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Sample records for allan downie anne

  1. The quantum Allan variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabuda, Krzysztof; Leroux, Ian D.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał

    2016-08-01

    The instability of an atomic clock is characterized by the Allan variance, a measure widely used to describe the noise of frequency standards. We provide an explicit method to find the ultimate bound on the Allan variance of an atomic clock in the most general scenario where N atoms are prepared in an arbitrarily entangled state and arbitrary measurement and feedback are allowed, including those exploiting coherences between succeeding interrogation steps. While the method is rigorous and general, it becomes numerically challenging for large N and long averaging times.

  2. Allan Sillitoe's Lonely Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obst, Jennifer

    1969-01-01

    The hero of Allan Sillitoe's novel, "The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner," differs in many ways from the typical modern existential hero. Unlike the anti-hero, Smith is not searching for values, for he understands what life is and accepts it. He follows a code of honesty and hates "phonies." He is aware of class distinctions and sees the…

  3. Spinach downy mildew – Threat, prevention and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew disease is a widespread and destructive disease of spinach in California and elsewhere where spinach is grown, and is caused by Peronospora effusa, an obligate, plant pathogenic oomycete. As in the case with most other crops damaged by downy mildews, spinach downy mildew culminates in ...

  4. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  5. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  6. Genetics of resistance against lettuce downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the U.S. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carrying dominan...

  7. Phenology of exotic invasive weeds associated with downy brome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic and highly invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum) has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Downy brome increases the chance, rate, season and spread of wildfires, resulting in the destruction of native plant communities and the wildli...

  8. Downy brome seed ecology: From flower to emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed is very common in seed banks throughout Great Basin rangelands. Previously, using a soil bioassay method, we tested 100 separate sites within the Great Basin (1000 samples) to measure downy brome seed bank densities. The locations differed greatly by precipitation,...

  9. Epidemiology and control of spinach downy mildew in coastal California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most serious threat to global fresh market spinach production is spinach downy mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen, Peronospora effusa. Downy mildew causes yellow chlorotic lesions on spinach leaf tissue, often accompanied by abundant sporulation on the undersides of leaves. Very ...

  10. Edgar Allan Poe's Physical Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    1994-06-01

    In this paper I describe the scientific content of Eureka, the prose poem written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1848. In that work, starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe claims that the Universe is finite in an infinite Space, and that it was originated from a primordial Particle, whose fragmentation under the action of a repulsive force caused a diffusion of atoms in space. I will show that his subsequently collapsing universe represents a scientifically acceptable Newtonian model. In the framework of his evolving universe, Poe makes use of contemporary astronomical knowledge, deriving modern concepts such as a primordial atomic state of the universe and a common epoch of galaxy formation. Harrison found in Eureka the first, qualitative solution of the Olbers' paradox; I show that Poe also applies in a modern way the anthropic principle, trying to explain why the Universe is so large.

  11. Diagnosis method of cucumber downy mildew with NIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Li, Tianlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to develop a hyperspectral imaging system in the near infrared (NIR) region (900-1700 nm) to diagnose cucumber downy mildew. Hyperspectral images were acquired from each diseased cucumber leaf samples with downy mildew and then their spectral data were extracted. Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of the data and for selecting some important wavelengths. Out of 256 wavelengths, only two wavelengths (1426 and 1626nm) of first PC were selected as the optimum wavelengths for the diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew. The data analysis showed that it is possible to diagnose cucumber downy mildew with few numbers of wavelengths on the basis of their statistical image features and histogram features. The results revealed the potentiality of NIR hyperspectral imaging as an objective and non-destructive method for the authentication and diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew.

  12. Studies on the reproductive biology of downy brome (Bromus tectorum)

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of downy brome to successfully infest crop lands is partially due to its prolific nature. To better understand its reproductive biology, studies investigating (1) effects of temperature and photoperiod on flowering, (2) prevention of downy brome seed information with herbicides, and (3) effects of drought on reproduction, were conducted. Seedling vernalization was more effective than seed vernalization in promoting downy brome flowering. Vernalizing imbibed downy brome caryopses at 3 C for 0 to 30 days did not induce rapid flowering. Downy brome seedlings were exposed to six photoperiod/temperature treatments. After transfer to long days, plants from the short da/3 C treatment flowered within 30 days. DPX-Y6202 and fluazifop-butyl were tested for their ability to prevent seed formation in downy brome. Fluazifop-butyl prevented seed formation over a wider range of application rates and growth stages than did DPX-Y6202. Seed production was prevented most readily by herbicide applications made early in the reproductive cycle. Translocation of radiolabel was greater with /sup 14/C-fluazifop-butyl than with /sup 14/C-DPX-Y6202, particularly into developing spikelets. Microautoradiographic techniques were used to identify mechanisms involved in the prevention of downy brome seed formation by these herbicides. Tissue localization of both herbicides was similar. The highest concentration of radiolabel was found in developing pollen grains, suggesting that the herbicides prevented seed formation by interrupting pollen development or function. Water stress reduced apparent photosynthesis and increased diffusive resistance of flag leaves.

  13. John A. Scigliano Interviews Allan B. Ellis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.

    2000-01-01

    This interview with Allan Ellis focuses on a history of computer applications in education. Highlights include work at the Harvard Graduate School of Education; the New England Education Data System; and efforts to create a computer-based distance learning and development program called ISVD (Information System for Vocational Decisions). (LRW)

  14. The Curious Mind of Allan Bloom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews Allan Bloom's 1987 book, THE CLOSING OF THE AMERICAN MIND: HOW HIGHER EDUCATION HAS FAILED DEMOCRACY AND IMPOVERISHED THE SOULS OF TODAY'S CHILDREN. Compares Bloom's book with THE HIGHER LEARNING IN AMERICA, a 1930s book by Mortimer Adler and Robert Hutchins. (JDH)

  15. Development of an assay for rapid detection of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew of lettuce, caused by Bremia lactucae, causes chlorosis on leaves and adversely affects marketability. Though downy mildew on lettuce can be controlled by fungicide applications, it is costly to routinely apply fungicides to prevent the establishment of downy mildew. Repeated use of the...

  16. Genetics of downy mildew resistance in two interspecific hybrid grapevine families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to lack of co-evolution with Plasmopara viticola, the causal pathogen of grapevine downy mildew, nearly all cultivated grapevines are susceptible to downy mildew, whereas their wild relatives are frequently resistant. In order to find QTL for downy mildew resistance and susceptibility, we perfor...

  17. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens.

  18. Sequencing of the Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Reveals It Is a Phytophthora Species With Downy Mildew-Like Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Yang; Shen, Danyu; Li, Delong; Pu, Tianhuizi; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Zhengguang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of its downy mildew-like morphology, the litchi downy blight pathogen was previously named Peronophythora litchii. Recently, however, it was proposed to transfer this pathogen to Phytophthora clade 4. To better characterize this unusual oomycete species and important fruit pathogen, we obtained the genome sequence of Phytophthora litchii and compared it to those from other oomycete species. P. litchii has a small genome with tightly spaced genes. On the basis of a multilocus phylogenetic analysis, the placement of P. litchii in the genus Phytophthora is strongly supported. Effector proteins predicted included 245 RxLR, 30 necrosis-and-ethylene-inducing protein-like, and 14 crinkler proteins. The typical motifs, phylogenies, and activities of these effectors were typical for a Phytophthora species. However, like the genome features of the analyzed downy mildews, P. litchii exhibited a streamlined genome with a relatively small number of genes in both core and species-specific protein families. The low GC content and slight codon preferences of P. litchii sequences were similar to those of the analyzed downy mildews and a subset of Phytophthora species. Taken together, these observations suggest that P. litchii is a Phytophthora pathogen that is in the process of acquiring downy mildew-like genomic and morphological features. Thus P. litchii may provide a novel model for investigating morphological development and genomic adaptation in oomycete pathogens. PMID:27183038

  19. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  20. [The medical history of Edgar Allan Poe].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2007-09-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed.

  1. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  2. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Mukesh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Dhawan, Om P; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2010-04-01

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F(1) progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 x Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 x H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotypespecific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait.

  3. The Downy Mildews: so many genomes, so little time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildews (DMs) are obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plant species. Individual species exhibit a high degree of host specialization. We have utilized next generation sequencing to efficiently generate de novo genome assemblies of multiple geographica...

  4. The effects of downy brome invasion on mule deer habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum), also widely known as cheatgrass, is a highly invasive exotic weed that has spread over millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West. Native to Eurasia, this early maturing annual provides a fine textured fuel that increases the chance, rate, sea...

  5. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2011-12-01

    Allan Rex Sandage died of pancreatic cancer at his home in San Gabriel, California, in the shadow of Mount Wilson, on November 13, 2010. Born in Iowa City, Iowa, on June 18, 1926, he was 84 years old at his death, leaving his wife, former astronomer Mary Connelly Sandage, and two sons, David and John. He also left a legacy to the world of astronomical knowledge that has long been universally admired and appreciated, making his name synonymous with late 20th-Century observational cosmology. The only child of Charles Harold Sandage, a professor of advertising who helped establish that academic specialty after obtaining a PhD in business administration, and Dorothy Briggs Sandage, whose father was president of Graceland College in Iowa, Allan Sandage grew up in a thoroughly intellectual, university oriented atmosphere but also a peripatetic one taking him to Philadelphia and later to Illinois as his father rose in his career. During his 2 years in Philadelphia, at about age eleven, Allan developed a curiosity about astronomy stimulated by a friend's interest. His father bought him a telescope and he used it to systematically record sunspots, and later attempted to make a larger 6-inch reflector, a project left uncompleted. As a teenager Allan read widely, especially astronomy books of all kinds, recalling in particular The Glass Giant of Palomar as well as popular works by Eddington and Hubble (The Realm of the Nebulae) in the early 1940s. Although his family was Mormon, of the Reorganized Church, he was not practicing, though he later sporadically attended a Methodist church in Oxford, Iowa during his college years. Sandage knew by his high school years that he would engage in some form of intellectual life related to astronomy. He particularly recalls an influential science teacher at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio named Ray Edwards, who inspired him to think critically and "not settle for any hand-waving of any kind." [Interview of Allan Rex Sandage by Spencer

  6. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  7. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  8. Three-dimensional Allan fault plane analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, K.S.; Taylor, D.R.; Schnell, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Allan fault-plane analysis is a useful tool for determining hydrocarbon migration paths and the location of possible traps. While initially developed for Gulf coast deltaic and interdeltaic environments, fault-plane analysis has been successfully applied in many other geologic settings. Where the geology involves several intersecting faults and greater complexity, many two-dimensional displays are required in the investigation and it becomes increasingly difficult to accurately visualize both fault relationships and migration routes. Three-dimensional geospatial fault and structure modeling using computer techniques, however, facilitates both visualization and understanding and extends fault-plane analysis into much more complex situations. When a model is viewed in three dimensions, the strata on both sides of a fault can be seen simultaneously while the true structural character of one or more fault surfaces is preserved. Three-dimensional analysis improves the speed and accuracy of the fault plane methodology.

  9. Mutants of Downy Mildew Resistance in Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce)

    PubMed Central

    Okubara, P. A.; Anderson, P. A.; Ochoa, O. E.; Michelmore, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from γ- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci. PMID:8088530

  10. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  11. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species. PMID:25844828

  12. Ann Wagner, Mechanical Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Betsy K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of Ann Wagner, a mechanical engineer at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, and her job responsibilities there. Also includes a brief history of mechanical engineering as well as a sample graph and data activity sheet with answers. (AIM)

  13. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  14. Prevalence and incidence of sunflower downy mildew in North Dakota from 2001 to 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) is an economic problem in sunflowers in North Dakota (ND), which historically produces about half the U.S. sunflower crop. From 2001 to 2011, the prevalence and incidence of downy mildew was monitored in ND as part of two large survey efforts, namely a m...

  15. Evaluation of commercial melon varieties for tolerance to downy mildew, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, changes in the downy mildew pathogen have been detected particularly on cucumbers where previously resistant varieties have become susceptible. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of commercial melon varieties with resistance to downy mildew. This experiment was...

  16. Pre- and post-infection activity of fungicides in control of hop downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimum timing and use of fungicides for disease control are improved by an understanding of the characteristics of fungicide physical mode of action, although this information is lacking for hop downy mildew. Control of downy mildew on leaves was similar among fungicides tested when applied prevent...

  17. Season-long dynamics of spinach downy mildew determined by spore trapping and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peronospora effusa is an obligate oomycete pathogen, and the cause of downy mildew of spinach. Downy mildew threatens sustainable production of fresh market organic spinach in California, and routine fungicide sprays are often necessary for conventional production. In this study, airborne P. effus...

  18. Returning succession to downy brome dominated rangelands: roadblocks to perennial grass establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common cause of successional retrogression in the Great Basin is wildfires fueled by downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Downy brome invasion has reduced fire intervals from an estimated 60-100 years down to 5-10 years. Our previous research found that establishment of long-lived perennial grass...

  19. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in 18th and 19th century, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy milde...

  20. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildews of maize in Asia.

    PubMed

    George, M L C; Prasanna, B M; Rathore, R S; Setty, T A S; Kasim, F; Azrai, M; Vasal, S; Balla, O; Hautea, D; Canama, A; Regalado, E; Vargas, M; Khairallah, M; Jeffers, D; Hoisington, D

    2003-08-01

    Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of maize in subtropical and tropical regions in Asia. As a prerequisite for improving downy mildew resistance in maize, we analyzed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in resistance to the important downy mildew pathogens--Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew) and P. heteropogoni (Rajasthan downy mildew) in India, P. maydis (Java downy mildew) in Indonesia, P. zeae in Thailand and P. philippinensis in the Philippines--using a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Ki3 (downy mildew resistant) and CML139 (susceptible). Resistance was evaluated as percentage disease incidence in replicated field trials at five downy mildew 'hotspots' in the four countries. Heritability estimates of individual environments ranged from 0.58 to 0.75 with an across environment heritability of 0.50. Composite interval mapping was applied for QTL detection using a previously constructed restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage map. The investigation resulted in the identification of six genomic regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7 and 10 involved in the resistance to the downy mildews under study, explaining, in total, 26-57% of the phenotypic variance for disease response. Most QTL alleles conferring resistance to the downy mildews were from Ki3. All QTLs showed significant QTL x environment interactions, suggesting that the expression of the QTL may be environment-dependent. A strong QTL on chromosome 6 was stable across environments, significantly affecting disease resistance at the five locations in four Asian countries. Simple-sequence repeat markers tightly linked to this QTL were identified for potential use in marker-assisted selection.

  1. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2011-12-01

    Allan Rex Sandage died of pancreatic cancer at his home in San Gabriel, California, in the shadow of Mount Wilson, on November 13, 2010. Born in Iowa City, Iowa, on June 18, 1926, he was 84 years old at his death, leaving his wife, former astronomer Mary Connelly Sandage, and two sons, David and John. He also left a legacy to the world of astronomical knowledge that has long been universally admired and appreciated, making his name synonymous with late 20th-Century observational cosmology. The only child of Charles Harold Sandage, a professor of advertising who helped establish that academic specialty after obtaining a PhD in business administration, and Dorothy Briggs Sandage, whose father was president of Graceland College in Iowa, Allan Sandage grew up in a thoroughly intellectual, university oriented atmosphere but also a peripatetic one taking him to Philadelphia and later to Illinois as his father rose in his career. During his 2 years in Philadelphia, at about age eleven, Allan developed a curiosity about astronomy stimulated by a friend's interest. His father bought him a telescope and he used it to systematically record sunspots, and later attempted to make a larger 6-inch reflector, a project left uncompleted. As a teenager Allan read widely, especially astronomy books of all kinds, recalling in particular The Glass Giant of Palomar as well as popular works by Eddington and Hubble (The Realm of the Nebulae) in the early 1940s. Although his family was Mormon, of the Reorganized Church, he was not practicing, though he later sporadically attended a Methodist church in Oxford, Iowa during his college years. Sandage knew by his high school years that he would engage in some form of intellectual life related to astronomy. He particularly recalls an influential science teacher at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio named Ray Edwards, who inspired him to think critically and "not settle for any hand-waving of any kind." [Interview of Allan Rex Sandage by Spencer

  2. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  3. Study on the Methods of Detecting Cucumber Downy Mildew Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Zhang, Lin

    Hyperspectral imaging technology, which can integrate the advantages of spectral detection and image detection, meets the need of detecting the cucumber diseases fast and nondestructively. In this paper, hyperspectral imaging technology is adopted to detect the cucumber downy mildew fast and nondestructively. Firstly, hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves infected downy mildew are acquired by the hyperspectral image acquisition system. And optimum wavelengths are collected by the principal component analysis to get the featured images. Then the image fusion technology is adopted to combine collected images with the featured images to form new images by pixel-level image fusion. Finally, the methods of the image enhancement, binarization, corrosion and dilatation treatments are carried out, so the cucumber downy mildew is detected. The result shows that the accuracy rate of the algorithm for detecting cucumber disease can reach nearly 90%. Studies have shown that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to detect cucumber downy mildew.

  4. ANN - based distribution system reconfiguration

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, J.A.; Wang, Yanchun; Rizy, D.T.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) - based distribution system reconfiguration scheme to reduce system loss. The ANN is trained for different load levels and different network topologies. The proposed scheme has been tested using a 38 - bus distribution system. The results are very promising.

  5. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii. PMID:27171554

  6. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4–1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii. PMID:27171554

  7. The Self According to Allan Bloom and Charles Reich.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the works of Charles Reich and Allan Bloom that have helped to shape current social and political debate concerning self theory. Both Reich and Bloom were concerned with the relationship between self and environment. Argues that it is important to insure that its cultural role of self theory is clearly interpreted and applied. (MKA)

  8. Biotechnology Symposium - In Memoriam, the Late Dr. Allan Zipf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one-day biotechnology symposium was held at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), Normal, AL on June 4, 2004 in memory of the late Dr. Allan Zipf (Sept 1953-Jan 2004). Dr. Zipf was a Research Associate Professor at the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, AAMU, who collaborated extensively with ARS/MS...

  9. Allan Sandage : L'architecte de l'expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1998-07-01

    Il fut de cette poignee de pionniers qui ouvrirent le monde extragalactique. Depuis pres de 50 ans, Allan Sandage poursuit la quete amorcee par le "maitre" Edwin Hubble : mesurer le taux d'expansion de l'Univers. Rencontre avec une legende vivante de la cosmologie...

  10. Measurements of morphology and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    We present optical measurements of morphology and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach–Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and morphological parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  11. Measurements of morphology and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-11-01

    We present optical measurements of morphology and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and morphological parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  12. Measurements of morphology and refractive indexes on human downy hairs using three-dimensional quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    We present optical measurements of morphology and refractive indexes (RIs) of human downy arm hairs using three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D RI tomograms and high-resolution two-dimensional synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach–Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the RIs and morphological parameters of downy hairs were noninvasively quantified including the mean RI, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated. PMID:26205909

  13. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  14. Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Downy brome is an introduced Mediterranean annual grass that now dominates millions of hectares of western U.S. rangelands. The presence of this grass has eliminated many native species and accelerated wildfire cycles. The objective of this study was to identify soil additives that allowed germination but inhibited emergence of downy brome, while not affecting germination or emergence of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii. On the basis of data from previous studies, we focused on additives that altered the availability of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Most water-soluble treatments inhibited downy brome germination and emergence. We attribute the inhibitory effects of these treatments to excessive salinity and ion-specific effects of the additives themselves. An exception to this was oxalic acid, which showed no effect. Most water-insoluble treatments had no effect in soils with high P but did have an effect in soils with low P. Zeolite was effective regardless of P level, probably due to the high amounts of Na+ it added to the soil solution. Most treatments at higher concentrations resulted in lower downy brome emergence rates in soils currently dominated by downy brome than in uninvaded (but theoretically invadable) Hilaria soils. This difference is possibly attributable to inherent differences in labile soil P. In Stifa soils, where Stipa spp. grow, but which are generally considered to be uninvadable by downy brome, additions of high amounts of N resulted in lower emergence. This may have been an effect of NH4+ interference with uptake of K or other cations or toxicity of high N. We also saw a positive relationship between downy brome emergence and pH in Stipa soils. Hilaria development parameters were not as susceptible to the treatments, regardless of concentration, as downy brome. Our results suggest that there are additions that may be effective management tools for inhibiting downy brome in calcareous soils, including (1

  15. Exposure and terrestrial ages of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray exposure histories. The cosmic-ray exposures are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.

  16. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  17. Epidemiology and population biology of Pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews.

    PubMed

    Ojiambo, Peter S; Gent, David H; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Hausbeck, Mary K; Holmes, Gerald J

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of outbreaks of cucurbit downy mildew. The dispersal potential of Pseudoperonospora cubensis appears to be limited primarily by sporangia production in source fields and availability of susceptible hosts and less by sporangia survival during transport. Uncertainty remains regarding the role of locally produced inoculum in disease outbreaks, but evidence suggests multiple sources of primary inoculum could be important. Understanding pathogen diversity and population differentiation is a critical aspect of disease management and an active research area. Underpinning advances in our understanding of pathogen biology and disease management has been the research capacity and coordination of stakeholders, scientists, and extension personnel. Concepts and approaches developed in this pathosystem can guide future efforts when responding to incursions of new or reemerging downy mildew pathogens.

  18. Mapping of QTL for downy mildew resistance in maize.

    PubMed

    Agrama, H A; Moussa, M E; Naser, M E; Tarek, M A; Ibrahim, A H

    1999-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of maize involved in mediating resistance to Peronosclerospora sorghi, the causative agent of sorghum downy mildew (SDM), were detected in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the Zea mays L. cross between resistant (G62) and susceptible (G58) inbred lines. Field tests of 94 RILs were conducted over two growing seasons using artificial inoculation. Heritability of the disease reaction was high (around 70%). The mapping population of the RILs was also scored for restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers. One hundred and six polymorphic RFLP markers were assigned to ten chromosomes covering 1648 cM. Three QTLs were detected that significantly affected resistance to SDM combined across seasons. Two of these mapped quite close together on chromosome 1, while the third one was on chromosome 9. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 12.4% to 23.8%. Collectively, the three QTLs identified in this study explained 53.6% of the phenotypic variation in susceptibility to the infection. The three resistant QTLs appeared to have additive effects. Increased susceptibility was contributed by the alleles of the susceptible parent. The detection of more than one QTL supports the hypothesis that several qualitative and quantitative genes control resistance to P. sorghi.

  19. Carole Anne Klonarides: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with videographer Carole Anne Klonarides that explores her manipulation of space, time, and visual texture, which often results in an altered sense of history. Notes how her goal to create believable sequences together with her desire to move beyond the stereotypical uses and formats of contemporary television show the…

  20. Pragmatics: The State of the Art: An Online Interview with Keith Allan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This interview was conducted with Professor Keith Allan with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the state of the art of pragmatics. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Allan begins with a definition of pragmatics as it is practiced today, i.e., the study of the meanings of utterances with attention to…

  1. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies.

  2. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies. PMID:25965674

  3. Effect of detergent on the quantification of grapevine downy mildew Sporangia from leaf discs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine downy mildew (DM), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berlese & de Toni, is a major disease, especially in humid viticultural areas. Development of resistant cultivars is an important objective for grapevine breeding. In order to establish a reliable and inexpensive...

  4. Epidemiology and population biology of pseudoperonospora cubensis: a model system for management of downy mildews

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of cucurbit downy mildew has dramatically influenced production of cucurbits and disease management systems at multiple scales. Long-distance dispersal is a fundamental aspect of epidemic development that influences the timing and extent of disease outbreaks. Dispersal potential of th...

  5. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  6. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  7. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Plasmopara viticola, the Grapevine Downy Mildew Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gouzy, Jérôme; Richart-Cervera, Sylvie; Mazet, Isabelle D.; Delière, Laurent; Couture, Carole; Legrand, Ludovic; Piron, Marie-Christine; Mestre, Pere; Delmotte, François

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic pathogenic oomycete responsible for grapevine downy mildew. We present here the first draft of the P. viticola genome. Analysis of this sequence will help in understanding plant-pathogen interactions in oomycetes, especially pathogen host specialization and adaptation to host resistance. PMID:27660780

  9. QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in PI 197088 and PI 330628 cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is a devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction lines have been identified with high resistance to the post-2004 new DM strain found in the U.S. However, the inheritance of DM resistance is still not well defined. Molecu...

  10. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 151.2 Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identi...

  11. Genome sequence and architecture of the tobacco downy mildew pathogen, Peronospora tabacina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peronospora tabacina is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes blue mold or downy mildew of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), an economically important disease occurring frequently in tobacco growing regions worldwide. We have sequenced and characterized the genomes of two P. tabacina isolates and m...

  12. Precision QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop Downy mildew (DM) is an obligate parasite causing severe losses in hop if not controlled. Resistance to this pathogen is a primary goal for hop breeding programs. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs linked to DM resistance. Next-generation-sequencing was performed on a mapping po...

  13. Basil Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii): Discoveries and Challenges Relative to Its Control.

    PubMed

    Wyenandt, Christian A; Simon, James E; Pyne, Robert M; Homa, Kathryn; McGrath, Margaret T; Zhang, Shouan; Raid, Richard N; Ma, Li-Jun; Wick, Robert; Guo, Li; Madeiras, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) is one of the most economically important and widely grown herbs in the world. Basil downy mildew, caused by Peronospora belbahrii, has become an important disease in sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide in the past decade. Global sweet basil production is at significant risk to basil downy mildew because of the lack of genetic resistance and the ability of the pathogen to be distributed on infested seed. Controlling the disease is challenging and consequently many crops have been lost. In the past few years, plant breeding efforts have been made to identify germplasm that can be used to introduce downy mildew resistance genes into commercial sweet basils while ensuring that resistant plants have the correct phenotype, aroma, and tastes needed for market acceptability. Fungicide efficacy studies have been conducted to evaluate current and newly developed conventional and organic fungicides for its management with limited success. This review explores the current efforts and progress being made in understanding basil downy mildew and its control.

  14. Basil Downy Mildew (Peronospora belbahrii): Discoveries and Challenges Relative to Its Control.

    PubMed

    Wyenandt, Christian A; Simon, James E; Pyne, Robert M; Homa, Kathryn; McGrath, Margaret T; Zhang, Shouan; Raid, Richard N; Ma, Li-Jun; Wick, Robert; Guo, Li; Madeiras, Angela

    2015-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum spp.) is one of the most economically important and widely grown herbs in the world. Basil downy mildew, caused by Peronospora belbahrii, has become an important disease in sweet basil (O. basilicum) production worldwide in the past decade. Global sweet basil production is at significant risk to basil downy mildew because of the lack of genetic resistance and the ability of the pathogen to be distributed on infested seed. Controlling the disease is challenging and consequently many crops have been lost. In the past few years, plant breeding efforts have been made to identify germplasm that can be used to introduce downy mildew resistance genes into commercial sweet basils while ensuring that resistant plants have the correct phenotype, aroma, and tastes needed for market acceptability. Fungicide efficacy studies have been conducted to evaluate current and newly developed conventional and organic fungicides for its management with limited success. This review explores the current efforts and progress being made in understanding basil downy mildew and its control. PMID:25894318

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Plasmopara viticola, the Grapevine Downy Mildew Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Yann; Gouzy, Jérôme; Richart-Cervera, Sylvie; Mazet, Isabelle D; Delière, Laurent; Couture, Carole; Legrand, Ludovic; Piron, Marie-Christine; Mestre, Pere; Delmotte, François

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola is a biotrophic pathogenic oomycete responsible for grapevine downy mildew. We present here the first draft of the P. viticola genome. Analysis of this sequence will help in understanding plant-pathogen interactions in oomycetes, especially pathogen host specialization and adaptation to host resistance. PMID:27660780

  16. Soil engineering facilitates Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) growth - A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some exotic plants are able to engineer new host soils and engender characteristics that potentially increase their growth. We hypothesized that this positive feedback may be a facet in the competitiveness of the exotic annual grass downy brome. Using rhizotrons in the greenhouse, we compared the gr...

  17. Genetic characterization of quantitative resistance to Bremia lactucae, the causal organism of lettuce downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the United States. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carryi...

  18. Princess Marie Bonaparte, Edgar Allan Poe, and psychobiography.

    PubMed

    Warner, S L

    1991-01-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte was a colorful yet mysterious member of Freud's inner circle of psychoanalysis. In analysis with Freud beginning in 1925 (she was then 45 years old), she became a lay analyst and writer of many papers and books. Her most ambitious task was a 700-page psychobiography of Edgar Allan Poe that was first published in French in 1933. She was fascinated by Poe's gothic stories--with the return to life of dead persons and the eerie, unexpected turns of events. Her fascination with Poe can be traced to the similarity of their early traumatic life experiences. Bonaparte had lost her mother a month after her birth. Poe's father deserted the family when Edgar was two years old, and his mother died of tuberculosis when he was three. Poe's stories helped him to accommodate to these early traumatic losses. Bonaparte vicariously shared in Poe's loss and the fantasies of the return of the deceased parent in his stories. She was sensitive and empathetic to Poe's inner world because her inner world was similar. The result of this psychological fit between Poe and Bonaparte was her psychobiography, The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe. It was a milestone in psychobiography but limited in its psychological scope by its strong emphasis on early childhood trauma. Nevertheless it proved Bonaparte a bona fide creative psychoanalyst and not a dilettante propped up by her friendship with Freud.

  19. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  20. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  1. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  2. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  3. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  4. Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.

  5. Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W

    1999-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the most celebrated of American storytellers, lived through and wrote descriptions of episodic unconsciousness, confusion, and paranoia. These symptoms have been attributed to alcohol or drug abuse but also could represent complex partial seizures, prolonged postictal states, or postictal psychosis. Complex partial seizures were not well described in Poe's time, which could explain a misdiagnosis. Alternatively, he may have suffered from complex partial epilepsy that was complicated or caused by substance abuse. Even today, persons who have epilepsy are mistaken for substance abusers and occasionally are arrested during postictal confusional states. Poe was able to use creative genius and experiences from illness to create memorable tales and poignant poems.

  6. Petrogenetic relationship between Allan Hills 77005 and other achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Muntean, R. A.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Biswas, S.; Ngo, H. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents chemical and petrologic data relating the Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 achondrite from Antarctica and explores their petrogenetic relationship with the shergottites. Petrologic similarities with the latter in terms of mineralogy, oxidation state, inferred source region composition, and shock ages suggest a genetic relationship, also indicated by volatile to involatile element ratios and abundances of other trace elements. ALHA 77005 may be a cumulate crystallized from a liquid parental to materials from which the shergottites crystallized or a sample of peridotite from which shergottite parent liquids were derived. Chemical similarities with terrestrial ultramafic rocks suggest that it provides an additional sample of the only other solar system body with basalt source origins chemically similar to the upper earth mantle.

  7. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  8. The dynamic Allan variance II: a fast computational algorithm.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The stability of an atomic clock can change with time due to several factors, such as temperature, humidity, radiations, aging, and sudden breakdowns. The dynamic Allan variance, or DAVAR, is a representation of the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, and it can be used to monitor the clock behavior. Unfortunately, the computational time of the DAVAR grows very quickly with the length of the analyzed time series. In this article, we present a fast algorithm for the computation of the DAVAR, and we also extend it to the case of missing data. Numerical simulations show that the fast algorithm dramatically reduces the computational time. The fast algorithm is useful when the analyzed time series is long, or when many clocks must be monitored, or when the computational power is low, as happens onboard satellites and space probes.

  9. The history of Allan Hills 84001 revised: multiple shock events.

    PubMed

    Treiman, A H

    1998-07-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with I3. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3. PMID:11543074

  10. Rapid staining method to detect and identify downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in basil1

    PubMed Central

    Koroch, Adolfina R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Pyne, Robert M.; Simon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Demand for fresh-market sweet basil continues to increase, but in 2009 a new pathogen emerged, threatening commercial field/greenhouse production and leading to high crop losses. This study describes a simple and effective staining method for rapid microscopic detection of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) from leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum). • Methods and Results: Fresh leaf sections infected with P. belbahrii were placed on a microscope slide, cleared with Visikol™, and stained with iodine solution followed by one drop of 70% sulfuric acid. Cell walls of the pathogen were stained with a distinct coloration, providing a high-contrast image between the pathogen and plant. • Conclusions: This new staining method can be used successfully to identify downy mildew in basil, which then can significantly reduce its spread if identified early, coupled with mitigation strategies. This technique can facilitate the control of the disease, without expensive and specialized equipment. PMID:25202569

  11. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).

  12. A region of maize chromosome 2 affects response to downy mildew pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Ahmed; Jeffers, Dan; Vasal, S K; Frederiksen, Richard; Magill, Clint

    2006-07-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for downy mildew resistance in maize were identified based on co-segregation with linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms or simple sequence repeats in 220 F2 progeny from a cross between susceptible and resistant parents. Disease response was assessed on F3 families in nurseries in Egypt, Thailand, and South Texas and after inoculation in a controlled greenhouse test. Heritability of the disease reaction was high (around 93% in Thailand). One hundred and thirty polymorphic markers were assigned to the ten chromosomes of maize with LOD scores exceeding 4.9 and covering about 1,265 cM with an average interval length between markers of 9.5 cM. About 90% of the genome is located within 10 cM of the nearest marker. Three putative QTLs were detected in association with resistance to downy mildew in different environments using composite interval mapping. Despite environmental and symptom differences, one locus on chromosome 2 had a major effect and explained up to 70% of the phenotypic variation in Thailand where disease pressure was the highest. The other two QTLs on chromosome 3 and chromosome 9 had minor effects; each explained no more than 4% of the phenotypic variation. The three QTLs appeared to have additive effects on resistance, identifying one major gene and two minor genes that contribute to downy mildew resistance.

