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Sample records for allama iqbal open

  1. Teachers Training through Distance Mode in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumani, Nabi Bux; Rahman, Fazalur; Chishti, Saeedul Hasan; Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia and established in 1974 on the model of UKOU. AIOU uses different media for the delivery of instruction. It has a well established Institute of Educational Technology which has radio and TV production facilities and advance level of work in computer technology. AOU offers…

  2. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  3. The Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, A. R.

    A brief description of Pakistan (physical setting, population, economy, government, communications, and rural development program) and its educational system introduce a description of the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Islamabad. AIOU was established by the Pakistani government primarily to provide adult and continuing education through…

  4. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  5. Correlation between Marks Obtained By Students in Assignments and Final Examination of Master of Education Conducted by Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Muhammed; Ahmed, Aijaz; Malik, Ashraf, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to find out the correlation between the marks obtained by the students of Allama Iqbal Open University in assignments and final examination of M.A (Education) M.Ed in Autumn 2006. For this purpose, the result gazette of M.A (Education) M.Ed was obtained from the regional campus of Allama Iqbal Open…

  6. Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Distance Learning Courses: A Study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Afzaal; Ramay, Muhammad I.; Shahzad, Mudasar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan.…

  7. Climbing the Ladder: A Case Study of the Women's Secondary Education Programme of Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. Innodata Monographs 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Riffat; Batool, Syeda Najeeba

    The Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan started the Women's Secondary Education Project through distance learning in 1986. It was designed to meet the educational needs of rural women who are denied access to the formal education system because of social and economic constraints. The distance education method suited these women because by…

  8. Instruction Design System of Allama Iqbal Open University: A Vehicle for Improvement or Mere a Salogon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…

  9. Use of Libraries in Open and Distance Learning System: Barriers to the Use of AIOU Libraries by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…

  10. Effectiveness of M.A. EPM Program Launched Through Distance Education System of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain Shah, Syed Manzoor; Ahmad, Masoor

    2014-01-01

    The study focus the effectiveness of the M.A EPM program launched through distance education system of AIOU. For this purpose the performance of heads of educational institutions with and without M.A EPM degree was analyzed keeping in view different major aspects i.e. planning strategies, managerial approaches, coordination, administration and use…

  11. Exploring the Role of Distributed Learning in Distance Education at Allama Iqbal Open University: Academic Challenges at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir; Chaudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Distributed learning is derived from the concept of distributed resources. Different institutions around the globe connected through network and the learners are diverse, located in the different cultures and communities. Distributed learning provides global standards of quality to all learners through synchronous and asynchronous communications…

  12. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... of International Labor Affairs Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor The United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor presented by Secretary Hilda Solis, United...

  13. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor The United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor presented by Secretary Hilda Solis, United States Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue,...

  14. Comparative Study of Student Support Services of AIOU and UKOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhry, Amtul Hafeez; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support…

  15. Development of Reflective Thinking through Distance Teacher Education Programs at AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow's theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four…

  16. Preparing Future Teachers through Distance Learning: An Empirical Study on Students' Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Mohammed; Ali, Akhtar; Maqbool, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan.…

  17. Information Seeking Behaviour of AIOU Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Malik Tariq

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) administrators in Pakistan. Information is obtained by using a wide variety of informal and formal sources, human sources, Internet as well as print media. The present study found that AIOU administrators are more…

  18. Drugs, Devices & Discovery: Using Fee-Shifting to Resolve the Twombly/Iqbal Problem for Parallel Claims Under the FDCA.

    PubMed

    Norris, Cameron T

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decisions in Twombly and Iqbal ushered in a new federal pleading standard, requiring plaintiffs to state a "plausible" claim to relief before they can access discovery. Plausibility pleading, however, presents a unique burden for plaintiffs who have been injured by a Class III medical device. In Riegel, the Supreme Court held that state-law claims against device manufacturers are preempted unless they "parallel" federal requirements. However, the relevant federal requirements are located in the manufacturer's premarket approval agreement, which is confidential. Thus, it is nearly impossible for plaintiffs to allege a plausible claim against a Class III device manufacturer because they do not know what to plead in the first place. The Seventh Circuit tried to remedy this Catch-22 by lowering the pleading standards for parallel claims. However, its approach misapplies Twombly and Iqbal and overburdens device manufacturers. Instead of tinkering with pleading standards, this paper advocates a different approach. Congress should create a one-way fee-shifting mechanism that allows plaintiffs to access premarket approval agreements if they agree to pay the defendant's discovery fees (should their claim prove unsuccessful). Fee-shifting is a middle-ground approach that would better compensate plaintiffs without overdeterring device manufacturers.

  19. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  20. Esophagectomy - open

    MedlinePlus

    Trans-hiatal esophagectomy; Trans-thoracic esophagectomy; En bloc esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - open; Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open

  1. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  2. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  4. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  5. Opening Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    In these opening remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.

  6. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  7. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER. PMID:19119226

  8. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Surgery - gallbladder - open ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  9. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  10. Open University

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-18

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  11. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  12. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  13. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  14. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  15. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  16. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia , which means you are asleep and pain- ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  17. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  18. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  19. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  20. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country. PMID:26327966

  1. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country. PMID:26327966

  2. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  3. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  4. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  5. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  6. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  7. The Open Future: Openness as Catalyst for an Educational Reformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2010-01-01

    The word "open" is receiving a lot of attention in education circles. For over a decade, "open" has been used as an adjective to modify a variety of nouns that describe teaching and learning materials. For example, open content, open educational resources, open courseware, and open textbooks are all part of the current higher education discourse.…

  8. Open Babel: An open chemical toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A frequent problem in computational modeling is the interconversion of chemical structures between different formats. While standard interchange formats exist (for example, Chemical Markup Language) and de facto standards have arisen (for example, SMILES format), the need to interconvert formats is a continuing problem due to the multitude of different application areas for chemistry data, differences in the data stored by different formats (0D versus 3D, for example), and competition between software along with a lack of vendor-neutral formats. Results We discuss, for the first time, Open Babel, an open-source chemical toolbox that speaks the many languages of chemical data. Open Babel version 2.3 interconverts over 110 formats. The need to represent such a wide variety of chemical and molecular data requires a library that implements a wide range of cheminformatics algorithms, from partial charge assignment and aromaticity detection, to bond order perception and canonicalization. We detail the implementation of Open Babel, describe key advances in the 2.3 release, and outline a variety of uses both in terms of software products and scientific research, including applications far beyond simple format interconversion. Conclusions Open Babel presents a solution to the proliferation of multiple chemical file formats. In addition, it provides a variety of useful utilities from conformer searching and 2D depiction, to filtering, batch conversion, and substructure and similarity searching. For developers, it can be used as a programming library to handle chemical data in areas such as organic chemistry, drug design, materials science, and computational chemistry. It is freely available under an open-source license from http://openbabel.org. PMID:21982300

  9. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  10. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  11. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  12. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  13. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  14. Egress door opening assister

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  15. OpenSearch Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Doug; Silva, Sam; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We will present an overview of our OpenSearch efforts over the past 6 months. We will discuss our Best Practices and those of CEOS concentrating on the compatibility issues between the two. We will also discuss the state of earth data OpenSearch implementations and their adherence to the standards, extensions and best practices available.

  16. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  17. The Argument for Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

  18. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  19. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  20. Opting for Openness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert H.

    Public receptivity to open education as a specific example of school reform has sometimes been less than enthusiastic. For this reason, the would-be progressive school principal faces a challenging task of inquiry, information, persuasion, and affirmative action. It is explicit in the story of British open education that the head teacher plays a…

  1. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  2. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  3. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities.

  4. Open rhinoplasty in children.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Simon C R; den Herder, Cindy; Shandilya, Munish; Nolst Trenité, Gilbert J

    2007-11-01

    Septorhinoplasty in children carries the risk of growth disturbance of the nose and premaxilla. The open or external approach has the advantage that the cartilaginous nasal skeleton remains intact. This open approach enables the surgeon to excise dermoid cysts and to realign lower lateral cartilages (unilateral cleft) without disturbing the integrity of the cartilaginous skeleton. In our experience, absolute indications for open rhinoplasty in children include dermoid cyst, cleft lip nose, and septal abscess. Relative indications include septal deviations causing severe nasal airway obstruction and or progressive distortion of the nose. In this article, we discuss the indications, advantages, disadvantages, and operative technique of open rhinoplasty in children. Our indications for open rhinoplasty in children and some selected cases are illustrated. PMID:18085500

  5. In Praise of Openness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.

    2010-10-01

    Open access brings greater visibility and impact to the work of scientists as is evidenced in the examples discussed in this paper. Researchers are often reluctant and afraid to deposit their works in Institutional Repositories. However, as is shown here, once they do so, they do not regret it. Open access will shortly become the norm and will be accepted by the vast majority of scientists. Seen through the lens of the philosophy of Bertrand Russell, the moral, economic and philosophical imperatives for open access are indeed strong.

  6. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  7. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  8. Open Rotor Spin Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  9. Open source molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io.

  10. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of

  11. Open source molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io. PMID:27631126

  12. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  13. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  14. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers.

  15. openPMD-viewer

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for thesemore » results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.« less

  16. openPMD-viewer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehe, Remi

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for these results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.

  17. Global OpenSearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  18. The open society.

    PubMed

    Opel, J R

    1984-07-27

    The open society, unlike the closed society, requires constant citizen thought and action to ensure that it will continue to survive and prosper. Today in the United States we should give particular attention to three immediate problems. We should reinvigorate our national economic health and international competitiveness, particularly by reducing our unprecedented budget deficits and reforming our tax system. We must strengthen our scientific and engineering vitality, particularly in graduate engineering education and in secondary school instruction in science and mathematics. And we should work with our allies in the free industrialized world to keep our international open society as open as possible, encouraging a flow of people and information and ideas across national boundaries while instituting sensible and efficient safeguards against leakage of critical military technology to the Soviet Union. PMID:17813240

  19. Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Guller, Ulrich; Hervey, Sheleika; Purves, Harriett; Muhlbaier, Lawrence H.; Peterson, Eric D.; Eubanks, Steve; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, in-hospital mortality, and rate of routine discharge between laparoscopic and open appendectomy based on a representative, nationwide database. Summary Background Data: Numerous single-institutional randomized clinical trials have assessed the efficacy of laparoscopic and open appendectomy. The results, however, are conflicting, and a consensus concerning the relative advantages of each procedure has not yet been reached. Methods: Patients with primary ICD-9 procedure codes for laparoscopic and open appendectomy were selected from the 1997 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database that approximates 20% of all US community hospital discharges. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the risk-adjusted endpoints. Results: Discharge abstracts of 43,757 patients were used for our analyses. 7618 patients (17.4%) underwent laparoscopic and 36,139 patients (82.6%) open appendectomy. Patients had an average age of 30.7 years and were predominantly white (58.1%) and male (58.6%). After adjusting for other covariates, laparoscopic appendectomy was associated with shorter median hospital stay (laparoscopic appendectomy: 2.06 days, open appendectomy: 2.88 days, P < 0.0001), lower rate of infections (odds ratio [OR] = 0.5 [0.38, 0.66], P < 0.0001), decreased gastrointestinal complications (OR = 0.8 [0.68, 0.96], P = 0.02), lower overall complications (OR = 0.84 [0.75, 0.94], P = 0.002), and higher rate of routine discharge (OR = 3.22 [2.47, 4.46], P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Laparoscopic appendectomy has significant advantages over open appendectomy with respect to length of hospital stay, rate of routine discharge, and postoperative in-hospital morbidity. PMID:14685099

  20. Mainstreaming Open Textbooks: Educator Perspectives on the Impact of OpenStax College Open Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research between open textbook provider OpenStax College (OSC) and the OER Research Hub (OERRH), a Hewlett funded mixed methods open research project examining the impact of open educational resources (OER) on learning and teaching. The paper focuses primarily on the results of two surveys that were…

  1. Re-Invigorating Openness at The Open University: The Role of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Brenda; Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the internal motivations and external drivers that led The Open University UK to enter the field of Open Educational Resources through its institution-wide OpenLearn initiative (www.open.ac.uk/openlearn). It also describes some of the emerging evidence of the impacts inside and outside the university. Through the rapid…

  2. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  3. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  4. Bargaining for Open Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojahn, Oliver W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the bargaining problem between countries when negotiating bilateral air service agreements. To do so, we use the methods of bargaining and game theory. We give special attention to the case where a liberal minded country is trying to convince a less liberal country to agree to bilateral open skies, and the liberal country might also unilaterally open up its market. The following analysis is positive in the sense that the results help explain and predict the outcome of negotiations under different payoffs and structures of the bargaining process. They are normative in the sense that adequate manipulation of the bargaining conditions can ensure a desired outcome.

  5. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  6. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  7. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    These cirrocumulus clouds photographed over open ocean - location unknown, seem to be in a state of agitation as in the early stages of storm development. The window frame at the top of this scene obscures almost half of the image and the panel seen in the middle of the scene is a corner of one of the payload bay closure doors.

  8. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, seen rising high above the base cloud cover and casting long shadows, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  9. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, rising above the base cloud cover, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  10. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  11. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  12. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  13. Surgical wound care - open

    MedlinePlus

    Surgical incision care; Open wound care ... your wound again with sutures, you need to care for it at home, since it may take ... Your health care provider will tell you how often to change your dressing . To prepare for the dressing change: Clean your ...

  14. The Costs of "Openness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that very wide consultation tends to discourage innovation and favor stand-pattism and that the very great benefits of openness and wide participation are flawed by apathy and non-participation, by muscle-binding legalisms, by processes which polarize two adversary sides, and by the encouragement of mediocrity. (JT)

  15. Open Systems Interconnection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for standards allowing computer-to-computer communication and gives examples of technical issues. The seven-layer framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is explained and illustrated. Sidebars feature public data networks and Recommendation X.25, OSI standards, OSI layer functions, and a glossary.…

  16. Videoconferencing in Open Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Quick, Kevin A.; Scott, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of videoconferencing as a tool to enhance collaboration amongst online learners in an open learning context. We present quantitative data from a longitudinal study of naturalistic videoconferencing interactions held via the FM videoconference tool, indicating its global use. The case study presented is analysed…

  17. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  18. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  19. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  20. Open-Door Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses an open-door policy and innovative program of Thorncliffe Park Public School, located in the heart of the diverse immigrant community in Toronto, that greatly expands community use of public schools. Community use of schools is hardly a new concept in Canada or in the United States, where schools have traditionally been the…

  1. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  2. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  3. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  4. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  5. Open-source colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Anzalone, Gerald C; Glover, Alexandra G; Pearce, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories.

