about peculiarities of optical damage evolution were obtained from existence and parameters of 'islands of stability' in developing speckle fields.

  16. Description of all-optical network test bed and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, Douglas; Castagnozzi, Daniel M.; Hemenway, B. R.; Parikh, Salil A.; Stevens, Mark L.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.; Ozveren, C.; Kaminow, Ivan P.

    1995-12-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston metropolitan area, and some of the experimental applications running over the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is an optical WDM system organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes that support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Novel components used to implement the network include fast-tuning 1.5 micrometers distributed Bragg reflector lasers, passive wavelength routers, and broadband optical frequency converters. An overlay control network implemented at 1.3 micrometers allows reliable out-of-band control and standardized network management of all network nodes. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. We will report on network applications that can dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users, without requiring interfaces between users and the AON control system. We will also describe video and telemedicine applications running over the network. We have demonstrated an audio/video codec that is directly interfaced to the optical network, and is capable of transmitting high-rate digitized video signals for broadcast or videoconferencing applications. We have also demonstrated a state-of-the-art radiological workstation that uses the AON to transport 2000 X 2000 X 16 bit images from a remote image server.

  17. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, Marvin E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, Petra; Boller, Klaus-Jochen

    2003-01-01

    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier system operated at a wavelength of 812 nm and used as the pump source of the OPO. Optical self-phase-locking of the OPO signal and idler waves is achieved by mutual injection locking of the signal wave and the intracavity frequency-doubled idler wave. The OPO process and the second-harmonic generation of the idler wave are simultaneously phase matched through quasi-phase-matching using two periodically poled sections of different period manufactured within the same LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. An optical self-phase-locking range of up to 1 MHz is experimentally observed. The phase coherence of frequency division by three is measured via the phase stability of an interference pattern formed by the input and output waves of the OPO. The fractional frequency instability of the divider is measured to be smaller than 7.6x10{sup -14} for a measurement time of 10 s (resolution limited). The self-phase-locking characteristics of the cw OPO are theoretically investigated by analytically solving the coupled field equations in the steady-state regime. For the experimental parameters of the OPO, the calculations predict a locking range of 1.3 MHz and a fractional frequency instability of 1.6x10{sup -15}, in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. All-Optical Ultrasound Transducers for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaff, Clay Smith

    High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) has increasingly been used within the past few decades to provide high resolution (< 200 mum) imaging in medical applications such as endoluminal imaging, intravascular imaging, ophthalmology, and dermatology. The optical detection and generation of HFUS using thin films offers numerous advantages over traditional piezoelectric technology. Circumvention of an electronic interface with the device head is one of the most significant given the RF noise, crosstalk, and reduced capacitance that encumbers small-scale electronic transducers. Thin film Fabry-Perot interferometers - also known as etalons - are well suited for HFUS receivers on account of their high sensitivity, wide bandwidth, and ease of fabrication. In addition, thin films can be used to generate HFUS when irradiated with optical pulses - a method referred to as Thermoelastic Ultrasound Generation (TUG). By integrating a polyimide (PI) film for TUG into an etalon receiver, we have created for the first time an all-optical ultrasound transducer that is both thermally stable and capable of forming fully sampled 2-D imaging arrays of arbitrary configuration. Here we report (1) the design and fabrication of PI-etalon transducers; (2) an evaluation of their optical and acoustic performance parameters; (3) the ability to conduct high-resolution imaging with synthetic 2-D arrays of PI-etalon elements; and (4) work towards a fiber optic PI-etalon for in vivo use. Successful development of a fiber optic imager would provide a unique field-of-view thereby exposing an abundance of prospects for minimally-invasive analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.

  19. Fast all-optical nuclear spin echo technique based on EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Andreas; Nilsson, Adam N.; Li, Qian; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical Raman spin echo technique, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to create the pulses required for a spin echo sequence: initialization, pi-rotation, and readout. The first pulse of the sequence induces coherence directly from a mixed state, and the technique is used to measure the nuclear spin coherence of an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of rare-earth ions (Pr3 +) in a crystal. The rephasing pi-rotation is shown to offer an advantage of combining the rephasing action with the operation of a phase gate, particularly useful in e.g. dynamic decoupling sequences. In contrast to many previous experiments the sequence does not require any preparatory hole burning, which greatly shortens the total duration of the sequence. The effect of the different pulses is characterized by quantum state tomography and compared with simulations. We demonstrate two applications of the technique: compensating the magnetic field across our sample by monitoring T2 reductions from stray magnetic fields, and measuring coherence times at temperatures up to 11 K, where standard preparation techniques are difficult to implement. We explore the potential of the technique, in particular for systems with much shorter T2, and other possible applications.

  20. Fast all-optical nuclear spin echo technique based on EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Andreas; Nilsson, Adam N.; Li, Qian; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical Raman spin echo technique, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to create the pulses required for a spin echo sequence: initialization, pi-rotation, and readout. The first pulse of the sequence induces coherence directly from a mixed state, and the technique is used to measure the nuclear spin coherence of an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of rare-earth ions (Pr3 +) in a crystal. The rephasing pi-rotation is shown to offer an advantage of combining the rephasing action with the operation of a phase gate, particularly useful in e.g. dynamic decoupling sequences. In contrast to many previous experiments the sequence does not require any preparatory hole burning, which greatly shortens the total duration of the sequence. The effect of the different pulses is characterized by quantum state tomography and compared with simulations. We demonstrate two applications of the technique: compensating the magnetic field across our sample by monitoring T 2 reductions from stray magnetic fields, and measuring coherence times at temperatures up to 11 K, where standard preparation techniques are difficult to implement. We explore the potential of the technique, in particular for systems with much shorter T 2, and other possible applications.

  1. Power optimization in logic isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.

  2. Plasmonic-multimode-interference-based logic circuit with simple phase adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Masashi; Sumimura, Asahi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    All-optical logic circuits using surface plasmon polaritons have a potential for high-speed information processing with high-density integration beyond the diffraction limit of propagating light. However, a number of logic gates that can be cascaded is limited by complicated signal phase adjustment. In this study, we demonstrate a half-adder operation with simple phase adjustment using plasmonic multimode interference (MMI) devices, composed of dielectric stripes on a metal film, which can be fabricated by a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-compatible process. Also, simultaneous operations of XOR and AND gates are substantiated experimentally by combining 1 × 1 MMI based phase adjusters and 2 × 2 MMI based intensity modulators. An experimental on-off ratio of at least 4.3 dB is confirmed using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The proposed structure will contribute to high-density plasmonic circuits, fabricated by complementary MOS-compatible process or printing techniques. PMID:27086694

  3. Plasmonic-multimode-interference-based logic circuit with simple phase adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Masashi; Sumimura, Asahi; Fukuhara, Masashi; Ishii, Yuya; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2016-04-01

    All-optical logic circuits using surface plasmon polaritons have a potential for high-speed information processing with high-density integration beyond the diffraction limit of propagating light. However, a number of logic gates that can be cascaded is limited by complicated signal phase adjustment. In this study, we demonstrate a half-adder operation with simple phase adjustment using plasmonic multimode interference (MMI) devices, composed of dielectric stripes on a metal film, which can be fabricated by a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-compatible process. Also, simultaneous operations of XOR and AND gates are substantiated experimentally by combining 1 × 1 MMI based phase adjusters and 2 × 2 MMI based intensity modulators. An experimental on-off ratio of at least 4.3 dB is confirmed using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The proposed structure will contribute to high-density plasmonic circuits, fabricated by complementary MOS-compatible process or printing techniques.