  13. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants.

  14. Daytime Solar Heating Controls Downy Mildew Peronospora belbahrii in Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic oomycete Peronospora belbahrii causes a devastating downy mildew disease in sweet basil. Due to the lack of resistant cultivars current control measures rely heavily on fungicides. However, resistance to fungicides and strict regulation on their deployment greatly restrict their use. Here we report on a 'green' method to control this disease. Growth chamber studies showed that P. belbahrii could hardly withstand exposure to high temperatures; exposure of spores, infected leaves, or infected plants to 35-45 °C for 6-9 hours suppressed its survival. Therefore, daytime solar heating was employed in the field to control the downy mildew disease it causes in basil. Covering growth houses of sweet basil already infected with downy mildew with transparent infra-red-impermeable, transparent polyethylene sheets raised the daily maximal temperature during sunny hours by 11-22 °C reaching 40-58 °C (greenhouse effect). Such coverage, applied for a few hours during 1-3 consecutive days, had a detrimental effect on the survival of P. belbahrii: killing the pathogen and/or suppressing disease progress while enhancing growth of the host basil plants. PMID:25992649

  15. On the application of Allan variance method for Ring Laser Gyro performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.

    1993-10-15

    This report describes the method of Allan variance and its application to the characterization of a Ring Laser Gyro`s (RLG) performance. Allan variance, a time domain analysis technique, is an accepted IEEE standard for gyro specifications. The method was initially developed by David Allan of the National Bureau of Standards to quantify the error statistics of a Cesium beam frequency standard employed as the US Frequency Standards in 1960`s. The method can, in general, be applied to analyze the error characteristics of any precision measurement instrument. The key attribute of the method is that it allows for a finer, easier characterization and identification of error sources and their contribution to the overall noise statistics. This report presents an overview of the method, explains the relationship between Allan variance and power spectral density distribution of underlying noise sources, describes the batch and recursive implementation approaches, validates the Allan variance computation with a simulation model, and illustrates the Allan variance method using data collected from several Honeywell LIMU units.

  16. Identification and validation of QTLs conferring resistance to sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Rajasthan downy mildew (P. heteropogoni) in maize.

    PubMed

    Nair, S K; Prasanna, B M; Garg, A; Rathore, R S; Setty, T A S; Singh, N N

    2005-05-01

    We have mapped the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi; SDM) and Rajasthan downy mildew (P. heteropogoni; RDM), two species of DM prevalent throughout India. QTL mapping was carried out on a backcross population of 151 individuals derived from a cross between CM139 (susceptible parent) and NAI116 (highly resistant to both SDM and RDM). Heritability estimates were 0.74 for SDM and 0.67 for RDM. Composite interval mapping combined with a linkage map constructed with 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers resulted in the identification of three QTLs (one each on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6) for SDM resistance and two QTLs (one each on chromosomes 3 and 6) for RDM resistance, all of which were contributed by NAI116. The significance of the major QTL on chromosome 6 (bin 6.05) that confers resistance to diverse DMs in tropical Asia, including SDM and RDM in India, was also verified. The results confirmed that some common QTLs contribute to both SDM and RDM resistance, while additional loci might specifically govern resistance to SDM. The QTL information generated in this study provide information that will aid in undertaking an integrated breeding strategy for the transfer of resistance to SDM and RDM in maize lines using marker-assisted selection.

  17. DOLLY ANN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate that much of the Dolly Ann Roadless Area, in the George Washington National Forest, Alleghany County, Virginia, has substantiated iron resource potential. Inferred low-grade iron resources occur in folded sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The area has an estimated 540 million long tons of contained iron in hematitic sandstone and 700,000 long tons contained iron in deposits of sandy Limonite. Other mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, quartzite suitable for high-silica uses, limestone suitable for agricultural uses, and clay and shale suitable for structural clay products, all of which can be readily obtained outside the wilderness. A potential for natural gas and geothermal energy may exist but cannot be quantified from present knowledge.

  18. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  19. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  20. Online estimation of Allan variance coefficients based on a neural-extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhiyong; Shen, Feng; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-01-01

    As a noise analysis method for inertial sensors, the traditional Allan variance method requires the storage of a large amount of data and manual analysis for an Allan variance graph. Although the existing online estimation methods avoid the storage of data and the painful procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation, they require complex transformations and even cause errors during the modeling of dynamic Allan variance. To solve these problems, first, a new state-space model that directly models the stochastic errors to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for inertial sensors. Then, a neural-extended Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the Allan variance coefficients. The real noises of an ADIS16405 IMU and fiber optic gyro-sensors were analyzed by the proposed method and traditional methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable to estimate the Allan variance coefficients than the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed method effectively avoids the storage of data and can be easily implemented using an online processor. PMID:25625903

  1. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Ramasamy; Nimmakayala, Padmavathi; Erattaimuthu, Saradha R; No, Eun-Gyu; Reddy, Umesh K; Prom, Louis K; Odvody, Gary N; Luster, Douglas G; Magill, Clint W

    2008-01-01

    Background A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) to detect differences at the DNA level. Results Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55%) with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11%) with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40%) and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis), sugar cane (P. sacchari), pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola) and rose (Peronospora sparsa) indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production) were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34 Peronosclerospora

  2. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  3. Downy mildew disease promotes the colonization of romaine lettuce by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew, a plant disease caused by the fungus Bremia lactucae, is endemic in many lettuce growing regions of the world. Invasion by plant pathogens may create new portals and opportunities for microbial colonization of plants. The occurrence of outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) and...

  4. Resistance to downy mildew in lettuce ‘La Brillante’ is conferred by dm50 gene and multiple QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar La Brillante has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping popu...

  5. Biomarkers for the prediction of the resistance and susceptibility of grapevine leaves to downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov; Ivanova, Iliana Ivanova; Batovski, Stancho Atanassov

    2009-05-01

    We examined metabolic profiles of acetone and butanol extracts obtained from the leaves of 18 seedlings of the Bulgarian wine-making cultivar Storgozia. The acetone extracts contained the components from the leaf surface, while the butanol extracts were enriched with polar components from inside the leaf tissue. The leaves displayed different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to the etiological agent downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola. Based on the statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) between the GC-MS data of the identified metabolites and the estimated leaf resistances, 10 individual components were proposed as possible biomarkers for the downy mildew resistance and susceptibility in grapevine. All were found in the butanol extracts, and can be considered to form two groups: compounds with high correlations (r=+/-0.50 to +/-1.00) - 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid (isomer), hexadecanoic acid, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and myo-inositol, and compounds with moderate correlations (r=+/-0.30 to +/-0.49) hydroxybutanedioic acid, alanine, glutamine, arabinoic acid and aldohexoses. Among them, the more polar compounds were related to sensitivity, and only hexadecanoic and the monohydroxycarboxylic acids were related to resistance in grapevine. PMID:19013664

  6. Polymorphic SSR Markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the Newly Emergent Downy Mildew Pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-11-10

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2-6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000-0.892 and 0.023-0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficientmore » to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease.« less

  7. Biomarkers for the prediction of the resistance and susceptibility of grapevine leaves to downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov; Ivanova, Iliana Ivanova; Batovski, Stancho Atanassov

    2009-05-01

    We examined metabolic profiles of acetone and butanol extracts obtained from the leaves of 18 seedlings of the Bulgarian wine-making cultivar Storgozia. The acetone extracts contained the components from the leaf surface, while the butanol extracts were enriched with polar components from inside the leaf tissue. The leaves displayed different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to the etiological agent downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola. Based on the statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) between the GC-MS data of the identified metabolites and the estimated leaf resistances, 10 individual components were proposed as possible biomarkers for the downy mildew resistance and susceptibility in grapevine. All were found in the butanol extracts, and can be considered to form two groups: compounds with high correlations (r=+/-0.50 to +/-1.00) - 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid, 2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid (isomer), hexadecanoic acid, 3-hydroxyhexanoic acid and myo-inositol, and compounds with moderate correlations (r=+/-0.30 to +/-0.49) hydroxybutanedioic acid, alanine, glutamine, arabinoic acid and aldohexoses. Among them, the more polar compounds were related to sensitivity, and only hexadecanoic and the monohydroxycarboxylic acids were related to resistance in grapevine.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of graminicolous downy mildews based on cox2 sequence data.

    PubMed

    Thines, Marco; Göker, Markus; Telle, Sabine; Ryley, Malcolm; Mathur, Kusum; Narayana, Yaladabagi D; Spring, Otmar; Thakur, Ram P

    2008-03-01

    Graminicolous downy mildews (GDM) are an understudied, yet economically important, group of plant pathogens, which are one of the major constraints to poaceous crops in the tropics and subtropics. Here we present a first molecular phylogeny based on cox2 sequences comprising all genera of the GDM currently accepted, with both lasting (Graminivora, Poakatesthia, and Viennotia) and evanescent (Peronosclerospora, Sclerophthora, and Sclerospora) sporangiophores. In addition, all other downy mildew genera currently accepted, as well as a representative sample of other oomycete taxa, have been included. It was shown that all genera of the GDM have had a long, independent evolutionary history, and that the delineation between Peronosclerospora and Sclerospora is correct. Sclerophthora was found to be a particularly divergent taxon nested within a paraphyletic Phytophthora, but without support. The results confirm that the placement of Peronosclerospora and Sclerospora in the Saprolegniomycetidae is incorrect. Sclerophthora is not closely related to Pachymetra of the family Verrucalvaceae, and also does not belong to the Saprolegniomycetidae, but shows close affinities to the Peronosporaceae. In addition, all GDM are interspersed throughout the Peronosporaceae s lat., suggesting that a separate family for the Sclerosporaceae might not be justified. PMID:18308532

  9. [Development of molecular markers linked to the resistant QTL for downy mildew in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Yu, Shuan-Cang; Zhang, Feng-Lan; Yu, Yang-Jun; Zhao, Xiu-Yun; Zhang, De-Shuang; Zhao, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica Constant. (Pers. ex Fr.), is one of the most severe diseases in Chinese cabbage, leading to reduction of yield and quality of the harvested products. Therefore, identifying molecular markers linked to the major QTL for downy mildew resistance will be helpful in breeding resistant varieties of Chinese cabbage. Here, one highly susceptible line 91-112, one highly resistant line T12-19, and the derived DH population were employed to develop linked molecular markers for the major QTL, BrDW, for downy mildew. With BLAST and IMap analysis, the RAPD marker K14-1030 linked to BrDW was anchored on KBrB058M10 (on Contig214). On the basis of the BAC and BAC-end sequences around KBrB058M10, a set of PCR primers were designed, and the methods of restriction analysis and HRM analysis were used to develop molecular makers. Finally, five polymorphism markers were developed, containing one Indel marker named Brb062-Indel230, three CAPS markers named Brb094-DraⅠ787, Brb094-AatⅡ666 and Brb043-BglⅡ715, and one SNP marker named Brh019-SNP137. In addition, one SSR marker from Unigene sequence homologous with KBrB058M10 (known as bru1209) was developed. The map distances between the six markers and RAPD marker K14-1030 were 4.3 cM, 1.7 cM, 5.9 cM, 5.9 cM, 4.6 cM, and 0.8 cM, respectively. The percentage of accuracy in selecting for downy mildew-resistant lines from the DH population were 69.7%, 70.9%, 72.4%, 72.4%, 58.3%, and 74.2%. These markers could be used in marker assisted selection to improve downy mildew resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  10. Allan Bloom, Mike Rose, and Paul Goodman: In Search of a Lost Pedagogical Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Discusses and compares two recent books on American higher education: "The Closing of the American Mind" by Allan Bloom, and "Lives on the Boundary" by Mike Rose. Develops a view which synthesizes those of Bloom and Rose. Considers this view as comparable to that of Paul Goodman. (HB)

  11. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling "prose-poem" "Eureka" (1848), in particular, has…

  12. Where Were the Whistleblowers? The Case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Employees who "blow the whistle" on their company because they believe it is engaged in practices that are illegal, immoral, or harmful to the public, often face grave consequences for their actions, including demotion, harassment, forced resignation, or termination. The case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly, engineers who blew the whistle on…

  13. Horror from the Soul--Gothic Style in Allan Poe's Horror Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe made tremendous contribution to horror fiction. Poe's inheritance of gothic fiction and American literature tradition combined with his living experience forms the background of his horror fictions. He inherited the tradition of the gothic fictions and made innovations on it, so as to penetrate to subconsciousness. Poe's horror…

  14. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and their…

  15. Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

  16. Allan M. Freedman, LLB: a lawyer’s gift to Canadian chiropractors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the leadership role, contributions, accolades, and impact of Professor Allan Freedman through a 30 year history of service to CMCC and the chiropractic profession in Canada. Professor Freedman has served as an educator, philanthropist and also as legal counsel. His influence on chiropractic organizations and chiropractors during this significant period in the profession is discussed. PMID:18060008

  17. The Art of George Morrison and Allan Houser: The Development and Impact of Native Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Anya

    2005-01-01

    The idea for a retrospective on George Morrison and Allan Houser as one of the inaugural exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) came from the NMAI curator of contemporary art, Truman Lowe. An artist and sculptor himself, Lowe knew both artists personally and saw them as mentors and visionaries. Lowe advised an exhibition…

  18. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  19. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperm...

  20. Phosphorus component in AnnAGNPS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Bingner, R.L.; Theurer, F.D.; Rebich, R.A.; Moore, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model (AnnAGNPS) has been developed to aid in evaluation of watershed response to agricultural management practices. Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of the model to simulate runoff and sediment, but not phosphorus (P). The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS on P simulation using comparisons with measurements from the Deep Hollow watershed of the Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MDMSEA) project. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify input parameters whose impact is the greatest on P yields. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the most sensitive variables of those selected are initial soil P contents, P application rate, and plant P uptake. AnnAGNPS simulations of dissolved P yield do not agree well with observed dissolved P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.34, R2 of 0.51, and slope of 0.24); however, AnnAGNPS simulations of total P yield agree well with observed total P yield (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.85, R2 of 0.88, and slope of 0.83). The difference in dissolved P yield may be attributed to limitations in model simulation of P processes. Uncertainties in input parameter selections also affect the model's performance.

  1. Katherine Anne Porter on Her Contemporaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Phyllis

    Personal experiences with and critical judgments of leading artists and intellectuals of the twentieth century are recorded in Katherine Anne Porter's essays, letters and conversations which provide snapshots of her attitudes and encounters. Porter's commentaries about such contemporaries as Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Saul Bellow,…

  2. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Ann Arbor, Michigan, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  3. Obituary: Anne Barbara Underhill, 1920-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Nancy Grace

    2003-12-01

    Anne was born in Vancouver, British Columbia on 12 June 1920. Her parents were Frederic Clare Underhill, a civil engineer and Irene Anna (née Creery) Underhill. She had a twin brother and three younger brothers. As a young girl she was active in Girl Guides and graduated from high school winning the Lieutenant Governor's medal as one of the top students in the Province. She also excelled in high school sports. Her mother died when Anne was 18 and, while undertaking her university studies, Anne assisted in raising her younger brothers. Her twin brother was killed in Italy during World War II (1944), a loss that Anne felt deeply. Possibly because of fighting to get ahead in astronomy, a field overwhelming male when she started, she frequently appeared combative. At the University of British Columbia, Anne obtained a BA (honors) in Chemistry (1942), followed by a MA in 1944. After working for the NRC in Montreal for a year, she studied at the University of Toronto prior to entering the University of Chicago in 1946 to obtain her PhD. Her thesis was the first model computed for a multi-layered stellar atmosphere (1948). During this time she worked with Otto Struve, developing a lifetime interest in hot stars and the analysis of their high dispersion spectra. She received two fellowships from the University Women of Canada. She received a U.S. National Research Fellowship to work at the Copenhagen Observatory, and upon its completion, she returned to British Columbia to work at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory as a research scientist from 1949--1962. During this period she spent a year at Harvard University as a visiting professor and at Princeton where she used their advanced computer to write the first code for modeling stellar atmospheres. Anne was invited to the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) as a full professor in 1962. She was an excellent teacher, well liked by the students in her classes, and by the many individuals that she guided throughout her

  4. Resurgence of Pseudoperonospora cubensis: The Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal; Van den Langenberg, Kyle M; Wehner, Todd C; Ojiambo, Peter S; Hausbeck, Mary; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Lebeda, Aleš; Sierotzki, Helge; Gisi, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The downy mildew pathogen, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, which infects plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, has undergone major changes during the last decade. Disease severity and epidemics are far more destructive than previously reported, and new genotypes, races, pathotypes, and mating types of the pathogen have been discovered in populations from around the globe as a result of the resurgence of the disease. Consequently, disease control through host plant resistance and fungicide applications has become more complex. This resurgence of P. cubensis offers challenges to scientists in many research areas including pathogen biology, epidemiology and dispersal, population structure and population genetics, host preference, host-pathogen interactions and gene expression, genetic host plant resistance, inheritance of host and fungicide resistance, and chemical disease control. This review serves to summarize the current status of this major pathogen and to guide future management and research efforts within this pathosystem.

  5. Selective sweep at the Rpv3 locus during grapevine breeding for downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Copetti, Dario; Coleman, Courtney; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Eibach, Rudolf; Kozma, Pál; Lacombe, Thierry; Gambetta, Gregory; Zvyagin, Andrey; Cindrić, Petar; Kovács, László; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele

    2012-02-01

    The Rpv3 locus is a major determinant of downy mildew resistance in grapevine (Vitis spp.). A selective sweep at this locus was revealed by the DNA genotyping of 580 grapevines, which include a highly diverse set of 265 European varieties that predated the spread of North American mildews, 82 accessions of wild species, and 233 registered breeding lines with North American ancestry produced in the past 150 years. Artificial hybridisation and subsequent phenotypic selection favoured a few Rpv3 haplotypes that were introgressed from wild vines and retained in released varieties. Seven conserved haplotypes in five descent groups of resistant varieties were traced back to their founders: (1) 'Munson', a cross between two of Hermann Jaeger's selections of V. rupestris and V. lincecumii made in the early 1880s in Missouri, (2) V. rupestris 'Ganzin', first utilised for breeding in 1879 by Victor Ganzin in France, (3) 'Noah', selected in 1869 from intermingled accessions of V. riparia and V. labrusca by Otto Wasserzieher in Illinois, (4) 'Bayard', a V. rupestris × V. labrusca offspring generated in 1882 by George Couderc in France, and (5) a wild form closely related to V. rupestris accessions in the Midwestern United States and introgressed into 'Seibel 4614' in the 1880s by Albert Seibel in France. Persistence of these Rpv3 haplotypes across many of the varieties generated by human intervention indicates that a handful of vines with prominent resistance have laid the foundation for modern grape breeding. A rampant hot spot of NB-LRR genes at the Rpv3 locus has provided a distinctive advantage for the adaptation of native North American grapevines to withstand downy mildew. The coexistence of multiple resistance alleles or paralogues in the same chromosomal region but in different haplotypes counteracts efforts to pyramidise them in a diploid individual via conventional breeding.

  6. MALDI-based intact spore mass spectrometry of downy and powdery mildews.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Jana; Sedlářová, Michaela; Helmel, Michaela; Rehulka, Pavel; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Sebela, Marek

    2012-08-01

    Fast and easy identification of fungal phytopathogens is of great importance in agriculture. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for analyzing microorganisms. This study deals with a methodology for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of downy and powdery mildews representing obligate biotrophic parasites of crop plants. Experimental approaches for the MS analyses were optimized using Bremia lactucae, cause of lettuce downy mildew, and Oidium neolycopersici, cause of tomato powdery mildew. This involved determining a suitable concentration of spores in the sample, selection of a proper MALDI matrix, looking for the optimal solvent composition, and evaluation of different sample preparation methods. Furthermore, using different MALDI target materials and surfaces (stainless steel vs polymer-based) and applying various conditions for sample exposure to the acidic MALDI matrix system were investigated. The dried droplet method involving solvent evaporation at room temperature was found to be the most suitable for the deposition of spores and MALDI matrix on the target and the subsequent crystallization. The concentration of spore suspension was optimal between 2 and 5 × 10(9) spores per ml. The best peptide/protein profiles (in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and number of peaks) were obtained by combining ferulic and sinapinic acids as a mixed MALDI matrix. A pretreatment of the spore cell wall with hydrolases was successfully introduced prior to MS measurements to obtain more pronounced signals. Finally, a novel procedure was developed for direct mass spectra acquisition from infected plant leaves. PMID:22899506

  7. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  8. Genetic Signals of Demographic Expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the Last North American Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Pulgarín-R, Paulo C.; Burg, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species’ range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:22792306

  9. Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew

    PubMed Central

    Perazzolli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome. PMID:23105132

  10. Cosmic-ray-produced Cl-36 and Mn-53 in Allan Hills-77 meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Murrell, M. T.; Arnold, J. R.; Finkel, R. C.; Elmore, D.; Ferraro, R. D.; Gove, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced Mn-53 has been determined by neutron activation in nine Allan Hills-77 meteorites. Additionally, Cl-36 has been measured in seven of these objects using tandem accelerator mass spectrometry. These results, along with C-14 and Al-26 concentrations determined elsewhere, yield terrestrial ages ranging from 10,000 to 700,000 years. Weathering was not found to result in Mn-53 loss.

  11. Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.

  12. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV).

  13. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). PMID:26800535

  14. Obituary: Anne Barbara Underhill, 1920-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Nancy Grace

    2003-12-01

    Anne was born in Vancouver, British Columbia on 12 June 1920. Her parents were Frederic Clare Underhill, a civil engineer and Irene Anna (née Creery) Underhill. She had a twin brother and three younger brothers. As a young girl she was active in Girl Guides and graduated from high school winning the Lieutenant Governor's medal as one of the top students in the Province. She also excelled in high school sports. Her mother died when Anne was 18 and, while undertaking her university studies, Anne assisted in raising her younger brothers. Her twin brother was killed in Italy during World War II (1944), a loss that Anne felt deeply. Possibly because of fighting to get ahead in astronomy, a field overwhelming male when she started, she frequently appeared combative. At the University of British Columbia, Anne obtained a BA (honors) in Chemistry (1942), followed by a MA in 1944. After working for the NRC in Montreal for a year, she studied at the University of Toronto prior to entering the University of Chicago in 1946 to obtain her PhD. Her thesis was the first model computed for a multi-layered stellar atmosphere (1948). During this time she worked with Otto Struve, developing a lifetime interest in hot stars and the analysis of their high dispersion spectra. She received two fellowships from the University Women of Canada. She received a U.S. National Research Fellowship to work at the Copenhagen Observatory, and upon its completion, she returned to British Columbia to work at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory as a research scientist from 1949--1962. During this period she spent a year at Harvard University as a visiting professor and at Princeton where she used their advanced computer to write the first code for modeling stellar atmospheres. Anne was invited to the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) as a full professor in 1962. She was an excellent teacher, well liked by the students in her classes, and by the many individuals that she guided throughout her

  15. Wind Power Forecasting techniques in complex terrain: ANN vs. ANN-CFD hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Mana, Matteo; Burlando, Massimiliano; Meißner, Cathérine; Piccioni, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Due to technology developments, renewable energies are becoming competitive against fossil sources and the number of wind farms is growing, which have to be integrated into power grids. Therefore, accurate power forecast is needed and often operators are charged with penalties in case of imbalance. Yet, wind is a stochastic and very local phenomenon, and therefore hard to predict. It has a high variability in space and time and wind power forecast is challenging. Statistical methods, as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), are often employed for power forecasting, but they have some shortcomings: they require data sets over several years and are not able to capture tails of wind power distributions. In this work a pure ANN power forecast is compared against a hybrid method, based on the combination of ANN and a physical method using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The validation case is a wind farm sited in southern Italy in a very complex terrain, with a wide spread turbine layout.

  16. Allan Variance Computed in Space Domain: Definition and Application to InSAR Data to Characterize Noise and Geophysical Signal.

    PubMed

    Cavalié, Olivier; Vernotte, François

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance was introduced 50 years ago for analyzing the stability of frequency standards. In addition to its metrological interest, it may be also considered as an estimator of the large trends of the power spectral density (PSD) of frequency deviation. For instance, the Allan variance is able to discriminate different types of noise characterized by different power laws in the PSD. The Allan variance was also used in other fields than time and frequency metrology: for more than 20 years, it has been used in accelerometry, geophysics, geodesy, astrophysics, and even finances. However, it seems that up to now, it has been exclusively applied for time series analysis. We propose here to use the Allan variance on spatial data. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is used in geophysics to image ground displacements in space [over the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image spatial coverage] and in time thanks to the regular SAR image acquisitions by dedicated satellites. The main limitation of the technique is the atmospheric disturbances that affect the radar signal while traveling from the sensor to the ground and back. In this paper, we propose to use the Allan variance for analyzing spatial data from InSAR measurements. The Allan variance was computed in XY mode as well as in radial mode for detecting different types of behavior for different space-scales, in the same way as the different types of noise versus the integration time in the classical time and frequency application. We found that radial Allan variance is the more appropriate way to have an estimator insensitive to the spatial axis and we applied it on SAR data acquired over eastern Turkey for the period 2003-2011. Spatial Allan variance allowed us to well characterize noise features, classically found in InSAR such as phase decorrelation producing white noise or atmospheric delays, behaving like a random walk signal. We finally applied the spatial Allan variance to an InSAR time

  17. Allan Variance Computed in Space Domain: Definition and Application to InSAR Data to Characterize Noise and Geophysical Signal.

    PubMed

    Cavalié, Olivier; Vernotte, François

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance was introduced 50 years ago for analyzing the stability of frequency standards. In addition to its metrological interest, it may be also considered as an estimator of the large trends of the power spectral density (PSD) of frequency deviation. For instance, the Allan variance is able to discriminate different types of noise characterized by different power laws in the PSD. The Allan variance was also used in other fields than time and frequency metrology: for more than 20 years, it has been used in accelerometry, geophysics, geodesy, astrophysics, and even finances. However, it seems that up to now, it has been exclusively applied for time series analysis. We propose here to use the Allan variance on spatial data. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is used in geophysics to image ground displacements in space [over the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image spatial coverage] and in time thanks to the regular SAR image acquisitions by dedicated satellites. The main limitation of the technique is the atmospheric disturbances that affect the radar signal while traveling from the sensor to the ground and back. In this paper, we propose to use the Allan variance for analyzing spatial data from InSAR measurements. The Allan variance was computed in XY mode as well as in radial mode for detecting different types of behavior for different space-scales, in the same way as the different types of noise versus the integration time in the classical time and frequency application. We found that radial Allan variance is the more appropriate way to have an estimator insensitive to the spatial axis and we applied it on SAR data acquired over eastern Turkey for the period 2003-2011. Spatial Allan variance allowed us to well characterize noise features, classically found in InSAR such as phase decorrelation producing white noise or atmospheric delays, behaving like a random walk signal. We finally applied the spatial Allan variance to an InSAR time

  18. Myelination Delay and Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation in the SLC16A2 Gene.

    PubMed

    La Piana, Roberta; Vanasse, Michel; Brais, Bernard; Bernard, Genevieve

    2015-09-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 16 member 2 (SLC16A2) gene. As SLC16A2 encodes the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a thyroid hormone transporter, patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome present a specific altered thyroid hormone profile. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome has been associated with myelination delay on the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of affected subjects. We report a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, and delayed myelination caused by a novel SLC16A2 mutation (p.L291R). The thyroid hormones profile in our patient was atypical for Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. The follow-up examinations showed that the progression of the myelination was not accompanied by a clinical improvement. Our paper suggests that SLC16A2 mutations should be investigated in patients with myelination delay even when the thyroid function is not conclusively altered.

  19. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  20. Spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptional response to downy mildew using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Timothy L. R.; Cevik, Volkan; Beynon, Jim L.; Gifford, Miriam L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gene expression form a crucial part of the plant response to infection. In the last decade, whole-leaf expression profiling has played a valuable role in identifying genes and processes that contribute to the interactions between the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and a diverse range of pathogens. However, with some pathogens such as downy mildew caused by the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), whole-leaf profiling may fail to capture the complete Arabidopsis response encompassing responses of non-infected as well as infected cells within the leaf. Highly localized expression changes that occur in infected cells may be diluted by the comparative abundance of non-infected cells. Furthermore, local and systemic Hpa responses of a differing nature may become conflated. To address this we applied the technique of Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS), typically used for analyzing plant abiotic responses, to the study of plant-pathogen interactions. We isolated haustoriated (Hpa-proximal) and non-haustoriated (Hpa-distal) cells from infected seedling samples using FACS, and measured global gene expression. When compared with an uninfected control, 278 transcripts were identified as significantly differentially expressed, the vast majority of which were differentially expressed specifically in Hpa-proximal cells. By comparing our data to previous, whole organ studies, we discovered many highly locally regulated genes that can be implicated as novel in the Hpa response, and that were uncovered for the first time using our sensitive FACS technique. PMID:26217372

  1. Control of litchi downy blight by zeamines produced by Dickeya zeae

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lisheng; Zhou, Jianuan; Wang, Huishan; He, Fei; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zide; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Zeamines (ZMS), a class of polyamine-polyketide-nonribosomal peptide produced by bacterial isolate Dickeya zeae, were shown recently to be potent antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens. In this study, the results indicated that ZMS showed antifungal activity against Peronophythora litchii and other fungal pathogens. The activity of ZMS against the oomycete pathogen P. litchi, which causes the devastating litchi downy blight, was further investigated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. ZMS displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mycelial growth and sporangia germination of P. litchii. At a concentration of 2 μg/mL, about 99% of the sporangia germination was inhibited. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that treatment with ZMS could cause substantial damages to the oomycete endomembrane system. Furthermore, treatment of litchi fruits with ZMS solution significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the fruits decay and peel browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage at 28 °C. Taken together, our results provide useful clues on the antifungal mechanisms of ZMS, and highlight the promising potentials of ZMS as a fungicide, which in particular, may be useful for prevention and control of litchi fruits decay and browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage and transportation. PMID:26499339

  2. An Overview of ANN Application in the Power Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebur, D.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a survey on the development and experience with artificial neural net (ANN) applications for electric power systems, with emphasis on operational systems. The organization and constraints of electric utilities are reviewed, motivations for investigating ANN are identified, and a current assessment is given from the experience of 2400 projects using ANN for load forecasting, alarm processing, fault detection, component fault diagnosis, static and dynamic security analysis, system planning, and operation planning.

  3. Noble gases in twenty Yamato H-chondrites: Comparison with Allan Hills chondrites and modern falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeken, TH.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration and isotopic composition of noble gases have been measured in 20 H-chrondrites found on the Yamato Mountains ice fields in Antarctica. The distribution of exposure ages as well as of radiogenic He-4 contents is similar to that of H-chrondrites collected at the Allan Hills site. Furthermore, a comparison of the noble gas record of Antarctic H-chrondrites and finds or falls from non-Antarctic areas gives no support to the suggestion that Antarctic H-chrondrites and modern falls derive from differing interplanetary meteorite populations.

  4. Allan C. Gotlib, DC, CM: A worthy Member of the Order of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    On June 29, 2012, His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, announced 70 new appointments to the Order of Canada. Among them was Dr. Allan Gotlib, who was subsequently installed as a Member of the Order of Canada, in recognition of his contributions to advancing research in the chiropractic profession and its inter-professional integration. This paper attempts an objective view of his career, to substantiate the accomplishments that led to Dr. Gotlib receiving Canada’s highest civilian honour. PMID:27069273

  5. Investigation of Allan variance for determining noise spectral forms with application to microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, William D.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of the Allan variance method as a possible means for characterizing fluctuations in radiometric noise diodes has been performed. The goal is to separate fluctuation components into white noise, flicker noise, and random-walk noise. The primary means is by discrete-time processing, and the study focused primarily on the digital processes involved. Noise satisfying the requirements was generated by direct convolution, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) processing in the time domain, and FFT processing in the frequency domain. Some of the numerous results obtained are presented along with the programs used in the study.

  6. Which Morphological Characteristics Are Most Influenced by the Host Matrix in Downy Mildews? A Case Study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  7. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing to Dissect Candidate Genes Associated with Pearl Millet-Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola Sacc.) Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Zala, Harshvardhan N; Bosamia, Tejas C; Shukla, Yogesh M; Kumar, Sushil; Fougat, Ranbir S; Patel, Mruduka S; Narayanan, Subhash; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the plant-pathogen interactions is of utmost importance to design strategies for minimizing the economic deficits caused by pathogens in crops. With an aim to identify genes underlying resistance to downy mildew, a major disease responsible for productivity loss in pearl millet, transcriptome analysis was performed in downy mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes upon infection and control on 454 Roche NGS platform. A total of ~685 Mb data was obtained with 1 575 290 raw reads. The raw reads were pre-processed into high-quality (HQ) reads making to ~82% with an average of 427 bases. The assembly was optimized using four assemblers viz. Newbler, MIRA, CLC and Trinity, out of which MIRA with a total of 14.10 Mb and 90118 transcripts proved to be the best for assembling reads. Differential expression analysis depicted 1396 and 936 and 1000 and 1591 transcripts up and down regulated in resistant inoculated/resistant control and susceptible inoculated/susceptible control respectively with a common of 3644 transcripts. The pathways for secondary metabolism, specifically the phenylpropanoid pathway was up-regulated in resistant genotype. Transcripts up-regulated as a part of defense response included classes of R genes, PR proteins, HR induced proteins and plant hormonal signaling transduction proteins. The transcripts for skp1 protein, purothionin, V type proton ATPase were found to have the highest expression in resistant genotype. Ten transcripts, selected on the basis of their involvement in defense mechanism were validated with qRT-PCR and showed positive co-relation with transcriptome data. Transcriptome analysis evoked potentials of hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance as possible mechanism operating in defense mechanism in pearl millet against downy mildew infection. PMID:27446100

  8. Which morphological characteristics are most influenced by the host matrix in downy mildews? A case study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis.