  6. The OpenSHMEM Analyzer

    2014-07-30

    The OpenSHMEM Analyzer is a compiler-based tool that can help users detect errors and provide useful analyses about their OpenSHMEM applications. The tool is built on top of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler) and presents OpenSHMEM information as feedback to the user. Some of the analyses it provides include checks for correct usage of symmetric variables in OpenSHMEM calls, out-of-bounds checks for symmetric data, checks for the correct initialization of pointers tomore » symmetric data, and symmetric data alias information.« less

  7. The OpenSHMEM Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Oscar

    2014-07-30

    The OpenSHMEM Analyzer is a compiler-based tool that can help users detect errors and provide useful analyses about their OpenSHMEM applications. The tool is built on top of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler) and presents OpenSHMEM information as feedback to the user. Some of the analyses it provides include checks for correct usage of symmetric variables in OpenSHMEM calls, out-of-bounds checks for symmetric data, checks for the correct initialization of pointers to symmetric data, and symmetric data alias information.

  8. Opening Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Open access is not only a form of publishing such that research papers become available to the large public free of charge, it also refers to a trend in science that the act of doing research becomes more open and transparent. When science transforms to open access we not only mean access to papers, research data being collected, or data being generated, but also access to the data used and the procedures carried out in the research paper. Increasingly, scientific results are generated by numerical manipulation of data that were already collected, and may involve simulation experiments that are completely carried out computationally. Reproducibility of research findings, the ability to repeat experimental procedures and confirm previously found results, is at the heart of the scientific method (Pebesma, Nüst and Bivand, 2012). As opposed to the collection of experimental data in labs or nature, computational experiments lend themselves very well for reproduction. Some of the reasons why scientists do not publish data and computational procedures that allow reproduction will be hard to change, e.g. privacy concerns in the data, fear for embarrassment or of losing a competitive advantage. Others reasons however involve technical aspects, and include the lack of standard procedures to publish such information and the lack of benefits after publishing them. We aim to resolve these two technical aspects. We propose a system that supports the evolution of scientific publications from static papers into dynamic, executable research documents. The DFG-funded experimental project Opening Reproducible Research (ORR) aims for the main aspects of open access, by improving the exchange of, by facilitating productive access to, and by simplifying reuse of research results that are published over the Internet. Central to the project is a new form for creating and providing research results, the executable research compendium (ERC), which not only enables third parties to

  9. The Open Tech Programme: New Developments in Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Mike; Crawley, Rick

    1985-01-01

    Describes Manpower Services Commissions Open Tech Programme, a developmental, project-based program begun in 1982 to open adult access to updating and upgrading training at technical and supervisory skill levels. Discussion includes issues arising in the program's management, administration, and the design and process of open learning and impact…

  10. Open Achilles tendon lacerations.

    PubMed

    Said, M Nader; Al Ateeq Al Dosari, Mohamed; Al Subaii, Nasser; Kawas, Alaa; Al Mas, Ali; Al Ser, Yaser; Abuodeh, Yousef; Shakil, Malik; Habash, Ali; Mukhter, Khalid

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to closed Achilles tendon ruptures, open injuries are rarely reported in the literature. This paper provides information about open Achilles tendon wounds that are eventually seen in the Middle East. The reporting unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, is one of the biggest trauma centers in the Gulf area and the major health provider in Qatar. This is a retrospective study including patients admitted and operated for open Achilles tendon injuries between January 2011 and December 2013. Two hundred and five cases of open Achilles tendon lacerations were operated in Hamad General Hospital in this period. Forty-eight cases showed partial injuries, and the remaining are complete tendons cut. In the same period, fifty-one closed ruptured Achilles tendons were operated in the same trauma unit. In the majority of cases, the open injury resulted from a slip in the floor-leveled traditional toilette seats. Local damage to the toilette seats resulted in sharp edges causing the laceration of the heel if the patient was slipping over the wet floor. This occurrence is the cause in the vast majority of the cases. Wounds were located 1-5 cm proximal to tendon insertion. Standard treatment principles were applied. This included thorough irrigation in the emergency room, intravenous antibiotics, surgical debridement and primary repair within 24 h. Patients were kept in the hospital 1-7 days for intravenous antibiotics and possible dressing changes. Postoperatively below knee slabs were applied in the majority of patients and were kept for about 4 weeks followed by gradual weight bearing and range of motion exercises. Outpatients follow up in 1-2 weeks. Further follow-up visits at around 2-, 4-, 8- and 12-week intervals until complete wound healing and satisfactory rehabilitation outcome. Sixteen cases needed a second procedure. A high incidence of Achilles tendon open injuries is reported. This seems to be related to partially damaged floor-level toilettes in the

  11. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  12. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  13. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  14. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  15. OpenEIS Algorithms

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  16. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  17. Open boundary molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Sablić, J.; Praprotnik, M.

    2015-09-01

    This contribution analyzes several strategies and combination of methodologies to perform molecular dynamic simulations in open systems. Here, the term open indicates that the total system has boundaries where transfer of mass, momentum and energy can take place. This formalism, which we call Open Boundary Molecular Dynamics (OBMD), can act as interface of different schemes, such as Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) and Hybrid continuum-particle dynamics to link atomistic, coarse-grained (CG) and continuum (Eulerian) fluid dynamics in the general framework of fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations. The core domain of the simulation box is solved using all-atom descriptions. The CG layer introduced using AdResS is located at the outer part of the open box to make feasible the insertion of large molecules into the system. Communications between the molecular system and the outer world are carried out in the outer layers, called buffers. These coupling preserve momentum and mass conservation laws and can thus be linked with Eulerian hydro- dynamic solvers. In its simpler form, OBMD allows, however, to impose a local pressure tensor and a heat flux across the system's boundaries. For a one component molecular system, the external normal pressure and temperature determine the external chemical potential and thus the independent parameters of a grand-canonical ensemble simulation. Extended ensembles under non-equilibrium stationary states can also be simulated as well as time dependent forcings (e.g. oscillatory rheology). To illustrate the robustness of the combined OBMD-AdResS method, we present simulations of star-polymer melts at equilibrium and in sheared flow.

  18. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  19. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  20. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  1. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  2. Open-hole fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobono, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on losing equipment in the hole that is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well. Drilling must come to a halt until the equipment is recovered, or the hole must be sidetracked. The well also can become hard to control with essential tools out of reach, increasing the risk of a blowout. Fishing, or recovering lost or stuck equipment in the hole, is therefore a critical procedure at any drilling operation. Fishing can be divided into two broad categories: open hole and cased hole. a major difference between the two is timing: open-hole fishing is done as the well is being drilled, whereas cased-hole fishing is performed during production or well workover. Fishing techniques and types of equipment used also vary between the tow. This lesson describes some of the basic techniques and tools used in open-hole fishing-that is, retrieving fish from a hole that is being drilled but is not yet cased.

  3. Open office landscape system

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.O.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes an open office partition system comprising: a panel receiving base having means for leveling a panel receiving channel of the receiving base and having projecting pins formed in the panel receiving channel; a partition wall received upon the projecting pins formed in the panel receiving channel attaching the partition wall to the receiving base. The partition wall consists of modular panels, each of which comprises: a lower panel retention channel having a first and a second end; a first vertical panel wall support channel attached to and extending from the first end of the lower panel retention channel; a second vertical panel wall support channel attached to and extending from the second end of the lower panel retention channel, the first and the second vertical support channel each having a laterally open vertical chase formed; a top raceway channel attached to and connecting the first and the second vertical support channels at the extending end; the raceway channel having an open top electrical raceway; at least one intermediate brace attached to and extending from the vertical support channel to the second vertical support channel, and an outer panel covering attached to the channel members forming an outer skin for the modular panel; connection clips for connecting vertical support channels of adjacent modular panels at preselected angles an electrical network received within at least a portion of the top electrical raceway and the vertical chase.

  4. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  5. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  6. Open Educational Resources and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackall, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

  7. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent…

  8. Open Education: A Learning Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The term "open education" has been in use at least since the 1920s, when it emerged as an educational experiment in the Soviet Union. But since the spread of the internet in the late 20th century, open education has come to be inextricably associated with information technology. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Open Educational Resources…

  9. OpenStudio - Fault Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Stephen; Robertson, Joseph; Cheung, Howard; Horsey, Henry

    2014-09-19

    This software record documents the OpenStudio fault model development portion of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics LDRD project.The software provides a suite of OpenStudio measures (scripts) for modeling typical HVAC system faults in commercial buildings and also included supporting materials: example projects and OpenStudio measures for reporting fault costs and energy impacts.

  10. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order

  11. Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards in chemistry: The Blue Obelisk five years on

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Blue Obelisk movement was established in 2005 as a response to the lack of Open Data, Open Standards and Open Source (ODOSOS) in chemistry. It aims to make it easier to carry out chemistry research by promoting interoperability between chemistry software, encouraging cooperation between Open Source developers, and developing community resources and Open Standards. Results This contribution looks back on the work carried out by the Blue Obelisk in the past 5 years and surveys progress and remaining challenges in the areas of Open Data, Open Standards, and Open Source in chemistry. Conclusions We show that the Blue Obelisk has been very successful in bringing together researchers and developers with common interests in ODOSOS, leading to development of many useful resources freely available to the chemistry community. PMID:21999342

  12. "The Open Library at AU" (Athabasca University): Supporting Open Access and Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin; Fabbro, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To address challenges that learners, course creators, librarians and academics involved with OER and MOOCs are facing when looking for scholarly materials, Athabasca University Library has initiated the development of "the Open Library at AU." This open library is a full library website that provides easy access to open and free…

  13. The open science grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE & NSF Laboratories and Universities & Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus.

  14. Primary Open Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Gruber, Ronald P

    2016-10-01

    Rhinoplasty is perhaps the most complex cosmetic surgery procedure performed today. It is characterized by an intricate interplay between form and function, with patient satisfaction being dependent not only on improvement of nasal appearance but also resolution of preexisting airway symptoms. The prerequisite for successful execution of this challenging procedure is a thorough understanding of nasal anatomy and physiology. Hence, a thorough preoperative evaluation is at least as important and the surgical skill in performing the operation. Establishing an accurate diagnosis through a comprehensive nasal analysis is obligatory. As to the surgical approach, much has been written about the advantages and disadvantages of closed vs open rhinoplasty. The more commonly chosen open approach has numerous advantages, including improved visualization without distortion, thus, enabling precise diagnosis and correction of deformities. While the surgical treatment of existing nasal deformities is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, the authors have noted a total of 10 essential components to form the foundation for successful technical execution of rhinoplasty. These include: (1) septoturbinotomy; (2) opening the nose; (3) humpectomy/spreader flaps; (4) tip-plasty; (5) supratip-plasty; (6) columellar strut; (7) dorsal augmentation; (8) nasal base reduction; (9) osteotomies; and (10) rim grafts. Postoperative, a variety of problems, such as edema, may be successfully addressed without surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative management is critical in ensuring a positive patient experience. Finally, a comprehensive understanding of possible postoperative complications, such as bleeding, ecchymosis, edema, and persistent or new iatrogenic deformity is mandatory prior to offering rhinoplasty to patients. PMID:27651480

  15. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them. PMID:12389463

  16. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them.

  17. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P.; Emin, David

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  18. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  19. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  20. Reconciling inflation with openness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Luca; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Occhionero, Franco

    1996-10-01

    It is already understood that the increasing observational evidence for an open universe can be reconciled with inflation if our horizon is contained inside one single huge bubble nucleated during the inflationary phase transition. In this frame of ideas, we show here that the probability of living in a bubble with the right Ω0 (~=0.2) can be comparable to unity, rather than infinitesimally small. For this purpose we modify both quantitatively and qualitatively an intuitive toy model of ours. Therefore, inferring from the observations that Ω0<1 not only does not conflict with the inflationary paradigm, but rather supports therein the occurrence of a primordial phase transition.

  1. Open Rotor Test Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of low noise, counter-rotating open rotor propulsion concepts has been ongoing at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with General Electric Company. The presentation is an overview of the testing that has been completed to date and previews the upcoming test entries. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project Diagnostics entry is the most recent to finish. That test entry included acoustic phased array, pressure sensitive paint, particle image velocimetry, pylon installed measurements and acoustic shielding measurements. A preview of the data to be acquired in the 8x6 high-speed wind tunnel is also included.

  2. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1999-06-01

    The beginning of the VLT era was marked by two major events: the VLT Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March 1999, preceded by the VLT Opening Symposium on 1-4 March. ESO is indebted to Professor J.A. Music Tomicic, Rector of the Universidad Católica del Norte, for hosting this symposium. Another major event occurred on the night of 4 March: First light was achieved ahead of schedule at Kueyen, the second 8.2-m VLT unit telescope.