  4. Dispositional logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  5. Dispositional logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  6. Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark

    This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…

  7. Surface-confined assemblies and polymers for molecular logic.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Graham; van der Boom, Milko E

    2011-08-16

    Stimuli responsive materials are capable of mimicking the operation characteristics of logic gates such as AND, OR, NOR, and even flip-flops. Since the development of molecular sensors and the introduction of the first AND gate in solution by de Silva in 1993, Molecular (Boolean) Logic and Computing (MBLC) has become increasingly popular. In this Account, we present recent research activities that focus on MBLC with electrochromic polymers and metal polypyridyl complexes on a solid support. Metal polypyridyl complexes act as useful sensors to a variety of analytes in solution (i.e., H(2)O, Fe(2+/3+), Cr(6+), NO(+)) and in the gas phase (NO(x) in air). This information transfer, whether the analyte is present, is based on the reversible redox chemistry of the metal complexes, which are stable up to 200 °C in air. The concurrent changes in the optical properties are nondestructive and fast. In such a setup, the input is directly related to the output and, therefore, can be represented by one-input logic gates. These input-output relationships are extendable for mimicking the diverse functions of essential molecular logic gates and circuits within a set of Boolean algebraic operations. Such a molecular approach towards Boolean logic has yielded a series of proof-of-concept devices: logic gates, multiplexers, half-adders, and flip-flop logic circuits. MBLC is a versatile and, potentially, a parallel approach to silicon circuits: assemblies of these molecular gates can perform a wide variety of logic tasks through reconfiguration of their inputs. Although these developments do not require a semiconductor blueprint, similar guidelines such as signal propagation, gate-to-gate communication, propagation delay, and combinatorial and sequential logic will play a critical role in allowing this field to mature. For instance, gate-to-gate communication by chemical wiring of the gates with metal ions as electron carriers results in the integration of stand-alone systems: the

  8. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping E-mail: moli@umn.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: moli@umn.edu

    2015-09-07

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  9. Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.

    2010-05-18

    A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.

  10. Interfacing synthetic DNA logic operations with protein outputs.

    PubMed

    Prokup, Alexander; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-11-24

    DNA logic gates are devices composed entirely of DNA that perform Boolean logic operations on one or more oligonucleotide inputs. Typical outputs of DNA logic gates are oligonucleotides or fluorescent signals. Direct activation of protein function has not been engineered as an output of a DNA-based computational circuit. Explicit control of protein activation enables the immediate triggering of enzyme function and could yield DNA computation outputs that are otherwise difficult to generate. By using zinc-finger proteins, AND, OR, and NOR logic gates were created that respond to short oligonucleotide inputs and lead to the activation or deactivation of a split-luciferase enzyme. The gate designs are simple and modular, thus enabling integration with larger multigate circuits, and the modular structure gives flexibility in the choice of protein output. The gates were also modified with translator circuits to provide protein activation in response to microRNA inputs as potential cellular cancer markers. PMID:25283524

  11. Demonstration and characterisation of a non-inverting all-optical read/write regenerative memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Harrison, J. A.; Blow, K. J.

    2008-09-01

    An all-optical regenerative memory device using a single loop mirror and a semiconductor optical amplifier is experimentally demonstrated. This configuration has potential for a low power all-optical stable memory device with non-inverting characteristics where packets are stored by continuously injecting the regenerated data back into the loop.

  12. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Andrew Paul

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of

  13. Digital circuits using universal logic gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor); Cameron, Eric G. (Inventor); Donohoe, Gregory W. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the invention, a digital circuit design embodied in at least one of a structural netlist, a behavioral netlist, a hardware description language netlist, a full-custom ASIC, a semi-custom ASIC, an IP core, an integrated circuit, a hybrid of chips, one or more masks, a FPGA, and a circuit card assembly is disclosed. The digital circuit design includes first and second sub-circuits. The first sub-circuits comprise a first percentage of the digital circuit design and the second sub-circuits comprise a second percentage of the digital circuit design. Each of the second sub-circuits is substantially comprised of one or more kernel circuits. The kernel circuits are comprised of selection circuits. The second percentage is at least 5%. In various embodiments, the second percentage could be at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95%.

  14. Weighted sum threshold logic operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) using resonant-tunneling transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeyoshi, Tomoyuki; Maezawa, Koichi; Mizutani, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    The functional operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) has been studied using multiple-input logic gates. MOBILE uses two resonant-tunneling transistors (RTT's), connected in series and driven by oscillating bias voltage to produce a mono-to-bistable transition of the circuit. A fabricated MOBILE having three-input gates with a 1:2:4 width ratio can distinguish all 8 (2(exp 3)) input patterns corresponding to each weighted sum, depending on the threshold value selected by the control gate. The results signify the realization of the weighted sum threshold logic operation of input signals.

  15. Engineered materials for all-optical helicity-dependent magnetic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The possibilities of manipulating magnetization without applied magnetic fields have attracted growing attention over the last fifteen years. The low-power manipulation of magnetization, preferably at ultra-short time scales, has become a fundamental challenge with implications for future magnetic information memory and storage technologies. Here we explore the optical manipulation of the magnetization of engineered materials and devices using 100 fs optical pulses. We demonstrate that all optical - helicity dependent switching (AO-HDS) can be observed not only in selected rare-earth transition-metal (RE-TM) alloy films but also in a much broader variety of materials, including alloys, multilayers, heterostructures and RE-free Co-Ir-based synthetic ferrimagnets. The discovery of AO-HDS in RE-free TM-based synthetic ferrimagnets can enable breakthroughs for numerous applications since it exploits materials that are currently used in magnetic data storage, memories and logic technologies. In addition, this materials study of AO-HDS offers valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms involved. Indeed the common denominator of the diverse structures showing AO-HDS in this study is that two ferromagnetic sub-lattices exhibit magnetization compensation (and therefore angular momentum compensation) at temperatures near or above room temperature. We are highlighting that compensation plays a major role and that this compensation can be established at the atomic level as in alloys but also over a larger nanometers scale as in the multilayers or in heterostructures. We will also discuss the potential to extend AO-HDS to new classes of magnetic materials. This work was done in collaboration with S. Mangin, M. Gottwald, C-H. Lambert, D. Steil, V. Uhlíř, L. Pang, M. Hehn, S. Alebrand, M. Cinchetti, G. Malinowski, Y. Fainman, and M. Aeschlimann. Supported by the ANR-10-BLANC-1005 ``Friends,'' a grant from the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium, Partner University Fund

  16. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOEpatents

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  17. A quantum Fredkin gate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C; Pryde, Geoff J

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently. PMID:27051868

  18. A quantum Fredkin gate

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Raj B.; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C.; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently. PMID:27051868

  19. A quantum Fredkin gate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C; Pryde, Geoff J

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently.

  20. A reconfigurable all-optical VPN based on XGM effect of SOA in WDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Tao; Su, Yikai

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable all-optical VPN scheme enabling intercommunications among different ONUs in a WDM PON. Reconfiguration is realized by dynamically setting wavelength conversion of optical VPN signal using a SOA in the OLT.