    PubMed

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  9. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing to Dissect Candidate Genes Associated with Pearl Millet-Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola Sacc.) Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Zala, Harshvardhan N.; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Shukla, Yogesh M.; Kumar, Sushil; Fougat, Ranbir S.; Patel, Mruduka S.; Narayanan, Subhash; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the plant-pathogen interactions is of utmost importance to design strategies for minimizing the economic deficits caused by pathogens in crops. With an aim to identify genes underlying resistance to downy mildew, a major disease responsible for productivity loss in pearl millet, transcriptome analysis was performed in downy mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes upon infection and control on 454 Roche NGS platform. A total of ~685 Mb data was obtained with 1 575 290 raw reads. The raw reads were pre-processed into high-quality (HQ) reads making to ~82% with an average of 427 bases. The assembly was optimized using four assemblers viz. Newbler, MIRA, CLC and Trinity, out of which MIRA with a total of 14.10 Mb and 90118 transcripts proved to be the best for assembling reads. Differential expression analysis depicted 1396 and 936 and 1000 and 1591 transcripts up and down regulated in resistant inoculated/resistant control and susceptible inoculated/susceptible control respectively with a common of 3644 transcripts. The pathways for secondary metabolism, specifically the phenylpropanoid pathway was up-regulated in resistant genotype. Transcripts up-regulated as a part of defense response included classes of R genes, PR proteins, HR induced proteins and plant hormonal signaling transduction proteins. The transcripts for skp1 protein, purothionin, V type proton ATPase were found to have the highest expression in resistant genotype. Ten transcripts, selected on the basis of their involvement in defense mechanism were validated with qRT-PCR and showed positive co-relation with transcriptome data. Transcriptome analysis evoked potentials of hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance as possible mechanism operating in defense mechanism in pearl millet against downy mildew infection. PMID:27446100

  10. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. V - Ordinary chondrites at the Allan Hills ice fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low, while the Farwestern field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less than 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

  11. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  12. 77 FR 75629 - Pramaggiore, Anne R.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pramaggiore, Anne R.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 14, 2012, Anne R. Pramaggiore submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking...

  13. An ANN That Applies Pragmatic Decision on Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aretoulaki, Maria; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    A computer-based artificial neural network (ANN) that learns to classify sentences in a text as important or unimportant is described. The program is designed to select the sentences that are important enough to be included in composition of an abstract of the text. The ANN is embedded in a conventional symbolic environment consisting of…

  14. Anne Frank: One of Hundreds of Thousands. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Anne Frank was one of the hundreds of thousands of Jewish children who died in the Holocaust. In that sense, she is not unique; however, through the very ordinary act of writing a diary, through her youthful wisdom and budding literary talent, Anne remains today an extraordinary "symbol of the lost promise of the children who died in the…

  15. Bedrock geology of the Cape Ann Area, Massachusetts. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Cape Ann on the Massachusetts eastern shore is dominated by igneous rocks, intruded into an igneous and metamorphic complex all cut by numerous faults. Geophysical investigations include total intensity aeromagnetic and gravity and magnetic studies. This report addresses structural features, stratigraphy, economic and environmental geology at the bedrock geology of the Cape Ann area.

  16. Applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in food science.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decades, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs hold a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in the field.

  17. Applications of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in Food Science

    SciTech Connect

    HUang, Yiqun; Kangas, Lars J.; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2007-02-01

    Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied in almost every aspect of food science over the past two decade, although most applications are in the development stage. ANNs are useful tools for food safety and quality analyses, which include modeling of microbial growth and from this predicting food safety, interpreting spectroscopic data, and predicting physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. ANNs have a great deal of promise for modeling complex tasks in process control and simulation, and in applications of machine perception including machine vision and the electronic nose for food safety and quality control. This review discusses the basic theory of the ANN technology and its applications in food science, providing food scientists and the research community an overview of the current research and future trend of the applications of ANN technology in this field.

  18. Identification of the BrRHP1 locus that confers resistance to downy mildew in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) and development of linked molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunggil; Song, Young Ha; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Jang, Chang Soon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Han, Taeho

    2011-11-01

    Inheritance of resistance to downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) was studied using inbred parental lines RS1 and SS1 that display strong resistance and severe susceptibility, respectively. F(1), F(2), and BC(1)F(1) populations were evaluated for their responses to downy mildew infection. Resistance to downy mildew was conditioned by a single dominant locus designated BrRHP1. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linked to BrRHP1 was identified using bulked segregant analysis and two molecular markers designated BrPERK15A and BrPERK15B were developed. BrPERK15B was polymorphic between the parental lines used to construct the reference linkage map of B. rapa, allowing the mapping of the BrRHP1 locus to the A1 linkage group. Using bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequences anchored to the A1 linkage group, six simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers were developed for use in marker-assisted breeding of downy mildew resistance in Chinese cabbage. Four simple PCR markers flanking the BrRHP1 locus were shown to be collinear with the long-arm region of Arabidopsis chromosome 3. The two closely linked flanking markers delimit the BrRHP1 locus within a 2.2-Mb interval of this Arabidopsis syntenic region.

  19. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...

  20. Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 78 accessions from Chad, West Africa and 20 photoperiod insensitive accessions from Uganda, East Africa were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in Ocotlan, Mexico in 2004 and 2005. Ninety-four of these accessions were also evaluated at two locations in Wharton County, Texas, USA, ...

  1. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type species of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the species level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and species tree estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted species and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or species. This is in line with a narrow species concept, i.e. that a downy mildew species is associated with only a particular host plant genus or species. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent species from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. PMID:25772799

  2. Genetic modification of European winegrapes with genes from an American wild relative confers resistance to the major diseases powdery and downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete, downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in t...

  3. Screening exotic sorghum germplasm, hybrids and elite lines for resistance to a new virulent pathotype (P6) of Peronsclerospora sorghi causing downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew (SDM) in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl fungicide resistance and a new pathotype, P6, in the causal organism Peronsclerospora sorghi. New and alternate sources of the host plant resistance are needed for successful management of SDM. To i...

  4. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2−6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000−0.892 and 0.023−0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficient to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease. PMID:26649270

  5. Physical Mapping in a Triplicated Genome: Mapping the Downy Mildew Resistance Locus Pp523 in Brassica oleracea L.

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Jorge D.; Alabaça, Claudia S.; Sousa, Nelson H.; Coelho, Paula S.; Monteiro, António A.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Leitão, José M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the construction of a BAC contig and identification of a minimal tiling path that encompass the dominant and monogenically inherited downy mildew resistance locus Pp523 of Brassica oleracea L. The selection of BAC clones for construction of the physical map was carried out by screening gridded BAC libraries with DNA overgo probes derived from both genetically mapped DNA markers flanking the locus of interest and BAC-end sequences that align to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences within the previously identified syntenic region. The selected BAC clones consistently mapped to three different genomic regions of B. oleracea. Although 83 BAC clones were accurately mapped within a ∼4.6 cM region surrounding the downy mildew resistance locus Pp523, a subset of 33 BAC clones mapped to another region on chromosome C8 that was ∼60 cM away from the resistance gene, and a subset of 63 BAC clones mapped to chromosome C5. These results reflect the triplication of the Brassica genomes since their divergence from a common ancestor shared with A. thaliana, and they are consonant with recent analyses of the C genome of Brassica napus. The assembly of a minimal tiling path constituted by 13 (BoT01) BAC clones that span the Pp523 locus sets the stage for map-based cloning of this resistance gene. PMID:22384370

  6. Application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in wine technology.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Halil; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, neural networks have turned out as a powerful method for numerous practical applications in a wide variety of disciplines. In more practical terms neural networks are one of nonlinear statistical data modeling tools. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data. In food technology artificial neural networks (ANNs) are useful for food safety and quality analyses, predicting chemical, functional and sensory properties of various food products during processing and distribution. In wine technology, ANNs have been used for classification and for predicting wine process conditions. This review discusses the basic ANNs technology and its possible applications in wine technology.

  7. Investigations into an unknown organism on the martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, A.; Goddard, D. T.; Stapleton, D.; Toporski, J. K.; Peters, V.; Bassinger, V.; Sharples, G.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.; McKay, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Examination of fracture surfaces near the fusion crust of the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 have been conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and has revealed structures strongly resembling mycelium. These structures were compared with similar structures found in Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. On morphology alone, we conclude that these features are not only terrestrial in origin but probably belong to a member of the Actinomycetales, which we consider was introduced during the Antarctic residency of this meteorite. If true, this is the first documented account of terrestrial microbial activity within a meteorite from the Antarctic blue ice fields. These structures, however, do not bear any resemblance to those postulated to be martian biota, although they are a probable source of the organic contaminants previously reported in this meteorite.

  8. Novel SLC16A2 mutations in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Keiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Imai, Ayako; Inoue, Ken; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an X-linked disorder caused by impaired thyroid hormone transporter. Patients with AHDS usually exhibit severe motor developmental delay, delayed myelination of the brain white matter, and elevated T3 levels in thyroid tests. Neurological examination of two patients with neurodevelopmental delay revealed generalized hypotonia, and not paresis, as the main neurological finding. Nystagmus and dyskinesia were not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated delayed myelination in early childhood in both patients. Nevertheless, matured myelination was observed at 6 years of age in one patient. Although the key finding for AHDS is elevated free T3, one of the patients showed a normal T3 level in childhood, misleading the diagnosis of AHDS. Genetic analysis revealed two novel SLC16A2 mutations, p.(Gly122Val) and p.(Gly221Ser), confirming the AHDS diagnosis. These results indicate that AHDS diagnosis is sometimes challenging owing to clinical variability among patients. PMID:27672545

  9. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years.

  10. Allan Hills 76005 Polymict Eucrite Pairing Group: Curatorial and Scientific Update on a Jointly Curated Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.

    2011-01-01

    Allan Hills 76005 (or 765) was collected by the joint US-Japan field search for meteorites in 1976-77. It was described in detail as "pale gray in color and consists of finely divided macrocrystalline pyroxene-rich matrix that contains abundant clastic fragments: (1) Clasts of white, plagioclase-rich rocks. (2) Medium-gray, partly devitrified, cryptocrystalline. (3) Monomineralic fragments and grains of pyroxene, plagioclases, oxide minerals, sulfides, and metal. In overall appearance it is very similar to some lunar breccias." Subsequent studies found a great diversity of basaltic clast textures and compositions, and therefore it is best classified as a polymict eucrite. Samples from the 1976-77, 77-78, and 78-79 field seasons (76, 77, and 78 prefixes) were split between US and Japan (NIPR). The US specimens are currently at NASA-JSC, Smithsonian Institution, or the Field Museum in Chicago. After this initial finding of ALH 76005, the next year s team recovered one additional mass ALH 77302, and then four additional masses were found during the third season ALH 78040 and ALH 78132, 78158 and 78165. The joint US-Japan collection effort ended after three years and the US began collecting in the Trans-Antarctic Mountains with the 1979-80 and subsequent field seasons. ALH 79017 and ALH 80102 were recovered in these first two years, and then in 1981-82 field season, 6 additional masses were recovered from the Allan Hills. Of course it took some time to establish pairing of all of these specimens, but altogether the samples comprise 4292.4 g of material. Here will be summarized the scientific findings as well as some curatorial details of how specimens have been subdivided and allocated for study. A detailed summary is also presented on the NASA-JSC curation webpage for the HED meteorite compendium.

  11. The Natural Thermoluminescence of Meteorites. Part 5; Ordinary Chondrites at the Allan Hills Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Using fairly conservative criteria (including natural and induced TL, find location, and petrographic data), the 167 meteorite fragments are thought to represent a maximum of 129 separate meteorites. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low (typically 5-30 krad, indicative of terrestrial ages of approx. 400 ka), while the Far western field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less then 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels (less then 5 krad) at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia (less then 0.85 AU) orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends observed for meteorites collected during the 1977/1978 and 1978/1979 field seasons which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

  12. Short-term load forecasting with local ANN predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Drezga, I.; Rahman, S.

    1999-08-01

    A new technique for artificial neural network (ANN) based short-term load forecasting (STLF) is present in this paper. The technique implemented active selection of training data, employing the k-nearest neighbors concept. A novel concept of pilot simulation was used to determine the number of hidden units for the ANNs. The ensemble of local ANN predictors was used to produce the final forecast, whereby the iterative forecasting procedure used a simple average of ensemble ANNs. Results obtained using data from two US utilities showed forecasting accuracy comparable to those using similar techniques. Excellent forecasts for one-hour-ahead and five-days-ahead forecasting, robust behavior for sudden and large weather changes, low maximum errors and accurate peak-load predictions are some of the findings discussed in the paper.

  13. BIG PATUXENT RIVER BRIDGE. ARUNDEL, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BIG PATUXENT RIVER BRIDGE. ARUNDEL, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 115.61. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. SEVERN RUN CULVERT. MAYFIELD, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SEVERN RUN CULVERT. MAYFIELD, ANNE ARUNDEL CO., MD Sec. 1201, MP 112.17. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome. [Triticum aestivum; Bromus tectorum

    SciTech Connect

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-04-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with /sup 3/H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted.

  16. Effector Polymorphisms of the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii and Their Use to Identify Pathotypes from Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gascuel, Quentin; Bordat, Amandine; Sallet, Erika; Pouilly, Nicolas; Carrere, Sébastien; Roux, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The obligate biotroph oomycete Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on sunflower crop, Helianthus annuus. The breakdown of several Pl resistance genes used in sunflower hybrids over the last 25 years came along with the appearance of new Pl. halstedii isolates showing modified virulence profiles. In oomycetes, two classes of effector proteins, key players of pathogen virulence, are translocated into the host: RXLR and CRN effectors. We identified 54 putative CRN or RXLR effector genes from transcriptomic data and analyzed their genetic diversity in seven Pl. halstedii pathotypes representative of the species variability. Pl. halstedii effector genes were on average more polymorphic at both the nucleic and protein levels than random non-effector genes, suggesting a potential adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence over the last 25 years. Twenty-two KASP (Competitive Allele Specific PCR) markers designed on polymorphic effector genes were genotyped on 35 isolates belonging to 14 Pl. halstedii pathotypes. Polymorphism analysis based on eight KASP markers aims at proposing a determination key suitable to classify the eight multi-isolate pathotypes into six groups. This is the first report of a molecular marker set able to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes based on the polymorphism of pathogenicity effectors. Compared to phenotypic tests handling living spores used until now to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes, this set of molecular markers constitutes a first step in faster pathotype diagnosis of Pl. halstedii isolates. Hence, emerging sunflower downy mildew isolates could be more rapidly characterized and thus, assessment of plant resistance breakdown under field conditions should be improved. PMID:26845339

  17. Effector Polymorphisms of the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii and Their Use to Identify Pathotypes from Field Isolates.

    PubMed

    Gascuel, Quentin; Bordat, Amandine; Sallet, Erika; Pouilly, Nicolas; Carrere, Sébastien; Roux, Fabrice; Vincourt, Patrick; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The obligate biotroph oomycete Plasmopara halstedii causes downy mildew on sunflower crop, Helianthus annuus. The breakdown of several Pl resistance genes used in sunflower hybrids over the last 25 years came along with the appearance of new Pl. halstedii isolates showing modified virulence profiles. In oomycetes, two classes of effector proteins, key players of pathogen virulence, are translocated into the host: RXLR and CRN effectors. We identified 54 putative CRN or RXLR effector genes from transcriptomic data and analyzed their genetic diversity in seven Pl. halstedii pathotypes representative of the species variability. Pl. halstedii effector genes were on average more polymorphic at both the nucleic and protein levels than random non-effector genes, suggesting a potential adaptive dynamics of pathogen virulence over the last 25 years. Twenty-two KASP (Competitive Allele Specific PCR) markers designed on polymorphic effector genes were genotyped on 35 isolates belonging to 14 Pl. halstedii pathotypes. Polymorphism analysis based on eight KASP markers aims at proposing a determination key suitable to classify the eight multi-isolate pathotypes into six groups. This is the first report of a molecular marker set able to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes based on the polymorphism of pathogenicity effectors. Compared to phenotypic tests handling living spores used until now to discriminate Pl. halstedii pathotypes, this set of molecular markers constitutes a first step in faster pathotype diagnosis of Pl. halstedii isolates. Hence, emerging sunflower downy mildew isolates could be more rapidly characterized and thus, assessment of plant resistance breakdown under field conditions should be improved. PMID:26845339

  18. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting stemflow variability in downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Although stemflow is only a small portion of rainfall, it may represent an important local input of water and nutrients at the plant stem. Previous studies have shown that stemflow has a significant influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Stemflow volume is affected by many biotic factors as species, age, branch or bark characteristics. Moreover, the seasonality of the rainfall regime in Mediterranean areas, which includes both frontal rainfall events and short convective storms, can add complexity to the rainfall-stemflow relationship. This work investigates stemflow dynamics and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on stemflow rates in two Mediterranean stands during the leafed period - from May to October. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). The monitoring design of each plot consists of 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets, bulk rainfall measured in a nearby clearing and meteorological conditions above the canopies. All data were recorded at 5 min interval. Biometric characteristics of the measured trees were also measured. The analysis of 39 rainfall events (65% smaller than 10 mm) shows that stemflow accounted for less than 1% of the bulk rainfall in both stands. Results also show that, on average, the rainfall amount required for the start of the stemflow and the time delay between the beginning of the precipitation and the start of stemflow are higher in the Downy oak forest. As suggested by stemflow funneling ratios, these differences might be linked to the canopy structure and bark water storage capacity of the trees, indicating that during low magnitude events, oaks have more difficulty to reach storage capacity. The role of other biotic and abiotic parameters on stemflow variability in both stands is still under investigation.

  19. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses.

  20. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+) haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+) haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+) became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+) has an additive effect with Rpv3(+) to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+) plants.

  1. Historical Introgression of the Downy Mildew Resistance Gene Rpv12 from the Asian Species Vitis amurensis into Grapevine Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance–a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola–was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old ‘Zarja severa’ and ‘Michurinets’. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12+ has an additive effect with Rpv3+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3+ plants. PMID:23593440

  2. [An early warning method of cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouse based on canopy temperature and humidity modeling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Mei-lan; Xu, Jian-ping; Chen, Mei-xiang; Li, Wen-yong; Li, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse environmental parameters can be used to establish greenhouse nirco-climate model, which can combine with disease model for early warning, with aim of ecological controlling diseases to reduce pesticide usage, and protecting greenhouse ecological environment to ensure the agricultural product quality safety. Greenhouse canopy leaf temperature and air relative humidity, models were established using energy balance and moisture balance principle inside the greenhouse. The leaf temperature model considered radiation heat transfer between the greenhouse crops, wall, soil and cover, plus the heat exchange caused by indoor net radiation and crop transpiration. Furthermore, the water dynamic balance in the greenhouse including leaf transpiration, soil evaporation, cover and leaf water vapor condensation, was considered to develop a relative humidity model. The primary infection and latent period warning models for cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) were validated using the results of the leaf temperature and relative humidity model, and then the estimated disease occurrence date of cucumber downy mildew was compared with actual disease occurrence date of field observation. Finally, the results were verified by the measured temperature and humidity data of September and October, 2014. The results showed that the root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of the measured and estimated leaf temperature were 0.016 and 0.024 °C, and the RMSDs of the measured and estimated air relative humidity were 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively. Combining the result of estimated temperature and humidity models, a cucumber disease early warning system was established to forecast the date of disease occurrence, which met with the real date. Thus, this work could provide the micro-environment data for the early warning system of cucumber diseases in solar greenhouses. PMID:26995910

  3. Influence of canopy traits on spatio-temporal variability of throughfall in Mediterranean Downy oak and Scots pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Pilar; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Molina, Antonio J.; Gallart, Francesc

    2014-05-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of throughfall is the result of the interaction of biotic factors, related to the canopy traits, and abiotic factors, linked to the meteorological conditions. This variability may lead to significant differences in the volume of water and solutes that reach the ground in each location, and beyond in the hydrological and biogeochemical dynamics of forest soils. Two forest stands in Mediterranean climatic conditions were studied to analyse the role of biotic and abiotic factors in the temporal and spatial redistribution of throughfall. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42º 12'N, 1º 49'E). The study plots are representative of Mediterranean mountain areas with spontaneous afforestation by Scots pine as a consequence of the abandonment of agricultural terraces, formerly covered by Downy oaks. The monitoring design of each plot consisted of a set of 20 automatic rain recorders and 40 automatic soil moisture probes located below the canopy. 100 hemispheric photographs of the canopy were used to place the instruments at representative locations (in terms of canopy cover) within the plot. Bulk rainfall, stemflow and meteorological conditions above the forest cover were also automatically recorded. Canopy cover as well as biometric characteristics of the plots were also regularly measured. The results indicate a temporal persistence of throughfall in both stands, as observed elsewhere. However, for the oak plot the seasonal evolution of canopy traits added additional variability, with higher variability in summer and different locations of wet and dry spots depending on the season. Furthermore, this work investigates the influence of canopy structure on the spatial variability of throughfall by analysing a large set of forest parameters, from main canopy traits to detailed leaves and wood characteristics

  4. Polymorphic SSR Markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the Newly Emergent Downy Mildew Pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rivera, Yazmín; Veltri, Daniel; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2015-11-10

    Premise of the study: Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 202-Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identify 13,483 SSR motifs. Primers were synthesized for 62 marker candidates, of which 37 generated reliable PCR products. Testing of the 37 markers using 96 P. obducens samples showed 96% of the markers were polymorphic, with 2-6 alleles observed. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000-0.892 and 0.023-0.746, respectively. Just 17 markers were sufficient to identify all multilocus genotypes. Conclusions: These are the first SSR markers available for this pathogen, and one of the first molecular resources. These markers will be useful in assessing variation in pathogen populations and determining the factors contributing to the emergence of destructive impatiens downy mildew disease.

  5. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seed and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States.

    PubMed

    Testen, Anna L; del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Ochoa, José B; Backman, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important export of the Andean region, and its key disease is quinoa downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis. P. variabilis oospores can be seedborne and rapid methods to detect seedborne P. variabilis have not been developed. In this research, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method was developed to detect seedborne P. variabilis and a sequencing-based method was used to validate the PCR-based method. P. variabilis was detected in 31 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the PCR-based method and in 32 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the sequencing-based method. Thirty-one of the quinoa seed lots tested in this study were sold for human consumption, with seed originating from six different countries. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) phylogenies were examined to determine whether geographical differences occurred in P. variabilis populations originating from Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States. No geographical differences were observed in the ITS-derived phylogeny but the COX2 phylogeny indicated that geographical differences existed between U.S. and South American samples. Both ITS and COX2 phylogenies supported the existence of a Peronospora sp., distinct from P. variabilis, that causes systemic-like downy mildew symptoms on quinoa in Ecuador. The results of these studies allow for a better understanding of P. variabilis populations in South America and identified a new causal agent for quinoa downy mildew. The PCR-based seed detection method allows for the development of P. variabilis-free quinoa seed, which may prove important for management of quinoa downy mildew.

  6. Risk Quantification for ANN Based Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new risk assessment method for short-term load forecasting is proposed. The proposed method makes use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to forecast one-step ahead daily maximum loads and evaluate uncertainty of in load forecasting. As ANN the model, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is employed to forecast loads due to the good performance. Sufficient realistic pseudo-scenarios are required to carry out quantitative risk analysis. The multivariate normal distribution with the correlation between input variables is used to give more realistic results to ANN. In addition, the method of Moment Matching is used to improve the accuracy of the multivariate normal distribution. The Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach is used to evaluate risk that exceeds the upper bounds of generation capacity. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of daily maximum load forecasting.

  7. Allan Hills 88019: an Antarctic H-chondrite with a very long terrestrial age.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.; Neupert, U.; Knauer, M.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R.; Mokos, J.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Metzler, K.; Suter, M.; Kubik, P. W.

    1997-11-01

    We have measured the concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl (half-lives 1.51 Ma, 716 ka, 300 ka, respectively) in two different laboratories by AMS techniques, as well as concentrations and isotopic compositions of stable helium, neon and argon in the Antarctic H-chondrite Allan Hills 88019. In addition, nuclear track densities were measured. From these results it is concluded that the meteoroid ALH 88019 had a pre-atmospheric radius of (20 ( 5) cm and a shielding depth for the analyzed samples of between 4 and 8 cm. Using calculated and experimentally determined production rates of cosmogenic nuclides, an exposure age of about 40 Ma is obtained from cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar. The extremely low concentrations of radionuclides are explained by a very long terrestrial age for this meteorite of (2.2 ( 0.4) Ma. A similarly long terrestrial age was found so far only for the Antarctic L-chondrite Lewis Cliff 86360. Such long ages establish one boundary condition for the history of meteorites in Antarctica.

  8. THE DEAD-LIVING-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S SHORT STORIES.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro

    2016-06-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.

  9. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling `prose-poem' Eureka (1848), in particular, has sometimes been scrutinized for anticipations of later scientific developments. By contrast, the present paper argues that it should be understood as a contribution to the raging debates about scientific methodology at the time. This methodological interest, which is echoed in Poe's `tales of ratiocination', gives rise to a proposed new mode of—broadly abductive—inference, which Poe attributes to the hybrid figure of the `poet-mathematician'. Without creative imagination and intuition, Science would necessarily remain incomplete, even by its own standards. This concern with imaginative (abductive) inference ties in nicely with his coherentism, which grants pride of place to the twin virtues of Simplicity and Consistency, which must constrain imagination lest it degenerate into mere fancy.

  10. Application of the Allan Variance to Time Series Analysis in Astrometry and Geodesy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance (AVAR) was introduced 50 years ago as a statistical tool for assessing the frequency standards deviations. For the past decades, AVAR has increasingly been used in geodesy and astrometry to assess the noise characteristics in geodetic and astrometric time series. A specific feature of astrometric and geodetic measurements, as compared with clock measurements, is that they are generally associated with uncertainties; thus, an appropriate weighting should be applied during data analysis. In addition, some physically connected scalar time series naturally form series of multidimensional vectors. For example, three station coordinates time series X, Y, and Z can be combined to analyze 3-D station position variations. The classical AVAR is not intended for processing unevenly weighted and/or multidimensional data. Therefore, AVAR modifications, namely weighted AVAR (WAVAR), multidimensional AVAR (MAVAR), and weighted multidimensional AVAR (WMAVAR), were introduced to overcome these deficiencies. In this paper, a brief review is given of the experience of using AVAR and its modifications in processing astrogeodetic time series.

  11. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  12. Novel SLC16A2 mutations in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Keiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Imai, Ayako; Inoue, Ken; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an X-linked disorder caused by impaired thyroid hormone transporter. Patients with AHDS usually exhibit severe motor developmental delay, delayed myelination of the brain white matter, and elevated T3 levels in thyroid tests. Neurological examination of two patients with neurodevelopmental delay revealed generalized hypotonia, and not paresis, as the main neurological finding. Nystagmus and dyskinesia were not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated delayed myelination in early childhood in both patients. Nevertheless, matured myelination was observed at 6 years of age in one patient. Although the key finding for AHDS is elevated free T3, one of the patients showed a normal T3 level in childhood, misleading the diagnosis of AHDS. Genetic analysis revealed two novel SLC16A2 mutations, p.(Gly122Val) and p.(Gly221Ser), confirming the AHDS diagnosis. These results indicate that AHDS diagnosis is sometimes challenging owing to clinical variability among patients. PMID:27672545

  13. Power spectrum and Allan variance methods for calibrating single-molecule video-tracking instruments

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp, Bob M.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation instruments, such as optical traps and magnetic tweezers, frequently use video tracking to measure the position of a force-generating probe. The instruments are calibrated by comparing the measured probe motion to a model of Brownian motion in a harmonic potential well; the results of calibration are estimates of the probe drag, α, and spring constant, κ. Here, we present both time- and frequency-domain methods to accurately and precisely extract α and κ from the probe trajectory. In the frequency domain, we discuss methods to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) from data (including windowing and blocking), and we derive an analytical formula for the PSD which accounts both for aliasing and the filtering intrinsic to video tracking. In the time domain, we focus on the Allan variance (AV): we present a theoretical equation for the AV relevant to typical single-molecule setups and discuss the optimal manner for computing the AV from experimental data using octave-sampled overlapping bins. We show that, when using maximum-likelihood methods to fit to the data, both the PSD and AV approaches can extract α and κ in an unbiased and low-error manner, though the AV approach is simpler and more robust. PMID:22380133

  14. THE DEAD-LIVING-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S SHORT STORIES.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro

    2016-06-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative. PMID:27194275

  15. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and modeling of powder flow.

    PubMed

    Kachrimanis, K; Karamyan, V; Malamataris, S

    2003-01-01

    Effects of micromeritic properties (bulk, tapped and particle density, particle size and shape) on the flow rate through circular orifices are investigated, for three pharmaceutical excipients (Lactose, Emcompress and Starch) separated in four sieve fractions, and are modeled with the help of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Eight variables were selected as inputs and correlated by applying the Spearman product-moment correlation matrix and the visual component planes of trained Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). Back-propagation feed-forward ANN with six hidden units in a single hidden layer was selected for modeling experimental data and its predictions were compared with those of the flow equation proposed by. It was found that SOMs are efficient for the identification of co-linearity in the input variables and the ANN is superior to the flow equation since it does not require separate regression for each excipient and its predictive ability is higher. Besides the orifice diameter, most influential and important variable was the difference between tapped and bulk density. From the pruned ANN an approximate non-linear model was extracted, which describes powder flow rate in terms of the four network's input variables of the greatest predictive importance or saliency (difference between tapped and bulk density (x(2)), orifice diameter (x(3)), circle equivalent particle diameter (x(4)) and particle density [equation in text].

  16. Prediction aluminum corrosion inhibitor efficiency using artificial neural network (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Sh; Kalhor, E. G.; Nabavi, S. R.; Alamiparvin, L.; Pogaku, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, activity of some Schiff bases as aluminum corrosion inhibitor was investigated using artificial neural network (ANN). Hence, corrosion inhibition efficiency of Schiff bases (in any type) were gathered from different references. Then these molecules were drawn and optimized in Hyperchem software. Molecular descriptors generating and descriptors selection were fulfilled by Dragon software and principal component analysis (PCA) method, respectively. These structural descriptors along with environmental descriptors (ambient temperature, time of exposure, pH and the concentration of inhibitor) were used as input variables. Furthermore, aluminum corrosion inhibition efficiency was used as output variable. Experimental data were split into three sets: training set (for model building) and test set (for model validation) and simulation (for general model). Modeling was performed by Multiple linear regression (MLR) methods and artificial neural network (ANN). The results obtained in linear models showed poor correlation between experimental and theoretical data. However nonlinear model presented satisfactory results. Higher correlation coefficient of ANN (R > 0.9) revealed that ANN can be successfully applied for prediction of aluminum corrosion inhibitor efficiency of Schiff bases in different environmental conditions.

  17. Reactions to Ann Arbor: Vernacular Black English and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Marcia Farr, Ed.

    The papers in this collection provide a brief state-of-the-art statement on the role of non-standard dialects of English in education and on some implications of the Ann Arbor decision. The following papers are included: (1) "Vernacular Black English: Setting the Issues in Time," by Roger W. Shuy; (2) "Beyond Black English: Implications of the Ann…

  18. Decolonizing the Choctaws: Teaching LeAnne Howe's "Shell Shaker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollrah, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    "Shell Shaker" (2001) by LeAnne Howe (Choctaw) is a novel that gives students an opportunity to learn that the history and culture of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma are alive today. Winner of the Before Columbus Foundation American Book Award in 2002, the novel deals with two parallel stories that converge in the present, one about the eighteenth…

  19. Anne S. Young: Professor and Variable Star Observer Extraordinaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, Katherine

    2011-05-01

    Anne Sewell Young (1871-1961) was one of the eight original members of the AAVSO, to which she contributed more than 6500 observations over 33 years. She also taught astronomy for 37 years at Mount Holyoke College; among her students was Helen Sawyer Hogg. This paper will look at her life and career both at Mount Holyoke and with the AAVSO.