  3. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  4. Open geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Denis; Ilyin, Vladimir; Bashev, Anton

    2010-05-01

    We regard "geochemical data" as data on chemical parameters of the environment, linked with the geographical position of the corresponding point. Boosting development of global positioning system (GPS) and measuring instruments allows fast collecting of huge amounts of geochemical data. Presently they are published in scientific journals in text format, that hampers searching for information about particular places and meta-analysis of the data, collected by different researchers. Part of the information is never published. To make the data available and easy to find, it seems reasonable to elaborate an open database of geochemical information, accessible via Internet. It also seems reasonable to link the data with maps or space images, for example, from GoogleEarth service. For this purpose an open geochemical database is being elaborating (http://maps.sch192.ru). Any user after registration can upload geochemical data (position, type of parameter and value of the parameter) and edit them. Every user (including unregistered) can (a) extract the values of parameters, fulfilling desired conditions and (b) see the points, linked to GoogleEarth space image, colored according to a value of selected parameter. Then he can treat extracted values any way he likes. There are the following data types in the database: authors, points, seasons and parameters. Author is a person, who publishes the data. Every author can declare his own profile. A point is characterized by its geographical position and type of the object (i.e. river, lake etc). Value of parameters are linked to a point, an author and a season, when they were obtained. A user can choose a parameter to place on GoogleEarth space image and a scale to color the points on the image according to the value of a parameter. Currently (December, 2009) the database is under construction, but several functions (uploading data on pH and electrical conductivity and placing colored points onto GoogleEarth space image) are

  5. Toy model for open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Andrei

    1999-01-01

    The open inflation scenario based on the theory of bubble formation in the models of a single scalar field suffers from a fatal defect. In all the versions of this scenario known so far, the Coleman-De Luccia instantons describing the creation of an open universe do not exist. We propose a simple one-field model where the CDL instanton does exist and the open inflation scenario can be realized.

  6. OpenSSO Project Patches

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  7. OpenMDAO Framework Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Advancing and exploring the science of Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization (MDAO) capabilities are high-level goals in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project. The OpenMDAO team has made significant progress toward completing the Alpha OpenMDAO deliverable due in September 2010. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the OpenMDAO framework, example usage of OpenMDAO, technology transfer plans, near term plans, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations.

  8. The Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wurthwein, Frank; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  9. An opening electromagnetic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Tubular solenoids have been widely used without any change since an electrical wire was discovered to create magnetic fields by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 and thereby the wire was first coiled as a helix into a solenoid coil by William Sturgeon in 1823 and was improved by Joseph Henry in 1829 [see http://www.myetymology.com/encyclopedia/History_of_the_electricity.html; J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010); and F. Winterberg, Plasma Phys. 8, 541553 (1996)]. A magnetic control method of C-shaped carrying-current wire is proposed, and thereby a new opening electromagnetic transducer evidently differing from the traditional tubular solenoid is created, capable of directly encircling and centering the acted objects in it, bringing about convenient and innovative electromagnetic energy conversion for electromagnetic heating, electromagnetic excitation, physical information capture, and electro-mechanical motion used in science research, industry, and even biomedical activities.

  10. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  11. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  12. The Open Learning Object Model to Promote Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Gentile, Manuel; Taibi, Davide; Allegra, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of research work, that forms part of the activities of the EU-funded project SLOOP: Sharing Learning Objects in an Open Perspective, aimed at encouraging the definition, development and management of Open Educational Resources based on the Learning Object paradigm (Wiley, 2000). We present a model of Open…

  13. Introduction: The Open Education Movement. Prespectives on Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolakes, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    Argues that we cannot transplant'' the open classroom from its English culture base and expect it to work in our society. Suggests that we be wary of cheap'' innovations and that open classrooms should be viewed as an alternative to our formal programs rather than as a panacea for all our ecucational problems. Recommends the evolution of a small…

  14. Open University Staff Development Materials for Tutors of Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Anne; Perkins, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of staff development and the new Supporting Open Learners' (SOL) materials at the United Kingdom Open University. Outlines objectives of the SOL program. Discusses issues arising from use of SOL materials, including instructional attitudes; modelling good practice; developing the reflective practitioner; perceived value;…

  15. Equipping the Open-Plan School, Equipping for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Frank

    The performance specifications of furniture and equipment for open education and open-plan schools differ from conventional classroom furniture in that it must be easily moved, have a range of dimensions, contain multipurpose interchangeable components, and be designed to accommodate a variety of student/teacher uses. The author suggests some…

  16. Open Science: A Zealot's View

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open science encompasses many concepts, but most agree that for science to be truly open four things must be true. First, all components of the scientific project must be freely available including manuscripts, code, and data. Second, others must be able to repeat your work and ...

  17. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  18. OpenSM Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, T. A.

    2015-04-17

    The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.

  19. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a…

  20. Open Education: A "Basics" Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Dave

    1976-01-01

    Whether open education is an old friend in new dress or a radical take-off to success remains to be judged through appropriate research. Reassurances are made that open education has the same (and better) goals than does the traditional approach. (Editor/RK)

  1. Next Stop: OpenSim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhappy with conditions in Second Life, educators are migrating to a developing virtual world that offers them greater autonomy and a safer platform for their students at far less a cost. OpenSimulator is an open source virtual world platform that schools can run for free on their own servers or can get cheaply and quickly--the space can be up and…

  2. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  3. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  4. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  5. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  6. OpenStudio: An Open Source Integrated Analysis Platform; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Macumber, D.; Long, N.

    2011-12-01

    High-performance buildings require an integrated design approach for all systems to work together optimally; systems integration needs to be incorporated in the earliest stages of design for efforts to be cost and energy-use effective. Building designers need a full-featured software framework to support rigorous, multidisciplinary building simulation. An open source framework - the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) - is being developed to address this need. In this paper, we discuss the needs that drive OpenStudio's system architecture and goals, provide a development status report (the SDK is currently in alpha release), and present a brief case study that illustrates its utility and flexibility.

  7. Partially Opened Oven on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows partial opening of doors to one of the tiny ovens of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer.

    Each oven has a pair of spring-loaded doors. Near the center of the image, the partial opening of a pair of doors reveals screen over the opening where a soil sample will be delivered. The door to the right is fully opened and the one to the left is partially deployed. The doors are 10 centimeters (4 inches) long. The opening is 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    Tests on the Phoenix testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, indicate that a soil sample could be delivered into the oven through the partially opened doors. Engineers are also exploring possibilities for opening the doors more completely.This image was taken during Phoenix's eighth Martian day, or sol (June 2, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. NASA Open Rotor Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. However, to make open rotor systems truly competitive, they must be made to be acoustically acceptable too. To address this challenge, NASA in collaboration with industry is exploring the design space for low-noise open rotor propulsion systems. The focus is on the system level assessment of the open rotors compared with other candidate concepts like the ultra high bypass ratio cycle engines. To that end there is an extensive research effort at NASA focused on component testing and diagnostics of the open rotor acoustic performance as well as assessment and improvement of open rotor noise prediction tools. In this presentation and overview of the current NASA research on open rotor noise will be provided. Two NASA projects, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, have been funding this research effort.

  9. openBEB: open biological experiment browser for correlative measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New experimental methods must be developed to study interaction networks in systems biology. To reduce biological noise, individual subjects, such as single cells, should be analyzed using high throughput approaches. The measurement of several correlative physical properties would further improve data consistency. Accordingly, a considerable quantity of data must be acquired, correlated, catalogued and stored in a database for subsequent analysis. Results We have developed openBEB (open Biological Experiment Browser), a software framework for data acquisition, coordination, annotation and synchronization with database solutions such as openBIS. OpenBEB consists of two main parts: A core program and a plug-in manager. Whereas the data-type independent core of openBEB maintains a local container of raw-data and metadata and provides annotation and data management tools, all data-specific tasks are performed by plug-ins. The open architecture of openBEB enables the fast integration of plug-ins, e.g., for data acquisition or visualization. A macro-interpreter allows the automation and coordination of the different modules. An update and deployment mechanism keeps the core program, the plug-ins and the metadata definition files in sync with a central repository. Conclusions The versatility, the simple deployment and update mechanism, and the scalability in terms of module integration offered by openBEB make this software interesting for a large scientific community. OpenBEB targets three types of researcher, ideally working closely together: (i) Engineers and scientists developing new methods and instruments, e.g., for systems-biology, (ii) scientists performing biological experiments, (iii) theoreticians and mathematicians analyzing data. The design of openBEB enables the rapid development of plug-ins, which will inherently benefit from the “house keeping” abilities of the core program. We report the use of openBEB to combine live cell microscopy

  10. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  11. Infections in open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Baddour, L M; Kluge, R M

    1989-01-01

    More than 250,000 open heart surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States. The majority of these procedures are coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) and valve replacements. In this forum our authors discuss the kinds of infections that occur in patients following open heart surgery, as well as the documented risk factors and microbiology of these infections. We also asked each author to outline the criteria used to diagnose post open heart surgery infections, and to address associated consequences and complications. Finally, we were interested in each author's definition of the infection control practitioner's role in the prevention of this particular subset of nosocomial infections.

  12. 77 FR 57086 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  13. 77 FR 74661 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  14. 78 FR 16852 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  15. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  16. Station Crew Opens Dragon Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams and Flight Engineer Aki Hoshide opened the hatch to the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship at 1:40 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 10, marking a milestone for the first commerc...

  17. Station Crew Opens Dragon's Hatch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatch between the newly arrived SpaceX Dragon spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened by NASA Astronaut Don Pettit at 5:53 am EDT as the station flew 253...

  18. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  19. Skinner and the Open Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1972-01-01

    Author examines the implications of a major scientific work of behavioral ressearch and concludes that positive reinforcement techniques will make possible the creation of an open classroom, that, in itself, will minimize the negative effects of control. (Author/RK)

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brinssen M, Verhoeven EL, Cuypers PW, et al: DREAM Study Group. Long-term outcome of open or ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  1. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  2. Towards open applied Earth sciences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizatio...

  3. Workshop on Repetitive Opening Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    1981-04-01

    A workshop on Repetitive Opening Switches was conducted by Texas Tech University for the U.S. Army Research Office. Several papers on a wide range of innovative opening switch concepts were presented. Discussions about the research needs to advance the state-of-the-art in this important, emerging field are summarized. A concensus on research topics and their importance is summarized and a suggested research priority list given.

  4. Open XAL Status Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2013-01-01

    XAL is the well established, accelerator physics application programming framework developed for and used at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab. Due to interest from other accelerator labs, the Open XAL project was formed in 2010 to port XAL to be more suitable for collaboration. The Open XAL architecture along with the objectives, status and roadmap of this effort are presented in this paper.

  5. Opening the door to innovation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Janine; Graus, Yvo F; Labrijn, Aran F; Ruuls, Sigrid R; Parren, Paul WHI

    2014-01-01

    Open innovation is the new buzz, with initiatives popping up left and right. Here, we give a personal perspective on a very successful, knowledge-driven innovation initiated in an academia- industry alliance, which culminated in technology platforms that enable the generation of therapeutic antibodies with novel properties. To start, we provide a general background on open innovation in the drug development field. PMID:24784437

  6. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  7. OOI's Cyberinfrastructure: An Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Ampe, T.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A. D.; Cressey, R.; Jul, S.; McPhail, T.; Meisinger, M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Schofield, O.; Stocks, K.; Thomas, J.; Vernon, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative is a long-term, NSF-funded program to provide 25-30 years of sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics. The OOI will enable powerful new scientific approaches for exploring the complexities of Earth-ocean-atmosphere interactions, thereby accelerating progress toward the goal of understanding, predicting, and managing our ocean environment. The OOI can foster new discoveries that, in turn, move research in unforeseen directions. The OOI Cyberinfrastructure will connect and coordinate the operations of OOI marine components and data processes, to meet the objectives of the oceanographic research and education communities. The CI will let all users easily interact with deployed resources, access collected data, and apply those data to their specific research and educational needs. The CI is a free and open product that adopts innovative and flexible strategies to bring the oceans to users, any time, any place, on any suitable device. The OOI CI is dedicated to "using the latest computing technologies to solve the interoperability problem among vast amounts of heterogeneous geospatial data from various sources." OOI CI's charge is to be transformative, and its technologies and goals are just that (see URL). The Cyberinfrastructure integrates state-of-the-art and best-practice approaches to provide fully interoperable access to the widest possible collection of geospatial data. From the system-of-systems model of the planned observatories and the ingestion of data, models, and services; to the configurable, automated workflows producing real-time products, data curation and quality management strategies are supported to the fullest possible extent. How do we build a system to efficiently support 750 core instruments across numerous platform types, add as-yet unknown instruments during the operations phase, and

  8. Open Educational Partnerships and Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    At the Open University in Scotland "openness" is part of our sense of self; our engagement with Open Educational Resources and Practices (OER/OEP) seems obvious. In this paper we explore some of those obvious aspects and using our partnership with a third sector organisation explore some of the less apparent aspects of openness. In…

  9. Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Openly Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Roberts, Verena; LaBonte, Randy; Graham, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs as the importance of digital literacy and digital freedoms for all learners grows. This article describes current open learning policy, open educational resources and potential implications for open practice and ends with suggestions for future research in open…

  10. 12 CFR 604.415 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 604.415 Section 604.415 Banks... MEETINGS § 604.415 Open meetings. Every meeting and portion of a meeting of the Board shall be open to... part, and that the public interest is not served by the discussion of such matters in an open meeting....

  11. 12 CFR 912.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 912.3 Section 912.3 Banks and... INFORMATION REGARDING MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD § 912.3 Open... be open to public observation. (b) Unless otherwise specified in the public notice, open meetings...

  12. Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness.…

  13. Open laminoforaminotomy: A lost art?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open cervical laminoforaminotomy (CLF) provides safe and effective decompression/excision of lateral/foraminal disc herniations/spurs contributing to nerve root compression. CLF's advantages over anterior cervical discectomy/fusion (ACDF) include the lack of risk to anterior structures (esophagus, trachea, carotid, and recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the avoidance of a fusion. Further, advantages over minimally invasive surgery CLF (MIS CLF) include a lower incidence of dural tears, infections, and neural injury. Furthermore, complications are now more often reported in medicolegal suits rather than the spinal surgical literature. Methods: Here, in a select review of the spinal literature in which we specifically focused on the benefits, risks, and complication of open CLF versus the various MIS CLS techniques. Results: Open CLF is a unique posterior cervical surgical technique that is technically demanding. When using an MIS CLF approach that provides limited visualization and maneuverability while incurring greater morbidity (e.g., risks more dural tears, infection, and neural damage). Conclusions: Why not utilize open CLF, adequately and safely, to decompress lateral/foraminally compromised cervical nerve roots, and avoid the risks of MIS CLF or ACDF? Presently, too many spine surgeons automatically choose MIS CLF or ACDF over open CLF; is this because it is a “lost art”? PMID:26693388

  14. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  15. Open bibliography for science, technology, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard; Macgillivray, Mark; Murray-Rust, Peter; Pitman, Jim; Sefton, Peter; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-10-14

    The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information and associated knowledge representations, a Bibliographic Knowledge Network, across all branches of Science, Technology and Medicine, has been designed and initiated. For this large scale endeavour, the engagement and cooperation of the multiple stakeholders in STM publishing - authors, librarians, publishers and administrators - is sought.