  1. Quantum gate-set tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Quantum information technology is built on (1) physical qubits and (2) precise, accurate quantum logic gates that transform their states. Developing quantum logic gates requires good characterization - both in the development phase, where we need to identify a device's flaws so as to fix them, and in the production phase, where we need to make sure that the device works within specs and predict residual error rates and types. This task falls to quantum state and process tomography. But until recently, protocols for tomography relied on a pre-existing and perfectly calibrated reference frame comprising the measurements (and, for process tomography, input states) used to characterize the device. In practice, these measurements are neither independent nor perfectly known - they are usually implemented via exactly the same gates that we are trying to characterize! In the past year, several partial solutions to this self-consistency problem have been proposed. I will present a framework (gate set tomography, or GST) that addresses and resolves this problem, by self-consistently characterizing an entire set of quantum logic gates on a black-box quantum device. In particular, it contains an explicit closed-form protocol for linear-inversion gate set tomography (LGST), which is immune to both calibration error and technical pathologies like local maxima of the likelihood (which plagued earlier methods). GST also demonstrates significant (multiple orders of magnitude) improvements in efficiency over standard tomography by using data derived from long sequences of gates (much like randomized benchmarking). GST has now been applied to qubit devices in multiple technologies. I will present and discuss results of GST experiments in technologies including a single trapped-ion qubit and a silicon quantum dot qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  2. All-Optical Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (toad) Based Binary Comparator:. a Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    Comparator determines whether a number is greater than, equals to or less than another number. It plays a significant role in fast central processing unit in all-optical scheme. In all-optical scheme here 1-bit binary comparator is proposed and described by Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch. Simulation result by Mathcad-7 is also given. Cascading technique of building up the n-bit binary comparator with this 1-bit comparator block is also proposed here.

  3. Magnetic induction tomography using an all-optical ⁸⁷Rb atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Jurgilas, Sarunas; Dow, Albert; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate magnetic induction tomography (MIT) with an all-optical atomic magnetometer. Our instrument creates a conductivity map of conductive objects. Both the shape and size of the imaged samples compare very well with the actual shape and size. Given the potential of all-optical atomic magnetometers for miniaturization and extreme sensitivity, the proof-of-principle presented in this Letter opens up promising avenues in the development of instrumentation for MIT.

  4. Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2012-07-20

    Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.

  5. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  6. Nonlocal quantum gate on quantum continuous variables with minimal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Shota; Ukai, Ryuji; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim; Furusawa, Akira

    2014-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, with an all-optical setup, a nonlocal deterministic quantum nondemolition interaction gate applicable to quantum states at nodes separated by a physical distance and connected by classical communication channels. The gate implementation, based on entangled states shared in advance, local operations, and classical communication, runs completely in parallel fashion at both of the local nodes, requiring minimum resources. The nondemolition character of the gate up to the local unitary squeezing is verified by the analysis using several coherent states. A genuine quantum nature of the gate is confirmed by the capability of deterministically producing an entangled state at the output from two separable input states. The all-optical nonlocal gate operation can be potentially incorporated into distributed quantum computing with atomic or solid-state systems as a cross-processor unitary operation.

  7. Towards Self-Clocked Gated OCDMA Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, S.; Osadola, T.; Glesk, I.

    2013-02-01

    A novel incoherent OCDMA receiver with incorporated all-optical clock recovery for self-synchronization of a time gate for the multi access interferences (MAI) suppression and minimizing the effect of data time jitter in incoherent OCDMA system was successfully developed and demonstrated. The solution was implemented and tested in a multiuser environment in an out of the laboratory OCDMA testbed with two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding scheme and OC-48 (2.5 Gbp/s) data rate. The self-clocked all-optical time gate uses SOA-based fibre ring laser optical clock, recovered all-optically from the received OCDMA traffic to control its switching window for cleaning the autocorrelation peak from the surrounding MAI. A wider eye opening was achieved when the all-optically recovered clock from received data was used for synchronization if compared to a static approach with the RF clock being generated by a RF synthesizer. Clean eye diagram was also achieved when recovered clock is used to drive time gating.

  8. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN, PIER AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  9. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, PIER, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 6, Trempealeau, Trempealeau County, WI

  10. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS, GATE CHAINS AND SWITCHES, AND BRIDGE GIRDERS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  11. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS, GATE CHAINS AND SWITCHES, AND BRIDGE GIRDERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  12. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE PIERS, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  13. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN, PIER AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING EAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  14. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  15. Product Łukasiewicz Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Cesarino; Leporini, Roberto

    2011-02-01

    The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a density operator (called qumix). In this framework, any sentence α of the language gives rise to a quantum circuit that transforms the qumix associated to the atomic subformulas of α into the qumix associated to α. In this paper we enrich the language by adding a new connective which expresses truncated sum.

  16. Integration of graphene oxide and DNA as a universal platform for multiple arithmetic logic units.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Ren, Jiangtao; Fan, Daoqing; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2014-11-28

    By a combination of graphene oxide and DNA, a universal platform was developed for integration of multiple logic gates to implement both half adder and half subtractor functions. A constant undefined threshold range between high and low fluorescence output signals was set for all the developed logic gates.

  17. Study on all-optical switching characteristics of ethyl orange-doped polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tang; Zhang, Chunping; Lin, Yu; Qi, Shengwen

    2008-10-01

    The all-optical switching polymer thin films with azobenzene dye ethyl orange as the guest material and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the host material were prepared by adulteration and spin-coating methods. The all-optical switching characteristics of the samples were measured at different intensities and modulation frequencies of the pump beam (532 nm, CW); the influence of doping concentration on the all-optical switching effect of the films was studied. It is shown that, under room temperature conditions and with a low pump power of 6 mW, the all-optical switch has a response time of about 2 ms and a modulation depth of 45%, and the maximal modulation depth reaches 90%. In addition, it is found that samples with higher doping concentration show a stronger all-optical switching effect but a larger background signal, and good switching performance is obtained by choosing the doping concentrations from 0.8% to 2% of the sample.

  18. Early Learning of Logic and Geometry Using Microcomputers: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piestrup, Ann M.

    This document primarily consists of source code listings for software developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Education (NSF/NIE). The code contains the following learning games: (1) Turn and Match; (2) Logic Arcade; and (3) Logic Gates. Also included are an assembler for the 6502 microprocessor…

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Formation in Reconfigurable Logic

    SciTech Connect

    DUDLEY,PETER A.

    2001-06-01

    This paper studies the implementation of polar format, synthetic aperture radar image formation in modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's). The polar format algorithm is described in rough terms and each of the processing steps is mapped to FPGA logic. This FPGA logic is analyzed with respect to throughput and circuit size for compatibility with airborne image formation.

  20. Preface of the "Symposium on Logic Synthesis for Programmable Logic Devices"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Logic synthesis is an indirect link between design description and technology mapping. In the result of synthesis process an implementation in terms of an interconnection of logic gates, flip-flops, LUTs, etc. is generated. Typically, synthesis is performed for an objective function, such as minimizing the number of logic blocks (area), delay of interconnection, minimizing the power consumed, or making the implementation more testable. Logic synthesis is typically separated into two stages: technology-independent optimization, followed by a technology mapping. Technology mapping is the process of expressing a boolean network in terms of elements characteristic for a given technology (or device family). The aim of the symposium is to show all aspects of logic synthesis dedicated for Programmable Logic Devices.

  1. Experimental implementation of encoded logical qubit operations in a perfect quantum error correcting code.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfu; Laflamme, Raymond; Suter, Dieter

    2012-09-01

    Large-scale universal quantum computing requires the implementation of quantum error correction (QEC). While the implementation of QEC has already been demonstrated for quantum memories, reliable quantum computing requires also the application of nontrivial logical gate operations to the encoded qubits. Here, we present examples of such operations by implementing, in addition to the identity operation, the NOT and the Hadamard gate to a logical qubit encoded in a five qubit system that allows correction of arbitrary single-qubit errors. We perform quantum process tomography of the encoded gate operations, demonstrate the successful correction of all possible single-qubit errors, and measure the fidelity of the encoded logical gate operations.