  20. Research Review: Ann Markusen's Concept of Artistic Dividend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbacher, Judy, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the "Research Review" features the work of Ann Markusen, Director of the Humphrey Institute's Project on Regional and Industrial Economics at the University of Minnesota. Through the six articles reviewed here, Markusen develops the concept of "The Artistic Dividend," examines the impact of Artists' Centers, explores how artists earn…

  1. An Interview with Dr. Anne LaBastille.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Anne LaBastille, a role model for women interested in exploring the wilderness, gives hints on lessening the effects of acid rain, tells outdoor educators to encourage women to explore the wilderness and to take children outdoors to experience nature, and predicts a future economic slump for outdoor education. (LC)

  2. Comparison of Conventional and ANN Models for River Flow Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Ganti, R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological models are useful in many water resources applications such as flood control, irrigation and drainage, hydro power generation, water supply, erosion and sediment control, etc. Estimates of runoff are needed in many water resources planning, design development, operation and maintenance activities. River flow is generally estimated using time series or rainfall-runoff models. Recently, soft artificial intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have become popular for research purposes but have not been extensively adopted in operational hydrological forecasts. There is a strong need to develop ANN models based on real catchment data and compare them with the conventional models. In this paper, a comparative study has been carried out for river flow forecasting using the conventional and ANN models. Among the conventional models, multiple linear, and non linear regression, and time series models of auto regressive (AR) type have been developed. Feed forward neural network model structure trained using the back propagation algorithm, a gradient search method, was adopted. The daily river flow data derived from Godavari Basin @ Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India have been employed to develop all the models included here. Two inputs, flows at two past time steps, (Q(t-1) and Q(t-2)) were selected using partial auto correlation analysis for forecasting flow at time t, Q(t). A wide range of error statistics have been used to evaluate the performance of all the models developed in this study. It has been found that the regression and AR models performed comparably, and the ANN model performed the best amongst all the models investigated in this study. It is concluded that ANN model should be adopted in real catchments for hydrological modeling and forecasting.

  3. The Plasmodesmal Protein PDLP1 Localises to Haustoria-Associated Membranes during Downy Mildew Infection and Regulates Callose Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sklenar, Jan; Findlay, Kim; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Robatzek, Silke; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Faulkner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis, haustoria are progressively encased by host-derived, callose-rich materials but the molecular mechanisms by which callose accumulates around haustoria remain unclear. Here, we report that PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN 1 (PDLP1) is expressed at high levels in Hpa infected cells. Unlike other plasma membrane proteins, which are often excluded from the EHM, PDLP1 is located at the EHM in Hpa-infected cells prior to encasement. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of PDLP1 are sufficient to convey this localization. PDLP1 also associates with the developing encasement but this association is lost when encasements are fully mature. We found that the pdlp1,2,3 triple mutant is more susceptible to Hpa while overexpression of PDLP1 enhances plant resistance, suggesting that PDLPs enhance basal immunity against Hpa. Haustorial encasements are depleted in callose in pdlp1,2,3 mutant plants whereas PDLP1 over-expression elevates callose deposition around haustoria and across the cell surface. These data indicate that PDLPs contribute to callose encasement of Hpa haustoria and suggests that the deposition of callose at haustoria may involve similar mechanisms to callose deposition at plasmodesmata. PMID:25393742

  4. Mutations in MCT8 in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley-syndrome affecting its cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Simone; Kremers, Gert-Jan; Friesema, Edith C H; Visser, W Edward; Klootwijk, Wim; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone (TH)-specific transporter. Mutations in the MCT8 gene are associated with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), consisting of severe psychomotor retardation and disturbed TH parameters. To study the functional consequences of different MCT8 mutations in detail, we combined functional analysis in different cell types with live-cell imaging of the cellular distribution of seven mutations that we identified in patients with AHDS. We used two cell models to study the mutations in vitro: 1) transiently transfected COS1 and JEG3 cells, and 2) stably transfected Flp-in 293 cells expressing a MCT8-cyan fluorescent protein construct. All seven mutants were expressed at the protein level and showed a defect in T3 and T4 transport in uptake and metabolism studies. Three mutants (G282C, P537L, and G558D) had residual uptake activity in Flp-in 293 and COS1 cells, but not in JEG3 cells. Four mutants (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) were expressed at the plasma membrane. The mobility in the plasma membrane of P537L was similar to WT, but the mobility of P321L was altered. The other mutants studied (insV236, G282C, G558D) were predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In essence, loss of function by MCT8 mutations can be divided in two groups: mutations that result in partial or complete loss of transport activity (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) and mutations that mainly disturb protein expression and trafficking (insV236, G282C, G558D). The cell type-dependent results suggest that MCT8 mutations in AHDS patients may have tissue-specific effects on TH transport probably caused by tissue-specific expression of yet unknown MCT8-interacting proteins. PMID:23550058

  5. Carbonates in fractures of Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: petrologic evidence for impact origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R.; Krot, A. N.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Carbonates in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 occur as grains on pyroxene grain boundaries, in crushed zones, and as disks, veins, and irregularly shaped grains in healed pyroxene fractures. Some carbonate disks have tapered Mg-rich edges and are accompanied by smaller, thinner and relatively homogeneous, magnesite microdisks. Except for the microdisks, all types of carbonate grains show the same unique chemical zoning pattern on MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3 plots. This chemical characteristic and the close spatial association of diverse carbonate types show that all carbonates formed by a similar process. The heterogeneous distribution of carbonates in fractures, tapered shapes of some disks, and the localized occurrence of Mg-rich microdisks appear to be incompatible with growth from an externally derived CO2-rich fluid that changed in composition over time. These features suggest instead that the fractures were closed as carbonates grew from an internally derived fluid and that the microdisks formed from a residual Mg-rich fluid that was squeezed along fractures. Carbonate in pyroxene fractures is most abundant near grains of plagioclase glass that are located on pyroxene grain boundaries and commonly contain major or minor amounts of carbonate. We infer that carbonates in fractures formed from grain boundary carbonates associated with plagiociase that were melted by impact and dispersed into the surrounding fractured pyroxene. Carbonates in fractures, which include those studied by McKay et al. (1996), could not have formed at low temperatures and preserved mineralogical evidence for Martian organisms.

  6. Bulk and stable isotopic compositions of carbonate minerals in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: no proof of high formation temperature.

    PubMed

    Treiman, A H; Romanek, C S

    1998-07-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at >650 degrees C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH84001. PMID:11543073

  7. Bulk and Stable Isotopic Compositions of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: No Proof of High Formation Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at greater than 650 C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH 84001.

  8. 75 FR 418 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel KELLY ANN CANDIES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel KELLY ANN CANDIES... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel KELLY ANN CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The offshore supply vessel KELLY ANN CANDIES will be used...

  9. Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner. PMID:27093114

  10. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  11. Jo Ann Rinaudo, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Jo Ann Rinaudo is a Program Director in the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute. She received a doctoral degree from the University of Toronto, where she studied chemical carcinogenesis in the liver. She was in the pathology department and has a broad background in human disease. Post-graduate training included further studies on the cell cycle during liver regeneration and cancer. |

  12. Anne S. Young: Professor and Variable Star Observer Extraordinaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracher, K.

    2012-06-01

    One of the original eight members of the AAVSO, but not well known today, was Professor Anne Sewell Young of Mount Holyoke College. Miss Young taught there for thirty-seven years, and trained many women astronomers during the first third of the 20th century. This paper will attempt to present her life as an inspiring teacher, as well as a contributor of more than 6,500 variable star observations to the AAVSO.

  13. JoAnn Morgan looks at Newscapade exhibit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    JoAnn Morgan, associate director for Advanced Development and Shuttle Upgrades at KSC, studies posters of space-related news stories in the mobile exhibition called 'NewsCapade with Al Neuharth.' The exhibit started its cross-country tour in San Francisco in April. It is a traveling version of the Newseum in Arlington, Va. Morgan was among four speakers discussing 'Space, the Media and the Millennium' at a reception Jan. 24 kicking off the display at KSC.

  14. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  15. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  16. Coupling SWAT and ANN models for enhanced daily streamflow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Navideh; Kalin, Latif

    2016-02-01

    To improve daily flow prediction in unmonitored watersheds a hybrid model was developed by combining a quasi-distributed watershed model and artificial neural network (ANN). Daily streamflow data from 29 nearby watersheds in and around the city of Atlanta, Southeastern United States, with leave-one-site-out jackknifing technique were used to build the flow predictive models during warm and cool seasons. Daily streamflow was first simulated with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and then the SWAT simulated baseflow and stormflow were used as inputs to ANN. Out of the total 29 test watersheds, 62% and 83% of them had Nash-Sutcliffe values above 0.50 during the cool and warm seasons, respectively (considered good or better). As the percent forest cover or the size of test watershed increased, the performances of the models gradually decreased during both warm and cool seasons. This indicates that the developed models work better in urbanized watersheds. In addition, SWAT and SWAT Calibration Uncertainty Procedure (SWAT-CUP) program were run separately for each station to compare the flow prediction accuracy of the hybrid approach to SWAT. Only 31% of the sites during the calibration and 34% of validation runs had ENASH values ⩾0.50. This study showed that coupling ANN with semi-distributed models can lead to improved daily streamflow predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  17. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  18. A Downy Mildew Effector Attenuates Salicylic Acid–Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis by Interacting with the Host Mediator Complex

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Asai, Shuta; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Piquerez, Sophie; Fabro, Georgina; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are continually exposed to pathogen attack but usually remain healthy because they can activate defences upon perception of microbes. However, pathogens have evolved to overcome plant immunity by delivering effectors into the plant cell to attenuate defence, resulting in disease. Recent studies suggest that some effectors may manipulate host transcription, but the specific mechanisms by which such effectors promote susceptibility remain unclear. We study the oomycete downy mildew pathogen of Arabidopsis, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), and show here that the nuclear-localized effector HaRxL44 interacts with Mediator subunit 19a (MED19a), resulting in the degradation of MED19a in a proteasome-dependent manner. The Mediator complex of ∼25 proteins is broadly conserved in eukaryotes and mediates the interaction between transcriptional regulators and RNA polymerase II. We found MED19a to be a positive regulator of immunity against Hpa. Expression profiling experiments reveal transcriptional changes resembling jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) signalling in the presence of HaRxL44, and also 3 d after infection with Hpa. Elevated JA/ET signalling is associated with a decrease in salicylic acid (SA)–triggered immunity (SATI) in Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL44 and in med19a loss-of-function mutants, whereas SATI is elevated in plants overexpressing MED19a. Using a PR1::GUS reporter, we discovered that Hpa suppresses PR1 expression specifically in cells containing haustoria, into which RxLR effectors are delivered, but not in nonhaustoriated adjacent cells, which show high PR1::GUS expression levels. Thus, HaRxL44 interferes with Mediator function by degrading MED19, shifting the balance of defence transcription from SA-responsive defence to JA/ET-signalling, and enhancing susceptibility to biotrophs by attenuating SA-dependent gene expression. PMID:24339748

  19. OH reactivity and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds in a Mediterranean forest of downy oak trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannoni, N.; Gros, V.; Lanza, M.; Sarda, R.; Bonsang, B.; Kalogridis, C.; Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.; Jambert, C.; Boissard, C.; Lathiere, J.

    2016-02-01

    Total OH reactivity, defined as the total loss frequency of the hydroxyl radical in the atmosphere, has proved to be an excellent tool to identify the total loading of reactive species in ambient air. High levels of unknown reactivity were found in several forests worldwide and were often higher than at urban sites.Our study presents atmospheric mixing ratios of biogenic compounds and total OH reactivity measured during late spring 2014 at the forest of downy oak trees of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France. Air masses were sampled at two heights: 2 m, i.e., inside the canopy, and 10 m, i.e., above the canopy, where the mean canopy height is 5 m.We found that the OH reactivity at the site mainly depended on the main primary biogenic species emitted by the forest, which was isoprene and to a lesser extent by its degradation products and long-lived atmospheric compounds (up to 26 % during daytime). During daytime, no significant missing OH reactivity was reported at the site, either inside or above the canopy. However, during two nights we determined a missing fraction of OH reactivity up to 50 %, possibly due to unmeasured oxidation products. We confirmed that no significant oxidation of the primary species occurred within the canopy; primary compounds emitted by the forest were fast transported to the atmosphere. Finally, the OH reactivity at this site was maximum 69 s-1, which is a high value for a forest characterized by a temperate climate. Observations in various and diverse forests in the Mediterranean region are therefore needed to better constrain the impact of reactive gases over this area.

  20. Improved Artificial Neural Network-Pedotransfer Functions (ANN-PTFs) for Estimating Soil Hydraulic Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, M. R.; Zhu, J.; Ye, M.; Meyer, P. D.; Hassan, A. E.

    2008-12-01

    ANN-PTFs have become popular means of mapping easily available soil data into hard-to-measure soil hydraulic parameters in the recent years. These parameters and their distributions are the indispensable inputs to subsurface flow and transport models which provide basis for environmental planning, management and decision making. While improved ANN prediction together with the preservation of probability distributions of hydraulic parameters in ANN training is important, ANN-PTFs have been typically found using conventional ANN training approach with the mean square error as an error function, which may not preserve the probability distribution of the parameters. Moreover, the conventional ANN training can itself introduce correlation among predicted parameters and could not preserve the actual correlation among the measured parameters. The present study describes approaches to deal with such shortcomings of conventional ANN- PTF training algorithms by using new types of error functions and presents a group of improved ANN-PTF models developed on the basis of the new approaches with different levels of data availability. In the study, the bootstrap method is used as part of ANN-PTF development for generating independent training and validation sets, and calculating uncertainty estimates of the ANN predictions. The results demonstrate the merit of the new approaches of the ANN training and the physical significance of various types of less costly soil data in the prediction of soil hydraulic parameters.

  1. The Regents of the University of California, Petitioner, vs. Allan Bakke, Respondent. On Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supreme Court of the U. S., Washington, DC.

    The main question of this case is whether Allan Bakke was denied the equal protection of the laws in contravention of the 14th Amendment, solely because of his race, as the result of a racial quota admission policy. A statement of the case which reviews pertinent data such as the admission procedure of the medical school, Bakke's interview and…

  2. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein. PMID:23883357

  3. Groundwater Pollution Source Identification using Linked ANN-Optimization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Md; Srivastava, Rajesh; Jain, Ashu

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in several parts of the world. Contamination of groundwater has become a serious health and environmental problem today. Human activities including industrial and agricultural activities are generally responsible for this contamination. Identification of groundwater pollution source is a major step in groundwater pollution remediation. Complete knowledge of pollution source in terms of its source characteristics is essential to adopt an effective remediation strategy. Groundwater pollution source is said to be identified completely when the source characteristics - location, strength and release period - are known. Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source is an ill-posed inverse problem. It becomes more difficult for real field conditions, when the lag time between the first reading at observation well and the time at which the source becomes active is not known. We developed a linked ANN-Optimization model for complete identification of an unknown groundwater pollution source. The model comprises two parts- an optimization model and an ANN model. Decision variables of linked ANN-Optimization model contain source location and release period of pollution source. An objective function is formulated using the spatial and temporal data of observed and simulated concentrations, and then minimized to identify the pollution source parameters. In the formulation of the objective function, we require the lag time which is not known. An ANN model with one hidden layer is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the lag time. Different combinations of source locations and release periods are used as inputs and lag time is obtained as the output. Performance of the proposed model is evaluated for two and three dimensional case with error-free and erroneous data. Erroneous data was generated by adding uniformly distributed random error (error level 0-10%) to the analytically computed concentration

  4. The final days of Edgar Allan Poe: clues to an old mystery using 21st century medical science.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roger A

    This study examines all documented information regarding the final days and death of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), in an attempt to determine the most likely cause of death of the American poet, short story writer, and literary critic. Information was gathered from letters, newspaper accounts, and magazine articles written during the period after Poe's death, and also from biographies and medical journal articles written up until the present. A chronology of Poe's final days was constructed, and this was used to form a differential diagnosis of possible causes of death. Death theories over the last 160 years were analyzed using this information. This analysis, along with a review of Poe's past medical history, would seem to support an alcohol-related cause of death.

  5. Isotopic evidence for a terrestrial source of organic compounds found in martian meteorites Allan Hills 84001 and Elephant Moraine 79001.

    PubMed

    Jull, A J; Courtney, C; Jeffrey, D A; Beck, J W

    1998-01-16

    Stepped-heating experiments on martian meteorites Allan Hills 84001 (ALH84001) and Elephant Moraine 79001 (EETA79001) revealed low-temperature (200 to 430 degrees Celsius) fractions with a carbon isotopic composition delta13C between -22 and -33 per mil and a carbon-14 content that is 40 to 60 percent of that of modern terrestrial carbon, consistent with a terrestrial origin for most of the organic material. Intermediate-temperature (400 to 600 degrees Celsius) carbonate-rich fractions of ALH84001 have delta13C of +32 to +40 per mil with a low carbon-14 content, consistent with an extraterrestrial origin, whereas some of the carbonate fraction of EETA79001 is terrestrial. In addition, ALH84001 contains a small preterrestrial carbon component of unknown origin that combusts at intermediate temperatures. This component is likely a residual acid-insoluble carbonate or a more refractory organic phase. PMID:9430584

  6. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  7. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  8. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii)

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  9. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii).

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Steven J; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T; Subbarao, Krishna V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N

    2014-12-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management.

  10. Influence of throughfall spatial and temporal patterns on soil moisture variability under Downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Pilar; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Cayuela, Carles; Latron, Jérôme; Molina, Antonio; Gallart, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow patterns, due to differences in forest structure and seasonality of Mediterranean climate, may lead to significant changes in the volume of water that locally reaches the soil, with a potential effect on groundwater recharge and on hydrological response of forested hillslopes. Two forest stands in Mediterranean climatic conditions were studied to explore the role of vegetation on the temporal and spatial redistribution of rainfall. One is a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and the other is a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). These plots are representative of Mediterranean mountain areas with spontaneous afforestation by Scots pine as a consequence of the abandonment of agricultural terraces, formerly covered by Downy oaks. The monitoring design of each plot consists of 20 automatic rain recorders to measuring throughfall, 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets and 40 automatic soil moisture probes. All data were recorded each 5 min. Bulk rainfall and meteorological conditions above both forest covers were also recorded, and canopy cover and biometric characteristics of the plots were measured. Results indicate a marked temporal stability of throughfall in both stands, and a lower persistence of spatial patterns in the leafless period than in the leafed one in the oaks stand. Moreover, in the oaks plot the ranks of gauges in the leafed and leafless periods were not significantly correlated, indicating different wet and dry hotspots in each season. The spatial distribution of throughfall varied significantly depending on rainfall volume, with small events having larger variability, whereas large events tended to homogenize the relative differences in point throughfall. Soil water content spatial variability increased with increasing soil water content, but direct dependence of soil water content variability on

  11. Upper Wisconsinan submarine end moraines off Cape Ann, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic profiles across the southwest end of Jeffreys Ledge, a bathymetric high north of Cape Ann, Massachusetts, reveal two end moraines. The moraines overlie upper Wisconsinan glacialmarine silty clay and are composed mostly of subaqueous ice-contact deposits and outwash. They were formed below sea level in water depths of as much as 120 m during fluctuations of a calving ice front. The moraines are late Wisconsinan in age and were formed after the Cambridge readvance, about 14,000 yr B.P., and before the Kennebunk readvance, about 13,000 yr B.P. They represent fluctuations of the ice front during overall retreat of Laurentide ice from the Gulf of Maine and New England. ?? 1985.

  12. Predicting Dynamic Behavior of a Biological System Using ANNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Mohd Haniff; Ibrahim, Ratnawati; Hashim, Ishak; Yeun, Liong Choong; Bakar, Azuraliza Abu; Hussein, Zeti Azura Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied to predict protein concentrations of a biological system. The input data are generated from a nonlinear mathematical model of the protein concentration. The protein concentrations from CDC6 data with actual kinetic parameter are taken as the target output. The data are then trained using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a 6-6-6 configuration. The allocation of the data will be distributed into 3 categories that are 80% as training data, 10% as validation data, and 10% as test data. The learning rules used in this work to determine the best model are gradient descent, conjugate gradient, scaled conjugate gradient. It is found that the MLP with scaled conjugate gradient learning rule gives the best prediction rate.

  13. A drowned Holocene barrier spit off Cape Ann, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic profiles and bathymetric contours reveal a drowned barrier spit on Jeffreys Ledge off Cape Ann, Massachusetts. Seaward-dipping internal reflectors indicate that a regressive barrier formed during the early Holocene low sea-level stillstand. Preservation of the barrier spit may have been favored by its large size (as much as 20 m thick), by an ample sediment supply from unconsolidated glacial drift, and by the subsequent rapid sea-level rise. The barrier spit is present in water depths of 50 to 70 m and indicates a low relative sea-level stand of −50 m. This value confirms the low relative sea-level stand of −47 m postulated by Oldale et al. (1983) for northeast Massachusetts and New Hampshire on the basis of the submerged delta of the Merrimack River, and it indicates that the barrier and delta were contemporaneous (Oldale et al., 1983).

  14. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  15. Visual NNet: An Educational ANN's Simulation Environment Reusing Matlab Neural Networks Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Roselló, Emilio; González-Dacosta, Jacinto; Lado, Maria J.; Méndez, Arturo J.; Garcia Pérez-Schofield, Baltasar; Ferrer, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) are nowadays a common subject in different curricula of graduate and postgraduate studies. Due to the complex algorithms involved and the dynamic nature of ANN's, simulation software has been commonly used to teach this subject. This software has usually been developed specifically for learning purposes, because…

  16. Anne Frank in Historical Perspective: A Teaching Guide for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Alex; Fishman, Joel

    This guide helps secondary students to understand "The Diary of Anne Frank" through a series of short essays, maps, and photographs. In view of new scholarship, the historical context in which Anne Frank wrote may be studied to improve the student's perspective of recent history and of the present. A drawing shows the hiding place in the home…

  17. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  18. 33 CFR 80.115 - Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.115 Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann... harbors, bays, and inlets on the east coast of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts from Portland...

  19. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  20. iAnn: an event sharing platform for the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Rafael C.; Albar, Juan P.; Bhak, Jong; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Blicher, Thomas; Brazas, Michelle D.; Brooksbank, Cath; Budd, Aidan; De Las Rivas, Javier; Dreyer, Jacqueline; van Driel, Marc A.; Dunn, Michael J.; Fernandes, Pedro L.; van Gelder, Celia W. G.; Hermjakob, Henning; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Judge, David P.; Kahlem, Pascal; Korpelainen, Eija; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Loveland, Jane; Mayer, Christine; McDowall, Jennifer; Moran, Federico; Mulder, Nicola; Nyronen, Tommi; Rother, Kristian; Salazar, Gustavo A.; Schneider, Reinhard; Via, Allegra; Villaveces, Jose M.; Yu, Ping; Schneider, Maria V.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Corpas, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Summary: We present iAnn, an open source community-driven platform for dissemination of life science events, such as courses, conferences and workshops. iAnn allows automatic visualisation and integration of customised event reports. A central repository lies at the core of the platform: curators add submitted events, and these are subsequently accessed via web services. Thus, once an iAnn widget is incorporated into a website, it permanently shows timely relevant information as if it were native to the remote site. At the same time, announcements submitted to the repository are automatically disseminated to all portals that query the system. To facilitate the visualization of announcements, iAnn provides powerful filtering options and views, integrated in Google Maps and Google Calendar. All iAnn widgets are freely available. Availability: http://iann.pro/iannviewer Contact: manuel.corpas@tgac.ac.uk PMID:23742982

  1. Modification of an RBF ANN-Based Temperature Compensation Model of Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianhua; Qi, Bing; Chen, Daidai; Jr. Landry, René

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents modification of Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF ANN)-based temperature compensation models for Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes (IFOGs). Based on the mathematical expression of IFOG output, three temperature relevant terms are extracted, which include: (1) temperature of fiber loops; (2) temperature variation of fiber loops; (3) temperature product term of fiber loops. Then, the input-modified RBF ANN-based temperature compensation scheme is established, in which temperature relevant terms are transferred to train the RBF ANN. Experimental temperature tests are conducted and sufficient data are collected and post-processed to form the novel RBF ANN. Finally, we apply the modified RBF ANN based on temperature compensation model in two IFOGs with temperature compensation capabilities. The experimental results show the proposed temperature compensation model could efficiently reduce the influence of environment temperature on the output of IFOG, and exhibit a better temperature compensation performance than conventional scheme without proposed improvements. PMID:25985163

  2. Further Insights into the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome: Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Novel MCT8 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Grace; Visser, Theo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter MCT8 have been identified as the cause for Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and altered TH serum levels. Here we report a novel MCT8 mutation identified in 4 generations of one family, and its functional characterization. Methods Proband and family members were screened for 60 genes involved in X-linked cognitive impairment and the MCT8 mutation was confirmed. Functional consequences of MCT8 mutations were studied by analysis of [125I]TH transport in fibroblasts and transiently transfected JEG3 and COS1 cells, and by subcellular localization of the transporter. Results The proband and a male cousin demonstrated clinical findings characteristic of AHDS. Serum analysis showed high T3, low rT3, and normal T4 and TSH levels in the proband. A MCT8 mutation (c.869C>T; p.S290F) was identified in the proband, his cousin, and several female carriers. Functional analysis of the S290F mutant showed decreased TH transport, metabolism and protein expression in the three cell types, whereas the S290A mutation had no effect. Interestingly, both uptake and efflux of T3 and T4 was impaired in fibroblasts of the proband, compared to his healthy brother. However, no effect of the S290F mutation was observed on TH efflux from COS1 and JEG3 cells. Immunocytochemistry showed plasma membrane localization of wild-type MCT8 and the S290A and S290F mutants in JEG3 cells. Conclusions We describe a novel MCT8 mutation (S290F) in 4 generations of a family with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. Functional analysis demonstrates loss-of-function of the MCT8 transporter. Furthermore, our results indicate that the function of the S290F mutant is dependent on cell context. Comparison of the S290F and S290A mutants indicates that it is not the loss of Ser but its substitution with Phe, which leads to S290F dysfunction. PMID:26426690

  3. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    PubMed

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  4. Fine-Grained Rims in the Allan Hills 81002 and Lewis Cliff 90500 CM2 Meteorites: Their Origin and Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, X.; Wang, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Antarctic CM meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) 8 1002 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 contain abundant fine-grained rims (FGRs) that surround a variety of coarse-grained objects. FGRs from both meteorites have similar compositions and petrographic features, independent of their enclosed objects. The FGRs are chemically homogeneous at the 10 m scale for major and minor elements and at the 25 m scale for trace elements. They display accretionary features and contain large amounts of volatiles, presumably water. They are depleted in Ca, Mn, and S but enriched in P. All FGRs show a slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern, with enrichments of Gd and Yb and depletion of Er. Gd is twice as abundant as Er. Our results indicate that those FGRs are not genetically related to their enclosed cores. They were sampled from a reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust, prior to accretion to their parent body. The rim materials subsequently experienced aqueous alteration under identical conditions. Based on their mineral, textural, and especially chemical similarities, we conclude that ALH 8 1002 and LEW 90500 likely have a similar or identical source.

  5. Predicting stream water quality using artificial neural networks (ANN)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    2000-05-17

    Predicting point and nonpoint source runoff of dissolved and suspended materials into their receiving streams is important to protecting water quality and traditionally has been modeled using deterministic or statistical methods. The purpose of this study was to predict water quality in small streams using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The selected input variables were local precipitation, stream flow rates and turbidity for the initial prediction of suspended solids in the stream. A single hidden-layer feedforward neural network using backpropagation learning algorithms was developed with a detailed analysis of model design of those factors affecting successful implementation of the model. All features of a feedforward neural model were investigated including training set creation, number and layers of neurons, neural activation functions, and backpropagation algorithms. Least-squares regression was used to compare model predictions with test data sets. Most of the model configurations offered excellent predictive capabilities. Using either the logistic or the hyperbolic tangent neural activation function did not significantly affect predicted results. This was also true for the two learning algorithms tested, the Levenberg-Marquardt and Polak-Ribiere conjugate-gradient descent methods. The most important step during model development and training was the representative selection of data records for training of the model.

  6. Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Chun-Tian; Liao, Sheng-Li; Wu, Xin-Yu; Shen, Jian-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Daily reservoir inflow predictions with lead-times of several days are essential to the operational planning and scheduling of hydroelectric power system. The demand for quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) is increasing in hydropower operation with the dramatic advances in the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. This paper presents a simple and an effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions which solicits the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from QPF as predictors and discharges in following 1 to 6 days as predicted targets for multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs) modeling. An improved error back-propagation algorithm with self-adaptive learning rate and self-adaptive momentum coefficient is used to make the supervised training procedure more efficient in both time saving and search optimization. Several commonly used error measures are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and the results, compared with that of ARIMA model, show that the proposed model is capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization. Furthermore, the presented algorithm is integrated into a practical software system which has been severed for daily inflow predictions with lead-times varying from 1 to 6 days of more than twenty reservoirs operated by the Fujian Province Grid Company, China.

  7. Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Marking of Alumina Ceramic Using RSM And ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, Josephine; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B.

    2011-01-17

    The present research papers deals with the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface methodology (RSM) based mathematical modeling and also an optimization analysis on marking characteristics on alumina ceramic. The experiments have been planned and carried out based on Design of Experiment (DOE). It also analyses the influence of the major laser marking process parameters and the optimal combination of laser marking process parametric setting has been obtained. The output of the RSM optimal data is validated through experimentation and ANN predictive model. A good agreement is observed between the results based on ANN predictive model and actual experimental observations.

  8. 4. JoAnn SieburgBaker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. JoAnn Sieburg-Baker, Photographer, September 1977. VIEW OF POWER BUILDING (ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER). - Salem Manufacturing Company, Arista Cotton Mill, Brookstown & Marshall Streets, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC

  9. Flowering a Feminist Garden: The Writings and Poetry of Anne Spencer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Charita M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the life and poetry of Anne Spencer, one of the "lost" poets of the Harlem Renaissance. Discusses her varied and effective use of imagery and examines the Black and feminist perspectives of her work. (FMW)

  10. In Praise of Dissidence: Anne Lang-Etienne (1932-1991). Muriel Driver Memorial Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the life and work of Anne Lang-Etienne, a dissident occupational therapist who moved and shaped a generation of Canadian therapists and spurred the profession to action for social change. Includes 18 references. (JOW)

  11. ANN hybrid model versus ARIMA and ARIMAX models of runoff coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pektaş, Ali Osman; Kerem Cigizoglu, H.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, monthly runoff coefficients of seven southern large basins are calculated and modeled to forecast a holdout dataset by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), multivariate ARIMA (ARIMAX), and Artificial neural network (ANN) models. The applied traditional model performances are found insufficient, since the characteristic behaviors of the time series of direct runoff coefficients are very complicated. Therefore, a new Hybrid approach is adopted by using time series decomposition procedure and ANN. ARIMA, ARIMAX, ANN, and Hybrid models are compared with each other. The results indicate that the new generated Hybrid approach can be generalized to boost the prediction capability of ANNs in complicated time series data. It is seen that the new model captures the physical behavior of the direct runoff coefficient time series. The semi-random spikes of the direct runoff coefficient series are approximated sufficiently.

  12. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  13. Cation diffusion in calcite: determining closure temperatures and the thermal history for the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fisler, D K; Cygan, R T

    1998-07-01

    The presence of zoned Fe, Mg, Ca, and Mn in the carbonate phases associated with the cracks and inclusions of the Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 meteorite provides evidence for constraining the thermal history of the meteorite. Using self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients obtained from laboratory experiments on natural calcite, cooling rates are calculated for various temperatures and diffusion distances to assist in the evaluation of the compositional zoning associated with the carbonate phases in ALH 84001. The closure temperature model provides the average temperature below which compositional zoning will be preserved for a given cooling rate, that is, the temperature at which diffusion will be ineffective in homogenizing the phase. The validity of various theories for the formation of the carbonate globules may be examined, therefore, in view of the diffusion-limited kinetic constraints. Experiments using a thin film-mineral diffusion couple and ion microprobe for depth profiling analysis were performed for the temperature range of 550-800 degrees C to determine self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients for Ca and Mg and in calcite. The resulting activation energies for Ca (Ea(Ca) = 271 +/- 80 kJ/mol) and for Mg (Ea(Mg) = 284 +/- 74 kJ/mol) were used then to calculate a series of cooling rate, grain size, and closure temperature curves. The data indicate, for example, that by the diffusion of Mg in calcite, a 10 micrometers compositional zone would be completely homogenized at a temperature of 300 degrees C for cooling rates <100 K/Ma. These data provide no constraint on formation models that propose a low-temperature fluid precipitation mechanism; however, they indicate that the carbonate globules were not exposed to a high-temperature environment for long time scales following formation. PMID:11543076

  14. Cation diffusion in calcite: determining closure temperatures and the thermal history for the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite.

    PubMed

    Fisler, D K; Cygan, R T

    1998-07-01

    The presence of zoned Fe, Mg, Ca, and Mn in the carbonate phases associated with the cracks and inclusions of the Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 meteorite provides evidence for constraining the thermal history of the meteorite. Using self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients obtained from laboratory experiments on natural calcite, cooling rates are calculated for various temperatures and diffusion distances to assist in the evaluation of the compositional zoning associated with the carbonate phases in ALH 84001. The closure temperature model provides the average temperature below which compositional zoning will be preserved for a given cooling rate, that is, the temperature at which diffusion will be ineffective in homogenizing the phase. The validity of various theories for the formation of the carbonate globules may be examined, therefore, in view of the diffusion-limited kinetic constraints. Experiments using a thin film-mineral diffusion couple and ion microprobe for depth profiling analysis were performed for the temperature range of 550-800 degrees C to determine self- and tracer-diffusion coefficients for Ca and Mg and in calcite. The resulting activation energies for Ca (Ea(Ca) = 271 +/- 80 kJ/mol) and for Mg (Ea(Mg) = 284 +/- 74 kJ/mol) were used then to calculate a series of cooling rate, grain size, and closure temperature curves. The data indicate, for example, that by the diffusion of Mg in calcite, a 10 micrometers compositional zone would be completely homogenized at a temperature of 300 degrees C for cooling rates <100 K/Ma. These data provide no constraint on formation models that propose a low-temperature fluid precipitation mechanism; however, they indicate that the carbonate globules were not exposed to a high-temperature environment for long time scales following formation.