  16. Open Bibliography for Science, Technology, and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information and associated knowledge representations, a Bibliographic Knowledge Network, across all branches of Science, Technology and Medicine, has been designed and initiated. For this large scale endeavour, the engagement and cooperation of the multiple stakeholders in STM publishing - authors, librarians, publishers and administrators - is sought. PMID:21999661

  17. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  18. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  19. OMEGA: The Open MEG Archive.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Rogers, Christine; Moreau, Jeremy T; Chen, Li-Yuan; Madjar, Cecile; Das, Samir; Bock, Elizabeth; Tadel, François; Evans, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Baillet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with other imaging modalities, there is presently a scarcity of fully open resources in magnetoencephalography (MEG) available to the neuroimaging community. Here we present a collaborative effort led by the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre of the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the Université de Montréal to build and share a centralised repository to curate MEG data in raw and processed form for open dissemination. The Open MEG Archive (OMEGA, omega.bic.mni.mcgill.ca) is bound to become a continuously expanding repository of multimodal data with a primary focus on MEG, in addition to storing anatomical MRI volumes, demographic participant data and questionnaires, and other forms of electrophysiological data such as EEG. The OMEGA initiative offers both the technological framework for multi-site MEG data aggregation, and serves as one of the largest freely available resting-state and eventually task-related MEG datasets presently available.

  20. An Open Source Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

  1. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  2. OpenFOAM for beginners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    OpenFOAM has gained significant popularity in academia and industry, but is still not widely introduced to CFD novices - e.g., undergraduate students. This is likely due to the steep learning curve of the software. A relatively short tutorial was developed to introduce students to the basic features of OpenFOAM, allowing them to modify and create simulations, and to better understand other online resources. The tutorial has been successfully introduced to students working on undergraduate capstone projects at the University of New Hampshire and parts of it were presented at a tech-camp for K-12 students.

  3. OpenMP for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  4. Understanding massively open online courses.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2014-02-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are an innovative delivery system for educational offerings. MOOCs have been hailed with optimism for making education accessible to many, but at the same time, they have been criticized for poor participant completion rates. Nurse educators are considering whether and how to use MOOCs; this column explains MOOCs and their advantages and disadvantages for nurse educators. PMID:24494660

  5. "Open-Sourcing" Personal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Sebastian H.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a critical reflection on the contemporary Open Educational Resource (OER) movement, its unquestioned investment in a collective "content fetish" and an educational "problem description" that focuses on issues of scarcity, access, and availability of quality materials. It also argues that OER proponents fail…

  6. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  7. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency. PMID:27036747

  8. Dossier: Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Fred, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine addresses diverse educational issues in different parts of the world. Articles in this issue are: "Education for All: Governments Must Do Much More to Make Schooling Accessible for All Children" (G. Machel and N. Mandela); "Afghanistan: Education Opens Up New Perspective"; "South Korea: Behind the Facade" (W. van der Schaaf);…

  9. Open Book Professional Accountancy Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, J. E.; Forsyth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure and rationale for an open-book approach in professional accountancy examinations. The concept of knowledge management and the recognition that some knowledge ought to be embedded in the minds of professional accountants while other knowledge ought to be readily accessible and capable of application forms the…

  10. Open File: Professionalism in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Lo, Leslie N. K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on professionalism in teaching. It begins with an article in Viewpoints/Controversies titled "A Renewed Sense for the Purposes of Schooling: The Challenges of Education and Social Cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia" (Stephen P. Heyneman; Sanja Todoric-Bebic). In Open File: Professionalism in…

  11. Conical beams from open nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yahachi; Hamaguchi, Koji; Hata, Koichi; Uchida, Kunio; Tasaka, Yoshiharu; Ikazaki, Fumikazu; Yumura, Motoo; Kasuya, Atsuo; Nishina, Yuichiro

    1997-10-01

    Electron guns are indispensable devices that are widely used in household and industrial appliances. Field electron-emitting sources (which emit electrons by tunnelling effects in electric fields), with their small size, small energy spread, high current density and no requirement for heat, have distinct advantages over thermionic emitters. We have made a field electron emitter from hollow, open-ended carbon nanotubes.

  12. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  13. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  14. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns and…

  15. THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

  16. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  17. Project Open Door. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyden-Hilliard, Mary Ellen

    The major purpose of Project Open Door was to design, develop, test, and disseminate a portable module for vocational educators and others to use with junior high school students in pre-vocational exploration free of sex stereotyping. The module produced contained a slide presentation with accompanying cassette tape and a leader's guide. An…

  18. Open learning in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Jack, B A

    Much confusion surrounds the meanings of terms such as flexible learning, distance learning and open learning. In this article, the author highlights the difference between these types of learning and their advantages and disadvantages, and stresses the importance of all grades of nurses adopting the philosophy behind the initiative. PMID:8343402

  19. 65 FR 7398 - Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-14

    ... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Open Meeting AGENCY: National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Matter to be considered: Proposed Closure and Transfer of Functions of National Technical... Congress on national and international library and information policies and plans, the Commission has...

  20. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency.

  1. Curiosity and Open Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit

    2007-01-01

    Asking questions is an activity central to inquiry learning. This research examined documents created during an open inquiry learning process of the Biomind programme for Israeli high school students. In addition, to understand how students express and develop curiosity in learning, we observed students during a molecular biology lesson, a subject…

  2. Libya, HIV, and open communication.

    PubMed

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2006-01-01

    This year-end editorial discusses several points including the recent Libyan verdict sentencing five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor to death for allegedly infecting 426 children with HIV. It also comments on the role played by open communication for bridging cultural misunderstandings and summarizes briefly Retrovirology's progress in 2006.

  3. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  4. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  5. How open science helps researchers succeed.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices. PMID:27387362

  6. How open science helps researchers succeed.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-07-07

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices.

  7. How open science helps researchers succeed

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16800.001 PMID:27387362

  8. Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

  9. The Open Course: Through the Open Door--Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Dave; Siemens, George

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, as educators have increasingly experimented with social technologies and interactive pedagogies, the concept of a "course" has been significantly challenged. In particular, questions have arisen as to the key value of the course in the educational system. The numerous high-profile open courseware initiatives from elite…

  10. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics Management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2002-01-01

    The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting orders, performing exam resource scheduling, providing Digital communications in Medicine (DICOM) work list information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third-party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an open database connectivity bridge to a Linux server with Health Level 7 (HL7), DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a browser, whereas other informatics systems communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete, as are key pieces of the Web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes.

  11. Open data in drug discovery and development: lessons from malaria.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul; Burrows, Jeremy N; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing consensus that drug discovery thrives in an open environment. Here, we describe how the malaria community has embraced four levels of open data - open science, open innovation, open access and open source - to catalyse the development of new medicines, and consider principles that could enable open data approaches to be applied to other disease areas.

  12. Open Rotor: New Option for Jet Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dale Van Zante describes how the open rotor propulsion system will be tested in a wind tunnel at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Open rotor aircraft engines use high-speed propellers and are c...

  13. Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-12-04

    An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.

  14. The 2016 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Nomi L.; Cock, Peter J.A.; Chapman, Brad; Fields, Christopher J.; Hokamp, Karsten; Lapp, Hilmar; Muñoz-Torres, Monica; Wiencko, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Message from the ISCB: The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is a yearly meeting organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF), a non-profit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of Open Source software development and Open Science within the biological research community. BOSC has been run since 2000 as a two-day Special Interest Group (SIG) before the annual ISMB conference. The 17th annual BOSC ( http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2016) took place in Orlando, Florida in July 2016. As in previous years, the conference was preceded by a two-day collaborative coding event open to the bioinformatics community. The conference brought together nearly 100 bioinformatics researchers, developers and users of open source software to interact and share ideas about standards, bioinformatics software development, and open and reproducible science. PMID:27781083

  15. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  16. Evaporation from open microchannel grooves.

    PubMed

    Kachel, Sibylle; Zhou, Ying; Scharfer, Philip; Vrančić, Christian; Petrich, Wolfgang; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2014-02-21

    The evaporation of water from open u-shaped microchannel grooves was investigated with particular emphasis on the roles of channel width and air flow conditions. Given the small dimensions of the microchannels, all measurements were conducted in a range where convection and diffusion are of equal importance and known correlations for the calculation of mass transfer coefficients cannot be applied. The evaporation rates were measured using a new optical method and a gravimetric method. Both measurement methods yielded mass transfer coefficients that are in agreement with each other. The observed relation between mass transfer coefficient, air velocity and channel width vastly differs from the predictions obtained from macroscopic structures. With respect to diagnostic devices we conclude that analyte concentration in an open microchannel groove strongly increases even within short times due to the evaporation process and we show that wider channels are more favourable in terms of minimizing the relative evaporation rate.

  17. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  18. [Medical journals and open access].

    PubMed

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice. PMID:18792564

  19. Open doors for physics graduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    In Physics World's previous special section on graduate careers, back in March, we revealed how a physics degree opens a lot of doors, but no main one. To get a glimpse behind a few of those doors, we asked our readers to tell us about their current jobs, explain how they got them and offer their advice for anyone interested in pursuing a similar career. Here, six recent graduates share their stories.

  20. Open Ocean, Sunglint and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This interesting and well composed view of open ocean, sunglint and clouds, location unknown, illustrates the reflective nature of water. Smooth water surfaces have a very high reflective surface like a mirror but rough water surfaces with lots of choppy waves, have a very low reflective potential and appear as mostly dark patches. The combination of low sun angle, clouds, shadows and sea states produces an attractive composition of contrasts.

  1. Open Science and Research Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists, journals and funders are concerned about the low reproducibility of many scientific findings. One approach that may serve to improve the reliability and robustness of research is open science. Here I argue that the process of pre-registering study protocols, sharing study materials and data, and posting preprints of manuscripts may serve to improve quality control procedures at every stage of the research pipeline, and in turn improve the reproducibility of published work. PMID:27350794

  2. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Barkal, Amira A; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K; Sherwood, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding. PMID:27031353

  3. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  4. Towards printable open air microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Collord, Andrew; Cook, Adam W.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Fenton, Kyle Ross; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Branson, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated a novel microfluidic technique for aqueous media, which uses super-hydrophobic materials to create microfluidic channels that are open to the atmosphere. We have demonstrated the ability to perform traditional electrokinetic operations such as ionic separations and electrophoresis using these devices. The rate of evaporation was studied and found to increase with decreasing channel size, which places a limitation on the minimum size of channel that could be used for such a device.

  5. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hung, Ling-Yan; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  6. OpenSoC Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-21

    Recent advancements in technology scaling have shown a trend towards greater integration with large-scale chips containing thousands of processors connected to memories and other I/O devices using non-trivial network topologies. Software simulation proves insufficient to study the tradeoffs in such complex systems due to slow execution time, whereas hardware RTL development is too time-consuming. We present OpenSoC Fabric, an on-chip network generation infrastructure which aims to provide a parameterizable and powerful on-chip network generator for evaluating future high performance computing architectures based on SoC technology. OpenSoC Fabric leverages a new hardware DSL, Chisel, which contains powerful abstractions provided by its base language, Scala, and generates both software (C++) and hardware (Verilog) models from a single code base. The OpenSoC Fabric2 infrastructure is modeled after existing state-of-the-art simulators, offers large and powerful collections of configuration options, and follows object-oriented design and functional programming to make functionality extension as easy as possible.

  7. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  8. OpenSoC Fabric

    2014-08-21

    Recent advancements in technology scaling have shown a trend towards greater integration with large-scale chips containing thousands of processors connected to memories and other I/O devices using non-trivial network topologies. Software simulation proves insufficient to study the tradeoffs in such complex systems due to slow execution time, whereas hardware RTL development is too time-consuming. We present OpenSoC Fabric, an on-chip network generation infrastructure which aims to provide a parameterizable and powerful on-chip network generator formore » evaluating future high performance computing architectures based on SoC technology. OpenSoC Fabric leverages a new hardware DSL, Chisel, which contains powerful abstractions provided by its base language, Scala, and generates both software (C++) and hardware (Verilog) models from a single code base. The OpenSoC Fabric2 infrastructure is modeled after existing state-of-the-art simulators, offers large and powerful collections of configuration options, and follows object-oriented design and functional programming to make functionality extension as easy as possible.« less

  9. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  10. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  11. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  12. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface openings. 3595.1 Section 3595.1... OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.1 Surface openings. (a) The operator/lessee shall substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations...

  13. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface openings. 3595.1 Section 3595.1... OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.1 Surface openings. (a) The operator/lessee shall substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations...

  14. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface openings. 3595.1 Section 3595.1... OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.1 Surface openings. (a) The operator/lessee shall substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations...

  15. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface openings. 3595.1 Section 3595.1... OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.1 Surface openings. (a) The operator/lessee shall substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations...

  16. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture... GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as provided for in § 1600.6 every portion of every meeting of the Board shall be open...

  17. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23 Public... REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations § 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission will be open to public observation except as provided in § 503.24....

  18. 29 CFR 1918.35 - Open hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open hatches. 1918.35 Section 1918.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.35 Open hatches. Open weather...

  19. 7 CFR 1409.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 1409.3 Section 1409.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... CORPORATION § 1409.3 Open meetings. Every portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors will be open...

  20. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

  1. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel shall be open to the public, with the exception of meetings that are listed in §...

  2. The Open-Ended Approach Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical…

  3. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  5. 75 FR 9083 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Inquiry Commission Notice of Open Meeting; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 38 / Friday, February 26, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] FINANCIAL CRISIS INQUIRY COMMISSION Notice of Open Meeting SUMMARY: The... Participation The meeting is open to the public. The Chairman of the Commission will lead the forum for...

  6. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 0.602 Section 0.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.602 Open... as provided in § 0.603, every portion of every meeting shall be open to public...