  2. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    PubMed Central

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift. PMID:27687495

  3. Numerical investigation of an all-optical switch in a graded nonlinear plasmonic grating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxi; Lu, Hua; Liu, Xueming; Gong, Yongkang

    2012-11-01

    We have proposed and numerically investigated an all-optical switch based on a metal-insulator-metal waveguide with graded nonlinear plasmonic gratings. The influences of grating depth and refractive index of a Kerr nonlinear medium on the transmission of the switch are exactly analyzed by utilizing transmission line theory. The finite-difference time-domain simulation results show that the highly compact structure possesses excellent switch function by tuning the incident electric field intensity. In addition, the simulation results show that this all-optical switch has an ultrawide operating frequency regime and femtosecond-scale response time (~130 fs). Such a switch can find potential applications for all-optical signal processing and optical communication.

  4. Two types of all-optical magnetization switching mechanisms using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadri, M. S.; Pirro, P.; Lambert, C.-H.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Quessab, Y.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Malinowski, G.; Mangin, S.

    2016-08-01

    Using a time-dependent electrical investigation of the all-optical switching in ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic Hall crosses via the anomalous Hall effect, intriguing insights into the rich physics underlying the all-optical switching are provided. We demonstrate that two different all-optical magnetization switching mechanisms can be distinguished; a "single pulse" switching for ferrimagnetic GdFeCo alloys, and a "two regimes" switching process for both ferrimagnetic TbCo alloys and ferromagnetic Pt/Co multilayers. We show that the latter takes place at two different time scales, and consists of a steplike helicity-independent multiple-domain formation within the first 1 ms followed by a helicity-dependent remagnetization on several tens of milliseconds.

  5. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible.

  6. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift.

  7. Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)

  8. A study of high repetition rate pulse generation and all-optical add/drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin

    Ultra high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) transmission technologies are essential for the construction of ultra high-speed all-optical networks needed in the information era. In this Ph. D thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms associated with ultra high speed OTDM transmission systems, such as, high speed ultra short pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop multiplexing, have been studied. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations have been performed. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, high repetition rate, ultra short pulses are needed. A rational harmonic mode-locked ring fiber laser has been used to produce ultrashort pulses, the pulse jitter will be eliminated using a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL), and the self-pulsation has been suppressed using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Sub pico-second pulses are very important for all optical sampling in the ultrahigh-speed OTDM transmission system. In this thesis, a two stage compression scheme utilizing the nonlinearity and dispersion of the optical fibers has been constructed and used to compress the gain switched DFB laser pulses. Also a nonlinear optical loop mirror has been constructed to suppress the wings associated with nonlinear compression. Pedestal free, transform-limited pulses with pulse widths in range of 0.2 to 0.4 ps have been generated. LiNbO3 modulators play a very important role in fiber optical communication systems. In this thesis, LiNbO3 modulators have been used to perform high repetition rate pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop for the TDM transmission system.

  9. All-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons operating at 10 Gb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae K.; Erkintalo, Miro; Schröder, Jochen; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Murdoch, Stuart G.; Coen, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the operation of an all-optical buffer based on temporal cavity solitons stored in a nonlinear passive fiber ring resonator. Unwanted acoustic interactions between neighboring solitons are suppressed by modulating the phase of the external laser driving the cavity. A new locking scheme is presented that allows the buffer to operate with an arbitrarily large number of cavity solitons in the loop. Experimentally, we are able to demonstrate the storage of 4536 bits of data, written all-optically into the fiber ring at 10 Gb/s, for 1 minute.

  10. Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Haidong; Guo, Kangxian

    2014-10-15

    We propose a tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier based on the nonlinear Fano resonance in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and cavities coupling system. We develop a theoretical model based on the temporal coupled-mode theory to study the device physics of the nanoscale rectifier. We further demonstrate via the finite difference time domain numerical experiment that our idea can be realized in a plasmonic system with an ultracompact size of ~120×800  nm². The tunable plasmonic rectifier could facilitate the all-optical signal processing in nanoscale.

  11. Optical Square-Wave Clock Generation Based on an All-Optical Flip-Flop

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, A.M.; Agrawal, G.P.; Maywar, D.N.

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop. The bistable output power from a resonant-type semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is switched ON and OFF by modulating its input with its output via cross-gain modulation in a traveling-wave SOA. All active components are driven by dc currents, and the wavelength and clock frequency are selectable. A clock frequency of 3.5 MHz is demonstrated, limited by the time of flight between bulk optical components. Optical square-wave clock signals are promising for applications in photonic integrated circuits and all-optical signal processing.

  12. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  13. Analysis of all-optically tunable functionalities in subwavelength periodic structures by the Fourier modal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Francés, Jorge; Svirko, Yuri P.; Turunen, Jari

    2016-05-01

    We propose the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2371 (2014)] as a convenient and versatile numerical tool for the design and analysis of grating based next generation all-optical devices. Here, we include several numerical examples where the FMM is used to simulate all-optically tunable functionalities in sub-wavelength periodic structures. At first, we numerically investigate a 1-D periodic nonlinear binary grating with amorphous TiO2. We plot the diffraction efficiency in the transmitted orders against the structure depth for normally incident plane wave. Change in diffraction efficiencies for different incident field amplitudes are evident from the plots. We verify the accuracy of our implementation by comparing our results with the results obtained with the nonlinear Split Field-Finite Difference Time Domain (SF-FDTD) method. Next we repeat the same experiment with vertically standing amorphous Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays grown on top of quartz which are periodic in two mutually perpendicular directions and examine the efficiencies in the direct transmitted light for different incident field amplitudes. Our third example includes analysis of a form birefringent linear grating with Kerr medium. With FMM we demonstrate that the birefringence of such a structure can be tuned by all-optical means. As a final example, we design a narrow band Guided Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF). Numerical experiments based on the nonlinear FMM reveal that the spectral tunability of such a filter can be obtained by all-optical means.

  14. Integration of photonic nanojets and semiconductor nanoparticles for enhanced all-optical switching

    PubMed Central

    Born, Brandon; Krupa, Jeffrey D. A.; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2015-01-01

    All-optical switching is the foundation of emerging all-optical (terabit-per-second) networks and processors. All-optical switching has attracted considerable attention, but it must ultimately support operation with femtojoule switching energies and femtosecond switching times to be effective. Here we introduce an all-optical switch architecture in the form of a dielectric sphere that focuses a high-intensity photonic nanojet into a peripheral coating of semiconductor nanoparticles. Milli-scale spheres coated with Si and SiC nanoparticles yield switching energies of 200 and 100 fJ with switching times of 10 ps and 350 fs, respectively. Micro-scale spheres coated with Si and SiC nanoparticles yield switching energies of 1 pJ and 20 fJ with switching times of 2 ps and 270 fs, respectively. We show that femtojoule switching energies are enabled by localized photoinjection from the photonic nanojets and that femtosecond switching times are enabled by localized recombination within the semiconductor nanoparticles. PMID:26314911

  15. Ultra compact and fast All Optical Flip Flop design in photonic crystal platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Amin; Noshad, Morteza; Ranjbar, Reza; Kheradmand, Reza