  15. Magnesian anorthositic granulites in lunar meteorites Allan Hills A81005 and Dhofar 309: Geochemistry and global significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Maloy, Amy K.; Shearer, Charles K.; Gross, Juliane

    2010-02-01

    Fragments of magnesian anorthositic granulite are found in the lunar highlands meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) A81005 and Dhofar (Dho) 309. Five analyzed clasts of meteoritic magnesian anorthositic granulite have Mg' [molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)]=81-87 FeO~5%wt Al2O3~22% wt; rare earth elements abundances~0.5-2×CI (except Eu~10×CI) and low Ni and Co in a non-chondritic ratio. The clasts have nearly identical chemical compositions, even though their host meteorites formed at different places on the Moon. These magnesian anorthositic granulites are distinct from other highlands materials in their unique combination of mineral proportions, Mg', REE abundances and patterns, Ti/Sm ratio, and Sc/Sm ratio. Their Mg' is too high for a close relationship to ferroan anorthosites, or to have formed as flotation cumulates from the lunar magma ocean. Compositions of these magnesian anorthositic granulites cannot be modeled as mixtures of, or fractionates from, known lunar rocks. However, compositions of lunar highlands meteorites can be represented as mixtures of magnesian anorthositic granulite, ferroan anorthosite, mare basalt, and KREEP. Meteoritic magnesian anorthositic granulite is a good candidate for the magnesian highlands component inferred from Apollo highland impactites: magnesian, feldspathic, and REE-poor. Bulk compositions of meteorite magnesian anorthositic granulites are comparable to those inferred for parts of the lunar farside (the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane): ~4.5 wt% FeO; ~28 wt% Al2O3; and Th<1ppm. Thus, magnesian anorthositic granulite may be a widespread and abundant component of the lunar highlands.

  16. The Arabidopsis downy mildew resistance gene RPP5 shares similarity to the toll and interleukin-1 receptors with N and L6.

    PubMed

    Parker, J E; Coleman, M J; Szabò, V; Frost, L N; Schmidt, R; van der Biezen, E A; Moores, T; Dean, C; Daniels, M J; Jones, J D

    1997-06-01

    Plant disease resistance genes operate at the earliest steps of pathogen perception. The Arabidopsis RPP5 gene specifying resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica was positionally cloned. It encodes a protein that possesses a putative nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeats, and its product exhibits striking structural similarity to the plant resistance gene products N and L6. Like N and L6, the RPP5 N-terminal domain resembles the cytoplasmic domains of the Drosophila Toll and mammalian interleukin-1 transmembrane receptors. In contrast to N and L6, which produce predicted truncated products by alternative splicing, RPP5 appears to express only a single transcript corresponding to the full-length protein. However, a truncated form structurally similar to those of N and L6 is encoded by one or more other members of the RPP5 gene family that are tightly clustered on chromosome 4. The organization of repeated units within the leucine-rich repeats encoded by the wild-type RPP5 gene and an RPP5 mutant allele provides molecular evidence for the heightened capacity of this domain to evolve novel configurations and potentially new disease resistance specificities.

  17. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  18. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria. PMID:26452052

  19. Arabidopsis RPP4 is a member of the RPP5 multigene family of TIR-NB-LRR genes and confers downy mildew resistance through multiple signalling components.

    PubMed

    van der Biezen, Erik A; Freddie, Cecilie T; Kahn, Katherine; Parker, Jane E; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2002-02-01

    In Arabidopsis, RPP4 confers resistance to Peronospora parasitica (P.p.) races Emoy2 and Emwa1 (downy mildew). We identified RPP4 in Col-0 as a member of the clustered RPP5 multigene family encoding nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins with Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains. RPP4 is the orthologue of RPP5 which, in addition to recognizing P.p. race Noco2, also mediates resistance to Emoy2 and Emwa1. Most differences between RPP4 and RPP5 occur in residues that constitute the TIR domain and in LRR residues that are predicted to confer recognition specificity. RPP4 requires the action of at least 12 defence components, including DTH9, EDS1, PAD4, PAL, PBS2, PBS3, SID1, SID2 and salicylic acid. The ndr1, npr1 and rps5-1 mutations partially compromise RPP4 function in cotyledons but not in true leaves. The identification of RPP4 as a TIR-NB-LRR protein, coupled with its dependence on certain signalling components in true leaves, is consistent with the hypothesis that distinct NB-LRR protein classes differentially signal through EDS1 and NDR1. Our results suggest that RPP4-mediated resistance is developmentally regulated and that in cotyledons there is cross-talk between EDS1 and NDR1 signalling and processes regulating systemic acquired resistance.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Plasmopara, Bremia and other genera of downy mildew pathogens with pyriform haustoria based on Bayesian analysis of partial LSU rDNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Riethmüller, Alexandra; Göker, Markus; Weiss, Michael; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2004-09-01

    Bayesian and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses of 92 collections of the genera Basidiophora, Bremia, Paraperonospora, Phytophthora and Plasmopara were performed using nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences containing the D1 and D2 regions. In the Bayesian tree, two main clades were apparent: one clade containing Plasmopara pygmaea s. lat., Pl. sphaerosperma, Basidiophora, Bremia and Paraperonospora, and a clade containing all other Plasmopara species. Plasmopara is shown to be polyphyletic, and Pl. sphaerosperma is transferred to a new genus, Protobremia, for which also the oospore characteristics are described. Within the core Plasmopara clade, all collections originating from the same host family except from Asteraceae and Geraniaceae formed monophyletic clades; however, higher-level phylogenetic relationships lack significant branch support. A sister group relationship of Pl. sphaerosperma with Bremia lactucae is highly supported. Within Bremia lactucae s. l., three distinct clades are evident, which only partly conform to the published host specificity groups. All species of the genera Basidiophora, Bremia, Paraperonospora and Plasmopara included in the present study were investigated for haustorial morphology, and all had ellipsoid to pyriform haustoria, which are regarded as a diagnostic synapomorphy of the whole clade. Aspects of coevolution and cospeciation within the downy mildew pathogens with ellipsoid to pyriform haustoria are briefly discussed.

  1. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  2. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and related species.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  3. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: Phylogenetics, Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Host Range of Downy Mildew of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops. PMID:24806292

  4. The Novel Oomycide Oxathiapiprolin Inhibits All Stages in the Asexual Life Cycle of Pseudoperonospora cubensis - Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yigal

    2015-01-01

    Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) discovered by DuPont which controls diseases caused by oomycete plant pathogens. It binds in the oxysterol-binding protein domain of Oomycetes. Growth chambers studies with detached leaves and potted plants showed remarkable activity of oxathiapiprolin against Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucurbits. The compound affected all stages in the asexual life cycle of the pathogen. It inhibited zoospore release, cystospore germination, lesion formation, lesion expansion, sporangiophore development and sporangial production. When applied to the foliage as a preventive spray no lesions developed due to inhibition of zoospore release and cystospore germination, and when applied curatively, at one or two days after inoculation, small restricted lesions developed but no sporulation occurred. When applied later to mature lesions, sporulation was strongly inhibited. Oxathiapiprolin suppressed sporulation of P. cubensis in naturally-infected leaves. It exhibited trans-laminar activity, translocated acropetaly from older to younger leaves, and moved from the root system to the foliage. Seed coating was highly effective in protecting the developed cucumber plants against downy mildew. UV microscopy observations made with cucumber leaves infected with P. cubensis revealed that inhibition of mycelium growth and sporulation induced by oxathiapiprolin was associated with callose encasement of the haustoria.

  5. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  6. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    PubMed

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed. PMID:25715446

  7. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history.

  8. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, P.H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D.W.G. )

    1991-06-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history. 16 refs.

  9. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  10. A nitrogen and argon stable isotope study of Allan Hills 84001: implications for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Grady, M M; Wright, I P; Pillinger, C T

    1998-07-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of N and Ar have been measured by stepped combustion of the Allan Hills 84001 (ALH 84001) Martian orthopyroxenite. Material described as shocked is N-poor ([N] approximately 0.34 ppm; delta 15N approximately +23%); although during stepped combustion, 15N-enriched N (delta 15N approximately +143%) is released in a narrow temperature interval between 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C (along with 13C-enriched C (delta 13C approximately +19%) and 40Ar). Cosmogenic species are found to be negligible at this temperature; thus, the isotopically heavy component is identified, in part, as Martian atmospheric gas trapped relatively recently in the history of ALH84001. The N and Ar data show that ALH84001 contains species from the Martian lithosphere, a component interpreted as ancient trapped atmosphere (in addition to the modern atmospheric species), and excess 40Ar from K decay. Deconvolution of radiogenic 40Ar from other Ar components, on the basis of end-member 36Ar/14N and 40Ar/36Ar ratios, has enabled calculation of a K-Ar age for ALH 84001 as 3.5-4.6 Ga, depending on assumed K abundance. If the component believed to be Martian palaeoatmosphere was introduced to ALH 84001 at the time the K-Ar age was set, then the composition of the atmosphere at this time is constrained to: delta 15N > or = +200%, 40Ar/36Ar < or = 3000 and 36Ar/14N > or = 17 x 10(-5). In terms of the petrogenetic history of the meteorite, ALH 84001 crystallised soon after differentiation of the planet, may have been shocked and thermally metamorphosed in an early period of bombardment, and then subjected to a second event. This later process did not reset the K-Ar system but perhaps was responsible for introducing (recent) atmospheric gases into ALH 84001; and it might mark the time at which ALH 84001 suffered fluid alteration resulting in the formation of the plagioclase and carbonate mineral assemblages. PMID:11543078

  11. Extreme metamorphism in a firn core from the Allan Hills, Antarctica, as an analogue for glacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadic, Ruzica; Schneebeli, Martin; Bertler, Nancy; Schwikowski, Margit; Matzl, Margret

    2015-04-01

    Understanding processes in near-zero accumulation areas can help to better understand the ranges of isotopic composition in ice cores, particularly during ice ages, when accumulation rates were lower than today. Snow metamorphism is a primary driver of the transition from snow to ice and can be accompanied by altered isotopic compositions and chemical species concentration. High degree snow metamorphism, which results in major structural changes, is little-studied but has been identified in certain places in Antarctica. Here we report on a 5-m firn core collected adjacent to a blue-ice field in the Allan Hills, Antarctica. We determined the physical properties of the snow using computer tomography (microCT) and measured the isotopic composition of δD and δ18O, as well as 210Pb activity. The core shows a high degree of snow metamorphism and an exponential decrease in specific surface area (SSA), but no clear densification, with depth. The micro-CT measurements show a homogenous and stable structure throughout the entire core, with obvious erosion features in the near-surface, where high-resolution data is available. The observed firn structure is likely caused by a combination of unique depositional and post-depositional processes. The defining depositional process is the impact deposition under high winds and with a high initial density. The defining post-depositional processes are a) increased moisture transport due to forced ventilation and high winds and b) decades of temperature-gradient driven metamorphic growth in the near surface due to prolonged exposure to seasonal temperature cycling. Both post-processes are enhanced in low accumulation regions where snow stays close to surface for a long time. We observe an irregular signal in δD and δ18O that does not follow the stratigraphic sequence. The isotopic signal is likely caused by the same post-depositional processes that are responsible for the firn structure, and that are driven by local climate

  12. Prediction of transmembrane regions of beta-barrel proteins using ANN- and SVM-based methods.

    PubMed

    Natt, Navjyot K; Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

    2004-07-01

    This article describes a method developed for predicting transmembrane beta-barrel regions in membrane proteins using machine learning techniques: artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The ANN used in this study is a feed-forward neural network with a standard back-propagation training algorithm. The accuracy of the ANN-based method improved significantly, from 70.4% to 80.5%, when evolutionary information was added to a single sequence as a multiple sequence alignment obtained from PSI-BLAST. We have also developed an SVM-based method using a primary sequence as input and achieved an accuracy of 77.4%. The SVM model was modified by adding 36 physicochemical parameters to the amino acid sequence information. Finally, ANN- and SVM-based methods were combined to utilize the full potential of both techniques. The accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value of SVM, ANN, and combined method are 78.5%, 80.5%, and 81.8%, and 0.55, 0.63, and 0.64, respectively. These methods were trained and tested on a nonredundant data set of 16 proteins, and performance was evaluated using "leave one out cross-validation" (LOOCV). Based on this study, we have developed a Web server, TBBPred, for predicting transmembrane beta-barrel regions in proteins (available at http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/tbbpred).

  13. Proposed Construction of the Lompoc Valley Center in the Allan Hancock Joint Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Allan Hancock Joint Community College District proposes establishing a permanent educational center in the Lompoc area of Santa Barbara County, primarily to consolidate its current outreach operations in the area but also to accommodate anticipated enrollment growth in the area. Donated by the United States Army, the 155-acre site will be…

  14. Rapid and multiregional adaptation to host partial resistance in a plant pathogenic oomycete: evidence from European populations of Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Delmotte, François; Mestre, Pere; Schneider, Christophe; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz; Kozma, Pál; Richart-Cervera, Sylvie; Rouxel, Mélanie; Delière, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Crop pathogens evolve rapidly to adapt to their hosts. The use of crops with quantitative disease resistance is expected to alter selection of pathogen life-history traits. This may result in differential adaptation of the pathogen to host cultivars and, sometimes, to the erosion of quantitative resistance. Here, we assessed the level of host adaptation in an oomycete plant pathogenic species. We analysed the phenotypic and genetic variability of 17 Plasmopara viticola isolates collected on Vitis vinifera and 35 isolates from partially resistant varieties (Regent and genotypes carrying the Rpv1 gene). Cross-inoculation experiments assessed two components of aggressiveness and a life-history trait of the pathogen: disease severity, sporangial production and sporangia size. The results contribute evidence to the emergence of P. viticola aggressive isolates presenting a high level of sporulation on the partially resistant Regent. By contrast, no adaptation to the Rpv1 gene was found in this study. The erosion of Regent resistance may have occurred in less than 5years and at least three times independently in three distant wine-producing areas. Populations from resistant varieties showed a significant increase in sporangia production capacity, indicating an absence of fitness costs for this adaptation. The increase in the number of sporangia was correlated with a reduction in sporangia size, a result which illustrates how partial plant disease resistance can impact selection of the pathogen's life-history traits. This case study on grapevine downy mildew shows how new plant pathogen populations emerge in agro-ecosystems by adapting to partial host resistance. This adaptive pattern highlights the need for wise management of plant partial disease resistance to ensure its sustainability over time.

  15. Estimating Parameters of Delaminations in GRP Pipes Using Thermal NDE and ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraghavan, G. K.; Ramachandran, K. P.; Muruganandam, A.; Govindarajan, L.; Majumder, M. C.

    2010-10-26

    Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE) is one of the techniques that have been widely used over the decades to evaluate the integrity of structures. To meet the increased demand for robust and effective inspection in complex TNDE tasks, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been recently deployed in many problems. The aim of the paper is to adopt an inverse technique using ANNs in the field of TNDE to estimate various parameters of delamination in Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP) pipes by supplying thermal contrast evolution data as input. A Radial Basis Network (RBN) is employed with 80 input and 3 output neurons. The estimation capability of the network was evaluated with the data obtained from numerical simulations. The overall absolute errors show that the estimation capability of ANN is good.

  16. ANN-Assisted Planning of Conjunctive Use of Canal and Ground Water in Canal Commands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Deepak; Ghosh, Susmita

    2010-05-01

    Presented herein is an algorithm for ANN-assisted planning of the optimal cropping pattern and the associated groundwater development in a canal command area, followed by an illustration. The planning in the illustration ensures the maximization of the cropped area subject to the constraint of limiting the maximum water table depth to an acceptable limit. A multilayer feed forward ANN model, relating the maximum water table depth to the crop areas, is trained using back-propagation learning algorithm. The data invoked for the training comprise an array of the cropping patterns, and the corresponding maximum water table depths. These data are generated through a pre-calibrated numerical model of groundwater flow. Subsequently, the trained ANN model is linked to a GA based optimizer for arriving at the optimal cropping pattern and the associated pumping pattern.

  17. Wavelet and ANN combination model for prediction of daily suspended sediment load in rivers.

    PubMed

    Rajaee, Taher

    2011-07-01

    In this research, a new wavelet artificial neural network (WANN) model was proposed for daily suspended sediment load (SSL) prediction in rivers. In the developed model, wavelet analysis was linked to an artificial neural network (ANN). For this purpose, daily observed time series of river discharge (Q) and SSL in Yadkin River at Yadkin College, NC station in the USA were decomposed to some sub-time series at different levels by wavelet analysis. Then, these sub-time series were imposed to the ANN technique for SSL time series modeling. To evaluate the model accuracy, the proposed model was compared with ANN, multi linear regression (MLR), and conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) models. The comparison of prediction accuracy of the models illustrated that the WANN was the most accurate model in SSL prediction. Results presented that the WANN model could satisfactorily simulate hysteresis phenomenon, acceptably estimate cumulative SSL, and reasonably predict high SSL values.

  18. Modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return using WT-ANN integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Wei-Thong; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Hussain, Saiful Izzuan; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    The forecasting of weekly return is one of the most challenging tasks in investment since the time series are volatile and non-stationary. In this study, an integrated model of wavelet transform and artificial neural network, WT-ANN is studied for modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return. First, the WT is applied to decompose the weekly return time series in order to eliminate noise. Then, a mathematical model of the time series is constructed using the ANN. The performance of the suggested model will be evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The result shows that the WT-ANN model can be considered as a feasible and powerful model for time series modeling and prediction.

  19. Mapping brain circuits of reward and motivation: In the footsteps of Ann Kelley

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jocelyn M.; Castro, Daniel C.; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.; Robinson, Mike J.F.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2013-01-01

    Ann Kelley was a scientific pioneer in reward neuroscience. Her many notable discoveries included demonstrations of accumbens/striatal circuitry roles in eating behavior and in food reward, explorations of limbic interactions with hypothalamic regulatory circuits, and additional interactions of motivation circuits with learning functions. Ann Kelley's accomplishments inspired other researchers to follow in her footsteps, including our own laboratory group. Here we describe results from several lines of our research that sprang in part from earlier findings by Kelley and colleagues. We describe hedonic hotspots for generating intense pleasure `liking', separate identities of `wanting' versus `liking' systems, a novel role for dorsal neostriatum in generating motivation to eat, a limbic keyboard mechanism in nucleus accumbens for generating intense desire versus intense dread, and dynamic limbic transformations of learned memories into motivation. We describe how origins for each of these themes can be traced to fundamental contributions by Ann Kelley. PMID:23261404

  20. Multi-output ANN Model for Prediction of Seven Meteorological Parameters in a Weather Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Khalid; Jothiprakash, V.

    2014-12-01

    The meteorological parameters plays a vital role for determining various water demand in the water resource systems, planning, management and operation. Thus, accurate prediction of meteorological variables at different spatial and temporal intervals is the key requirement. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of the most widely used data driven modelling techniques with lots of good features like, easy applications, high accuracy in prediction and to predict the multi-output complex non-linear relationships. In this paper, a Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) ANN model has been developed and applied to predict seven important meteorological parameters, such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, dew point temperature and evaporation concurrently. Several types of ANN, such as multilayer perceptron, generalized feedforward neural network, radial basis function and recurrent neural network with multi hidden layer and varying number of neurons at the hidden layer, has been developed, trained, validated and tested. From the results, it is found that the recurrent MIMO-ANN having 28 neurons in a single hidden layer, trained using hyperbolic tangent transfer function with a learning rate of 0.3 and momentum factor of 0.7 performed well over the other types of MIMO-ANN models. The MIMO ANN model performed well for all parameters with higher correlation and other performance indicators except for sunshine hours. Due to erratic nature, the importance of each of the input over the output through sensitivity analysis indicated that relative humidity has highest influence while others have equal influence over the output.

  1. Penzias, Arno Allan (1933-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radioscientist, born in Munich in Germany, Nobel prizewinner (1978) `for the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation', a refugee from Germany at the age of 6, found his way to America and experience in microwave physics. Joined Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, searched for and investigated line emission from the interstellar OH molecule. Was able to gain the use of a large radio...

  2. Sandage, Allan Rex (1926-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Iowa City, IA. Worked with WALTER BAADE and EDWIN HUBBLE, and became professor at Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories. His research has focused on the biggest problems in cosmology. He determined the ages of the stars in globular clusters (the oldest objects known, apart from the chemical elements). In 1960, with JESSE GREENSTEIN, he identified the radio source 3C48 as a bl...

  3. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  4. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. PMID:21859403

  5. Application of ANN and fuzzy logic algorithms for streamflow modelling of Savitri catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Mahesh; Gharde, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    The streamflow prediction is an essentially important aspect of any watershed modelling. The black box models (soft computing techniques) have proven to be an efficient alternative to physical (traditional) methods for simulating streamflow and sediment yield of the catchments. The present study focusses on development of models using ANN and fuzzy logic (FL) algorithm for predicting the streamflow for catchment of Savitri River Basin. The input vector to these models were daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation, mean daily temperature and lag streamflow used. In the present study, 20 years (1992-2011) rainfall and other hydrological data were considered, of which 13 years (1992-2004) was for training and rest 7 years (2005-2011) for validation of the models. The mode performance was evaluated by R, RMSE, EV, CE, and MAD statistical parameters. It was found that, ANN model performance improved with increasing input vectors. The results with fuzzy logic models predict the streamflow with single input as rainfall better in comparison to multiple input vectors. While comparing both ANN and FL algorithms for prediction of streamflow, ANN model performance is quite superior.

  6. The influence of emerging administrative scientists: an interview with Anne Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-04-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders and scientists demonstrating promise in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Anne Miller, PhD, BA, assistant professor jointly appointed to the Center of Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies and the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. PMID:25803799

  7. The Search for Family: Comedy and Pathos in Anne Tyler's Later Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoghby, Mary D.

    Anne Tyler's rare talent for combining comedy and pathos enables her to create characters whose pain is felt by the reader or student even as that same reader is led into laughter by the ludicrous situations in which Tyler places these characters. In her last three novels, "Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant,""The Accidental Tourist," and…

  8. Master Builder of Bridges between Research and Practice: An Interview with Ann Robinson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ann Robinson, a professor of educational psychology and founding director of the Center for Gifted Education at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. She is the president of the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC), a former editor of the Gifted Child Quarterly (GCQ), and was the first Editor…

  9. 76 FR 80392 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann... the human remains was made by University of Michigan officials and its Museum of Anthropology... residence to the University of Michigan, where they were accessioned into the Museum of...

  10. The Nation behind the Diary: Anne Frank and the Holocaust of the Dutch Jews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foray, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first appearance in 1947, "The Diary of Anne Frank" has been translated into sixty-five different languages, including Welsh, Esperanto, and Faroese. Millions and perhaps even billions of readers, scattered throughout the globe and now spanning multiple generations, are familiar with the life and work of this young Jewish writer. Over…

  11. Should You Teach "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Hazel

    1998-01-01

    Considers the value of teaching "Anne Frank" and suggests that the book be just a starting point for exposing readers to other views of the Holocaust. Annotated bibliographies are included for other personal accounts of the Holocaust, with appropriate grade levels indicated. (LRW)

  12. 33 CFR 80.115 - Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 80.115 Section 80.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., MA. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on...

  13. Evaluation of alternative management practices with the AnnAGNPS model in the Carapelle Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of management and conservation practices that can control the impact of erosion and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) in Apulia...

  14. Exploring Social Studies through Multicultural Literature: "Legend of the St Ann's Flood"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Sara Winstead

    2009-01-01

    The search for literature that is of high quality and interest, is written at age-appropriate levels for adolescent readers, addresses social studies topics, and presents multicultural perspectives can be daunting. "Legend of the St Ann's Flood" is a fiction trade book that meets all of these criteria. Its setting in Trinidad and Tobago provides…

  15. Childhood and Modernity: Dark Themes in Carol Ann Duffy's Poetry for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, David

    2007-01-01

    Carol Ann Duffy's three volumes of children's poetry are important and interesting because they emerge from the work of a writer whose adult poetry has persistently associated childhood with dark and difficult areas of experience. This article explores what happens to such challenging material when a poet of major significance changes the focus of…

  16. 33 CFR 80.115 - Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 80.115 Section 80.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., MA. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on...

  17. Process Control Strategies for Dual-Phase Steel Manufacturing Using ANN and ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaeenezhad, H.; Ghanei, S.; Seyedein, S. H.; Beygi, H.; Mazinani, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this research, a comprehensive soft computational approach is presented for the analysis of the influencing parameters on manufacturing of dual-phase steels. A set of experimental data have been gathered to obtain the initial database used for the training and testing of both artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The parameters used in the strategy were intercritical annealing temperature, carbon content, and holding time which gives off martensite percentage as an output. A fraction of the data set was chosen to train both ANN and ANFIS, and the rest was put into practice to authenticate the act of the trained networks while seeing unseen data. To compare the obtained results, coefficient of determination and root mean squared error indexes were chosen. Using artificial intelligence methods, it is not necessary to consider and establish a preliminary mathematical model and formulate its affecting parameters on its definition. In conclusion, the martensite percentages corresponding to the manufacturing parameters can be determined prior to a production using these controlling algorithms. Although the results acquired from both ANN and ANFIS are very encouraging, the proposed ANFIS has enhanced performance over the ANN and takes better effect on cost-reduction profit.

  18. Audits of Meaning: A Festschrift in Honor of Ann E. Berthoff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louise Z., Ed.

    A tribute to the work of Ann Berthoff, this book--a collection of 6 poems and 21 essays--explores issues in the philosophy and teaching of composition. Each of the five sections is introduced with a poem by Marie Ponsot. Essays and their authors consist of (1) "Genre Theory, Academic Discourse, and Writing within Disciplines" (James F. Slevin);…

  19. The influence of emerging administrative scientists: an interview with Anne Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Adams, Jeffrey M

    2015-04-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders and scientists demonstrating promise in advancing innovation and patient care leadership in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Anne Miller, PhD, BA, assistant professor jointly appointed to the Center of Interdisciplinary Health Workforce Studies and the School of Nursing at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

  20. 78 FR 65366 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... remains should submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors...

  1. 78 FR 65367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors come...

  2. 78 FR 65369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... remains should submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors...

  3. 78 FR 65380 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... remains should submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors...

  4. 78 FR 65382 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... remains should submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors...

  5. 78 FR 65375 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors come...

  6. 78 FR 65364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... submit a written request to the University of Michigan. If no additional requestors come...

  7. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  8. Symbolism--The Main Artistic Style of Katherine Anne Porter's Short Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ru

    2010-01-01

    The paper takes Katherine Anne Porter's two short stories: "Flowering Judas", "The Grave" as objects of study. It will try to analyze Porter's writing style through her imaginary conception, vivid psychological description and multiple symbolisms so that we can understand her studies and her attitudes to female psychological…

  9. Joseph Campbell, Jung, Anne Tyler, and "The Cards": The Spiritual Journey in "Searching for Caleb."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Karen M.

    Joseph Campbell, Carl Jung, and Anne Tyler have all dealt with spiritual journeys and card reading in their writings. In his book "Tarot Revelations," Joseph Campbell discusses his first association with tarot cards, dating from 1943, when he was introduced to the symoblism of playing cards by his friend and mentor, Heinrich Zimmer. Carl Jung was…

  10. Friendly Letters on the Correspondence of Helen Keller, Anne Sullivan, and Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Excerpts from the letters between Alexander Graham Bell and Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller are given to illustrate the educational and personal growth of Helen Keller as well as the educational philosophy of Bell regarding the education of the deaf blind. (DB)

  11. Optimization of culture medium and modeling of curdlan production from Paenibacillus polymyxa by RSM and ANN.

    PubMed

    Rafigh, Sayyid Mahdi; Yazdi, Ali Vaziri; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Safekordi, Ali Akbar; Ardjmand, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 21830 was used for the production of curdlan gum for first time. A Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to optimize six variables of batch fermentation culture each at three levels. Statistical analyses were employed to investigate the direct and interactive effects of variables on curdlan production. Optimum cultural conditions were temperature (50°C), pH (7), fermentation time (96 h), glucose (100 g/L), yeast extract (3 g/L) and agitation speed (150 rpm). The yield of curdlan production was 6.89 g/L at optimum condition medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model cultural conditions of curdlan production. The maximum yield of curdlan production were predicted to be 6.68 and 6.85 g/L by RSM and ANN at optimum condition. The prediction capabilities of RSM and ANN were then statistically compared. The results showed that the ANN model is much more accurate in prediction as compared to the RSM. The infrared (IR) and NMR spectra, the thermogram of DSC and pattern of X-ray diffraction for the curdlan of the present study were almost identical to those of the commercial curdlan sample. The average molecular weight of the purified curdlan was determined to be 170 kDa by gel permeation chromatography. PMID:25062991

  12. Beneficial application of landfill mining Millersville Landfill, Anne Arundel County, MD

    SciTech Connect

    Vanetti, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Several studies and investigations have been completed for the Millersville Sanitary Landfill in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. The studies and reports range from detailed hydrogeologic investigations through review of closure alternatives for the individual refuse disposal cells located at the landfill. As a result of the evaluations and studies, one recommendation that was put before Anne Arundel County is the excavation and relocation of refuse from Cell 3 to: (1) create an infiltration basin; and (2) reduce the overall refuse footprint at the site, resulting in reduce long term environmental impacts and closure costs. Subsequent to this recommendation, several preliminary reviews have been held between Anne Arundel County, regulatory agencies and their consultants, Stearns & Wheler. These discussions indicated that it would be feasible, and the concept acceptable, to relocate the refuse in Cell 3 to ultimately create an infiltration basin. Subsequent to the preliminary meetings, a project plan and construction Contract Documents and Drawings were developed by Stearns & Wheler. The Project Plan was submitted to the State regulatory agencies (Maryland and Department of Environment (MDE) and Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR)), Millersville Landfill Citizen`s Advisory Committee, and Anne Arundel County (Department of public Works (DPW), Permit Acquisition and Code Enforcement (PACE) and Soil Conservation District (SCD)) for review and comment prior to undertaking the relocation of refuse in Cell 3.

  13. 78 FR 65360 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an... notice is published as part of the National Park Service's administrative responsibilities under...

  14. English for Specific Purposes: The State of the Art (An Online Interview with Ann M. Johns)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Ann M.; Salmani Nodoushan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This forum paper is based on a friendly and informative interview conducted with Professor Ann M. Johns. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Johns suggests that all good teaching is ESP, and also distinguishes between EOP and ESP in that the former entails much more "just in time" learning while the latter may be…

  15. Constructing Anne Frank: Critical Literacy and the Holocaust in Eighth-Grade English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Karen; Jones, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Using the assumption that texts actively work to position readers and readers actively work to position texts, the authors argue that moral lessons emerge from the interactions between texts, readers, and the ideological narratives that inspire both. After differentiating versions of Anne Frank's diary and explicating motives behind their…

  16. Oxygen-18 and deuterium spatio-temporal variability in throughfall and stemflow in Scots pine and Downy oaks forests under Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Sánchez-Costa, Elisenda; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall partitioning processes can be better understood complementing classical hydrometric techniques with water isotopes. Oxygen-18 and deuterium can be used to shed some light on mechanisms of rainfall evaporation from the canopies, and their relationship with canopy and meteorological variables that are not completely understood. Several mechanisms have been described to explain the differences between event-scale bulk rainfall and throughfall isotopic compositions (i.e. evaporation, selective storage, exchange with ambient vapor, residual moisture), and their relation to factors like the amount of water held in the forest canopy, rainfall intensity, time interval between rainfall events, or meteorological conditions. However, there are much fewer studies examining the spatio-temporal variability of isotopic composition in both throughfall and stemflow along rainfall events. This study aims to characterize the water stable isotopes spatio-temporal variability in throughfall and stemflow in a Downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E), under Mediterranean climate conditions. The isotopic sampling design of each stand consisted of one automatic sampler to sample the temporal variability of throughfall signature every 5 mm of rainfall, 10 throughfall collectors distributed within the stand to sample the spatial variability and 4 stemflow collectors. Bulk rainfall was collected with automatic samplers and bulk collectors in two open areas near each forest plot. At each stand isotopic sampling was combined with hydrometric measurements that consisted of 20 tipping buckets to measure throughfall spatial variability and 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping buckets to measure stemflow depth. Moreover, rainfall depth was measured in the open areas and meteorological variables in two towers located above canopies. The study started on May 2015 and is still in

  17. A calcium-binding protein, rice annexin OsANN1, enhances heat stress tolerance by modulating the production of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Dongliang; Wang, Haiqi; Yin, Jingya; Wang, Rui; He, Mengli; Cui, Meng; Shang, Zhonglin; Wang, Dekai; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-09-01

    OsANN1 is a member of the annexin protein family in rice. The function of this protein and the mechanisms of its involvement in stress responses and stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here it is reported that OsANN1 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating antioxidant accumulation under abiotic stress. OsANN1-knockdown [RNA interference (RNAi)] plants were more sensitive to heat and drought stresses, whereas OsANN1-overexpression (OE) lines showed improved growth with higher expression of OsANN1 under abiotic stress. Overexpression of OsANN1 promoted SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) activities, which regulate H2O2 content and redox homeostasis, suggesting the existence of a feedback mechanism between OsANN1 and H2O2 production under abiotic stress. Higher expression of OsANN1 can provide overall cellular protection against abiotic stress-induced damage, and a significant accumulation of OsANN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals was found in the cytosol after heat shock treatment. OsANN1 also has calcium-binding and ATPase activities in vitro, indicating that OsANN1 has multiple functions in rice growth. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays demonstrated that OsANN1 interacts with OsCDPK24. This cross-talk may provide additional layers of regulation in the abiotic stress response. PMID:26085678

  18. Overexpression of Arabidopsis AnnAt8 Alleviates Abiotic Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Deepanker; Ahmed, Israr; Shukla, Pawan; Boyidi, Prasanna; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress results in massive loss of crop productivity throughout the world. Because of our limited knowledge of the plant defense mechanisms, it is very difficult to exploit the plant genetic resources for manipulation of traits that could benefit multiple stress tolerance in plants. To achieve this, we need a deeper understanding of the plant gene regulatory mechanisms involved in stress responses. Understanding the roles of different members of plant gene families involved in different stress responses, would be a step in this direction. Arabidopsis, which served as a model system for the plant research, is also the most suitable system for the functional characterization of plant gene families. Annexin family in Arabidopsis also is one gene family which has not been fully explored. Eight annexin genes have been reported in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression studies of different Arabidopsis annexins revealed their differential regulation under various abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 (At5g12380), a member of this family has been shown to exhibit ~433 and ~175 fold increase in transcript levels under NaCl and dehydration stress respectively. To characterize Annexin8 (AnnAt8) further, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants constitutively expressing AnnAt8, which were evaluated under different abiotic stress conditions. AnnAt8 overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher seed germination rates, better plant growth, and higher chlorophyll retention when compared to wild type plants under abiotic stress treatments. Under stress conditions transgenic plants showed comparatively higher levels of proline and lower levels of malondialdehyde compared to the wild-type plants. Real-Time PCR analyses revealed that the expression of several stress-regulated genes was altered in AnnAt8 over-expressing transgenic tobacco plants, and the enhanced tolerance exhibited by the transgenic plants can be correlated with altered expressions of

  19. ANN based Estimation of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Shower Size using Radio Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Kalpana Roy; Datta, Pranayee; Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Size estimation is a challenging area in the field of Ultra High Energy (UHE) showers where actual measurements are always associated with uncertainty of events and imperfections in detection mechanisms. The subtle variations resulting out of such factors incorporate certain random behaviour in the readings provided by shower detectors for subsequent processing. Field strength recorded by radio detectors may also be affected by this statistical nature. Hence there is a necessity of development of a system which can remain immune to such random behaviour and provide resilient readings to subsequent stages. Here, we propose a system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which accepts radio field strength recorded by radio detectors and provides estimates of shower sizes in the UHE region. The ANN in feed-forward form is trained with a range of shower events with which it can effectively handle the randomness observed in the detector reading due to imperfections in the experimental apparatus and related set-up.