  7. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3....3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation. (b) Meetings of the Commission, or...

  8. 45 CFR 1802.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 1802.3 Section 1802.3 Public... MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES § 1802.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct... portion of every meeting of the Board of Trustees or any committees of the Board shall be open to...

  9. 17 CFR 200.400 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open meetings. 200.400 Section... Meetings § 200.400 Open meetings. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, meetings of the Commission shall be open to public observation....

  10. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

  11. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  12. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not... portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors shall be open to public observation, subject to...

  13. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public... MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided...

  14. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  15. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the...

  16. Assessments: An Open and Closed Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, R. Nazim

    2015-01-01

    Open book assessment is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book assessments in a first-year business…

  17. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  18. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43... in the Sunshine Act § 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of TVA... every meeting of the agency shall be open to public observation, and TVA shall provide...

  19. The Teacher's Guide to Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian S.

    This book, divided into four parts, emphasizes a practical approach to open education. Part 1 is devoted to the historical and philosophical bases of open education and to the teacher's role in the open classroom. Included in this section are discussions on the nature of education, child development, children and learning, characteristics and a…

  20. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  4. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  5. The Battle for Open--A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author argues that openness in education has been successful in establishing itself as an approach. However, this initial victory should be viewed as part of a larger battle around the nature of openness. Drawing lessons from history and the green movement, a number of challenges for the open education movement are identified…

  6. Permission Granted: Open Licensing for Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Ahrash N.

    2009-01-01

    Open licences are critical for defining Open Educational Resources. The goal of this article is to explain the logic of open licensing to teachers, funders, and educational policy-makers--to explain the relatively simple but vital considerations that are necessary to build this global educational commons of free learning material. In particular,…

  7. Open Educational Practices for Curriculum Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armellini, Alejandro; Nie, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP) are relatively new areas in educational research. How OER and OEP can help practitioners enhance curricula is one of a number of under-researched topics. This article aims to enable practitioners to identify and implement appropriate open practices to enhance higher education…

  8. Mainstreaming Special Needs Children Into Open Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Jacobs, Sandra

    Compared are principles of open education and special education, and described are six programs in which handicapped children are being successfully mainstreamed into open education situations. Briefly described is the philosophy of open education, listed are 29 assumptions about children's learning or knowledge, and examined is the philosophy of…

  9. The Four "R"s of Openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David; Stein, Jared; Johnson, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By "open" it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, "open" is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and…

  10. Extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the findings of the recent OPAL report "Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices". In doing so, it defines current understanding of open educational resources and open educational practices, and highlights the shift from open content to open practice. The article includes a framework for supporting…

  11. Open Courses and MOOCs as Professional Development--Is the Openness a Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse if open courses, including massive open online courses (MOOCs), can be used as professional development despite their openness since the openness not only brings together individuals from different organizations but also may make the results of collaboration public. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. The Openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a self-reflection on the state of openness of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). An exploratory and descriptive study, it aims not only to define the elements of openness of UPOU, but also to unravel the causes and solutions to the issues and concerns that limit its options to becoming a truly open university.…

  13. Opening our science: Open science and cyanobacterial research at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this blog post we introduce the idea of Open Science and discuss multiple ways we are implementing these concepts in our cyanobacteria research. We give examples of our open access publications, open source code that support our research, and provide open access to our resear...

  14. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical functions of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor-intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. Interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes the detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures and their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next-generation knee models is noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age

  15. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  16. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

  17. Evaluating Performance Portability of OpenACC

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in High Performance Computing arena. However, the increased complexity of the accelerator architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle the problem. While the abstraction endowed by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions on its portability. This paper evaluates the performance portability obtained by OpenACC on twelve OpenACC programs on NVIDIA CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel MIC architectures. We study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  18. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  19. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  20. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve

    2002-06-01

    The benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system (PACS/RIS) archive built with open source tools and methods are 2-fold. Open source permits an inexpensive development model where interfaces can be updated as needed, and the code is peer reviewed by many eyes (analogous to the scientific model). Integration of PACS/RIS functionality reduces the risk of inconsistent data by reducing interfaces among databases that contain largely redundant information. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools--reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting HL7 orders, performing examination and resource scheduling, providing digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) worklist information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an ODBC bridge to a Linux server with HL7, DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a web browser, whereas automated informatics services communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete as well as key pieces of the web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes.

  1. Open-chamber combustion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, D. P.; Meyer, R. C.

    1994-04-01

    The test program was undertaken to research trade-offs between engine design and operational parameters on open-chamber, premixed spark-ignited gas engines, with a primary focus on combustion effects. This included combustion chamber designs which are conceptually diametrically opposed -- a high squish design typical of diesel engines and a virtually quiescent design. The reader should note that these data are somewhat abstract compared to conventional engines, because the Labeco test engine has exceptionally high friction and the lean-burn data were run unboosted.

  2. Laser acceleration with open waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    1999-03-01

    A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

  3. AKM in Open Source Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamelos, Ioannis; Kakarontzas, George

    Previous chapters in this book have dealt with Architecture Knowledge Management in traditional Closed Source Software (CSS) projects. This chapterwill attempt to examine the ways that knowledge is shared among participants in Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS 1) projects and how architectural knowledge is managed w.r.t. CSS. FLOSS projects are organized and developed in a fundamentally different way than CSS projects. FLOSS projects simply do not develop code as CSS projects do. As a consequence, their knowledge management mechanisms are also based on different concepts and tools.

  4. [Antiscientific attitudes in open society].

    PubMed

    Pérez Iglesias, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The social controversy created in regard to the use and experiments with transgenic seeds and organisms serves as an example to illustrate the effects and consequences that can lead to antiscientific attitudes, which have gained great force in contemporary society. It has been suggested that the same functional relationship, from which the Enlightenment, science, and liberalism were born, is currently being applied in the opposite direction, so that the current antiscientific attitudes, along with the support they receive from post-modern thought, can end up undermining the bases of an open and democratic society. The consequences of this phenomenon are already manifested by the approval of certain regulations that lack scientific basis.

  5. Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, Jamie D.

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, L-circumflex-circumflex(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of L-circumflex-circumflex(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.

  6. Open-top wood gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukunda, H.S.; Dasappa, S.; Shrinivasa, U.

    1993-12-31

    The technology and economics of a new class of open-top gasifiers for use with diesel engines in dual-fuel mode are described. The performance of systems that range in capacity from 3.7 to 100 kilowatts are discussed, with special emphasis placed on gasifiers at extreme ends of the capacity range. The essential differences and benefits of the new technology are compared with World War 2 closed-top models. Studies indicate that the open-top design achieves diesel replacement values greater than 80 percent and is less dependent on feedstock quality, moisture content, and density. The amount of diesel fuel saved per system among motivated users (mostly small farmers) exceeds 70 percent. A comparative analysis of two gasifier systems: a 5 kilowatt system that runs the village power station in Hosahalli, Karnatka (India), and a 100 kilowatt system that powers a sawmill on the remote island of Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago was undertaken. The cost of installing the larger system, including computerized data acquisition and control systems, was US $625 (Rs 12,500) per kilowatt, with an energy cost of $0.074 (Rs 1.60) per kWh (the cost of energy subsidized by the state is RS 1.25 per kWh).

  7. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason

    2016-05-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  8. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  9. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  10. Java based open architecture controller

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F

    2000-01-13

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

  11. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  12. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, L.; Pers, C.; Isberg, K.; Nyström, K.; Arheimer, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model. It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. HYPE has been successfully used in many hydrological applications at SMHI. For Europe, we currently have three different models; The S-HYPE model for Sweden; The BALT-HYPE model for the Baltic Sea; and the E-HYPE model for the whole Europe. These models simulate hydrological conditions and nutrients for their respective areas and are used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded from hypeweb.smhi.se. In addition, we provide models for the Arctic region, the Arab (Middle East and Northern Africa) region, India, the Niger River basin, the La Plata Basin. This demonstrates the applicability of the HYPE model for large scale modeling in different regions of the world. An important goal with our work is to make our data and tools available as open data and services. For this aim we created the HYPE Open Source Community (OSC) that makes the source code of HYPE available for anyone interested in further development of HYPE. The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modeling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed

  13. Advancing the environmental acceptability of open burning/open detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, K.D.; Tope, T.J.

    1996-12-01

    Manufacturers and users of energetic material (e.g., propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics (PEP)) generate unserviceable, obsolete, off-specification, damaged, and contaminated items that are characterized as reactive wastes by definition, and therefore regulated under RCRA, Subtitle C, as hazardous waste. Energetic wastes, to include waste ordnance and munitions items, have historically been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD), particularly by the Department of Defense (DoD). However, increasing regulatory constraints have led to the recent reduction and limited use of OB/OD treatment. DoD maintains that OB/OD is the most viable treatment option for its energetic waste streams, and has spurred research and development activities to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD. DoD has funded extensive testing to identify and quantify contaminant releases from OB/OD of various PEP materials. These data are actively being used in risk assessment studies to evaluate the impact of OB/OD on human health and the environment. Additionally, in an effort to satisfy regulatory concerns, DoD has been forced to reevaluate its current PEP disposal operations as they relate to the environment. As a result, numerous pollution prevention initiatives have been identified and initiated, and life cycle analyses of treatment options have been conducted. Many of the DoD initiatives can be applied to the commercial explosives industry as well. Implementation of proactive and innovative pollution prevention strategies and the application of sound technical data to evaluate risk will serve to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD amongst the regulatory community and the public and can result in significant cost savings as well.

  14. Perilous terra incognita--open-access journals.

    PubMed

    Balon, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals.

  15. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, Lena; Arheimer, Berit; Pers, Charlotta; Isberg, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model (Lindström et al., 2010). It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. In Sweden, the model is used by water authorities to fulfil the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. It is used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded for free from three different HYPE applications: Europe (www.smhi.se/e-hype), Baltic Sea basin (www.smhi.se/balt-hype), and Sweden (vattenweb.smhi.se) The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modelling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code will be delivered frequently. The main objective of the HYPE OSC is to provide public access to a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model and to encourage hydrologic expertise from different parts of the world to contribute to model improvement. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modelling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. The HYPE Open Source Community was initiated in November 2011 by a kick-off and workshop with 50 eager participants

  16. Open access intrapartum CTG database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is a monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Since 1960 it is routinely used by obstetricians to assess fetal well-being. Many attempts to introduce methods of automatic signal processing and evaluation have appeared during the last 20 years, however still no significant progress similar to that in the domain of adult heart rate variability, where open access databases are available (e.g. MIT-BIH), is visible. Based on a thorough review of the relevant publications, presented in this paper, the shortcomings of the current state are obvious. A lack of common ground for clinicians and technicians in the field hinders clinically usable progress. Our open access database of digital intrapartum cardiotocographic recordings aims to change that. Description The intrapartum CTG database consists in total of 552 intrapartum recordings, which were acquired between April 2010 and August 2012 at the obstetrics ward of the University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. All recordings were stored in electronic form in the OB TraceVue®;system. The recordings were selected from 9164 intrapartum recordings with clinical as well as technical considerations in mind. All recordings are at most 90 minutes long and start a maximum of 90 minutes before delivery. The time relation of CTG to delivery is known as well as the length of the second stage of labor which does not exceed 30 minutes. The majority of recordings (all but 46 cesarean sections) is – on purpose – from vaginal deliveries. All recordings have available biochemical markers as well as some more general clinical features. Full description of the database and reasoning behind selection of the parameters is presented in the paper. Conclusion A new open-access CTG database is introduced which should give the research community common ground for comparison of results on reasonably large database. We anticipate that after reading the paper, the reader will understand the

  17. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  18. Free for All: Open Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

  19. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO (CAPtools (Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit) OpenMP) parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report some results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  20. Open-source hardware for medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device. PMID:27158528

  1. Openability of soft drinks PET packagings.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo Corrêa; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; da Silva, José Carlos Plácido

    2012-01-01

    Studies on packaging accessibility are still incipient in Brazil. Many of these packagings can represent a challenge to users, whether due to non-informative labels, tricky tabs or seals, or even those that need strength to open. This paper brings a simple test to determine the necessary torque force to open PET bottles, and to predict the amount of users that could not open it. The findings suggest that a considerable amount of users could not open it or would have some difficulties to exert the necessary force. PMID:22316905

  2. The effects of succinylcholine on mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Van der Spek, A F; Fang, W B; Ashton-Miller, J A; Stohler, C S; Carlson, D S; Schork, M A

    1987-10-01

    Mouth opening and the resistance to opening developed by the muscles of mastication were measured in 63 children anesthetized with halothane and relaxed with succinylcholine, pancuronium, or vecuronium. Measurement of mouth opening, induced by a constant test force, was made when each patient was deeply anesthetized, as judged by clinical parameters. Succinylcholine, vecuronium, or pancuronium was then administered. The mouth opening measurement was repeated immediately after the loss of limb muscle twitch response and 45 s following the loss of twitch response. For the 24 patients receiving succinylcholine, there was a significant reduction in mean mouth opening (P less than 0.0001) and a significant increase in jaw stiffness (P less than 0.0001) immediately after limb relaxation. Forty-five seconds after full limb relaxation was attained, the mean mouth opening was still reduced (P less than 0.0001) and the mean jaw stiffness was still increased (P less than 0.0003) in the succinylcholine group. Patients receiving either vecuronium or pancuronium did not show a significant change of mouth opening or jaw stiffness following limb relaxation. Three patients, who received succinylcholine, required several attempts at tracheal intubation due to increased resistance to mouth opening. Anesthesia and surgery proceeded in all patients. None of the patients developed malignant hyperthermia. In view of the fact that a reduction in mouth opening was a constant finding when succinylcholine was administered during halothane anesthesia, the assumption that isolated "masseter spasm" or jaw stiffness heralds malignant hyperthermia should be reconsidered. PMID:2889402

  3. Open string decoupling and tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2001-06-01

    The amplitudes in perturbative open string theory are examined as functions of the tachyon condensate parameter. The boundary state formalism demonstrates the decoupling of the open string modes at the non-perturbative minima of the tachyon potential via a degeneration of open world-sheets and identifies an independence of the coupling constants gs and gYM at general values of the tachyon condensate. The closed string sector is generated at the quantum level; it is also generated at the classical level perturbatively through the condensation of propagating open string modes on the D-brane degrees of freedom.