    2012-11-01

    In this work we present a heterostructure All Optical Flip-Flop configuration based on all optical switching with Kerr nonlinear photonic crystal. In this square-hexagonal structure, we propose three different schemes for the cavities in order to show the trade-off between switching time and triggering power. Loss in the system is reasonably low because of the perfect band gap matching at bending points where two lattices join. The proposed RS-Flip Flop has exceptional features, which make it one of the well optimized and most practical structures to be used in the all optical integrated circuits. The novel design has a fast switching action (on the order of a few picoseconds), and low input power (on the order of 100 mW). Furthermore, high contrast of the output signals for ON and OFF states, can help the easy detection or its coupling to the other devices. The structure is fascinatingly uncomplicated, which results in ultra small dimensions which make it suitable to be placed in an all optical integrated circuit. Besides, we provide a profound analytical view on the functioning of the system, as analyzed by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  16. A New All-Optical Imaging Scheme based on QWIP technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Debing; Chen, Gang; Martini, Rainer

    2006-03-01

    Infrared imaging applications have gained increasing interest over the recent decades due to favorable light propagation, night imaging as well as chemical sensing applications. However, the scalability of the existing techniques towards high resolution in the multi-megapixel range is one of the major challenges in today's IR imaging technologies. Here we present an alternative solution using an all-optical wavelength conversion scheme. QWIP has been successfully proven their potential in IR imaging applications. Yet the fundamental conversion process from IR light to electric current has been one of the major restrictions in such system. To overcome this problem we propose the use of an all-optical conversion scheme, which utilizes an interband resonant optical NIR beam to probe the electrical population of the QW structure. In this methodology the incident MIR radiation changes the occupation of the QWs, which in turn influences the NIR transmission. Hence the irradiated MIR images can be probed by spatially resolved measurement of the NIR transmission, as has been demonstrated by Nada et al. for all-optical switching purposes. In this talk we present an implementation scheme of the all-optical QWIP readout technique together with theoretical calculations of the sensitivity of the proposed device and its temperature dependence. First experimental results will be presented also. The Authors thankfully acknowledge financial support by US Army, Picatinny Arsenal.

  17. Magnetic induction measurements using an all-optical {sup 87}Rb atomic magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wickenbrock, Arne; Tricot, François; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2013-12-09

    In this work we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, the use of a self-oscillating all-optical atomic magnetometer for magnetic induction measurements. Given the potential for miniaturization of atomic magnetometers, and their extreme sensitivity, the present work shows that atomic magnetometers may play a key role in the development of instrumentation for magnetic induction tomography.

  18. Coherent spaces, Boolean rings and quantum gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent spaces spanned by a finite number of coherent states, are introduced. Their coherence properties are studied, using the Dirac contour representation. It is shown that the corresponding projectors resolve the identity, and that they transform into projectors of the same type, under displacement transformations, and also under time evolution. The set of these spaces, with the logical OR and AND operations is a distributive lattice, and with the logical XOR and AND operations is a Boolean ring (Stone's formalism). Applications of this Boolean ring into classical CNOT gates with n-ary variables, and also quantum CNOT gates with coherent states, are discussed.

  19. Reconfigurable Boolean Logic Using Magnetic Single-Electron Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M. Fernando; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Zarbo, Liviu P.; Irvine, Andrew C.; Campion, Richard C.; Gallagher, Bryan L.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network. PMID:25923789

  20. Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M Fernando; Ciccarelli, Chiara; Zarbo, Liviu P; Irvine, Andrew C; Campion, Richard C; Gallagher, Bryan L; Jungwirth, Tomas; Ferguson, Andrew J; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid single-electron device for reprogrammable low-power logic operations, the magnetic single-electron transistor (MSET). The device consists of an aluminium single-electron transistor with a GaMnAs magnetic back-gate. Changing between different logic gate functions is realized by reorienting the magnetic moments of the magnetic layer, which induces a voltage shift on the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the MSET. We show that we can arbitrarily reprogram the function of the device from an n-type SET for in-plane magnetization of the GaMnAs layer to p-type SET for out-of-plane magnetization orientation. Moreover, we demonstrate a set of reprogrammable Boolean gates and its logical complement at the single device level. Finally, we propose two sets of reconfigurable binary gates using combinations of two MSETs in a pull-down network.

  1. All-optical magnetization reversal by circularly polarized laser pulses: Experiment and multiscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahaplar, K.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Kimel, A. V.; Gerlach, S.; Hinzke, D.; Nowak, U.; Chantrell, R.; Tsukamoto, A.; Itoh, A.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.

    2012-03-01

    We present results of detailed experimental and theoretical studies of all-optical magnetization reversal by single circularly-polarized laser pulses in ferrimagnetic rare earth—transition metal (RE-TM) alloys GdxFe90-xCo10 (20%all-optically driven linear reversal can be modeled as a result of a two-fold impact of the laser pulse on the medium. First, due to absorption of the light and ultrafast laser-induced heating, the medium is brought to a highly nonequilibrium state. Simultaneously, due to the ultrafast inverse Faraday effect the circularly polarized laser pulse acts as an effective magnetic field of the amplitude up to ˜20 T. We show that the polarization-dependent reversal triggered by the circularly polarized light is feasible only in a narrow range (below 10%) of laser fluences. The duration of the laser pulse required for the reversal can be varied from ˜40 fs up to at least ˜1700 fs. We also investigate experimentally the role of the ferrimagnetic properties of GdFeCo in the all-optical reversal. In particular, the optimal conditions for the all-optical reversal are achieved just below the ferrimagnetic compensation temperature, where the magnetic information can be all-optically written by a laser pulse of minimal fluence and read out within just 30 ps. We argue that this is the fastest write-read event demonstrated for magnetic recording so far.

  2. Defect-sensitivity analysis of an SEU immune CMOS logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingermann, Erik H.; Frenzel, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Fault testing of resistive manufacturing defects is done on a recently developed single event upset immune logic family. Resistive ranges and delay times are compared with those of traditional CMOS logic. Reaction of the logic to these defects is observed for a NOR gate, and an evaluation of its ability to cope with them is determined.

  3. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  4. Efficient G(sup 4)FET-Based Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 81 optimal logic circuits based on four-gate field-effect transistors (G(sup 4)4FETs) have been designed to implement all Boolean functions of up to three variables. The purpose of this development was to lend credence to the expectation that logic circuits based on G(sup 4)FETs could be more efficient (in the sense that they could contain fewer transistors), relative to functionally equivalent logic circuits based on conventional transistors. A G(sup 4)FET a combination of a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) superimposed in a single silicon island and can therefore be regarded as two transistors sharing the same body. A G(sup 4)FET can also be regarded as a single device having four gates: two side junction-based gates, a top MOS gate, and a back gate activated by biasing of a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Each of these gates can be used to control the conduction characteristics of the transistor; this possibility creates new options for designing analog, radio-frequency, mixed-signal, and digital circuitry. One such option is to design a G(sup 4)FET to function as a three-input NOT-majority gate, which has been shown to be a universal and programmable logic gate. Optimal NOT-majority-gate, G(sup 4)FET-based logic-circuit designs were obtained in a comparative study that also included formulation of functionally equivalent logic circuits based on NOR and NAND gates implemented by use of conventional transistors. In the study, the problem of finding the optimal design for each logic function and each transistor type was solved as an integer-programming optimization problem. Considering all 81 non-equivalent Boolean functions included in the study, it was found that in 63% of the cases, fewer logic gates (and, hence, fewer transistors) would be needed in the G(sup 4)FET-based implementations.