  20. Artificial neural networks (ANN) approach for modeling of removal of Lanaset Red G on Chara contraria.

    PubMed

    Celekli, Abuzer; Geyik, Faruk

    2011-05-01

    A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed to predict the removal efficiency of Lanaset Red (LR) G on Chara contraria based on 2304 experimental sets. The effects of operating variables (particle size, adsorbent dosage, pH regimes, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied to optimize the sorption conditions of this dye. The operating variables were used as the input to the constructed neural network to predict the dye uptake at any time as the output. This adsorbent was characterized by FTIR. Pseudo second-order model was also fitted to the experimental data. According to values of error analyses and determinations coefficient, the ANN was more appropriate to describe this adsorption process. Result of this model indicated that pH regimes had the highest importance effect (49%) on the dye uptake.

  1. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach. PMID:27279067

  2. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  3. A Practically Validated Intelligent Calibration Circuit Using Optimized ANN for Flow Measurement by Venturi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata, Santhosh Krishnan; Roy, Binoy Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Design of an intelligent flow measurement technique using venturi flow meter is reported in this paper. The objectives of the present work are: (1) to extend the linearity range of measurement to 100 % of full scale input range, (2) to make the measurement technique adaptive to variations in discharge coefficient, diameter ratio of venturi nozzle and pipe (β), liquid density, and liquid temperature, and (3) to achieve the objectives (1) and (2) using an optimized neural network. The output of venturi flow meter is differential pressure. It is converted to voltage by using a suitable data conversion unit. A suitable optimized artificial neural network (ANN) is added, in place of conventional calibration circuit. ANN is trained, tested with simulated data considering variations in discharge coefficient, diameter ratio between venturi nozzle and pipe, liquid density, and liquid temperature. The proposed technique is then subjected to practical data for validation. Results show that the proposed technique has fulfilled the objectives.

  4. Discrete wavelet transform coupled with ANN for daily discharge forecasting into Três Marias reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, C. A. G.; Freire, P. K. M. M.; Silva, G. B. L.; Silva, R. M.

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes the use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to remove the high-frequency components (details) of an original signal, because the noises generally present in time series (e.g. streamflow records) may influence the prediction quality. Cleaner signals could then be used as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) in order to improve the model performance of daily discharge forecasting. Wavelet analysis provides useful decompositions of original time series in high and low frequency components. The present application uses the Coiflet wavelets to decompose hydrological data, as there have been few reports in the literature. Finally, the proposed technique is tested using the inflow records to the Três Marias reservoir in São Francisco River basin, Brazil. This transformed signal is used as input for an ANN model to forecast inflows seven days ahead, and the error RMSE decreased by more than 50% (i.e. from 454.2828 to 200.0483).

  5. Processing RoxAnn sonar data to improve its categorization of lake bed surficial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cholwek, Gary; Bonde, John; Li, Xing; Richards, Carl; Yin, Karen

    2000-01-01

    To categorize spawning and nursery habitat for lake trout in Minnesota's near shore waters of Lake Superior, data was collected with a single beam echo sounder coupled with a RoxAnn bottom classification sensor. Test areas representative of different bottom surficial substrates were sampled. The collected data consisted of acoustic signals which showed both depth and substrate type. The location of the signals was tagged in real-time with a DGPS. All data was imported into a GIS database. To better interpret the output signal from the RoxAnn, several pattern classifiers were developed by multivariate statistical method. From the data a detailed and accurate map of lake bed bathymetry and surficial substrate types was produced. This map will be of great value to fishery and other natural resource managers.

  6. An ANN-Based Smart Tomographic Reconstructor in a Dynamic Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Cos Juez, Francisco J.; Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Roqueñí, Nieves; Osborn, James

    2012-01-01

    In astronomy, the light emitted by an object travels through the vacuum of space and then the turbulent atmosphere before arriving at a ground based telescope. By passing through the atmosphere a series of turbulent layers modify the light's wave-front in such a way that Adaptive Optics reconstruction techniques are needed to improve the image quality. A novel reconstruction technique based in Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is proposed. The network is designed to use the local tilts of the wave-front measured by a Shack Hartmann Wave-front Sensor (SHWFS) as inputs and estimate the turbulence in terms of Zernike coefficients. The ANN used is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) trained with simulated data with one turbulent layer changing in altitude. The reconstructor was tested using three different atmospheric profiles and compared with two existing reconstruction techniques: Least Squares type Matrix Vector Multiplication (LS) and Learn and Apply (L + A). PMID:23012524

  7. Intensive care 1650: the revival of Anne Greene (c. 1628-59).

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2009-02-01

    On a cold December day in 1650, 22-year-old Anne Greene was hanged in Oxford. When taken down after half an hour, she was found to show signs of life and over the next few days William Petty (1623-87), Thomas Willis (1621-75), Ralph Bathurst (1620-74) and Henry Clerke (1622-87) ministered to her full recovery. She was later pardoned of the charge of infanticide and, with the coffin wherein she had lain as a trophy, went into the country, became the subject not only of a prose and poetic narrative but also of a woodcut. Anne married happily, bore three children and lived until 1659. A combination of low-body temperature and external (pedal) cardiac massage after her failed execution, it is suggested, helped to keep her alive until the arrival of the physicians who had come to make an anatomical dissection but serendipitously won golden opinions.

  8. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Junk, J.; Woldt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100 years into the past. Annual totals of UV radiation derived from reconstructed daily UV values reflect interannual variations and long-term patterns that are compatible with variabilities and changes of measured input data, in particular global dimming by about 1980-1990, subsequent global brightening, volcanic eruption effects such as that of Mt. Pinatubo, and the long-term ozone decline since the 1970s. Patterns of annual erythemal UV radiation are very similar at sites located at latitudes close to each other, but different patterns occur between UV radiation at sites in different latitude regions.

  9. Prophecy, patriarchy, and violence in the early modern household: the revelations of Anne Wentworth.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Warren

    2009-10-01

    In 1676 the apostate Baptist prophet Anne Wentworth (1629/30-1693?) published "A True Account of Anne Wentworths Being Cruelly, Unjustly, and Unchristianly Dealt with by Some of Those People called Anabaptists," the first in a series of pamphlets that would continue to the end of the decade. Orignially a member of a London Baptist church, Wentworth left the congregation and eventually her own home after her husband used physical force to stop her writing and prophesying. Yet Wentworth persisted in her "revelations." These prophecies increasingly focused on her response to those who were trying to stop her efforts, especially within her own household. This article examines Wentworth's writings as an effort by an early modern woman, using arguments of spiritual agency, to assert ideas about proper gender roles and household responsibilities to denounce her husband and rebut those who criticized and attempted to suppress her. PMID:19999636

  10. Development of wavelet-ANN models to predict water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Kavianpour, Mohamad Reza

    2015-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) and wavelet-neural network (WNN) models for predicting a variety of ocean water quality parameters. In this regard, several water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean, are taken under consideration. Different combinations of water quality parameters are applied as input variables to predict daily values of salinity, temperature and DO as well as hourly values of DO. The results demonstrate that the WNN models are superior to the ANN models. Also, the hourly models developed for DO prediction outperform the daily models of DO. For the daily models, the most accurate model has R equal to 0.96, while for the hourly model it reaches up to 0.98. Overall, the results show the ability of the model to monitor the ocean parameters, in condition with missing data, or when regular measurement and monitoring are impossible.

  11. Ann O'Mara, PhD, RN, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Ann O'Mara is Head of Palliative Research in the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She manages a portfolio of symptom management and palliative and end-of-life care research projects. The majority of these projects focus on the more common morbidities associated with cancer and its treatment, e.g., pain, chemotherapy induced neuropathy, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and psychosocial issues, such as distress, anxiety and depression. |

  12. The Anne Boleyn Illusion is a Six-Fingered Salute to Sensory Remapping

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dominic Y.; Howard, Ellen M.; Silver, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The Anne Boleyn Illusion exploits the somatotopic representation of touch to create the illusion of an extra digit and demonstrates the instantaneous remapping of relative touch location into body-based coordinates through visuo-tactile integration. Performed successfully on thousands, it is also a simple demonstration of the flexibility of body representations for use at public events, in schools or in the home and can be implemented anywhere by anyone with a mirror and some degree of bimanual coordination. PMID:27708755

  13. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    ScienceCinema

    Mary Ann Piette

    2016-07-12

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-02-09

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. A nested-polymerase chain reaction protocol for detection and population biology studies of Peronospora arborescens, the downy mildew pathogen of opium poppy, using herbarium specimens and asymptomatic, fresh plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Muñoz Ledesma, Francisco J; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed using either of two primer pairs that improves the in planta detection of Peronospora arborescens DNA. The new protocol represented an increase in sensitivity of 100- to 1,000-fold of detection of the oomycete in opium poppy tissue compared with the detection limit of single PCR using the same primer pairs. The new protocol allowed amplification of 5 to 0.5 fg of Peronospora arborescens DNA mixed with Papaver somniferum DNA. The protocol proved useful for amplifying Peronospora arborescens DNA from 96-year-old herbarium specimens of Papaver spp. and to demonstrate that asymptomatic, systemic infections by Peronospora arborescens can occur in wild Papaver spp. as well as in cultivated opium poppy. Also, the increase in sensitivity of the protocol made possible the detection of seedborne Peronospora arborescens in commercial opium poppy seed stocks in Spain with a high frequency, which poses a threat for pathogen spread. Direct sequencing of purified amplicons allowed alignment of a Peronospora arborescens internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence up to 730-bp long when combining the sequences obtained with the two primer sets. Maximum parsimony analysis of amplified Peronospora arborescens ITS rDNA sequences from specimens of Papaver dubium, P. hybridum, P. rhoeas, and P. somniferum from different countries indicated for the first time that a degree of host specificity may exist within populations of Peronospora arborescens. The reported protocol will be useful for epidemiological and biogeographical studies of downy mildew diseases as well as to unravel misclassification of Peronospora arborescens and Peronospora cristata, the reported causal agents of the opium poppy downy mildew disease.

  16. Prediction of Frequency for Simulation of Asphalt Mix Fatigue Tests Using MARS and ANN

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue life of asphalt mixes in laboratory tests is commonly determined by applying a sinusoidal or haversine waveform with specific frequency. The pavement structure and loading conditions affect the shape and the frequency of tensile response pulses at the bottom of asphalt layer. This paper introduces two methods for predicting the loading frequency in laboratory asphalt fatigue tests for better simulation of field conditions. Five thousand (5000) four-layered pavement sections were analyzed and stress and strain response pulses in both longitudinal and transverse directions was determined. After fitting the haversine function to the response pulses by the concept of equal-energy pulse, the effective length of the response pulses were determined. Two methods including Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods were then employed to predict the effective length (i.e., frequency) of tensile stress and strain pulses in longitudinal and transverse directions based on haversine waveform. It is indicated that, under controlled stress and strain modes, both methods (MARS and ANN) are capable of predicting the frequency of loading in HMA fatigue tests with very good accuracy. The accuracy of ANN method is, however, more than MARS method. It is furthermore shown that the results of the present study can be generalized to sinusoidal waveform by a simple equation. PMID:24688400

  17. ANN based Performance Evaluation of BDI for Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj Kumar; Giri, V. K.

    2016-07-01

    One of the critical parts in rotating machines is bearings and most of the failure arises from the defective bearings. Bearing failure leads to failure of a machine and the unpredicted productivity loss in the performance. Therefore, bearing fault detection and prognosis is an integral part of the preventive maintenance procedures. In this paper vibration signal for four conditions of a deep groove ball bearing; normal (N), inner race defect (IRD), ball defect (BD) and outer race defect (ORD) were acquired from a customized bearing test rig, under four different conditions and three different fault sizes. Two approaches have been opted for statistical feature extraction from the vibration signal. In the first approach, raw signal is used for statistical feature extraction and in the second approach statistical features extracted are based on bearing damage index (BDI). The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficients analysis method. Both the features are used as inputs to an ANN classifier to evaluate its performance. A comparison of ANN performance is made based on raw vibration data and data chosen by using BDI. The ANN performance has been found to be fairly higher when BDI based signals were used as inputs to the classifier.

  18. Measurement and ANN prediction of pH-dependent solubility of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Yu, Qingni; Zhu, Jingke; Lei, Lecheng; Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang

    2015-09-01

    Based on the solubility of 25 nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) measured by saturation shake-flask method, artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to the study of the quantitative relationship between the structure and pH-dependent solubility of NHCs. With genetic algorithm-multivariate linear regression (GA-MLR) approach, five out of the 1497 molecular descriptors computed by Dragon software were selected to describe the molecular structures of NHCs. Using the five selected molecular descriptors as well as pH and the partial charge on the nitrogen atom of NHCs (QN) as inputs of ANN, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model without using Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) equation was successfully developed to predict the aqueous solubility of NHCs in different pH water solutions. The prediction model performed well on the 25 model NHCs with an absolute average relative deviation (AARD) of 5.9%, while HH approach gave an AARD of 36.9% for the same model NHCs. It was found that QN played a very important role in the description of NHCs and, with QN, ANN became a potential tool for the prediction of pH-dependent solubility of NHCs.

  19. ANN-PSO Integrated Optimization Methodology for Intelligent Control of MMC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Muthumari; Tamang, Santosh

    2016-06-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) show improved properties in comparison with non-reinforced alloys and have found increased application in automotive and aerospace industries. The selection of optimum machining parameters to produce components of desired surface roughness is of great concern considering the quality and economy of manufacturing process. In this study, a surface roughness prediction model for turning Al-SiCp MMC is developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Three turning parameters viz., spindle speed (N), feed rate (f) and depth of cut (d) were considered as input neurons and surface roughness was an output neuron. ANN architecture having 3-5-1 is found to be optimum and the model predicts with an average percentage error of 7.72 %. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for optimizing parameters to minimize machining time. The innovative aspect of this work is the development of an integrated ANN-PSO optimization method for intelligent control of MMC machining process applicable to manufacturing industries. The robustness of the method shows its superiority for obtaining optimum cutting parameters satisfying desired surface roughness. The method has better convergent capability with minimum number of iterations.

  20. Multiple Regression (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for prediction of soil suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzin, Yusuf; Yilmaz, Isik

    2010-05-01

    This article presents a comparison of multiple regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) model for prediction of soil suction of clayey soils. The results of the soil suction tests utilizing thermocouple psychrometers on statically compacted specimens of Bentonite-Kaolinite clay mixtures with varying soil properties were used to develope the models. The results obtained from both models were then compared with the experimental results. The performance indices such as coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and variance account for (VAF) were used to control the performance of the prediction capacity of the models developed in this study. ANN model has shown higher prediction performance than regression model according to the performance indices. It is shown that ANN models provide significant improvements in prediction accuracy over statistical models. The potential benefits of soft computing models extend beyond the high computation rates. Higher performances of the soft computing models were sourced from greater degree of robustness and fault tolerance than traditional statistical models because there are many more processing neurons, each with primarily local connections. It appears that there is a possibility of estimating soil suction by using the proposed empirical relationships and soft computing models. The population of the analyzed data is relatively limited in this study. Therefore, the practical outcome of the proposed equations and models could be used, with acceptable accuracy.

  1. Clustering of soybean genotypes via Ward-MLM and ANNs associated with mixed models.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Corrêa, A M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use mixed models to confirm the presence of genetic variability in 16 soybean genotypes, to compare clusters generated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) with those created by the Ward modified location model (MLM) technique, and to indicate parental combinations that hold promise for obtaining superior segregating populations of soybean. A field trial was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana, MS. The experimental design consisted of four replications of randomized blocks, each containing 16 treatments. We assessed the following agronomic traits: plant height, first pod height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, hundred-grain weight, and grain yield. Mixed models were used to estimate variance components and genetic parameters, and obtain genotypic values for each trait. After verifying the presence of genetic variability for all traits, genotypic values were submitted to both a Ward-MLM procedure and ANNs to estimate genetic divergence among genotypes. The number of groups formed by both methods was the same, but there were differences in group constitutions. ANN analysis improved soybean genotypes clustering patterns compared to Ward-MLM procedure. Based on these methods, divergent crosses may be made between genotype 97R73 with genotypes AS3797 and SYN9070, whereas convergent crosses may be made between genotypes AS3797 and SYN9070. PMID:27525912

  2. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672. PMID:21998974

  3. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672.

  4. Application of EOS/MODIS remote sensing dataset to ANN/GA modeling of distributed precipitation estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangyi; Zhang, Qiuwen; Li, Wenbo

    2007-11-01

    The main meteorological parameters which influencing the rainfall can be distilled from the MODIS satellite cloud imagery and the artificial neural network (ANN) model constructed by these meteorological parameters and can be applied on distributed rainfall estimation. Because it is difficult to decide the structure of back propagation neural network (BPNN) and to solve the problem of local convergence, an appropriate training and modeling method of ANN such as the real code genetic algorithm (RGA) is vital to the accuracy of rainfall estimation. The data of the simulation tests show that the Mean Relative Error (MRE) of BPA model is 23.6%, while the MRE of RGA model is 20.7%, Compared with the ANN trained by BPA, the estimation error of the ANN trained by RGA is cut down by 2.9%, and the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is cut down by 2.5% at the same time, hence, the results prove that the ANN model trained using RGA will significantly outperform the back propagation algorithm (BPA) trained ANN model and improve the precision of rainfall estimation.

  5. Influences of Dietary and Other Factors on Xenobiotic Metabolism and Carcinogenesis-A Review Article in Memory of Dr. Allan H. Conney (1930-2013).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews our current understanding on how xenobiotic metabolism and carcinogenesis are influenced by dietary and other factors. A major contributor to this research area was Dr. Allan Conney, and his contributions are highlighted. His studies on the induction of microsomal xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes led to the characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of drugs, endogenous substrates, carcinogens and many other xenobiotics. These processes are influenced by drugs, diet, and other environmental factors. These studies provided the molecular basis for drug-drug, diet-drug, and herb-drug interactions. The elucidation of the metabolic activation of chemicals to their ultimate carcinogenic forms enables us to understand the molecular basis of chemical carcinogenesis. These studies led to many subsequent investigations on dietary approaches for cancer chemoprevention, including blocking of carcinogen activation, enhancing carcinogen detoxification, and influencing oncogenic pathways, which were carried out by Dr. Conney and others. The strengths and potential for practical application of these approaches are assessed herein.

  6. Carbonates in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 formed at 18 ± 4 °C in a near-surface aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Itay; Fischer, Woodward W.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evidence for liquid water at the surface of Mars during the Noachian epoch, the temperature of early aqueous environments has been impossible to establish, raising questions of whether the surface of Mars was ever warmer than today. We address this problem by determining the precipitation temperature of secondary carbonate minerals preserved in the oldest known sample of Mars’ crust—the approximately 4.1 billion-year-old meteorite Allan Hills 84001 (ALH84001). The formation environment of these carbonates, which are constrained to be slightly younger than the crystallization age of the rock (i.e., 3.9 to 4.0 billion years), has been poorly understood, hindering insight into the hydrologic and carbon cycles of earliest Mars. Using “clumped” isotope thermometry we find that the carbonates in ALH84001 precipitated at a temperature of approximately 18 °C, with water and carbon dioxide derived from the ancient Martian atmosphere. Furthermore, covarying carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios are constrained to have formed at constant, low temperatures, pointing to deposition from a gradually evaporating, subsurface water body—likely a shallow aquifer (meters to tens of meters below the surface). Despite the mild temperatures, the apparently ephemeral nature of water in this environment leaves open the question of its habitability. PMID:21969543

  7. Carbonates in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 formed at 18 +/- 4 degrees C in a near-surface aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Fischer, Woodward W; Eiler, John M

    2011-10-11

    Despite evidence for liquid water at the surface of Mars during the Noachian epoch, the temperature of early aqueous environments has been impossible to establish, raising questions of whether the surface of Mars was ever warmer than today. We address this problem by determining the precipitation temperature of secondary carbonate minerals preserved in the oldest known sample of Mars' crust--the approximately 4.1 billion-year-old meteorite Allan Hills 84001 (ALH84001). The formation environment of these carbonates, which are constrained to be slightly younger than the crystallization age of the rock (i.e., 3.9 to 4.0 billion years), has been poorly understood, hindering insight into the hydrologic and carbon cycles of earliest Mars. Using "clumped" isotope thermometry we find that the carbonates in ALH84001 precipitated at a temperature of approximately 18 °C, with water and carbon dioxide derived from the ancient Martian atmosphere. Furthermore, covarying carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios are constrained to have formed at constant, low temperatures, pointing to deposition from a gradually evaporating, subsurface water body--likely a shallow aquifer (meters to tens of meters below the surface). Despite the mild temperatures, the apparently ephemeral nature of water in this environment leaves open the question of its habitability. PMID:21969543

  8. Carbonates in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 formed at 18 +/- 4 degrees C in a near-surface aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Itay; Fischer, Woodward W; Eiler, John M

    2011-10-11

    Despite evidence for liquid water at the surface of Mars during the Noachian epoch, the temperature of early aqueous environments has been impossible to establish, raising questions of whether the surface of Mars was ever warmer than today. We address this problem by determining the precipitation temperature of secondary carbonate minerals preserved in the oldest known sample of Mars' crust--the approximately 4.1 billion-year-old meteorite Allan Hills 84001 (ALH84001). The formation environment of these carbonates, which are constrained to be slightly younger than the crystallization age of the rock (i.e., 3.9 to 4.0 billion years), has been poorly understood, hindering insight into the hydrologic and carbon cycles of earliest Mars. Using "clumped" isotope thermometry we find that the carbonates in ALH84001 precipitated at a temperature of approximately 18 °C, with water and carbon dioxide derived from the ancient Martian atmosphere. Furthermore, covarying carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios are constrained to have formed at constant, low temperatures, pointing to deposition from a gradually evaporating, subsurface water body--likely a shallow aquifer (meters to tens of meters below the surface). Despite the mild temperatures, the apparently ephemeral nature of water in this environment leaves open the question of its habitability.

  9. Flooded area cartography and damage assessment from the combined use of Landsat TM and ANNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alouene, Yosra; Petropoulos, George P.

    2013-04-01

    Use of Earth Observation (EO) data has generally shown a very promising potential in performing rapidly and cost-effectively mapping as well as damage assessment in different types of natural hazards, including floods. The recent technological progress in remote sensing has resulted to the development of a vast number of image processing techniques applied to different types of EO data in performing flooded area mapping and damage assessment. When optical EO data is used for this purpose supervised image classification is regarded as one of the most widely exploited approaches employed for this purpose. In the present study we evaluated the use of different classifiers based on Artificial Neural Network (ANNs) in obtaining flooded area cartography and performing a damage assessment when those combined with optical multispectral data from Landsat TM. In this context, the inclusion of different spectral layers derived from the processing of the original TM bands for improving the estimation of the flooded area was explored. A flooding event occurred in 2010 in Evros river - located north of Greece - was used as a case study. Accuracy of ANN-derived flooded area estimates was based on the error matrix statistics but also statistical comparisons performed against corresponding estimates obtained from the Greek local authorities. Damage assessment was performed on the basis of land use/cover information derived from CORINE2000. Results generally evidenced the capability of the ANNs in obtaining cartography of the flooded area and in performing a flooding damage assessment when combined with the TM imagery. The inclusion of the additional spectral information showed variable results in terms of improving the accuracy of the flooded area extraction. From all scenarios examined, most accurate results in terms of flooded area mapping were obtained when the original TM spectral bands were combined with the Tasseled Cap additional bands. Keywords: flooded area mapping

  10. Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using ANN-Cloud Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2003-12-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, which contain flexible architectures and are capable of discerning the underlying functional relationships from data, are recognized as very useful tools in geophysical applications. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid ANN modeling system to estimate surface rainfall from satellite infrared imagery. The proposed network, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using ANN-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), includes several components: (1) cloud image segmentation, (2) cloud patch feature selection, (3) patch feature classification using a self-organizing feature map network, and (4) patch-based rainfall estimates from a group of multiple nonlinear cloud top temperature and rainfall functions. The PERSIANN-CCS model was first calibrated using observations from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared imagery and the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) rainfall network. To further extend PERSIANN-CCS rainfall estimates over the remote regions, Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) microwave rainfall estimates (TMI product 2A12) were used to adjust PERSIANN-CCS model parameters. The calibrated nonlinear cloud top temperature and rainfall (Tb-R) functions of classified cloud patches show highly variability, reflecting the complexity of dominant cloud-precipitation processes over various regions. Case studies show that PERSIANN-CCS captures the variability in rain rate at 12kmx12km grid and 3-hour resolutions, with a standard error of 3.0mm/hr and a correlation coefficient around 0.65. Additional insights into the cloud evolution and precipitation process from the classified PERSIANN-CCS cloud patch features and rainfall distributions are discussed.

  11. A new method based on WMRA and ANN for GPS/SINS integration for aerocraft navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuefen; Chen, Xiyuan; Li, Zigang

    2006-11-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide precise positioning information to an unlimited number of users anywhere on the earth. However, the defect cannot be neglected, because there exists one blind district when the aerocraft flying through some altitude space. During the short time in the blind district, all radio signals can't be attained including the GPS signals. An integrated GPS/SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System) Navigation system is presented in this paper. The SINS based on numerical computing platform has many advantages such as high reliability, small bulk and low cost ect. The integration of GPS and SINS, therefore, provides a navigation system that has superior performance in comparison with either a GPS or a SINS stand-alone system. This paper presents a new model-less algorithm that can perform the self-following of the aerocraft under all conditions. For improving the precision of the hybrid GPS/SINS navigation system, fusing data from a SINS and GPS hardware utilizes wavelet multi-resolution analysis (WMRA) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The WMRA is used to compare the SINS and GPS position outputs at different resolution levels. These differences represent, in general, the SINS errors, which are used to correct for the SINS outputs during GPS outages. The RBF-ANN model is then trained to predict the SINS position errors in real time and provide accurate positioning of the moving aerocraft. The simulations show that good results in SINS/GPS positioning accuracy can be obtained by applying the WMRA and RBF-ANN methods.

  12. SU-E-T-206: Improving Radiotherapy Toxicity Based On Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Daniel D; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, KSC; Parashar, Bhupesh; Chang, Jenghwa

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study is to build the estimator of toxicity using artificial neural network (ANN) for head and neck cancer patients Materials/Methods: An ANN can combine variables into a predictive model during training and considered all possible correlations of variables. We constructed an ANN based on the data from 73 patients with advanced H and N cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy at our institution. For the toxicity estimator we defined input data including age, sex, site, stage, pathology, status of chemo, technique of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), length of treatment, dose of EBRT, status of post operation, length of follow-up, the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis. These data were digitized based on the significance and fed to the ANN as input nodes. We used 20 hidden nodes (for the 13 input nodes) to take care of the correlations of input nodes. For training ANN, we divided data into three subsets such as training set, validation set and test set. Finally, we built the estimator for the toxicity from ANN output. Results: We used 13 input variables including the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis and 20 hidden nodes for correlations. 59 patients for training set, 7 patients for validation set and 7 patients for test set and fed the inputs to Matlab neural network fitting tool. We trained the data within 15% of errors of outcome. In the end we have the toxicity estimation with 74% of accuracy. Conclusion: We proved in principle that ANN can be a very useful tool for predicting the RT outcomes for high risk H and N patients. Currently we are improving the results using cross validation.

  13. Effect of DEM mesh size on AnnAGNPS simulation and slope correction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Lin, Q

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the impact of the mesh size of the digital elevation model (DEM) on terrain attributes within an Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source pollution (AnnAGNPS) Model simulation at watershed scale and provide a correction of slope gradient for low resolution DEMs. The effect of different grid sizes of DEMs on terrain attributes was examined by comparing eight DEMs (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 m). The accuracy of the AnnAGNPS stimulation on runoff, sediments, and nutrient loads is evaluated. The results are as follows: (1) Rnoff does not vary much with decrease of DEM resolution whereas soil erosion and total nitrogen (TN) load change prominently. There is little effect on runoff simulation of AnnAGNPS modeling by the amended slope using an adjusted 50 m DEM. (2) A decrease of sediment yield and TN load is observed with an increase of DEM mesh size from 30 to 60 m; a slight decrease of sediment and TN load with the DEM mesh size bigger than 60 m. There is similar trend for total phosphorus (TP) variation, but with less range of variation, the simulation of sediment, TN, and TP increase, in which sediment increase up to 1.75 times compared to the model using unadjusted 50 m DEM. In all, the amended simulation still has a large difference relative to the results using 30 m DEM. AnnAGNPS is less reliable for sediment loading prediction in a small hilly watershed. (3) Resolution of DEM has significant impact on slope gradient. The average, minimum, maximum of slope from the various DEMs reduced obviously with the decrease of DEM precision. For the grade of 0∼15°, the slopes at lower resolution DEM are generally bigger than those at higher resolution DEM. But for the grade bigger than 15°, the slopes at lower resolution DEM are generally smaller than those at higher resolution DEM. So it is necessary to adjust the slope with a fitting equation. A cubic model is used for correction of slope gradient from lower resolution to

  14. Internal Model Controller of an ANN Speed Sensorless Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed Mouna, Ben; Lassaad, Sbita

    This study deals with the performance analysis and implementation of a robust sensorless speed controller. The robustness is guaranteed by the use of the Internal Model Controller (IMC). An intelligent algorithm is evolved to eliminate the mechanical speed. It is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) principle. Verification of the proposed robust sensorless controller is provided by experimental realistic tests on a scalar controlled induction motor drive. Sensorless robust speed control at low speeds and in field weakening region (high speeds) is studied in order to show the robustness of the speed controller under a wide range of load.

  15. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of the Inner Continental Shelf: Cape Ann to Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Hein, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic framework of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf between Cape Ann and Salisbury Beach has been shaped by a complicated history of glaciation, deglaciation, and changes in relative sea level. New geophysical data (swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar and seismic-reflection profiling), sediment samples, and seafloor photography provide insight into the geomorphic and stratigraphic record generated by these processes. High-resolution spatial data and geologic maps in this report support coastal research and efforts to understand the type, distribution, and quality of subtidal marine habitats in the Massachusetts coastal ocean.