  4. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  5. Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardakci, Korkut

    2006-02-16

    In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

  6. Open Architecture SDR for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

  7. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  8. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  9. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus.

  10. OpenEI: Datasets in the OpenEnergyInfo Data Repository

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open Energy Information initiative (OpenEI) is a platform to connect the world's energy data. It is a linked open data platform bringing together energy information to provide improved analyses, unique visualizations, and real-time access to data. OpenEI follows guidelines set by the White House Open Government Initiative , which is focused on transparency, collaboration, and participation. OpenEI strives to provide open access to this energy information, with the ultimate goal of spurring creativity and driving innovation in the energy sector.[Copied from the OpenEI Wiki main page]. It features a wiki, a blog, a list of information gateways, and a browsing list of deposited data sets.

  11. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus. PMID:27400228

  12. Beyond Open Source: According to Jim Hirsch, Open Technology, Not Open Source, Is the Wave of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent for technology at Piano Independent School District in Piano, Texas. Hirsch serves as a liaison for the open technologies committee of the Consortium for School Networking. In this interview, he shares his opinion on the significance of open source in K-12.

  13. Open Badges for Education: What Are the Implications at the Intersection of Open Systems and Badging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June; Pellicone, Anthony; Butler, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla's Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined…

  14. 75 FR 72686 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... September 17, 2010, the Postal Service published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 56920-56922... 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute AGENCY: Postal Service.\\TM..., or Label 257S, on all Express Mail Open and Distribute containers. The Postal Service is...

  15. Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education as a matter of engaging educational activities in…

  16. Opening Teaching Landscapes: The Importance of Quality Assurance in the Delivery of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Scholars are increasingly being asked to share teaching materials, publish in open access journals, network in social media, and reuse open educational resources (OER). The theoretical benefits of Open Educational Practices (OEP) have become understood in the academic community but thus far, the use of OER has not been rapidly adopted. We aim to…

  17. Curriculum Conceptions of Open Learning: Theory, Intention and Student Experience in the Australian Open Learning Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Helen Margaret

    This thesis seeks to clarify the meaning of the open learning concept by examining it in alternative ways--as an element of social theory, as an intended curriculum, and as a perceived student learning experience. The three curriculum conceptions of open learning are applied to the Australian Open Learning Iniative. Students' curriculum…

  18. OpenARC: Extensible OpenACC Compiler Framework for Directive-Based Accelerator Programming Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Directive-based, accelerator programming models such as OpenACC have arisen as an alternative solution to program emerging Scalable Heterogeneous Computing (SHC) platforms. However, the increased complexity in the SHC systems incurs several challenges in terms of portability and productivity. This paper presents an open-sourced OpenACC compiler, called OpenARC, which serves as an extensible research framework to address those issues in the directive-based accelerator programming. This paper explains important design strategies and key compiler transformation techniques needed to implement the reference OpenACC compiler. Moreover, this paper demonstrates the efficacy of OpenARC as a research framework for directive-based programming study, by proposing and implementing OpenACC extensions in the OpenARC framework to 1) support hybrid programming of the unified memory and separate memory and 2) exploit architecture-specific features in an abstract manner. Porting thirteen standard OpenACC programs and three extended OpenACC programs to CUDA GPUs shows that OpenARC performs similarly to a commercial OpenACC compiler, while it serves as a high-level research framework.

  19. Open Government Partnership as a Platform for Advancing Open Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondol, Jan; Allen, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    An exciting new avenue for establishing and expanding national commitments to open education has emerged through the Open Government Partnership (OGP), a multilateral initiative that aims to secure commitments from governments to make their governance more open, accountable and responsive to citizens. In the past, there has not been a strong link…

  20. Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Open Data is the name given to datasets which have been generated by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic researchers, and made freely available online and openly-licensed. These datasets can be used by educators as Open Educational Resources (OER) to support different teaching and learning activities, allowing students to…

  1. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  2. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  3. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  4. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  5. Open appendectomy: no longer an intern case.

    PubMed

    Neville, Angela L; Nemceff, Dennis; Bricker, Scott D; Plurad, David; Bongard, Frederick; Putnam, Brant A

    2012-10-01

    Laparoscopy and work-hour restrictions are altering surgical training. We hypothesized interns were no longer gaining experience in open appendectomy, historically an intern index case. We retrospectively reviewed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs of postgraduate Year (PGY) 1 general surgery trainees from our academic teaching program for the last 9 years. Number of appendectomies performed (Current Procedural Terminology codes 44950, 44960, and 44970) were recorded and analyzed. The national ACGME database was similarly evaluated for resident experience during junior (PGY-1 to 4) years. Data were available for 47 residents completing internship at our institution between 2003 and 2011. Mean number of appendectomies performed per intern steadily decreased throughout the study period from 22 in 2003 to 5 in 2011 (P=0.0367). Mean percentage of cases done open decreased from 79.5 to 2.4 per cent (P=0.0001). National data found residents graduating in the year 2000 performed an average of 26.6 open appendectomies during junior years, whereas those graduating in 2011 had done only 13.7. Surgical trainees are performing fewer open appendectomies than just several years ago. Open appendectomy traditionally served as an introduction to open surgery. Because outcome differences are small between open and laparoscopic appendectomy, we propose teaching institutions consider performing open appendectomies in select patients to preserve an important educational experience.

  6. A Framework for Open Textbooks Analytics System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…

  7. 7 CFR 1425.9 - Open membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open membership. 1425.9 Section 1425.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.9 Open...

  8. 76 FR 14979 - Open Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Open Meeting Notice Notice is hereby given that the... and opportunities for advancing biomedical research. This workshop is open to the public. Please...

  9. 76 FR 62082 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice of Open Meeting Notice is hereby given that the... among involved parties. This workshop is free and open to the public. We encourage registration...

  10. 39 CFR 7.2 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 39 CFR Part 232, concerning conduct on postal property, apply with regard to meetings of the Board. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 7.2 Section 7.2 Postal Service... (ARTICLE VII) § 7.2 Open meetings. (a) It is the policy of the United States, established in section 2...

  11. 12 CFR 791.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 791.11 Section 791.11 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT... Open meetings. Except as provided in § 791.12(a), any portion of any meeting of the Board shall be...

  12. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  13. 78 FR 27215 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Environmental Management Advisory Board Meeting Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management...

  14. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

  15. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  16. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  17. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  18. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  19. Open Education as a "Heterotopia of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The movement towards "openness" in education has tended to position itself as inherently democratising, radical, egalitarian and critical of powerful gatekeepers to learning. While "openness" is often positioned as a critique, I will argue that its mainstream discourses--while appearing to oppose large-scale operations of…

  20. Open Educational Resources: Staff Attitudes and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes are changing in education globally to promote the open sharing of educational courses and resources. The aim of this study was to explore staff awareness and attitudes towards "open educational resources" (OER) as a benchmark for monitoring future progress. Faculty staff (n = 6) were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews…

  1. Open femur fracture secondary to hippopotamus bite.

    PubMed

    Lin, H H; Hulsey, R E

    1993-01-01

    The surgical treatment of a patient who sustained a grade IIIC open femur fracture as a result of a hippopotamus bite is described. We review the available literature on large wild animal attacks to humans. A standard protocol for management of open fractures was followed in this patient, and eventually led to a good result.

  2. A Taxonomy of Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilli, Olga; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as a new approach to distance education, which originated from the open education resources (OER) movement, are becoming widespread throughout the world. Over time, early versions of cMOOCs have undergone changes in terms of use, name and structure. In their short life, MOOCs have been categorized into different…

  3. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  4. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  5. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  6. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  7. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall...

  8. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  9. Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities and commercial firms have demonstrated great progress in realizing the vision proffered for "Open Source 2007," and 2010 will mark even greater progress. Although much work remains in refining open source for higher education applications, the signals are now clear: the collaborative development of software can provide…

  10. Teacher Adaptation to Open Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterator, Scott; Deed, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The "open classroom" emerged as a reaction against the industrial-era enclosed and authoritarian classroom. Although contemporary school architecture continues to incorporate and express ideas of openness, more research is needed about how teachers adapt to new and different built contexts. Our purpose is to identify teacher reaction to…

  11. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  12. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  13. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  14. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  15. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  16. Bypassing An Open-Circuit Power Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannemacher, Harry E.

    1994-01-01

    Collection of bypass circuits enables battery consisting series string of cells to continue to function when one of its cells fails in open-circuit (high-resistance) condition. Basic idea simply to shunt current around defective cell to prevent open circuit from turning off battery altogether. Bypass circuits dissipate little power and are nearly immune to false activation.

  17. Fostering the Exploitation of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Thomas; Veith, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The central concept behind Open Educational Resources (OER) is opening up the access to educational resources for stakeholders who are not the usual target user group. This concept must be perceived as innovative because it describes a general economic and social paradigm shift: Education, which formerly was limited to a specific group of…

  18. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares the…

  19. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall...

  20. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall...

  1. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall...

  2. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  3. Accelerated IDL using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloy, M. D.; Fillmore, D. W.; Rood, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is also widely used in this community for data analysis and visualization. Previously, we have developed GPULib, a library of routines in IDL for accelerating common scientific operations including arithmetic, FFTs, interpolation, and other computations using using CUDA-enabled GPUs from NVIDIA. We have now ported portions of this library to OpenCL, making GPU accelerated IDL available on any modern GPU or CPU. Currently, our OpenCL library supports basic array operations and the ability to execute user-defined OpenCL kernels. Use of the open standard OpenCL implemented by several hardware vendors from within GPULib is an exciting prospect with several advantages: 1) OpenCL is an open standard and runs on multiple vendor hardware implementations including for both CPU and GPU hardware, and 2) OpenCL uses runtime compilation of kernels allowing easy construction of custom kernels at runtime (useful for creating user-defined fitting functions) In addition, we have a library of GPU accelerated routines (using CUDA) to perform Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting. In addition, GPU accelerated LAPACK routines provided by MAGMA and simple ways to access user-written CUDA kernels have also been added to support this library.

  4. 70 FR 25112 - Open Business Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-05-12

    ... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Open Business Meeting AGENCY: U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, (NCLIS) ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science is holding an open business meeting to discuss Commission programs and...

  5. 69 FR 19240 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-04-12

    ... LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: U. S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science is holding an open business meeting to discuss Commission programs and...

  6. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  7. Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottani, Norberto, Ed.; Favre, Bernard, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The editorial, "Some Aspects of the Educational Change Dynamic: Setting School Autonomy and Evaluation in Context" (Cecilia Braslavsky), explains the focus of this issue. This "Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation" section contains: "Introduction to the Open File" (Norberto Bottani; Bernard Favre); "IPES The System of Indicators for Secondary…

  8. Open Educational Resources: A Faculty Author's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    As the coauthor (with Susan Dean) of a formally for-profit and now open (i.e., free on the web) textbook, "Collaborative Statistics," this author has received many questions about open educational resources (OER), which can be summarized as follows: (1) What are OER?; (2) Why do you support, actively promote, and speak about OER?; (3) If a book is…

  9. Open Access, Education Research, and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The open access movement has successfully drawn attention to economic and political aspects of scholarly communication through a significant body of commentary that debates the merits of open access and the potential damage it may do to scholarly publishing. Researchers within the field of education research, notably John…

  10. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  11. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  12. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  13. A Bibliometric Mapping of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zancanaro, Airton; Todesco, José Leomar; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) is a topic that has aroused increasing interest by researchers as a powerful contribution to improve the educational system quality and openness, both in face to face and distance education. The goal of this research is to map publications related to OER, dating from 2002 to 2013, and available through the Web of…

  14. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  15. Government Open Systems Interconnection: Profile in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kevin L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the emergence of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) as it relates to the U.S. Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP); defines GOSIP; and speculates about its future. Challenges facing GOSIP that are related to test policies and procedures, strategic and tactical planning, additional functionality, and international…

  16. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  17. Inside Open Learning. Studies in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Bill; Challis, Bob

    A study examined the experience of teachers, students, and college administrators in the following three open learning schemes for adult students in Great Britain: Flexistudy at Abraham Moss Open College, the mathematics and communications workshops at Bradford College, and the Technical Education Council programs at Moston College of Further…

  18. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  19. How to deal with an open abdomen?

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Kaplan, Mark; Sugrue, Michael; Sibaja, Pablo; Björck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate open abdomen treatment is one of the key elements in the management of patients who require decompressive laparotomy or in whom the abdomen is left open prophylactically. Apart from fluid control and protection from external injury, fluid evacuation and facilitation of early closure are now the goals of open abdomen treatment. Abdominal negative pressure therapy has emerged as the most appropriate method to reach these goals. Especially when combined with strategies that allow progressive approximation of the fascial edges, high closure rates can be obtained. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement can be used to guide the surgical strategy and continued attention to intra-abdominal hypertension is necessary. This paper reviews recent advances as well as identifying the remaining challenges in patients requiring open abdomen treatment. The new classification system of the open abdomen is an important tool to use when comparing the efficacy of different strategies, as well as different systems of temporary abdominal closure.

  20. Seismic Imaging of Open Subsurface Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Matzel, E.; Aguiar, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Injection of high-pressure fluid into the subsurface is proven to stimulate geothermal, oil, and gas production by opening cracks that increase permeability. The effectiveness of increasing permeability by high-pressure injection has been revolutionized by the introduction of "proppants" into the injected fluid to keep cracks open after the pressure of the stimulation activity ends. The network of fractures produced during stimulation is most commonly inferred by the location of micro-earthquakes. However, existing (closed) fractures may open aseismically, so the whole fracture network may not be imaged by micro-seismic locations alone. Further, whether all new fractures remain open and for how long remains unclear. Open cracks, even fluid-filled cracks, scatter seismic waves because traction forces are not transmitted across the gap. Numerical simulation confirms that an open crack with dimensions on the order of 10 meters can scatter enough seismic energy to change the coda of seismic signals. Our simulations show that changes in seismic coda due to newly opened fractures are only a few percent of peak seismogram amplitudes, making signals from open cracks difficult to identify. We are developing advanced signal processing methods to identify candidate signals that originate from open cracks. These methods are based on differencing seismograms that are recorded before and after high-pressure fluid injection events to identify changes in the coda. The origins of candidate signals are located using time-reversal techniques to determine if the signals are indeed associated with a coherent structure. The source of scattered energy is compared to micro-seismic event locations to determine whether cracks opened seismically or aseismically. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675612.