  5. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  6. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly. PMID:27427653

  7. Nanomagnetic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  8. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.

  9. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN AND PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  10. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  11. Ultralow-light-level all-optical transistor in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Jietai Zhou, Zhifan; Liu, Cunjin; Qin, Zhongzhong; Fang, Yami; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-04-14

    An all-optical transistor (AOT) is a device in which one light beam can efficiently manipulate another. It is the foundational component of an all-optical communication network. An AOT that can operate at ultralow light levels is especially attractive for its potential application in the quantum information field. Here, we demonstrate an AOT driven by a weak light beam with an energy density of 2.5 × 10{sup −5} photons/(λ{sup 2}/2π) (corresponding to 6  yJ/(λ{sup 2}/2π) and about 800 total photons) using the double-Λ four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. This makes it a promising candidate for ultralow-light-level optical communication and quantum information science.

  12. All-optically driven system in ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jingcheng; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic wave based structural health monitoring (SHM) is an innovative method for nondestructive detection and an area of growing interest. This is due to high demands for wireless detection in the field of structural engineering. Through optically exciting and detecting ultrasonic waves, electrical wire connections can be avoided, and non-contact SHM can be achieved. With the combination of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) (which possesses high heat resistance) and the noncontact detection, this system has a broad range of applications, even in extreme conditions. This paper reports an all-optically driven SHM system. The resonant frequencies of the PZT transducers are sensitive to a variety of structural damages. Experimental results have verified the feasibility of the all-optically driven SHM system.

  13. Photonic integrated circuit for all-optical millimeter-wave signal generation

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Mar, A.; Zolper, J.; Hietala, V.

    1997-03-01

    Generation of millimeter-wave electronic signals and power is required for high-frequency communication links, RADAR, remote sensing and other applications. However, in the 30 to 300 GHz mm-wave regime, signal sources are bulky and inefficient. All-optical generation of mm-wave signals promises to improve efficiency to as much as 30 to 50 percent with output power as high as 100 mW. All of this may be achieved while taking advantage of the benefits of monolithic integration to reduce the overall size to that of a single semiconductor chip only a fraction of a square centimeter in size. This report summarizes the development of the first monolithically integrated all-optical mm-wave signal generator ever built. The design integrates a mode-locked semiconductor ring diode laser with an optical amplifier and high-speed photodetector into a single optical integrated circuit. Frequency generation is demonstrated at 30, 60 and 90 Ghz.

  14. All-optical code routing in interconnected optical CDMA and WDM ring networks.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhua; Fok, Mable P; Prucnal, Paul R; Wang, Ting

    2010-11-01

    We propose an all-optical hybrid network composed of optical code division multiple access (CDMA) rings interconnecting through a reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) metro area ring. This network retains the advantages of both the optical CDMA and WDM techniques, including asynchronous access and differentiated quality of service, while removing the hard limit on the number of subscribers and increasing network flexibility. The all-optical network is enabled by using nonlinear optical loop mirrors in an add/drop router (ADR) that performs code conversion, dropping, and switching asynchronously. We experimentally demonstrate the functionalities of the ADR in the proposed scheme asynchronously and obtain error-free performance. The bit-error rate measurements show acceptable power penalties for different code routes.

  15. All-optical control of microfiber resonator by graphene's photothermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yadong; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Chenyang; Fang, Liang; Mao, Dong; Xu, Yiping; Zhang, Fanlu; Xi, Teli; Ren, Liyong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an efficient all-optical control of microfiber resonator assisted by graphene's photothermal effect. Wrapping graphene onto a microfiber resonator, the light-graphene interaction can be strongly enhanced via the resonantly circulating light, which enables a significant modulation of the resonance with a resonant wavelength shift rate of 71 pm/mW when pumped by a 1540 nm laser. The optically controlled resonator enables the implementation of low threshold optical bistability and switching with an extinction ratio exceeding 13 dB. The thin and compact structure promises a fast response speed of the control, with a rise (fall) time of 294.7 μs (212.2 μs) following the 10%-90% rule. The proposed device, with the advantages of compact structure, all-optical control, and low power acquirement, offers great potential in the miniaturization of active in-fiber photonic devices.

  16. Optical packet header identification utilizing an all-optical feedback chaotic reservoir computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jie; Zhao, Qingchun; Xu, Dongjiao; Yin, Hongxi; Chang, Ying; Huang, Degen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an all-optical reservoir computing (RC) setup is proposed for identifying the types of optical packet headers in optical packet switching (OPS) network. The numerical simulation identification results of 3 bits and 32 bits optical headers with the bit rate of 10 Gbps are as low as 0.625% and 2.25%, respectively. The identification errors with the variation of the feedback strength and feedback delay are presented separately. Hence, the optimal feedback parameters are obtained. The all-optical feedback RC setup is robust to the white Gaussian noise. The recognition error is acceptable when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 15 dB.

  17. An all-optical vector atomic magnetometer for fundamental physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, David; Mateos, Ignacio; Zhivun, Elena; Patton, Brian; Fierlinger, Peter; Beck, Douglas; Budker, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a laboratory prototype of a compact all-optical vector magnetometer. Due to their high precision and absolute accuracy, atomic magnetometers are crucial sensors in fundamental physics experiments which require extremely stable magnetic fields (e.g., neutron EDM searches). This all-optical sensor will allow high-resolution measurements of the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field without perturbing the magnetic environment. Moreover, its absolute accuracy makes it calibration-free, an advantage in space applications (e.g., space-based gravitational-wave detection). Magnetometry in precision experiments or space applications also demands long-term stability and well-understood noise characteristics at frequencies below 10-4 Hz. We have characterized the low-frequency noise floor of this sensor and will discuss methods to improve its long-time performance.

  18. All-optical pseudorandom binary sequence generator with TOAD-based D flip-flops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoiros, K. E.; Das, M. K.; Gayen, D. K.; Maity, H. K.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Roy, J. N.

    2011-09-01

    An all-optical pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generator is designed using serially interconnected discrete Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD)-based D flip-flops in a configuration exactly like the standard electronic setup. The performance of the circuit is evaluated through numerical simulation, which confirms its feasibility in terms of the choice of the critical parameters. The proposed scheme has been theoretically demonstrated for a 3-bit and 7-bit degree PRBS but can be extended to higher order by means of additional TOAD-based D flip-flops. Thus it can constitute an efficient solution for implementing all-optically a PRBS in an affordable, controllable and realistic manner.

  19. An all-optical modulation method in sub-micron scale

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Longzhi; Pei, Chongyang; Shen, Ao; Zhao, Changyun; Li, Yan; Li, Xia; Yu, Hui; Li, Yubo; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jianyi

    2015-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that by utilizing the illumination of an external laser, the Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) signals on the graphene sheet can be modulated in the sub-micron scale. The SPP wave can propagate along the graphene in the middle infrared range when the graphene is properly doped. Graphene's carrier density can be modified by a visible laser when the graphene sheet is exfoliated on the hydrophilic SiO2/Si substrate, which yields an all-optical way to control the graphene's doping level. Consequently, the external laser beam can control the propagation of the graphene SPP between the ON and OFF status. This all-optical modulation effect is still obvious when the spot size of the external laser is reduced to 400 nm while the modulation depth is as high as 114.7 dB/μm. PMID:25777581

  20. All-optical signal amplifier and distributor using cavity-atom coupling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yafan; Lin, Gongwei; Niu, Yueping; Gong, Shangqing

    2016-05-01

    We report an all-optical signal amplifier and a signal distributor using cavity-atom coupling systems. In this system we couple atoms with an optical cavity and realize the great enhancement of a control laser by the cavity with the help of two high coupling lasers. By this effect, we can use one weak control field to control another strong target field and the intensity changes are linear with our experimental conditions. This can be used as an all-optical signal amplifier, also known as a ‘transphasor’. In our experiment, the gain of the weak field to strong field can be as high as 60. Furthermore, we can realize the distribution of optical signals, if we coordinate multiple cavity-atom coupling systems.