  16. ANN modeling for flood prediction in the upstream Eure's catchment (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharroubi, Ouissem; masson, Eric; Blanpain, Olivier; Lallahem, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall-Runoff relationship at basin scale is strongly depending on the catchment complexity including multi-scale interactions. In extreme events cases (i.e. floods and droughts) this relationship is even more complex and differs from average hydrological conditions making extreme runoff prediction very difficult to achieve. However, flood warning, flood prevention and flood mitigation rely on the possibility to predict both flood peak runoff and lag time. This point is crucial for decision making and flood warning to prevent populations and economical stakes to be damaged by extreme hydrological events. Since 2003 in France, a dedicated state service is in charge of producing flood warning from national level (i.e. SCHAPI) to regional level (i.e. SPC). This flood warning service is combining national weather forecast agency (i.e. Meteo France) together with a fully automated realtime hydrological network (i.e. Rainfall-Runoff) in order to produce a flood warning national map online and provide a set of hydro-meteorological data to the SPC in charge of flood prediction from regional to local scale. The SPC is in fact the flood service delivering hydrological prediction at operational level for decision making about flood alert for municipalities and first help services. Our research in collaboration with the SPC SACN (i.e. "Seine Aval et fleuves Côtiers Normands") is focused on the implementation of an Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) for flood prediction in deferent key points of the Eure's catchment and main subcatchment. Our contribution will focus on the ANN model developed for Saint-Luperce gauging station in the upstream part of the Eure's catchment. Prediction of extreme runoff at Saint-Luperce station is of high importance for flood warning in the Eure's catchment because it gives a good indicator on the extreme status and the downstream propagation of a potential flood event. Despite a good runoff monitoring since 27 years Saint Luperce flood

  17. MCT8 mutation analysis and identification of the first female with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome due to loss of MCT8 expression.

    PubMed

    Frints, Suzanna Gerarda Maria; Lenzner, Steffen; Bauters, Mareike; Jensen, Lars Riff; Van Esch, Hilde; des Portes, Vincent; Moog, Ute; Macville, Merryn Victor Erik; van Roozendaal, Kees; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance Theresia Rimbertha Maria; Tzschach, Andreas; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Ben; van Bokhoven, Hans; Chelly, Jamel; Beldjord, Chérif; Turner, Gillian; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Raynaud, Martine; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Froyen, Guy; Kuss, Andreas Walter

    2008-09-01

    Mutations in the thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8/SLC16A2) have been reported to result in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in patients with clinical features of the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). We performed MCT8 mutation analysis including 13 XLMR families with LOD scores >2.0, 401 male MR sibships and 47 sporadic male patients with AHDS-like clinical features. One nonsense mutation (c.629insA) and two missense changes (c.1A>T and c.1673G>A) were identified. Consistent with previous reports on MCT8 missense changes, the patient with c.1673G>A showed elevated serum T3 level. The c.1A>T change in another patient affects a putative translation start codon, but the same change was present in his healthy brother. In addition normal serum T3 levels were present, suggesting that the c.1A>T (NM_006517) variation is not responsible for the MR phenotype but indicates that MCT8 translation likely starts with a methionine at position p.75. Moreover, we characterized a de novo translocation t(X;9)(q13.2;p24) in a female patient with full blown AHDS clinical features including elevated serum T3 levels. The MCT8 gene was disrupted at the X-breakpoint. A complete loss of MCT8 expression was observed in a fibroblast cell-line derived from this patient because of unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation. Taken together, these data indicate that MCT8 mutations are not common in non-AHDS MR patients yet they support that elevated serum T3 levels can be indicative for AHDS and that AHDS clinical features can be present in female MCT8 mutation carriers whenever there is unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation.

  18. A comparison of the iddingsite alteration products in two terrestrial basalts and the Allan Hills 77005 martian meteorite using Raman spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Karla E.

    2013-04-01

    We document the secondary mineral assemblages in two occurrences of terrestrial iddingsite, Lunar Crater, Nevada (LC) and Mauna Kea, Hawaii (MK), and compare these with the iddingsite in Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005. Short Raman spectroscopic traverses across olivine alteration fronts provide information about changes in mineralogy with alteration. Data from the Raman traverses are combined with electron microprobe (EMP) traverses at the same locations which provide information regarding element mobility and confirm mineral identifications made by Raman spectroscopy. This information is used with petrographic observations to argue for the martian origin of the iddingsite and jarosite, infer the sequence of alteration, and deliberate on the conditions and settings of alteration. Raman spectra indicate the presence of different iron oxides/oxyhydroxides in each sample (goethite in LC, maghemite in MK, and akaganéite in ALHA), and the terrestrial samples show different element mobility trends (loss of MgO and SiO2, retention of FeO) than ALHA (loss of MgO and FeO, influx of SiO2), whose trends reflect the deposition of jarosite. Altered olivine occur throughout the LC samples but only in the exteriors of the MK samples. The LC and MK alteration products formed by surface alteration, but ALHA 77005 is a lherzolite, and the olivine hosting the iddingsite are enclosed by orthopyroxene (appear to be restricted to the light lithology), suggesting that it formed at depth during magma consolidation. The ALHA iddingsite is an example of "deuteric alteration" (reaction with fluids that separated from the magma as crystallization progressed towards completion).

  19. An abiotic origin for hydrocarbons in the Allan Hills 84001 martian meteorite through cooling of magmatic and impact-generated gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2000-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of metastable equilibria were used to evaluate the potential for abiotic synthesis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001. The calculations show that PAHs and normal alkanes could form metastably from CO, CO2, and H2 below approximately 250-300 degrees C during rapid cooling of trapped magmatic or impact-generated gases. Depending on temperature, bulk composition, and oxidation-reduction conditions, PAHs and normal alkanes can form simultaneously or separately. Moreover, PAHs can form at lower H/C ratios, higher CO/CO2 ratios, and higher temperatures than normal alkanes. Dry conditions with H/C ratios less than approximately 0.01-0.001 together with high CO/CO2 ratios also favor the formation of unalkylated PAHs. The observed abundance of PAHs, their low alkylation, and a variable but high aromatic to aliphatic ratio in ALH 84001 all correspond to low H/C and high CO/CO2 ratios in magmatic and impact gases and can be used to deduce spatial variations of these ratios. Some hydrocarbons could have been formed from trapped magmatic gases, especially if the cooling was fast enough to prevent reequilibration. We propose that subsequent impact heating(s) in ALH 84001 could have led to dissociation of ferrous carbonates to yield fine-grain magnetite, formation of a CO-rich local gas phase, reduction of water vapor to H2, reequilibration of the trapped magmatic gases, aromatization of hydrocarbons formed previously, and overprinting of the synthesis from magmatic gases, if any. Rapid cooling and high-temperature quenching of CO-, H2-rich impact gases could have led to magnetite-catalyzed hydrocarbon synthesis.

  20. A general ANN-based multitasking model for the discovery of potent and safer antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, A; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have been one of the world's most dangerous and deadliest pathogens for mankind, nowadays giving rise to significant public health concerns. Given the prevalence of these microbial pathogens and their increasing resistance to existing antibiotics, there is a pressing need for new antibacterial drugs. However, development of a successful drug is a complex, costly, and time-consuming process. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR)-based approaches are valuable tools for shortening the time of lead compound identification but also for focusing and limiting time-costly synthetic activities and in vitro/vivo evaluations. QSAR-based approaches, supported by powerful statistical techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), have evolved to the point of integrating dissimilar types of chemical and biological data. This chapter reports an overview of the current research and potential applications of QSAR modeling tools toward the rational design of more efficient antibacterial agents. Particular emphasis is given to the setup of multitasking models along with ANNs aimed at jointly predicting different antibacterial activities and safety profiles of drugs/chemicals under diverse experimental conditions.

  1. A general ANN-based multitasking model for the discovery of potent and safer antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, A; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have been one of the world's most dangerous and deadliest pathogens for mankind, nowadays giving rise to significant public health concerns. Given the prevalence of these microbial pathogens and their increasing resistance to existing antibiotics, there is a pressing need for new antibacterial drugs. However, development of a successful drug is a complex, costly, and time-consuming process. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR)-based approaches are valuable tools for shortening the time of lead compound identification but also for focusing and limiting time-costly synthetic activities and in vitro/vivo evaluations. QSAR-based approaches, supported by powerful statistical techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), have evolved to the point of integrating dissimilar types of chemical and biological data. This chapter reports an overview of the current research and potential applications of QSAR modeling tools toward the rational design of more efficient antibacterial agents. Particular emphasis is given to the setup of multitasking models along with ANNs aimed at jointly predicting different antibacterial activities and safety profiles of drugs/chemicals under diverse experimental conditions. PMID:25502375

  2. Clearance rate and BP-ANN model in paraquat poisoned patients treated with hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lufeng; Hong, Guangliang; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin; Lin, Guanyang; Zhang, Xiuhua; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of hemoperfusion (HP) on the clearance rate of paraquat (PQ) and develop a clearance model, 41 PQ-poisoned patients who acquired acute PQ intoxication received HP treatment. PQ concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to initial PQ concentration, study subjects were divided into two groups: Low-PQ group (0.05-1.0 μg/mL) and High-PQ group (1.0-10 μg/mL). After initial HP treatment, PQ concentrations decreased in both groups. However, in the High-PQ group, PQ levels remained in excess of 0.05 μg/mL and increased when the second HP treatment was initiated. Based on the PQ concentrations before and after HP treatment, the mean clearance rate of PQ calculated was 73 ± 15%. We also established a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model, which set PQ concentrations before HP treatment as input data and after HP treatment as output data. When it is used to predict PQ concentration after HP treatment, high prediction accuracy (R = 0.9977) can be obtained in this model. In conclusion, HP is an effective way to clear PQ from the blood, and the PQ concentration after HP treatment can be predicted by BP-ANN model. PMID:25695058

  3. Identification of pain from infant cry vocalizations using artificial neural networks (ANNs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Marco; Malowany, Alfred S.; Johnston, C. Celeste; Stevens, Bonnie J.

    1995-04-01

    The analysis of infant cry vocalizations has been the focus of a number of efforts over the past thirty years. Since the infant cry is one of the only means that an infant has for communicating with its care-giving environment, it is thought that information regarding the state of an infant, such as hunger or pain, can be determined from an infant's cry. To date, research groups have determined that adult listeners can differentiate between different types of cries auditorialy, and at least one group has attempted to automate this classification process. This paper presents the results of another attempt at automating the discrimination process, this time using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The input data consists of successive frames of one or two parametric representations generated from the first second of a cry following the application of either an anger, fear, or pain stimulus. From tests conducted to date, it is determined that ANNs are a useful tool for cry classification and merit further study in this domain.

  4. Elemental Study on Auscultaiting Diagnosis Support System of Hemodialysis Shunt Stenosis by ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukasawa, Mizuya; Mori, Takahiro; Sakata, Osamu; Hattori, Asobu; Kato, Takaya

    It is desired to detect stenosis at an early stage to use hemodailysis shunt for longer time. Stethoscope auscultation of vascular murmurs is useful noninvasive diagnostic approach, but an experienced expert operator is necessary. Some experts often say that the high-pitch murmurs exist if the shunt becomes stenosed, and some studies report that there are some features detected at high frequency by time-frequency analysis. However, some of the murmurs are difficult to detect, and the final judgment is difficult. This study proposes a new diagnosis support system to screen stenosis by using vascular murmurs. The system is performed using artificial neural networks (ANN) with the analyzed frequency data by maximum entropy method (MEM). The author recorded vascular murmurs both before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and after. Examining the MEM spectral characteristics of the high-pitch stenosis murmurs, three features could be classified, which covered 85 percent of stenosis vascular murmurs. The features were learnt by the ANN, and judged. As a result, a percentage of judging the classified stenosis murmurs was 100%, and that of normal was 86%.

  5. Prediction of Cutting Forces Using ANNs Approach in Hard Turning of AISI 52100 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Makhfi, Souad; Habak, Malek; Velasco, Raphael; Haddouche, Kamel; Vantomme, Pascal

    2011-05-04

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to predict cutting forces in the case of machining the hard turning of AISI 52100 bearing steel using cBN cutting tool. Cutting forces evolution is considered as the key factors which affect machining. Predicting cutting forces evolution allows optimizing machining by an adaptation of cutting conditions. In this context, it seems interesting to study the contribution that could have artificial neural networks (ANNs) on the machining forces prediction in both numerical and experiment studies. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by the error back-propagation (BP) algorithm are used. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization algorithm was used for finding out weights. The training of the network is carried out with experimental machining data.The input dataset used are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and hardness of the material. The output dataset used are cutting forces (Ft-cutting force, Fa- feed force and Fr- radial force).Results of the neural networks approach, in comparison with experimental data are discussed in last part of this paper.

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Dolly Ann Roadless Area, Alleghany County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Jones, Jay G.

    1983-01-01

    The Dolly Ann Roadless Area comprises 7,900 acres (3,200 ha) in the George Washington National Forest in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province of west-central Virginia. The area is at the southern ·end of Warm Springs Mountain in Alleghany County just northeast of Covington, the county seat (index map). U.S. Highway 220 forms part of the western boundary, and U.S. Forest Service Road 125, which parallels Pounding Mill Creek, forms the eastern boundary. The principal streams draining the area are Pounding Mill Creek, Dry Run, and Roaring Run, all tributaries of the Jackson River. The highest point in the area is Big Knob at the north end, 4,072 ft (1241 m) above sea level; the lowest points, about 1,400 ft (427 m) above sea level, are at the south side, along Dry Run and Pounding Mill Creek. In general, the hill slopes are steep and heavily wooded with second- or third-growth hardwoods and scattered pine and hemlock. Dolly Ann Hollow near the east end of the area is a steep, boulder-strewn gorge, quite picturesque, but containing no good trails. A good trail up Dry Run connects a trail crossing the ridge between Bald Knob and Big Knob. No other trails cross the area.

  7. Dynamically stable associative learning: a neurobiologically based ANN and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Thomas P.; Blackwell, Kim L.; Barbour, Garth; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1992-07-01

    Most currently popular artificial neural networks (ANN) are based on conceptions of neuronal properties that date back to the 1940s and 50s, i.e., to the ideas of McCullough, Pitts, and Hebb. Dystal is an ANN based on current knowledge of neurobiology at the cellular and subcellular level. Networks based on these neurobiological insights exhibit the following advantageous properties: (1) A theoretical storage capacity of bN non-orthogonal memories, where N is the number of output neurons sharing common inputs and b is the number of distinguishable (gray shade) levels. (2) The ability to learn, store, and recall associations among noisy, arbitrary patterns. (3) A local synaptic learning rule (learning depends neither on the output of the post-synaptic neuron nor on a global error term), some of whose consequences are: (4) Feed-forward, lateral, and feed-back connections (as well as time-sensitive connections) are possible without alteration of the learning algorithm; (5) Storage allocation (patch creation) proceeds dynamically as associations are learned (self- organizing); (6) The number of training set presentations required for learning is small (< 10) and does not change with pattern size or content; and (7) The network exhibits monotonic convergence, reaching equilibrium (fully trained) values without oscillating. The performance of Dystal on pattern completion tasks such as faces with different expressions and/or corrupted by noise, and on reading hand-written digits (98% accuracy) and hand-printed Japanese Kanji (90% accuracy) is demonstrated.

  8. Application of PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM in QSAR of CCR1 antagonist compounds: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Fassihi, Afshin; Saghaie, Lotfollah

    2010-04-01

    Principal component regression (PCR), principal component-artificial neural network (PC-ANN), and principal component-least squares-support vector machine (PC-LS-SVM) as regression methods were investigated for building quantitative structure-activity relationships for the prediction of inhibitory activity of some CCR1 antagonists. Nonlinear methods (PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM) were better than the PCR method considerably in the goodness of fit and predictivity parameters and other criteria for evaluation of the proposed model. These results reflect a nonlinear relationship between the principal components obtained from molecular descriptors and the inhibitory activity of this set of molecules. The maximum variance in activity of the molecules, in PCR method was 45.5%, whereas nonlinear methods, PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM, could explain more than 93.7% and 95.6% variance in activity data respectively.

  9. Solving Capelin Time Series Ecosystem Problem Using Hybrid ANN-GAs Model and Multiple Linear Regression Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghnam, Karam M.; Sheta, Alaa F.

    2008-06-01

    Development of accurate models is necessary in critical applications such as prediction. In this paper, a solution to the stock prediction problem of the Barents Sea capelin is introduced using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multiple Linear model Regression (MLR) models. The Capelin stock in the Barents Sea is one of the largest in the world. It normally maintained a fishery with annual catches of up to 3 million tons. The Capelin stock problem has an impact in the fish stock development. The proposed prediction model was developed using an ANNs with their weights adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed model was compared to traditional linear model the MLR. The results showed that the ANN-GA model produced an overall accuracy of 21% better than the MLR model.

  10. Queer paradox/paradoxical queer: Anne Garréta's Pas un jour (2002).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows how Anne Garréta's Pas un jour (2002) is a decidedly queer text, in both the new and the old sense of that contested epithet. I examine three interrelated concerns central to Pas un jour. First, I analyze Garréta's mediation of desire in general: her own experiences of it; modalities thereof which subvert more 'normative' models of lesbianism; and her convergences with other gay, but male writers and theorists of desire such as Guy Hocquenghem, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault. Second, I interrogate Garréta's dichotomy between desire and friendship, and adumbrate contrasts with Foucauldian theory. Finally, I scrutinize the meaning and value attributed to the particular body of desire with which Garréta is most commonly associated-homosexuality- and their links with those of a contemporary gay male writer, Dominique Fernandez. PMID:17804371

  11. MLR and ANN models of significant wave height on the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asma, Senay; Sezer, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ozer

    2012-12-01

    Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used in the present work to describe the significant wave height off Goa, located in the west Indian coast. A comparison study was carried out with the purpose of verifying when the artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models are appropriate for prediction of the significant wave height. Discussions of advantages and disadvantages are given in different point of view for both the methods. Several meteorological factors are used during the analysis and the ones affecting more to the model are kept. We concluded that non-linear models with wind speed and wind gust at a previous time step and air pressure, water temperature and air temperature at the same time step yield to better significant wave height models.

  12. [A heroine for the Resistance: Anne-Mary, Jeanne Menut at Riom (1914-1944)].

    PubMed

    Guyotjeannin, C

    1997-01-01

    Anne-Mary Lafaye was born on may 16th 1914 just before world war I. Her parents were teachers and helped her to go up one step of the social scale; in 1939 she became a pharmacist. Quite an ordinary life, but another world war came. She married Max Menut, early resistant worker, and she was more and more involved, providing the maquis with bandages and medicines. She had made the choice of her values, and time of abnegation came. She had to hide her identity under the name of Marinette. She sold her pharmacy in Riom, she entrusted her daughter to her mother's care, and she had to take care of wounded fighters. Rapidly she was denounced, arrested, tortured and savagely executed.

  13. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  14. [The utility boiler low NOx combustion optimization based on ANN and simulated annealing algorithm].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Qian, Xinping; Zheng, Ligang; Weng, Anxin; Cen, Kefa

    2003-11-01

    With the developing restrict environmental protection demand, more attention was paid on the low NOx combustion optimizing technology for its cheap and easy property. In this work, field experiments on the NOx emissions characteristics of a 600 MW coal-fired boiler were carried out, on the base of the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling, the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to optimize the boiler combustion to achieve a low NOx emissions concentration, and the combustion scheme was obtained. Two sets of SA parameters were adopted to find a better SA scheme, the result show that the parameters of T0 = 50 K, alpha = 0.6 can lead to a better optimizing process. This work can give the foundation of the boiler low NOx combustion on-line control technology.

  15. The heart of Blessed Anne-Madeleine Remuzat: a biomedical approach of "miraculous" heart conservation.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Poupon, Joël; Fox, Carles Lalueza; Keyser, Christine; Mougniot, Christian; Popescu, Spéranta-Maria; Brun, Luc; Pietri, Sylvia; Thévenard, Frédéric; Laquay, Laëtitia; Hurel, Agathe; Ellul, Jean-Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We present here the results of our inter-disciplinary examination of the mummified heart of Blessed Anne-Madeleine Remuzat (1696-1730). This organ has been examined in the context of a canonization process. This analysis is related to important aspects of the early history of anatomy in Europe, that of "Holy autopsies", and to the relationship between anatomical investigations, Catholic theology, and religious/medical customs. According to anatomical, genetic, toxicological, and palynological analyses, it has been shown that this organ has not been naturally ("miraculously") conserved but embalmed using myrtle, honey, and lime. Moreover, a right ventricle dilatation has been diagnosed, that may represent a post-tuberculosis condition and may have played a role in the cause of death of this religious figure.

  16. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a “critical point” may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the “critical point” where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines. PMID:21776225

  17. Evaluation of a non-point source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, in a tropical watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polyakov, V.; Fares, A.; Kubo, D.; Jacobi, J.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired water quality caused by human activity and the spread of invasive plant and animal species has been identified as a major factor of degradation of coastal ecosystems in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized Non-Point Source Pollution Model), in simulating runoff and soil erosion in a 48 km2 watershed located on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The model was calibrated and validated using 2 years of observed stream flow and sediment load data. Alternative scenarios of spatial rainfall distribution and canopy interception were evaluated. Monthly runoff volumes predicted by AnnAGNPS compared well with the measured data (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.05); however, up to 60% difference between the actual and simulated runoff were observed during the driest months (May and July). Prediction of daily runoff was less accurate (R2 = 0.55, P < 0.05). Predicted and observed sediment yield on a daily basis was poorly correlated (R2 = 0.5, P < 0.05). For the events of small magnitude, the model generally overestimated sediment yield, while the opposite was true for larger events. Total monthly sediment yield varied within 50% of the observed values, except for May 2004. Among the input parameters the model was most sensitive to the values of ground residue cover and canopy cover. It was found that approximately one third of the watershed area had low sediment yield (0-1 t ha-1 y-1), and presented limited erosion threat. However, 5% of the area had sediment yields in excess of 5 t ha-1 y-1. Overall, the model performed reasonably well, and it can be used as a management tool on tropical watersheds to estimate and compare sediment loads, and identify "hot spots" on the landscape. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is...

  19. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, has determined that the... Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with...

  20. Boundary Crosser: Anne Whitelaw and Her Leadership Role in Girls' Secondary Schooling in England, New Zealand and East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kay Morris

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights the intersections of history, gender and educational administration through a case study of an influential woman educator, Anne Whitelaw. It draws upon manuscripts, school archives, school histories, official files and periodicals from "both sides" of the world. Although known in New Zealand as the first Headmistress of…

  1. DeAnnIso: a tool for online detection and annotation of isomiRs from small RNA sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Zang, Qiguang; Zhang, Huan; Ban, Rongjun; Yang, Yifan; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Ao; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA) Sequencing technology has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are capable of exhibiting frequent variations from their canonical sequences, generating multiple variants: the isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs). However, integrated tool to precisely detect and systematically annotate isomiRs from sRNA sequencing data is still in great demand. Here, we present an online tool, DeAnnIso (Detection and Annotation of IsomiRs from sRNA sequencing data). DeAnnIso can detect all the isomiRs in an uploaded sample, and can extract the differentially expressing isomiRs from paired or multiple samples. Once the isomiRs detection is accomplished, detailed annotation information, including isomiRs expression, isomiRs classification, SNPs in miRNAs and tissue specific isomiR expression are provided to users. Furthermore, DeAnnIso provides a comprehensive module of target analysis and enrichment analysis for the selected isomiRs. Taken together, DeAnnIso is convenient for users to screen for isomiRs of their interest and useful for further functional studies. The server is implemented in PHP + Perl + R and available to all users for free at: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/ and http://mcg2.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/. PMID:27179030

  2. DeAnnIso: a tool for online detection and annotation of isomiRs from small RNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Zang, Qiguang; Zhang, Huan; Ban, Rongjun; Yang, Yifan; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Ao; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-07-01

    Small RNA (sRNA) Sequencing technology has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are capable of exhibiting frequent variations from their canonical sequences, generating multiple variants: the isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs). However, integrated tool to precisely detect and systematically annotate isomiRs from sRNA sequencing data is still in great demand. Here, we present an online tool, DeAnnIso (Detection and Annotation of IsomiRs from sRNA sequencing data). DeAnnIso can detect all the isomiRs in an uploaded sample, and can extract the differentially expressing isomiRs from paired or multiple samples. Once the isomiRs detection is accomplished, detailed annotation information, including isomiRs expression, isomiRs classification, SNPs in miRNAs and tissue specific isomiR expression are provided to users. Furthermore, DeAnnIso provides a comprehensive module of target analysis and enrichment analysis for the selected isomiRs. Taken together, DeAnnIso is convenient for users to screen for isomiRs of their interest and useful for further functional studies. The server is implemented in PHP + Perl + R and available to all users for free at: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/ and http://mcg2.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/. PMID:27179030

  3. "Anne of Green Gables": A One-Act Musical Based on Lucy Maud Montgomery's Novel. Cue Sheet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Rosalind

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of the one-act musical based on Lucy Maud Montgomery's novel, "Anne of Green Gables," with music by Richard DeRosa and book and lyrics by Greg Gunning. The guide is designed to help teachers foster students' appreciation of theatre, dance, and…

  4. Estimation of the phenolic waste attenuation capacity of some fine-grained soils with the help of ANN modeling.

    PubMed

    Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta

    2014-03-01

    In the present investigation, batch experiments were undertaken in the laboratory for different initial phenol concentration ranging from 10 to 40 mg/L using various types of fine-grained soils namely types A, B, C, D, and E based on physical compositions. The batch kinetic data were statistically analyzed with a three-layered feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the phenol removal efficiency from the water environment. The input parameters considered were the adsorbent dose, initial phenol concentration, contact time, and percentage of clay and silt content in soils. The response output of the ANN model was considered as the phenol removal efficiency. The predicted results of phenol removal efficiency were compared with the experimental values as obtained from batch tests and also tests for goodness of fitting in ANN model with experimental results. The estimated values of coefficient of correlation (R = 0.99) and mean squared error (MSE = 0.006) reveals a reasonable closeness of experimental and predicted values. Out of five different types of soil, type E exhibited the highest removal efficiency (31.6 %) corresponding to 20 mg/L of initial phenol concentration. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out on the ANN model to ascertain the degree of effectiveness of various input variables. PMID:24271727

  5. A computation ANN model for quantifying the global solar radiation: A case study of Al-Aqabah-Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolgasem, I. M.; Alghoul, M. A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Chan, H. Y.; Khrit, N. G.; Sopian, K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a computation model is developed to predict the global solar radiation (GSR) in Aqaba city based on the data recorded with association of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The data used in this work are global solar radiation (GSR), sunshine duration, maximum & minimum air temperature and relative humidity. These data are available from Jordanian meteorological station over a period of two years. The quality of GSR forecasting is compared by using different Learning Algorithms. The decision of changing the ANN architecture is essentially based on the predicted results to obtain the best ANN model for monthly and seasonal GSR. Different configurations patterns were tested using available observed data. It was found that the model using mainly sunshine duration and air temperature as inputs gives accurate results. The ANN model efficiency and the mean square error values show that the prediction model is accurate. It is found that the effect of the three learning algorithms on the accuracy of the prediction model at the training and testing stages for each time scale is mostly within the same accuracy range.

  6. Prediction of the Rock Mass Diggability Index by Using Fuzzy Clustering-Based, ANN and Multiple Regression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeidi, Omid; Torabi, Seyed Rahman; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Rock mass classification systems are one of the most common ways of determining rock mass excavatability and related equipment assessment. However, the strength and weak points of such rating-based classifications have always been questionable. Such classification systems assign quantifiable values to predefined classified geotechnical parameters of rock mass. This causes particular ambiguities, leading to the misuse of such classifications in practical applications. Recently, intelligence system approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and neuro-fuzzy methods, along with multiple regression models, have been used successfully to overcome such uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is the construction of several models by using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method with two data clustering approaches, including fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and subtractive clustering, an ANN and non-linear multiple regression to estimate the basic rock mass diggability index. A set of data from several case studies was used to obtain the real rock mass diggability index and compared to the predicted values by the constructed models. In conclusion, it was observed that ANFIS based on the FCM model shows higher accuracy and correlation with actual data compared to that of the ANN and multiple regression. As a result, one can use the assimilation of ANNs with fuzzy clustering-based models to construct such rigorous predictor tools.

  7. 78 FR 72745 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Administrative Debarment of LeAnne Lesmeister Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... of Political-Military Affairs; Administrative Debarment of LeAnne Lesmeister Under the Arms Export... CONTACT: Sue Gainor, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military... services. Section 127.7(a) of the ITAR authorizes the Assistant Secretary of State for...

  8. Bridge-Builders and Storytellers: Anne M. Dunn, Ojibwe Storyteller, Shares in the Revival of Teaching and Learning Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Judy

    1995-01-01

    Based on her belief that all of our lives are stories that are pieces to a puzzle forming the truth behind the sacredness of life, Anne Dunn--Ojibwe storyteller and author--seeks to build bridges between cultures, between generations, and between oral and written storytelling. Includes a review of her book "When Beaver Was Very Great." (SV)

  9. Bodies in Space/Bodies in Motion/Bodies in Character: Adolescents Bear Witness to Anne Frank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, James S.; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2016-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of research on Holocaust education and embodied literacies this study examines how an arts-based instructional approach engaged middle school learners in developing empathetic perspectives on the Anne Frank narrative. We addressed the research question: What can adolescents who are using their bodies to gain empathy…

  10. Development of experimental design approach and ANN-based models for determination of Cr(VI) ions uptake rate from aqueous solution onto the solid biodiesel waste residue.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the evaluation capacities of two optimization methodologies such as RSM and ANN were employed and compared for predication of Cr(VI) uptake rate using defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) in both batch and column mode. The influence of operating parameters was investigated through a central composite design (CCD) of RSM using Design Expert 8.0.7.1 software. The same data was fed as input in ANN to obtain a trained the multilayer feed-forward networks back-propagation algorithm using MATLAB. The performance of the developed ANN models were compared with RSM mathematical models for Cr(VI) uptake rate in terms of the coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute average deviation (AAD). The estimated values confirm that ANN predominates RSM representing the superiority of a trained ANN models over RSM models in order to capture the non-linear behavior of the given system. PMID:24080294

  11. [Simulation of nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Siling Reservoir watershed with AnnAGNPS].

    PubMed

    Bian, Jin-yun; Wang, Fei-er; Yang, Jia; Yu, Jie; Lou, Li-ping; Yu, Dan-ping

    2012-08-01

    By using annual agricultural non-point source model (AnnAGNPS), this study simulated the export loading of nitrogen and phosphorus in Siling Reservoir watershed in Tiaoxi Basin, and integrated with the simulation results, the spatial distribution characteristics of non-point source pollution in the watershed was analyzed. The result showed that the export loading of nitrogen and phosphorus had similar characteristics: in the study area, the export loading of nutrients were higher in southern and western regions and lower in northern and eastern regions. Forest land mainly made up of bamboo was the main export source of nitrogen and phosphorus loading with the contribution above 90% of nutrient load of whole watershed. Three fertilization practices such as no fertilizer (CK), site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and farmers' fertilizaction practice (FFP) were used in the scenario analysis. The scenario analysis showed that to a certain degree, SSNM could reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Comparing with FFP, the reduction of SSNM in dissolved nitrogen (DN), particle nitrogen (PN), dissolved phosphorus (DP) and particle phosphorus (PP) was 8.17%, 4.33%, 9.08% and 1.02%, respectively.

  12. The Anne Frank Haven: A case of an alternative educational program in an integrative Kibbutz setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Giladi, Moshe; Dror, Yuval

    1992-01-01

    The essential features of the programme of the Anne Frank Haven are the complete integration of children from low SES and different cultural backgrounds with Kibbutz children; a holistic approach to education; and the involvement of the whole community in an "open" residential school. After 33 years, it is argued that the experiment has proved successful in absorbing city-born youth in the Kibbutz, enabling at-risk populations to reach significant academic achievements, and ensuring their continued participation in the dominant culture. The basic integration model consists of "layers" of concentric circles, in dynamic interaction. The innermost circle is the class, the learning community. The Kibbutz community and the foster parents form a supportive, enveloping circle, which enables students to become part of the outer community and to intervene in it. A kind of meta-environment, the inter-Kibbutz partnership and the Israeli educational system, influence the program through decision making and guidance. Some of the principles of the Haven — integration, community involvement, a year's induction for all new students, and open residential settings — could be useful for cultures and societies outside the Kibbutz. The real "secret" of success of an alternative educational program is the dedicated, motivated and highly trained staff.

  13. Classifying Sources Influencing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

    PubMed

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Andrew, Allan Melvin; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad Yusof; Zakaria, Ammar

    2015-05-20

    Monitoring indoor air quality (IAQ) is deemed important nowadays. A sophisticated IAQ monitoring system which could classify the source influencing the IAQ is definitely going to be very helpful to the users. Therefore, in this paper, an IAQ monitoring system has been proposed with a newly added feature which enables the system to identify the sources influencing the level of IAQ. In order to achieve this, the data collected has been trained with artificial neural network or ANN--a proven method for pattern recognition. Basically, the proposed system consists of sensor module cloud (SMC), base station and service-oriented client. The SMC contain collections of sensor modules that measure the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless network. The IAQ monitoring system is also equipped with IAQ Index and thermal comfort index which could tell the users about the room's conditions. The results showed that the system is able to measure the level of air quality and successfully classify the sources influencing IAQ in various environments like ambient air, chemical presence, fragrance presence, foods and beverages and human activity.