  1. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees.

  2. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo.

  3. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  4. Assess arsenic distribution in groundwater applying GIS in capital of Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. M.; Zhonghua, T.; Sissou, Z.; Mohamadi, B.

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Arsenic causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in portable water. The major sources of arsenic pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of arsenic containing minerals and anthropogenic activities. Lahore is groundwater dependent city, arsenic contamination is a major issue of portable water and has recently been most environmental health management issue especially in the plain region, where population density is very high. GIS was used in this study for visualizing distribution of arsenic groundwater concentration through geostatistics analysis technique, and exposure risk zones for two years (2010 and 2012). Town's data was compared and concentration variation evaluated. ANOVA test was also applied to compare concentration between cities and years. Arsenic concentrations widely range 7.3-67.8 and 5.2-69.3 μg L-1 in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Over 71% area is represented arsenic concentration range from 20 to 30 μg L-1 in both analyzed years. However, in 2012 arsenic concentration over 40 μg L-1 has covered 7.6% area of Data Gunjbuksh and 8.1% of Ravi Town, while over 90% area of Allama Iqbal, Aziz Bhatti and Samanabad Town contain arsenic concentration between 20-30 μg L-1. ANOVA test depicts concentration probability less than 0.05, while differences were detected among towns. In light of current results, it needs urgent step to ensure groundwater protection and preservation for future.

  5. Diagnostic reliability of FNAC for salivary gland swellings: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ameena; Shaikh, Afsar Saeed; Kamal, Farrukh; Sarfraz, Rahat; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2010-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for 100 salivary gland swellings in comparison with biopsy. These randomized samples were submitted and reported at the department of pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Ages of the patients ranged from 8.5 to 58 years with mean age 33.39 +/- 12.37 years. Maximum number of lesions was found in age group between 21 and 40 years. Parotid gland was involved in 68%, submandibular gland in 30%, and minor salivary glands in 2% patients. Sublingual gland was not involved in any of our subjects. There were 14% cases of non-neoplastic lesions and 86% cases of neoplastic lesions on biopsy. Non-neoplastic lesions included 12 cases of inflammations (three cases of granulomatous inflammation and nine cases of nonspecific chronic inflammation) and two cases of inclusion cysts. Among neoplastic lesions, biopsy revealed 68 cases of benign neoplasia and 18 cases of malignant neoplasia. Non-neoplastic lesions did not show any difference in diagnosis by both techniques. FNAC misdiagnosed four malignant and one benign lesion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FNAC for benign neoplastic lesions were 98.52, 87.05, 94.36, and 96.55%, respectively, whereas for malignant neoplastic lesions they were 77.77, 98.78, 93.33, and 95.29%, respectively. In conclusion, FNAC is found to be a highly sensitive and specific technique for diagnosis of most of salivary gland swellings, except for malignant neoplastic lesions where its sensitivity is intermediate. We strongly recommend that FNAC should be adopted as an initial investigation for all salivary gland swellings.

  6. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  7. Secrecy versus Openness: Historical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, George

    2014-03-01

    ``I think all members of the laboratory are agreed that the work which is being pursued here is of such importance that we should not like to see it or any part of it fall into private or foreign hands,'' J. Robert Oppenheimer announced to his colleagues at Los Alamos on November 15, 1943, putting the first formal secrecy policies into effect-while promising ``to make the procedure as little burdensome as possible, and to reduce its interference with the actual prosecution of the work.'' ``After the war, the question of secrecy was reconsidered... but the practice of classification continued; it was our `security,' whether it worked or failed,'' Oppenheimer's colleague Edward Teller updated us in 1981, halfway between the mimeographed handout of 1943 and the labyrinthine security policies of today. ``We now have millions of classified technical documents,'' Teller continued, and ``the limitations we impose on ourselves by restricting information are far greater than any advantage others could gain.'' Teller titled his critique ``The Road to Nowhere.'' Is there a road back? In some notable cases (digital computing, satellite reconnaissance, GPS) we have taken the road to openness, and Teller's opinion, at least in this domain, appears to have been correct.

  8. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  9. Chronic open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adatia, Feisal A.; Damji, Karim F.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, including in Canada. It presents a challenge in diagnosis, as disease often progresses without symptoms; an estimated 50% of cases are undetected. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE searches, reference lists of articles, and expert knowledge from one of the authors (K.F.D.), a glaucoma specialist, were used. MAIN MESSAGE A casefinding approach using early referral to optometrists and ophthalmologists for early detection of COAG is helpful for patients with risk factors such as age above 50, a positive family history, black race, and myopia. Moderate evidence for referral also exists for the following risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Treatment with intraocular pressure–lowering medication can arrest or slow the course of the disease, permitting patients to retain good visual function. Family physicians should be aware that some intraocular pressure–lowering medications, particularly topical beta-blockers, can pose iatrogenic harm to patients and result in or exacerbate such conditions as asthma, cardiovascular disturbances, depression, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION Appropriate referral patterns and an understanding of common as well as serious side effects of glaucoma medications are important in optimizing management of patients at risk of developing, or who have, COAG. PMID:16190176

  10. The synthetic biology open language.

    PubMed

    Myers, Chris; Clancy, Kevin; Misirli, Goksel; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline; Roehner, Nicholas; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-01-01

    The design and construction of engineered organisms is an emerging new discipline called synthetic biology and holds considerable promise as a new technological platform. The design of biologically engineered systems is however nontrivial, requiring contributions from a wide array of disciplines. One particular issue that confronts synthetic biologists is the ability to unambiguously describe novel designs such that they can be reengineered by a third-party. For this reason, the synthetic biology open language (SBOL) was developed as a community wide standard for formally representing biological designs. A design created by one engineering team can be transmitted electronically to another who can then use this design to reproduce the experimental results. The development and the community of the SBOL standard started in 2008 and has since grown in use with now over 80 participants, including international, academic, and industrial interests. SBOL has stimulated the development of repositories and software tools to help synthetic biologists in their design efforts. This chapter summarizes the latest developments and future of the SBOL standard and its supporting infrastructure.

  11. An open tubular ion chromatograph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingcheng; Zhang, Min; Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-01

    We describe an open tubular ion chromatograph (OTIC) that uses anion exchange latex coated 5 μm radius silica and 9.8 μm radius poly(methyl methacrylate) tubes and automated time/pressure based hydrodynamic injection for pL-nL scale injections. It is routinely possible to generate 50,000 plates or more (up to 150,000 plates/m, columns between 0.3 and 0.8 m have been used), and as such, fast separations are possible, comparable to or in some cases better than the current practice of IC. With an optimized admittance detector, nonsuppressed detection permits LODs of submicromolar to double digit micromolar for a variety of analytes. However, large volume injections are possible and can significantly improve on this. A variety of eluents, the use of organic modifiers, and variations of eluent pH can be used to tailor a given separation. The approach is discussed in the context of extraterrestrial exploration, especially Mars, where the existence of large amounts of perchlorate in the soil needs to be confirmed. These columns can survive drying and freezing, and small footprint, low power consumption, and simplicity make OTIC a good candidate for such a mission. PMID:25394230

  12. Embracing Openness: The Challenges of OER in Latin American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Nadia Paola Mireles

    2013-01-01

    The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in…

  13. The Impact of Openness on Bridging Educational Digital Divides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Openness has been a feature of higher education for many decades, particularly through the establishment of open universities, although there remain debates about what openness means in practice. Digital technologies, some based on open principles, and digital content, aided by open licences, have both contributed recently to an extension of what…

  14. Measured opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened diaphragm for the Langley expansion tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from an experimental study of the opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened, 15.24 cm diameter diaphragm are presented. This diaphragm consists of a polyester film bonded to a preformed wire and is opened by passing a current pulse (capacitor discharge) through the wire. The diaphragm separates the acceleration section of the expansion tunnel from the nozzle so that the nozzle may be at a lower pressure than the acceleration section prior to a test. Opening times and cleanness of the opened area were examined for dependence on diaphragm thickness, on wire diameter, on technique of bonding the wire to the diaphragm, and on voltage and energy level of the energy source. Time histories of the pitot pressure measured at the expansion-tunnel nozzle entrance location are presented for (1) no diaphragm, (2) a flow-opened diaphragm, and (3) an electromagnetically opened diaphragm.

  15. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P U; Hof, A L; Stegenga, B; de Bont, L G

    1999-02-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women and 32 men (mean age 27.2 years, s.d. 7.5 years, range 13-56 years) were recruited from the patients of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of University Hospital, Groningen. Mouth opening, mobility of TMJs and mandibular length were measured. The mobility of TMJs was measured as the angular displacement of the mandible relative to the cranium, the angle of mouth opening (AMO). Mouth opening (MO) correlated significantly with mandibular length (ML) (r = 0.36) and AMO (r = 0.66). The regression equation MO = C1 x ML x AMO + C2, in which C = 0.53 and C2 = 25.2 mm, correlated well (r = 0.79) with mouth opening. It is concluded that mouth opening reflects both mobility of the TMJs and mandibular length. PMID:10080308

  16. Towards an open architecture for vector GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfey, Robert I.; Gittings, Bruce M.; Batcheller, James K.

    2006-12-01

    A range of open source software tools are now available to the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analyst. However these tools are not necessarily interoperable and rarely significantly interoperable with proprietary systems. The open architectures, which have been developed for web-oriented systems, together with those proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), suggest that an open GIS architecture could be developed as an alternative to proprietary systems. The architecture would use open source components to store, translate, analyse, render and visualise GI data and would escape many of the problems of monolithic systems. Particularly what is proposed permits the loose coupling of any number of components and data stores in a manner that is both open and flexible. This paper proposes such an architecture and focuses on determining the suitability of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), an open vector-oriented eXtensible Markup Language (XML) grammar, as a significant component of such architecture. SVG is shown as an effective means of rendering GI data, not least because of its compatibility with the WC3 Document Object Model (DOM), permitting GIS-specific client tools to be written and transmitted to the web browser along with the SVG pages. While realising that the technology is in its infancy, the conclusion reached is that SVG currently provides a powerful solution and has enormous future potential.

  17. The ethics of open access publishing.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael

    2013-03-22

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication.

  18. 75 FR 4741 - Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... 111 Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and Distribute Changes and Updates AGENCY... to reflect changes and updates for Express Mail Open and Distribute and Priority Mail Open and... address of the commenter, may be sent to: MailingStandards@usps.gov , with a subject line of ``Open...

  19. An open framework for hydrological data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, H.; Ridler, M. E.; Velzen, N. V.; Hummel, S.; Sandholt, I.; Falk, A. K.; Heemink, A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. Thus far, many of the efforts on implementation of data assimilation in hydrological modeling have been model specific. This requires access to as well as an in-depth knowledge of the numerical core of the models. A means to deal with the interaction between model and data assimilation algorithm in a more generic way is the use of the Open Model Interface (OpenMI). This open source standard interface allows models to exchange data during runtime, thus transforming a complex numerical model to a plug and play like component. For data assimilation, the OpenDA data assimilation toolbox is an open interface standard that includes a set of tools, assimilation algorithms, and numerical techniques to quickly implement data assimilation in numerical models. This paper presents a new generic data assimilation framework that uses OpenMI to interface models within OpenDA. This enables the many OpenMI hydrological models already available access to a robust and flexible data assimilation library. A synthetic test case is presented that highlights the potential of this new framework. An ensemble based Kalman filter is demonstrated for assimilation of groundwater levels in the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological

  20. Open-pit equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

  1. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  2. Plating of open pediatric tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Head, James; Lewis, T R; Puffinbarger, William; Garbrecht, Erika

    2014-07-01

    This study is a single center retrospective chart and radiographic review of patients with open tibia fractures under the age of 16 years of age over past 10 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the treatment of open pediatric tibia fractures with plating in regards to time to ambulation, time to union, and deformity in comparison to other treatment options. We found that plating open pediatric tibia fractures is a safe treatment option that can lead to excellent results with low risk of complications. PMID:25223152

  3. A flexible Open Data Assimilation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Ridler, Marc E.; Altaf, Umer; Madsen, Henrik; Heemink, Arnold; Dijkzeul, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. The implementation of data assimilation techniques is traditionally in a model specific form. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to have in-depth knowledge of the numerical core computations and it does not allow to freely experiment with data assimilation algorithms and measurement sources without the need of additional programming. We present a more flexible approach to setup a forecasting system. The OpenDA data assimilation framework contains many state of the art data assimilation algorithms to easily set up a forecasting system. The setup of the framework allows users to select and experiment with various algorithms. OpenDA defines an interface between model and data assimilation algorithms. This interface only needs to be implemented once for a particular model. The OpenDA model interface is already implemented for various models. Besides these models it is very easy to couple models that are already implementing the Open Model Interface (OpenMI) to OpenDA using the generic OpenMI-OpenDA coupler. Using a synthetic test case we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach using OpenMI and OpenDA. We use the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system to demonstrate how

  4. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, F.; Koch, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.

  5. 29 CFR 530.203 - Outstanding violations and open investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outstanding violations and open investigations. 530.203... Employer Certificates § 530.203 Outstanding violations and open investigations. A homework certificate will... subject of an open investigation....