  1. Chip-integrated all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation based on silicon microring resonators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-08-10

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 4-port passive encoder for 4-bit Gray code on pure silicon platform. The operation principle for this device is the thermo-optic (TO) effect in silicon microring resonator (MRR) whose transmission spectrum could be shifted by injecting strong light power. Therefore, the output powers of both the through-port and drop-port of the MRR could be controllable and switchable. Two threshold powers are defined to decide the port output code of bit "0" or "1". By combining two independent resonant wavelengths of two MRRs and adjusting their powers in a certain order, all-optical 4-bit Gray code generation has been successfully demonstrated. The proposed integrated device is competent in on-chip all-optical communication and optical interconnection systems with significant advantages, such as simple operation, compact size, economical fabrication process and great scalability.

  2. Study of all-optical sampling using a semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Lina; Wang, Fu

    2016-08-01

    All-optical sampling is an important research content of all-optical signal processing. In recent years, the application of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in optical sampling has attracted lots of attention because of its small volume and large nonlinear coefficient. We propose an optical sampling model based on nonlinear polarization rotation effect of the SOA. The proposed scheme has the advantages of high sampling speed and small input pump power, and a transfer curve with good linearity was obtained through simulation. To evaluate the performance of sampling, we analyze the linearity and efficiency of sampling pulse considering the impact of pulse width and analog signal frequency. We achieve the sampling of analog signal to high frequency pulse and exchange the positions of probe light and pump light to study another sampling.

  3. An all-optical modulation method in sub-micron scale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longzhi; Pei, Chongyang; Shen, Ao; Zhao, Changyun; Li, Yan; Li, Xia; Yu, Hui; Li, Yubo; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jianyi

    2015-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that by utilizing the illumination of an external laser, the Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) signals on the graphene sheet can be modulated in the sub-micron scale. The SPP wave can propagate along the graphene in the middle infrared range when the graphene is properly doped. Graphene's carrier density can be modified by a visible laser when the graphene sheet is exfoliated on the hydrophilic SiO2/Si substrate, which yields an all-optical way to control the graphene's doping level. Consequently, the external laser beam can control the propagation of the graphene SPP between the ON and OFF status. This all-optical modulation effect is still obvious when the spot size of the external laser is reduced to 400 nm while the modulation depth is as high as 114.7 dB/μm. PMID:25777581

  4. Model for multishot all-thermal all-optical switching in ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchon, J.; Yang, Y.; Bokor, J.

    2016-07-01

    All-optical magnetic switching (AOS) is a recently observed rich and puzzling phenomenon that offers promising technological applications. However, a fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains elusive. Here we present a model for multishot helicity-dependent AOS in ferromagnetic materials based on a purely heat-driven mechanism in the presence of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD). We predict that AOS should be possible with as little as 0.5% of MCD, after a minimum number of laser shots heat the sample close to the Curie temperature. Finally, we qualitatively reproduce the all-optically switched domain patterns observed experimentally by numerically simulating the result of multiple laser shots on an FePtC granular ferromagnetic film.

  5. Femtojoule-Scale All-Optical Latching and Modulation via Cavity Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yeong-Dae; Armen, Michael A.; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally characterize Hopf bifurcation phenomena at femtojoule energy scales in a multiatom cavity quantum electrodynamical (cavity QED) system and demonstrate how such behaviors can be exploited in the design of all-optical memory and modulation devices. The data are analyzed by using a semiclassical model that explicitly treats heterogeneous coupling of atoms to the cavity mode. Our results highlight the interest of cavity QED systems for ultralow power photonic signal processing as well as for fundamental studies of mesoscopic nonlinear dynamics.

  6. Improved parameters metropolitan area network supported with all-optical network's technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradkowska, Magdalena; Kalita, Mariusz

    2006-03-01

    The advantages of all-optical network's technics make them one of main elements of the metropolitan area networks. They enable different applications in high quality mulitimedia services and guarantee a constant and reliable access to the Internet. As the growing expansion of the Internet continues in an unpredictable direction, many new solutions are expected. The major challenge is the increasing demand for flexible, transparent and customised bandwidth services for both private and business customers.

  7. Realization of all-optical switch and diode via Raman gain process using a Kerr field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Muqaddar; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2016-08-01

    The idea of optical photonic crystal, which is generated using two counter-propagating fields, is revisited to study gain-assisted all-optical switch and diode using Kerr field. Two counter-propagating fields with relative detuning Δ ν generate standing-wave field pattern which interacts with a four-level atomic system. The standing-wave field pattern acts like a static photonic crystal for Δ ν =0 , however, it behaves as a moving photonic crystal for Δ ν \

  8. An All-Optical Microwave Mixer with 8db RF Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, W.; Yao, S. X.; Lutes, G.; Maleki, L.

    1997-01-01

    An all-optical microwave mixer with an 8dB RF gain is demonstrated by using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). 6GHz RF signal on a 1312 nm optical carrier is up-converted and down-converted to 1GHZ and 11 GHz by a 5GHz local oscillation (LO) signal on a 1320 nm optical carrier. Such a carrier could readily extend to millimeter wave range.

  9. All-optical time-delay relay based on a bacteriorhodopsin film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guiying; Yuan, Yizhe; Zhang, Chunping; Yang, Guan; Tian, Jian Guo; Xu, Tang; Song, Q W

    2006-05-15

    Using the property of dynamic complementary suppression modulated transmission of bacteriorhodopsin film, we propose and demonstrate an all-optical time-delay relay in an incoherent light system. The relay can last for a certain amount of time after the switch function of turn off (or turn on) is activated. Furthermore, the delay time can be adjusted by changing the lifetime of the M state and the intensities of blue and yellow beams.

  10. All-optical arithmetic unit with the help of terahertz-optical-asymmetric-demultiplexer-based tree architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayen, Dilip Kumar; Nath Roy, Jitendra

    2008-03-01

    An all-optical arithmetic unit with the help of terahertz-optical-asymmetric-demultiplexer (TOAD)-based tree architecture is proposed. We describe the all-optical arithmetic unit by using a set of all-optical multiplexer, all-optical full-adder, and optical switch. The all-optical arithmetic unit can be used to perform a fast central processor unit using optical hardware components. We have tried to exploit the advantages of both optical tree architecture and TOAD-based switch to design an integrated all-optical circuit that can perform binary addition, addition with carry, subtract with borrow, subtract (2's complement), double, increment, decrement, and transfer operations.

  11. Improved Classical Simulation of Quantum Circuits Dominated by Clifford Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Gosset, David

    2016-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for classical simulation of quantum circuits over the Clifford+T gate set. The runtime of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of qubits and the number of Clifford gates in the circuit but exponential in the number of T gates. The exponential scaling is sufficiently mild that the algorithm can be used in practice to simulate medium-sized quantum circuits dominated by Clifford gates. The first demonstrations of fault-tolerant quantum circuits based on 2D topological codes are likely to be dominated by Clifford gates due to a high implementation cost associated with logical T gates. Thus our algorithm may serve as a verification tool for near-term quantum computers which cannot in practice be simulated by other means. To demonstrate the power of the new method, we performed a classical simulation of a hidden shift quantum algorithm with 40 qubits, a few hundred Clifford gates, and nearly 50 T gates.

  12. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  13. All-optical tuning of a magnetic-fluid-filled optofluidic ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Zheqi; Pu, Shengli; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-08-21

    An all-optical tunable optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The all-optical control of a silica microresonator is highly attractive, but it is difficult to realize because of the relatively weak Kerr effect and the absence of a plasma dispersion effect of silica. Here, we infuse a silica microcapillary-based optofluidic ring resonator with a magnetic fluid, into which pump light is injected by a fiber taper. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed in the magnetic fluid produce a strong pump light absorption, and this leads to a resonance shift of the silica microresonator due to the photothermal effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scheme for all-optical tuning of an OFRR. A tuning sensitivity of up to 0.15 nm mW(-1) and a tuning range of 3.3 nm are achieved. With such excellent performance, the magnetic-fluid-filled OFRR has great potential in filtering, sensing, and signal processing applications. PMID:24941312

  14. 10Gbit/s all-optical NRZ to RZ conversion based on TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Yin, Lina; Zhou, Yunfeng; Liu, Guoming; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2006-01-01

    Future network will include wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) technologies. All-optical format conversion between their respective preferable data formats, non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ), may become an important technology. In this paper, 10Gbit/s all-optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion is demonstrated based on terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) using clock all-optically recovered from the NRZ signal for the first time. The clock component is enhanced in an SOA and the pseudo-return-to-zero (PRZ) signal is filtered. The PRZ signal is input into an injection mode-locked fiber ring laser for clock recovery. The recovered clock and the NRZ signal are input into TOAD as pump signal and probe signal, respectively, and format conversion is performed. The quality of the converted RZ signal is determined by that of the recovered clock and the NRZ signal, whereas hardly influenced by gain recovery time of the SOA. In the experimental demonstration, the obtained RZ signal has an extinction ratio of 8.7dB and low pattern dependency. After conversion, the spectrum broadens obviously and shows multimode structure with spectrum interval of 0.08nm, which matches with the bit rate 10Gbit/s. Furthermore, this format conversion method has some tolerance on the pattern dependency of the clock signal.

  15. Optical gating of perylene bisimide fluorescence using dithienylcyclopentene photochromic switches

    SciTech Connect

    Pärs, Martti; Köhler, Jürgen; Gräf, Katja; Bauer, Peter; Thelakkat, Mukundan

    2013-11-25

    The emission of millions of fluorescence photons from a chromophore is controlled by the absorption of a few tens of photons in a photochromic molecule. The parameters that determine the efficiency of this process are investigated, providing insights for the development of an all-optical gate.

  16. Amplified all-optical polarization phase modulator assisted by a local surface plasmon in Au-hybrid CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kyhm, Kwangseuk; Je, Koo-Chul; Taylor, Robert A

    2012-08-27

    We propose an amplified all-optical polarization phase modulator assisted by a local surface plasmon in Au-hybrid CdSe quantum dots. When the local surface plasmon of a spherical Au quantum dot is in resonance with the exciton energy level of a CdSe quantum dot, a significant enhancement of the linear and nonlinear refractive index is found in both the real and imaginary terms via the interaction with the dipole field of the local surface plasmon. Given a gating pulse intensity, an elliptical polarization induced by the phase retardation is described in terms of elliptical and rotational angles. In the case that a larger excitation than the bleaching intensity is applied, the signal light can be amplified due to the presence of gain in the CdSe quantum dot. This enables a longer propagation of the signal light relative to the metal loss, resulting in more feasible polarization modulation.

  17. Slime mould gates, roads and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The photographs present a wide range of problems solved by the slime mould P. polycephalum: imitation of human-made transport pathways, realisation of Boolean logical gates, fabrication of self-repairing routable biowires, implementation of delay elements in computing circuits, computational geometry, sensors and a would-be nervous system...

  18. All-optical sensitive phase shifting based on nonlinear out-of-plane coupling through 1-D slab photonic crystal with a layer of graphene.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Reza; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Yu, Quanqiang; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2014-06-16

    We realize all-optical sensitive phase shifting based on nonlinear out-of-plane coupling to a slab waveguide through Fano resonance of a slab 1-D photonic crystal (PhC). We use a graphene layer as the nonlinear material and change its refractive index by the input light intensity through Kerr nonlinear effect to obtain a shift in the Fano resonance frequency. The Fano resonance and self-focusing effect lead to light-intensity enhancement on the graphene in the PhC, reinforcing the nonlinear effect of refractive index in the graphene. Through finite-difference time-domain simulation, we demonstrate that the phase changing sensitivity obtained can be 4 orders higher than that by a single graphene under the same input light intensity. Moreover the threshold pump intensity for all-optical sensitive phase shifting in the coupled light to the waveguide is as low as ~4 MW per square centimeter. The results are applicable in micro optical integrated circuits for phase shifters, phase modulators, power limiters, and phase logic elements for optical computation, digital phase shift keying in communication systems, and non-contact sensitive signal detectors.

  19. A compact, all-optical, THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a slab photonic crystal waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer.

    PubMed

    Asadi, R; Ouyang, Z; Mohammd, M M

    2015-07-14

    We design a compact, all-optical THz wave generator based on self-modulation in a 1-D slab photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide with a single sub-nanometer graphene layer by using enhanced nonlinearity of graphene. It has been shown that at the bandgap edge of higher bands of a 1-D slab PhC, through only one sub-nanometer graphene layer we can obtain a compact, high modulation factor (about 0.98 percent), self-intensity modulator at a high frequency (about 0.6 THz) and low threshold intensity (about 15 MW per square centimeter), and further a compact, all-optical THz wave generator by integrating the self-modulator with a THz photodiode or photonic mixer. Such a THz source is expected to have a relatively high efficiency compared with conventional sources based on optical methods. The proposed THz source can find wide applications in THz science and technology, e.g., in THz imaging, THz sensors and detectors, THz communication systems, and THz optical integrated logic circuits.

  20. Design of all-optical, hot-electron current-direction-switching device based on geometrical asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-01-01

    We propose a nano-scale current-direction-switching device(CDSD) that operates based on the novel phenomenon of geometrical asymmetry between two hot-electron generating plasmonic nanostructures. The proposed device is easy to fabricate and economical to develop compared to most other existing designs. It also has the ability to function without external wiring in nano or molecular circuitry since it is powered and controlled optically. We consider a such CDSD made of two dissimilar nanorods separated by a thin but finite potential barrier and theoretically derive the frequency-dependent electron/current flow rate. Our analysis takes in to account the quantum dynamics of electrons inside the nanorods under a periodic optical perturbation that are confined by nanorod boundaries, modelled as finite cylindrical potential wells. The influence of design parameters, such as geometric difference between the two nanorods, their volumes and the barrier width on quality parameters such as frequency-sensitivity of the current flow direction, magnitude of the current flow, positive to negative current ratio, and the energy conversion efficiency is discussed by considering a device made of Ag/TiO2/Ag. Theoretical insight and design guidelines presented here are useful for customizing our proposed CDSD for applications such as self-powered logic gates, power supplies, and sensors. PMID:26887286