  6. VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR AREA, NOTE FOUNDATIONS OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  8. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  9. 75 FR 68384 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  10. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  11. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  12. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  13. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  14. Opening the Strands of Replication Origins—Still an Open Question

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Jyoti K.; Ramachandran, Revathy; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2016-01-01

    The local separation of duplex DNA strands (strand opening) is necessary for initiating basic transactions on DNA such as transcription, replication, and homologous recombination. Strand opening is commonly a stage at which these processes are regulated. Many different mechanisms are used to open the DNA duplex, the details of which are of great current interest. In this review, we focus on a few well-studied cases of DNA replication origin opening in bacteria. In particular, we discuss the opening of origins that support the theta (θ) mode of replication, which is used by all chromosomal origins and many extra-chromosomal elements such as plasmids and phages. Although the details of opening can vary among different origins, a common theme is binding of the initiator to multiple sites at the origin, causing stress that opens an adjacent and intrinsically unstable A+T rich region. The initiator stabilizes the opening by capturing one of the open strands. How the initiator binding energy is harnessed for strand opening remains to be understood. PMID:27747216

  15. OpenMP Experiences and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Terry; Thigpen, William W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The document discusses message passage interfaces (MPI), open message passage issues and parallelization. A comparison of the two vector platforms, C90 and SVlex is presented. Sections of the document are written in computer code.

  16. Educational Decision Making in Open Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Ingo

    1994-01-01

    Contends that open societies that lack official ideologies may find it difficult to determine educational objectives. Maintains that new trends in educational policy formation include deinstitutionalization of the educational system, efficiency expectations, multiculturalism, choice, and participation. (CFR)

  17. Assessments: an open and closed case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazim Khan, R.

    2015-10-01

    Open book assessment is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book assessments in a first-year business statistics course. Data over two semesters of open book assessments provided some interesting results when compared with the closed book assessment regime in the following semester. The relevance of the results is discussed and compared with findings from the literature. The implications of insights gained for further practice in the assessment of mathematics and statistics is also discussed.

  18. Training on Call: The Open Learning Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Queensland (Australia) Open Learning Network delivered training to telephone industry workers using audiographic conferencing. Ways to overcome the lack of face-to-face interaction were devised, and the presenter used oral cues more extensively. (SK)

  19. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... openings. (a) Mechanical ventilation for spaces protected by a CO2 system must be designed to shut down... natural ventilation must have a means for closing that ventilation. (c) Each space protected by a...

  20. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participation may be terminated at any time for any reason. (c) When holding open meetings, the Commission shall make a diligent effort to provide ample space, sufficient visibility, and adequate acoustics...

  1. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  2. Hatches Open, Expedition 32 Expands to Six

    NASA Video Gallery

    The hatches between the Soyuz and the Rassvet module opened Tuesday at 3:23 a.m. when Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide entered the International Space Station. Exped...

  3. Graph500 in OpenSHMEM

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, Ed F; Imam, Neena

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the effort to implement the Graph 500 benchmark using OpenSHMEM based on the MPI-2 one-side version. The Graph 500 benchmark performs a breadth-first search in parallel on a large randomly generated undirected graph and can be implemented using basic MPI-1 and MPI-2 one-sided communication. Graph 500 requires atomic bit-wise operations on unsigned long integers but neither atomic bit-wise operations nor OpenSHMEM for unsigned long are available in OpenSHEM. Such needed bit-wise atomic operations and support for unsigned long are implemented using atomic condition swap (CSWAP) on signed long integers. Preliminary results on comparing the OpenSHMEM and MPI-2 one-sided implementations on a Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) cluster and the Cray XK7 are presented.

  4. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  5. Open lung biopsy in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R J; Mountain, C F; McMurtrey, M J

    1984-11-01

    Increased use of open lung biopsy in the search for a treatable etiology of acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) in immunocompromised patients is based on the assumption that examination and cultures from biopsy specimens will yield significant information leading to beneficial treatment of the condition. To assess the true impact of the results of open lung biopsy on the subsequent treatment and outcome in such patients, a retrospective study was done of 64 consecutive patients undergoing the procedure in a recent five-year period. When open lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis of AIP in immunocompromised patients after empiric broad spectrum treatment failed, it rarely missed a specific, treatable etiology, if present. However, the results from open lung biopsy infrequently lead to a change in the treatment that improves the patient's clinical course.

  6. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455 Enclosure...) Doors, shutters, or dampers for closing each opening in the lower portion of the space. (2)...

  7. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455 Enclosure...) Doors, shutters, or dampers for closing each opening in the lower portion of the space. (2)...

  8. What Do You Have for Openers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes some "openers" to use in science class to attract attention, create interest or maintain interest. Some examples of materials that can be used are a radiometer, a drinking bird, Geiger-Muller Counter and a human skeleton. (BR)

  9. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  10. Valve, normally open, titanium: Pyronetics Model 1425

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos, E.

    1972-01-01

    An operating test series was applied to two explosive actuated, normally open, titanium valves. There were no failures. Tests included: proof pressure and external leakage test, gross leak test, post actuation leakage test, and burst pressure test.

  11. The Hidden Curriculum and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowski, Theodore J.; King, Melon

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which the school environment is organized and warns against changing from traditional to open education without carefully evaluating the messages that the physical and the social environments (including teachers attitudes) are conveying. (Author/SDH)

  12. Quantum computing Hyper Terahertz Facility opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Chadha, Kulvinder

    2016-01-01

    A new facility has opened at the University of Surrey to use terahertz radiation for quantum computing. The Hyper Terahertz Facility (HTF) is a joint collaboration between the University of Surrey and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL).

  13. 77 FR 38630 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... meeting. By notice of intent to establish the Open Internet Advisory Committee, published at 76 FR 22395... Vigil Security, LLC) Neil Hunt, Chief Product Officer, Netflix Charles Kalmanek, Vice President...

  14. Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

  15. Open Access and Global Participation in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James A.; Reimer, Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Investigations into the impact of open access journals on subsequent citations confounded open and electronic access and failed to track availability over time. With new data, we separated these effects. We demonstrate that article and journal citations increase more when a journal comes online freely rather than commercially and that free access journals are cited more by scientists in poorer countries. Together, findings suggest that free Internet access widens the circle of those who read and make use of scientists’ investigations.

  16. Flow distances on open flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangzhu; Lou, Xiaodan; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    An open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state mode of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. An open flow network is different from a closed flow network because it considers the flows from or to the environment (the source and the sink). For instance, in energetic food webs, species obtain energy not only from other species but also from the environment (sunlight), and species also dissipate energy to the environment. Flow distances between any two nodes i and j are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from i to j. The conventional method for the calculation of the random walk distance on closed flow networks cannot be applied to open flow networks. Therefore, we derive novel explicit expressions for flow distances of open flow networks according to their underlying Markov matrix of the network in this paper. We apply flow distances to two types of empirical open flow networks, including energetic food webs and economic input-output networks. In energetic food webs, we visualize the trophic level of each species and compare flow distances with other distance metrics on the graph. In economic input-output networks, we rank sectors according to their average flow distances and cluster sectors into different industrial groups with strong connections. Other potential applications and mathematical properties are also discussed. To summarize, flow distance is a useful and powerful tool to study open flow systems.

  17. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  18. Reducing the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushov, G. G.; Zakharevich, A. M.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Koshuro, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is established that a decrease in the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon, a pyrolytic glassy composite material of interest for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), can be achieved via impregnation of articles with an alcohol solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and subsequent thermal treatment. The maximum roughness height and linear size of open pores on the surface of PHV parts made of pyroboroncarbon can additionally be reduced by final mechanical processing of a silicon oxide film formed on the surface.

  19. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report first results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  20. Open Sesame: a new generation journal

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Malhi, Gin S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Royal College of Psychiatrists welcomes you to its newest peer-reviewed research journal, British Journal of Psychiatry Open (BJPsych Open), which has been created to maximise the College’s efforts to publish and disseminate the most exciting and progressive research in psychiatry and allied disciplines. BJPsych Open will maintain the same high quality standards established by the British Journal of Psychiatry (BJPsych). As an online journal without print restrictions, BJPsych Open will be able to publish many more excellent articles and article types not currently accommodated within BJPsych. The breadth of BJPsych Open is outlined in ‘What we publish’ and its strength is realised in our first issue, ‘Powerful papers’. As editors, we welcome both your submissions and comments as our new generation journal grows. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  1. Open Access Publishing - Strengths and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The journal crisis and the demand for free accessibility to the results of publicly funded research were the main drivers of the Open Access movement since the late 1990's. Besides many academic institutions that support the different ways of Open Access publishing, there is a growing number of publishing houses that are specialized on this new access and business model of scholarly literature. The lecture provides an overview of the different kinds of Open Access publishing, discusses the variety of underlying business models, names the advantages and potentials for researches and the public, and overcomes some objections against Open Access. Besides the increased visibility and information supply, the topic of copyrights and exploitation rights will be discussed. Furthermore, it is a central aim of the presentation to show that Open Access does not only support full peer-review, but also provides the potential for even enhanced quality assurance. The financing of business models based on open accessible literature is another important part to be outlined in the lecture.

  2. OpenSHMEM-UCX : Evaluation of UCX for implementing OpenSHMEM Programming Model

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Matthew B; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath; Aderholdt, William Ferrol; Shamis, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The OpenSHMEM reference implementation was developed towards the goal of developing an open source and high-performing Open- SHMEM implementation. To achieve portability and performance across various networks, the OpenSHMEM reference implementation uses GAS- Net and UCCS for network operations. Recently, new network layers have emerged with the promise of providing high-performance, scalabil- ity, and portability for HPC applications. In this paper, we implement the OpenSHMEM reference implementation to use the UCX framework for network operations. Then, we evaluate its performance and scalabil- ity on Cray XK systems to understand UCX s suitability for developing the OpenSHMEM programming model. Further, we develop a bench- mark called SHOMS for evaluating the OpenSHMEM implementation. Our experimental results show that OpenSHMEM-UCX outperforms the vendor supplied OpenSHMEM implementation in most cases on the Cray XK system by up to 40% with respect to message rate and up to 70% for the execution of application kernels.

  3. Open flux in Saturn’s magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badman, Sarah V.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Nichols, Jonathan D.; Clarke, John T.; Gérard, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    We characterise the interaction between the solar wind and Saturn’s magnetosphere by evaluating the amount of ‘open’ magnetic flux connected to the solar wind. This is deduced from a large set of Hubble Space Telescope images of the ultraviolet aurora, using the poleward boundary of the main aurora as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. The amount of open flux is found to be 10-50 GWb, with a mean of 35 GWb. The typical change in open flux between consecutive observations separated by 10-60 h is -5 or +7 GWb. These changes are a result of imbalance between open flux creation at the dayside magnetopause and its closure in the magnetotail. The 5 GWb typical decrease in open flux is consistent with in situ measurements of the flux transported following a reconnection event. Estimates of average, net reconnection rates are found to be typically a few tens of kV, with some extreme examples of unbalanced magnetopause or tail reconnection occurring at ∼300 kV. The range of values determined suggest that Saturn’s magnetosphere does not generally achieve a steady state between flux opening at the magnetopause and flux closure in the magnetotail. The percentage of magnetic flux which is open in Saturn’s magnetosphere is similar to that measured at the Earth (2-11%), but the typical percentage that is closed between observations is significantly lower (13% compared to 40-70%). Therefore, open flux is usually closed in smaller (few GWb) events in Saturn’s magnetosphere. The exception to this behaviour is large, rapid flux closure events which are associated with solar wind compressions. While the rates of flux opening and closure should be equal over long timescales, they are evidently different on shorter (up to tens of hours) timescales. The relative independence of the magnetopause and tail reconnection rates can be attributed to the long loading timescales required to transport open field lines into the tail.

  4. 18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of open season... ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157.34 Notice of open season. (a) Notice. A prospective applicant must provide reasonable public notice of an open season through...

  5. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  6. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  7. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  8. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  9. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste...

  10. The Openness-Creativity Cycle in Education--A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The nature of openness in education has transformed from just relating to open access to encompass a wide range of interpretations. This paper explores the concept of an "open scholar" whose practice is shaped by digital and networked technologies. It is argued that openness represents an effective working method in this environment, and that…

  11. 5 CFR 870.507 - Open enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open enrollment periods. 870.507 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 870.507 Open enrollment periods. (a) There are no regularly scheduled open enrollment periods for life insurance. Open enrollment periods...

  12. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308... INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. An assured may cancel an Open Cargo Policy by delivering to the underwriting agent,...

  13. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

  14. 46 CFR 151.45-5 - Open hopper barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open hopper barges. 151.45-5 Section 151.45-5 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-5 Open hopper barges. (a) All open hopper... cleaned or gas-freed). (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no such open hopper type...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001.53....53 Open storage areas. This section describes the minimum construction standards for open storage... in its smallest dimension) that enter or pass through an open storage area shall be protected...

  16. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  17. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1020 Purchase of open accounts. (a) General. The purchase of open accounts is a... national bank may purchase open accounts in connection with export transactions; the accounts should...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute resolution. (a... with the following additions or changes. (b) Alternate dispute resolution. An open video...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  20. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  1. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open container of...

  2. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Open container of...

  3. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  4. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  6. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  7. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  8. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  9. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  10. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  11. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1020 Purchase of open accounts. (a) General. The purchase of open accounts is a... national bank may purchase open accounts in connection with export transactions; the accounts should...

  12. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  13. 47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute resolution. (a... with the following additions or changes. (b) Alternate dispute resolution. An open video...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute resolution. (a... with the following additions or changes. (b) Alternate dispute resolution. An open video...

  15. 47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute resolution. (a... with the following additions or changes. (b) Alternate dispute resolution. An open video...

  16. 47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute resolution. (a... with the following additions or changes. (b) Alternate dispute resolution. An open video...

  17. Open Textbook Proof-of-Concept via Connexions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Judy; Thierstein, Joel; Fletcher, Kathi; Kaur, Manpreet; Emmons, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    To address the high cost of textbooks, Rice University's Connexions and the Community College Open Textbook Project (CCOTP) collaborated to develop a proof-of-concept free and open textbook. The proof-of-concept served to document a workflow process that would support adoption of open textbooks. Open textbooks provide faculty and students with a…

  18. The Emergence of Open-Source Software in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Guohua; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2007-01-01

    The open-source software movement is gaining increasing momentum in China. Of the limited numbers of open-source software in China, "Red Flag Linux" stands out most strikingly, commanding 30 percent share of Chinese software market. Unlike the spontaneity of open-source movement in North America, open-source software development in China, such as…

  19. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  20. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...