  14. Chlorophenols identification in water using an electronic nose and ANNs (artificial neural networks) classification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M J; Lorenzo, R A; Cela, R

    2004-01-01

    Electronic artificial noses are being developed as systems for the automated detection and classification of odours, vapors and gases. In the food industry, such devices are used as aids for quality control or process-monitoring tools. An electronic nose (EN) is generally composed of a chemical sensing system and a pattern recognition system (e.g. artificial neural network). An EN based on a non-specific conducting polymer array was used to monitor chlorophenols in water samples. Operational parameters for the EN were optimized by a Plackett-Burman factorial design. The experimental parameters studied were: sample volume, platen temperature, sample equilibration time, loop fill time, sample pressurization time and injection time. Optimal experimental conditions were applied to chlorophenols determination and differentiation in ultrapure water samples spiked with the EPA listed chlorophenols. Data analysis was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the chlorophenols presence in water samples. The obtained results showed that it was possible to differentiate the five chlorophenol groups: monochlorophenol, dichlorophenol, trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. Differentiation of chlorophenol groups was based on Mahalanobis distance between the formed clusters. This Mahalanobis distance is designated by the Quality Factor, a value >2 for this quality factor means a good differentiation between the clusters.

  15. Amygdalostriatal projections in the neurocircuitry for motivation: A neuroanatomical thread through the career of Ann Kelley

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2013-01-01

    In MacLean’s triune brain, the amygdala putatively subserves motivated behavior by modulating the “reptilian” basal ganglia. Accordingly, Ann Kelley, with Domesick and Nauta, influentially showed that amygdalostriatal projections are much more extensive than were appreciated. Caudal of the anterior commissure, the entire striatum receives afferents from deep basal nuclei of the amygdala. They highlighted that amygdalar projections to the rostral ventromedial striatum converged with projections from the ventral tegmental area and cingulate cortex, forming a “limbic striatum”. Orthologous topographic projections subsequently were observed in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Subsequent functional studies linked acquired value to action via this neuroanatomical substrate. From Dr. Kelley’s work evolved insights into components of the distributed, interconnected network that subserves motivated behavior, including the nucleus accumbens shell and core and the striatal-like extended amygdala macrostructure. These heuristic frameworks provide a neuroanatomical basis for adaptively translating motivation into behavior. The ancient amygdala-to-striatum pathways remain a current functional thread not only for stimulus–response valuation, but also for the psychopathological plasticity that underlies addictionrelated memory, craving and relapse. PMID:23220696

  16. Amygdalostriatal projections in the neurocircuitry for motivation: a neuroanatomical thread through the career of Ann Kelley.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2013-11-01

    In MacLean's triune brain, the amygdala putatively subserves motivated behavior by modulating the "reptilian" basal ganglia. Accordingly, Ann Kelley, with Domesick and Nauta, influentially showed that amygdalostriatal projections are much more extensive than were appreciated. They highlighted that amygdalar projections to the rostral ventromedial striatum converged with projections from the ventral tegmental area and cingulate cortex, forming a "limbic striatum". Caudal of the anterior commissure, the entire striatum receives afferents from deep basal nuclei of the amygdala. Orthologous topographic projections subsequently were observed in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Subsequent functional studies linked acquired value to action via this neuroanatomical substrate. From Dr. Kelley's work evolved insights into components of the distributed, interconnected network that subserves motivated behavior, including the nucleus accumbens shell and core and the striatal-like extended amygdala macrostructure. These heuristic frameworks provide a neuroanatomical basis for adaptively translating motivation into behavior. The ancient amygdala-to-striatum pathways remain a current functional thread not only for stimulus-response valuation, but also for the psychopathological plasticity that underlies addiction-related memory, craving and relapse.

  17. Prediction of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) performance for the treatment of aniline using artificial neural networks (ANN).

    PubMed

    Delnavaz, M; Ayati, B; Ganjidoust, H

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the results of 1-year efficiency forecasting using artificial neural networks (ANN) models of a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for a toxic and hard biodegradable aniline removal were investigated. The reactor was operated in an aerobic batch and continuous condition with 50% by volume which was filled with light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as carrier. Efficiency evaluation of the reactors was obtained at different retention time (RT) of 8, 24, 48 and 72 h with an influent COD from 100 to 4000 mg/L. Exploratory data analysis was used to detect relationships between the data and dependent evaluated one. The appropriate architecture of the neural network models was determined using several steps of training and testing of the models. The ANN-based models were found to provide an efficient and a robust tool in predicting MBBR performance for treating aromatic amine compounds. PMID:20399558

  18. Application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP) for prediction of drug release from solid lipid matrices.

    PubMed

    Güres, Sinan; Mendyk, Aleksander; Jachowicz, Renata; Dorożyński, Przemysław; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop a semi-empirical mathematical model, which is able to predict the release profiles of solid lipid extrudates of different dimensions. The development of the model was based on the application of ANNs and GP. ANNs' abilities to deal with multidimensional data were exploited. GP programming was used to determine the constants of the model function, a modified Weibull equation. Differently dimensioned extrudates consisting of diprophylline, tristearin and polyethylene glycol were produced by the use of a twin-screw extruder and their dissolution behaviour was studied. Experimentally obtained dissolution curves were compared to the calculated release profiles, derived from the semi-empirical mathematical model.

  19. William Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1689-1700), son of Queen Anne (1665-1714), could have ruled Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Holmes, G E F; Holmes, F F

    2008-02-01

    Hope for continuation of the Stuart dynasty in Britain ended with the death, from pneumonia in 1700, of the 11-year-old son of Princess Anne and Prince George, William Henry Duke of Gloucester. Considered by some to have been physically and mentally unfit to reign, careful examination of primary source materials shows him to have been a bright and interesting boy with mild hydrocephalus. Had he lived, he could have ruled. PMID:18463064

  20. AE index forecast at different time scales through an ANN algorithm based on L1 IMF and plasma measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallocchia, G.; Amata, E.; Consolini, G.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bertello, I.

    2008-02-01

    The AE index is known to have two main components, one directly driven by the solar wind and the other related to the magnetotail unloading process. As regards the role played by the IMF and solar wind parameters, recently several authors used artificial neural networks (ANN) to forecast AE from solar wind data. Following this track, in this paper we present a study of the AE forecast at different time scales, from 5 min to 1 h, in order to check whether the performance of the ANN prediction varies significantly as a function of the AE time resolution.The study is based on a new ANN Elman network with Bz (in GSM) and Vx as inputs, one hidden layer containing four neurons, four context units and one output neuron. We find that the forecast AE values, during disturbed AE periods, result to be always smaller than the experimental values; on the other hand, the algorithm performance improves as the time scale increases, i.e. the total standard deviation (calculated over a test data set) between the forecast and the Kyoto AE decreases as the averaging time increases. Under the hypothesis that this decrease follows an exponential law, we find that the 1 h scale normalised standard deviation is 0.975, very close to the asymptotic value of 0.95 for an infinite averaging time. We interpret our results in the sense that the unloading component of the AE variations cannot be predicted from IMF and solar wind parameters only.

  1. Long-term solar UV radiation reconstructed by ANN modelling with emphasis on spatial characteristics of input data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feister, U.; Junk, J.; Woldt, M.; Bais, A.; Helbig, A.; Janouch, M.; Josefsson, W.; Kazantzidis, A.; Lindfors, A.; den Outer, P. N.; Slaper, H.

    2008-06-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are efficient tools to derive solar UV radiation from measured meteorological parameters such as global radiation, aerosol optical depths and atmospheric column ozone. The ANN model has been tested with different combinations of data from the two sites Potsdam and Lindenberg, and used to reconstruct solar UV radiation at eight European sites by more than 100 years into the past. Special emphasis will be given to the discussion of small-scale characteristics of input data to the ANN model. Annual totals of UV radiation derived from reconstructed daily UV values reflect interannual variations and long-term patterns that are compatible with variabilities and changes of measured input data, in particular global dimming by about 1980/1990, subsequent global brightening, volcanic eruption effects such as that of Mt. Pinatubo, and the long-term ozone decline since the 1970s. Patterns of annual erythemal UV radiation are very similar at sites located at latitudes close to each other, but different patterns occur between UV radiation at sites in different latitude regions.

  2. Assessment of strawberry aroma through SPME/GC and ANN methods. Classification and discrimination of varieties.

    PubMed

    Urruty, Louise; Giraudel, Jean-Luc; Lek, Sovan; Roudeillac, Philippe; Montury, Michel

    2002-05-22

    To provide an efficient and running analytical tool to strawberry plant breeders who have to characterize and compare the aromatic properties of new cultivars to those already known, a HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis method has been coupled with a statistical treatment method issued from the current development of artificial neuron networks (ANN), and more specifically, the unsupervised learning systems called Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs). So, 70 strawberry samples harvested at CIREF from 17 known varieties have been extracted by using a DVB/Carboxen/PDMS SPME fiber according to the headspace procedure, and then chromatographed. A panel of 23 characteristic aromatic constituents has been selected according to published results relative to strawberry aroma. The complex resulting matrix, collecting the relative abundance of the 23 selected constituents for each sample, has been input into the SOM software adapted and optimized from the Kohonen approach described by one of the authors. After a period of training, the self-organized system affords a map of virtual strawberries to which real samples are compared and plotted in the best matching unit (BMU) of the map. The efficiency for discriminating the real samples according to their variety is dependent on the number of units selected to define the map. In this case, a 24-unit map allowed the complete discrimination of the 17 selected varieties. Moreover, to test the validity of this approach, two additional samples were blind-analyzed and the results were computed according to the same procedure. At the end of this treatment, both samples were plotted into the same unit as those of the same variety used for training the map.

  3. Progress in developing an ANN model for air pollution index forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dahe; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Xiang; Zeng, Yun; Tan, Jianguo; Shao, Demin

    An air pollution index (API) reporting system is introduced to selected cities of China for public communication on air quality data. Shanghai is the first city in China providing daily average API reports and forecasts. This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model for the API forecasting in Shanghai. It is a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) network, with meteorological forecasting data as the main input, to output the next day average API values. However, the initial version of the MLP model did not work well. To improve the model, a series of tests were conducted with respect to the training method and structure optimization. Based on the test results, the training algorithm was modified and a new model was built. The new model is now being used in Shanghai for API forecasting. Its performance is shown reasonably well in comparison with observation. The application of the old model was only weakly correlated with observation. In 1-year application, the correlation coefficients were 0.2314, 0.1022 and 0.1710 for TSP, SO2 and NOx, respectively. But for the new model, for over 8 months application, the correlation coefficients are raised to 0.6056, 0.6993 and 0.6300 for PM10, SO2, and NO2. Further, the new algorithm does not rely on manpower intervention so that it is now being applied in several other Chinese cities with quite different meteorological conditions. The structure of the model and the application results are presented in this paper and also the problems to be further studied.

  4. Data fusion with artificial neural networks (ANN) for classification of earth surface from microwave satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lure, Y. M. Fleming; Grody, Norman C.; Chiou, Y. S. Peter; Yeh, H. Y. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A data fusion system with artificial neural networks (ANN) is used for fast and accurate classification of five earth surface conditions and surface changes, based on seven SSMI multichannel microwave satellite measurements. The measurements include brightness temperatures at 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz at both H and V polarizations (only V at 22 GHz). The seven channel measurements are processed through a convolution computation such that all measurements are located at same grid. Five surface classes including non-scattering surface, precipitation over land, over ocean, snow, and desert are identified from ground-truth observations. The system processes sensory data in three consecutive phases: (1) pre-processing to extract feature vectors and enhance separability among detected classes; (2) preliminary classification of Earth surface patterns using two separate and parallely acting classifiers: back-propagation neural network and binary decision tree classifiers; and (3) data fusion of results from preliminary classifiers to obtain the optimal performance in overall classification. Both the binary decision tree classifier and the fusion processing centers are implemented by neural network architectures. The fusion system configuration is a hierarchical neural network architecture, in which each functional neural net will handle different processing phases in a pipelined fashion. There is a total of around 13,500 samples for this analysis, of which 4 percent are used as the training set and 96 percent as the testing set. After training, this classification system is able to bring up the detection accuracy to 94 percent compared with 88 percent for back-propagation artificial neural networks and 80 percent for binary decision tree classifiers. The neural network data fusion classification is currently under progress to be integrated in an image processing system at NOAA and to be implemented in a prototype of a massively parallel and dynamically reconfigurable Modular

  5. ANN-based mapping of febrile subjects in mass thermogram screening: facts and myths.

    PubMed

    Ng, E Y K; Chong, C

    2006-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious disease caused by a coronavirus. Screening to detect potential SARS-infected subjects with elevated body temperature plays an important role in preventing the spread of SARS. Thermography is being used with ANN/AI to analyse the data collected from the designated SARS hospital in Singapore, and conclusive results are drawn. The current work evaluates the correlations (and classifications) between facial skin temperatures, including eye range and forehead, to aural temperature using a neural network (NN) approach, namely training backpropagation (BP) and Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM), to confirm the suitability of thermal imagers for human temperature screening. Both BP and SOM can form an opinion about the type of network that is better able to complement thermogram technology in fever diagnosis. This can produce better parameters for reducing the size of the NN classifier, while maintaining good classification accuracy. We observe that BP performs better than SOM NN. Confusion matrix (CM), an alternative display instrument, is able to process a high volume of input data and show the clustered output rapidly and accurately. The current research application will remain an interesting and useful reference for both local and overseas manufacturers of thermal scanners, users and various government and private establishments. As the elevation of body temperature is a common presenting symptom for many illnesses, including infectious diseases such as SARS, thermal imagers are useful and essential tools for mass screening of body temperature. This is true not only for SARS but also during other public health crises where widespread transmission of infection such as the danger of avian flu pandemic is a concern, in particular at places like hospitals and cross-border checkpoints.

  6. Thiamine Deficiency Complex Workshop final report: November 6-7, 2008, Ann Arbor, MI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Fry mortality which was first observed in the late 1960s in Great Lakes salmonines and in Baltic Sea salmon in 1974 has now been linked to thiamine deficiency (historically referred to as Early Mortality Syndrome, or EMS and M74, respectively). Over the past 14 years significant strides have been made in our understanding of this perplexing problem. It is now known that thiamine deficiency causes embryonic mortality in these salmonids. Both overt mortality and secondary effects of thiamine deficiency are observed in juvenile and adult animals. Collectively the morbidity and mortality (fry and adult mortality, secondary metabolic and behavior affects in juveniles and adult fish) are referred to as Thiamine Deficiency Complex (TDC). A workshop was held in Ann Arbor, MI on 6-7 November 2008 that brought together 38 federal, state, provincial, tribal and university scientists to share information, present data and discuss the latest observations on thiamine status of aquatic animals with thiamine deficiency and the causative agent, thiaminase. Twenty presentations (13 oral and 7 posters) detailed current knowledge. In Lake Huron, low alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance has persisted and egg thiamine concentrations in salmonines continue to increase, along with evidence of natural reproduction in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake Michigan Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha appear to have a lower thiamine requirement than other salmonids in the lake. Lake Ontario American eel Anguilla rostrata foraging on alewife have approximately one third the muscle thiamine compared to eels not feeding on alewife, suggesting that eels may be suffering from thiamine deficiency. Secondary effects of low thiamine exist in Great Lakes salmonines and should not be ignored. Thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels is extremely high but a connection to TDC has not been made. Thiaminase in net plankton was found more consistently in lakes Michigan and Ontario than other lakes

  7. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  8. Using ANN to predict E. coli accumulation in coves based on interaction amongst various physical, chemical and biological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.; Lesikar, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    The accumulation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in canals, coves and streams is the result of a number of interacting processes operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Fate and transport of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by different physical, chemical, and biological processes. Various models developed to quantify each of these processes occurring at different scales are not so far pooled into a single predictive model. At present, very little is known about the fate and transport of E. coli in the environment. We hypothesize that E. coli population heterogeneity in canals and coves is affected by physical factors (average stream width and/ depth, secchi depth, flow and flow severity, day since precipitation, aquatic vegetation, solar radiation, dissolved and total suspended solids etc.); chemical factors (basic water quality, nutrients, organic compounds, pH, and toxicity etc.); and biological factors (type of bacterial strain, predation, and antagonism etc.). The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the interactions between E. coli and various coupled physical, chemical and biological factors; (2) examine the interactions between E. coli and toxic organic pollutants and other pathogens (viruses); and (3) evaluate qualitatively the removal efficiency of E. coli. We suggest that artificial neural networks (ANN) may be used to provide a possible solution to this problem. To demonstrate the application of the approach, we develop an ANN representing E. coli accumulation in two polluted sites at Lake Granbury in the upper part of the Brazos River in North Central Texas. The graphical structure of ANN explicitly represents cause- and-effect relationship between system variables. Each of these relationships can then be quantified independently using an approach suitable for the type and scale of information available. Preliminary results revealed that E. coli concentrations in canals show seasonal variations regardless of change

  9. AnnAGNPS model as a potential tool for seeking adequate agriculture land management in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Giménez, R.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays agricultural activities face two important challenges. They must be efficient from an economic point of view but with low environment impacts (soil erosion risk, nutrient/pesticide contamination, greenhouse gases emissions, etc.). In this context, hydrological and erosion models appear as remarkable tools when looking for the best management practices. AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution) is a continuous simulation watershed-scale model that estimates yield and transit of surface water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides through a watershed. This model has been successfully evaluated -in terms of annual runoff and sediment yield- in a small (around 200 ha) agricultural watershed located in central eastern part of Navarre (Spain), named Latxaga. The watershed is under a humid Sub-Mediterranean climate. It is cultivated almost entirely with winter cereals (wheat and barley) following conventional soil and tillage management practices. The remaining 15% of the watershed is covered by urban and shrub areas. The aim of this work is to evaluate in Latxga watershed the effect of potential and realistic changes in land use and management on surface runoff and sediment yield by using AnnAGNPS. Six years (2003 - 2008) of daily climate data were considered in the simulation. This dataset is the same used in the model evaluation previously made. Six different scenarios regarding soil use and management were considered: i) 60% cereals25% sunflower; ii) 60% cereals, 25% rapeseed; iii) 60% cereals, 25% legumes; iv) 60% cereals, 25% sunflower + rapeseed+ legumes, in equal parts; v) cereals, and alternatively different amount of shrubs (from 20% to 100% ); vi) only cereal but under different combinations of conventional tillage and no-tillage management. Overall, no significant differences in runoff generation were observed with the exception of scenario iii (in which legume is the main alternative crops), whit a slight increase in predicted

  10. Probing for leptophilic gauge boson Zl at ILC with $\\sqrt{s} = 1~{\\rm TeV}$ by using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, S. Okan; Akkoyun, Serkan; Bayram, Tuncay

    2014-11-01

    We search for leptophilic gauge boson Zl via the process e+e- → μ+μ- at ILC with √ {s} = 1 TeV. In the leptonic extension of SM (SUC(3) × SUW(2) × UY(1) × Ul'(1)) we have predicted that ILC with √ {s} = 1 TeV will enable searching Zl with masses up to the center-of-mass energy if the related coupling constant gl exceeds 10-3 for 3σ observations and 5σ discovery. Furthermore similar results have been obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN) method.

  11. Modeling daily reference ET in the karst area of northwest Guangxi (China) using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Fu, Zhi-yong; Chen, Hong-song; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-08-01

    Nonlinear complexity is a characteristic of hydrologic processes. Using fewer model parameters is recommended to reduce error. This study investigates, and compares, the ability of gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in modeling ET0 by using fewer meteorological parameters in the karst area of northwest Guangxi province, China. Over a 5-year period (2008-2012), meteorological data consisting of maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were collected from four weather stations: BaiSe, DuAn, HeChi, and RongAn. The ET0 calculated by the FAO-56 PM equation was used as a reference to evaluate results for GEP, ANN, and Hargreaves models. The coefficient of determination (R 2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used as statistical indicators. Evaluations revealed that GEP, and ANN, can be used to successfully model ET0. In most cases, when using the same input variables, ANN models were superior to GEP. We then established ET0 equations with fewer parameters under various conditions. GEP can produce simple explicit mathematical formulations which are easier to use than the ANN models.

  12. A Characterization of Hot Flow Behaviors Involving Different Softening Mechanisms by ANN for As-Forged Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Zou, Zhen-yu; Wen, Hai-rong; Pu, Shi-ao; Lv, Wen-quan

    2015-11-01

    The isothermal compressions of as-forged Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy at the deformation temperature range of 948-1,123 K and the strain rates in the range of 0.001-10 s-1 with a height reduction of 60% were conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The flow behaviors show nonlinear sensitivity to strain, strain rate and temperature. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) with back-propagation algorithm was developed to deal with the complex deformation behavior characteristics. In the present ANN model, strain, strain rate and temperature were taken as inputs, and flow stress as output. A comparative study on the constitutive relationships based on regression and ANN methods was conducted. According to the predicted and experimental results, the predictabilities of the two models have been evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The R-value and the AARE-value at strain of 0.5 from the ANN model is 0.9998 and 0.572%, respectively, better than 0.9902 and 6.583% from the regression model. The predicted strain-stress curves outside of experimental conditions indicate similar characteristics with experimental curves. The results have sufficiently articulated that the well-trained ANN model with back-propagation algorithm has excellent capability to deal with the complex flow behaviors of as-forged Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy.

  13. Use of computer-assisted methods for the modeling of the retention time of a variety of volatile organic compounds: a PCA-MLR-ANN approach.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, M; Kyani, A

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid method consisting of principal component analysis (PCA), multiple linear regressions (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict the retention time of 149 C(3)-C(12) volatile organic compounds for a DB-1 stationary phase. PCA and MLR methods were used as feature-selection tools, and a neural network was employed for predicting the retention times. The regression method was also used as a calibration model for calculating the retention time of VOCs and investigating their linear characteristics. The descriptors of the total information index of atomic composition, IAC, Wiener number, W, solvation connectivity index, X1sol, and number of substituted aromatic C(sp(2)), nCaR, appeared in the MLR model and were used as inputs for the ANN generation. Appearance of these parameters shows the importance of the dispersion interactions in the mechanism of retention. Comparison of the MLR and 5-2-1 ANN models indicates the superiority of the ANN over that of the MLR model. The values of 0.913 and 0.738 were obtained for the standard error of prediction set of MLR and ANN models, respectively. PMID:15272841

  14. Optoelectronic performance and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling of n-InSe/p-Si solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, A. A. A.; Hanafy, T. A.; Attia, A. A.; Habashy, D. M.; El-Bakry, M. Y.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructure thin film of InSe deposited on p-Si single crystal to fabricate n-InSe/p-Si heterojunction. Electrical and photoelectrical have been studied by the current density-voltage (J-V). The fabricated cell exhibited rectifying characteristics. Analyzing the results of dark forward J-V shows that there are differrent conduction mechanisms. At low voltages, the current density is controlled by a Schottky emission mechanism. While at a relatively high voltage, a space charge-limited-conduction mechanism is observed with a single trap level. The cell also exhibited a photovoltaic characteristic with a power conversion efficiency of 3.42%. Moreover, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are adopted to model the J-V through the obtained functions. Different network configurations and many runs were trying to achieve good performance and finally obtained the current density, J, as a function of the junction temperature, T, and applied voltage, V. In all cases studied, we compared our obtained functions produced by the ANN technique with the corresponding experimental data and the excellent matching was so clear.

  15. Design of an Experiment to Measure ann Using 3H(γ, pn)n at HIγS★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, F. Q. L.; Ahmed, M. W.; Crowe, B. J.; Crowell, A. S.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Fallin, B.; Han, Z.; Howell, C. R.; Malone, R. M.; Markoff, D.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    We provide an update on the development of an experiment at TUNL for determining the 1S0 neutron-neutron (nn) scattering length (ann) from differential cross-section measurements of three-body photodisintegration of the triton. The experiment will be conducted using a linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) and tritium gas contained in thin-walled cells. The main components of the planned experiment are a 230 Ci gas target system, a set of wire chambers and silicon strip detectors on each side of the beam axis, and an array of neutron detectors on each side beyond the silicon detectors. The protons emitted in the reaction are tracked in the wire chambers and their energy and position are measured in silicon strip detectors. The first iteration of the experiment will be simplified, making use of a collimator system, and silicon detectors to interrogate the main region of interest near 90° in the polar angle. Monte-Carlo simulations based on rigorous 3N calculations have been conducted to validate the sensitivity of the experimental setup to ann. This research supported in part by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Grant Number DE-FG02-97ER41033

  16. A method to improve the stability and accuracy of ANN- and SVM-based time series models for long-term groundwater level predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heesung; Hyun, Yunjung; Ha, Kyoochul; Lee, Kang-Kun; Kim, Gyoo-Bum

    2016-05-01

    The prediction of long-term groundwater level fluctuations is necessary to effectively manage groundwater resources and to assess the effects of changes in rainfall patterns on groundwater resources. In the present study, a weighted error function approach was utilised to improve the performance of artificial neural network (ANN)- and support vector machine (SVM)-based recursive prediction models for the long-term prediction of groundwater levels in response to rainfall. The developed time series models were applied to groundwater level data from 5 groundwater-monitoring stations in South Korea. The results demonstrated that the weighted error function approach can improve the stability and accuracy of recursive prediction models, especially for ANN models. The comparison of the model performance showed that the recursive prediction performance of the SVM was superior to the performance of the ANN in this case study.

  17. Comparison of estimation capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM) with artificial neural network (ANN) in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of palm-based wax ester

    PubMed Central

    Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Gunawan, Erin Ryantin; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abd

    2007-01-01

    Background Wax esters are important ingredients in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants and other chemical industries due to their excellent wetting property. Since the naturally occurring wax esters are expensive and scarce, these esters can be produced by enzymatic alcoholysis of vegetable oils. In an enzymatic reaction, study on modeling and optimization of the reaction system to increase the efficiency of the process is very important. The classical method of optimization involves varying one parameter at a time that ignores the combined interactions between physicochemical parameters. RSM is one of the most popular techniques used for optimization of chemical and biochemical processes and ANNs are powerful and flexible tools that are well suited to modeling biochemical processes. Results The coefficient of determination (R2) and absolute average deviation (AAD) values between the actual and estimated responses were determined as 1 and 0.002844 for ANN training set, 0.994122 and 1.289405 for ANN test set, and 0.999619 and 0.0256 for RSM training set respectively. The predicted optimum condition was: reaction time 7.38 h, temperature 53.9°C, amount of enzyme 0.149 g, and substrate molar ratio 1:3.41. The actual experimental percentage yield was 84.6% at optimum condition, which compared well to the maximum predicted value by ANN (83.9%) and RSM (85.4%). The order of effective parameters on wax ester percentage yield were; respectively, time with 33.69%, temperature with 30.68%, amount of enzyme with 18.78% and substrate molar ratio with 16.85%, whereas R2 and AAD were determined as 0.99998696 and 1.377 for ANN, and 0.99991515 and 3.131 for RSM respectively. Conclusion Though both models provided good quality predictions in this study, yet the ANN showed a clear superiority over RSM for both data fitting and estimation capabilities. PMID:17760990

  18. Dating of pollen samples from the sediment core of Lake St Anne in the East Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubay, Katalin; Katalin Magyari, Enikö; Braun, Mihály; Schabitz, Frank; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Lake St Anne (950 m a.s.l.) is situated in the Ciomadul volcano crater, the youngest volcano in the Carpathians. Aims driving forward the studies there are twofold, one is dating the latest eruption of the Ciomadul volcano and the other is the multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of this region. The sediment of Lake St Anne was sampled several times already, but never reached the bottom of the lake before. During the winter of 2013 at a new core location drilling started at 600 cm water depth and finally reached the bottom of the lake sediment at approximately 2300 cm including water depth. As for all multi-proxy studies essential requirement was to build a reliable chronology. Sediments were dated by radiocarbon method. Previous radiocarbon dates were measured on plant macrofossils, charcoal, Cladocera eggs, chironomid head capsules and bulk lake sediments. Lake St Anne has volcanic origin and there is intensive upwelling of CO2it is important to study and take into consideration, whether there is any local reservoir effect at the case of samples where it could be problematic. Furthermore the late part of the sediment section (between 15,000 and 30,000 cal. yr BP) has low organic matter content (less than 2-4%) with scarcity of datable plant macrofossil material. In this review a different fraction of pollen samples with terrestrial origin was tested and studied as a novel sample type for the radiocarbon dating. Pollen samples were extracted from the lake sediment cores. This type of organic material could be an ideal candidate for radiocarbon based chronological studies as it has terrestrial source and is present in the whole core in contrast with the terrestrial macrofossils. Although the pollen remains were present in the whole core, in many cases their amount give a challenge even for the AMS technic. Samples were measured with EnvironMICADAS AMS and its gas ion source in the HEKAL laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). We examine the reliability the

  19. Mining multi-channel EEG for its information content: an ANN-based method for a brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Peters, Bjorn O.; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    1998-10-01

    We have studied 56-channel electroencephalograms (EEG) from three subjects who planned and performed three kinds of movements, left and right index finger, and right foot movement. Using autoregressive modeling of EEG time series and artificial neural nets (ANN), we have developed a classifier that can tell which movement is performed from a segment of the EEG signal from a single trial. The classifier's rate of recognition of EEGs not seen before was 92-99% on the basis of a 1s segment per trial. The recognition rate provides a pragmatic measure of the information content of the EEG signal. This high recognition rate makes the classifier suitable for a so-called 'Brain-Computer Interface', a system that allows one to control a computer, or another device, with ones brain waves. Our classifier Laplace filters the EEG spatially, but makes use of its entire frequency range, and automatically locates regions of relevant activity on the skull.

  20. General neural computer architecture and its ANN-based task assignment method for parallel-distributed processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Hu; Ray, Sylvian R.; Zheng, Nanning

    1995-06-01

    A new DSP-based neural simulating computer architecture and its ANN-based assignment method for parallel distributed processing are proposed. The hardware of the proposed neural simulating computer can be reconfigured in terms of a variety of research interests and requirements of pattern recognition. The software programming environment utilizes an intelligent compiler to perform static task assignment in both the cases of single-task muliprocessor and multitask processor. An improved Hopfield neural network which can converge to global optical solution is employed by the compiler to map different tasks or neurons to their corresponding real processors. An approach of introducing hidden layer to increase the computation ability of the neural simulating computer is also developed. Finally, a proof is given which shows that the use of improved Hopfield algorithm and the modification to network structure doesn't change the intrinsic properties of the original network.

  1. Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsou, M.-S.; Zhan, X.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution (AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management.

  2. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

  3. Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

    2014-04-01

    Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not

  4. [Sensitivity analysis of AnnAGNPS model's hydrology and water quality parameters based on the perturbation analysis method].

    PubMed

    Xi, Qing; Li, Zhao-Fu; Luo, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis of hydrology and water quality parameters has a great significance for integrated model's construction and application. Based on AnnAGNPS model's mechanism, terrain, hydrology and meteorology, field management, soil and other four major categories of 31 parameters were selected for the sensitivity analysis in Zhongtian river watershed which is a typical small watershed of hilly region in the Taihu Lake, and then used the perturbation method to evaluate the sensitivity of the parameters to the model's simulation results. The results showed that: in the 11 terrain parameters, LS was sensitive to all the model results, RMN, RS and RVC were generally sensitive and less sensitive to the output of sediment but insensitive to the remaining results. For hydrometeorological parameters, CN was more sensitive to runoff and sediment and relatively sensitive for the rest results. In field management, fertilizer and vegetation parameters, CCC, CRM and RR were less sensitive to sediment and particulate pollutants, the six fertilizer parameters (FR, FD, FID, FOD, FIP, FOP) were particularly sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. For soil parameters, K is quite sensitive to all the results except the runoff, the four parameters of the soil's nitrogen and phosphorus ratio (SONR, SINR, SOPR, SIPR) were less sensitive to the corresponding results. The simulation and verification results of runoff in Zhongtian watershed show a good accuracy with the deviation less than 10% during 2005- 2010. Research results have a direct reference value on AnnAGNPS model's parameter selection and calibration adjustment. The runoff simulation results of the study area also proved that the sensitivity analysis was practicable to the parameter's adjustment and showed the adaptability to the hydrology simulation in the Taihu Lake basin's hilly region and provide reference for the model's promotion in China.

  5. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  6. [Discriminating and quantifying potential adulteration in virgin olive oil by near infrared spectroscopy with BP-ANN and PLS].

    PubMed

    Weng, Xin-Xin; Lu, Feng; Wang, Chuan-Xian; Qi, Yun-Peng

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and cost-effective classification and quantification techniques for the authentication of virgin olive oil were preliminarily investigated. NIR spectra in the range of 12 000 - 3 700 cm(-1) were recorded for pure virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples adulterated with varying concentrations of sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil (5%-50% adulterations in the weight of virgin olive oil). The spectral range from 12 000 to 5 390 cm(-1) was adopted to set up an analysis model. In order to handle these data efficiently, after pretreatment, firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress thousands of spectral data into several variables and to describe the body of the spectra, and the analysis suggested that the cumulate reliabilities of the first six components was more than 99.999%. Then ANN-BP was chosen as further research method. The six components were secondly applied as ANN-BP inputs. The experiment took a total of 100 samples as original model examples and left 52 samples as unknown samples to predict. Finally, the results showed that the 52 test samples were discriminated accurately. And the calibration models of quantitative analysis were built using partial-least-square (PLS). The R values for PLS model are 98.77, 99.37 and 99.44 for sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil respectively, the root mean standard errors of cross validation (RMSECV) are 1.3, 1.1 and 1.04 respectively. Overall, the near infrared spectroscopic method in the present paper played a good role in the discrimination and quantification, and offered a new approach to the rapid discrimination of pure and adulterated virgin olive oil. PMID:20210151

  7. The use of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction and simulation of oil degradation in wastewater by AOP.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yasmen A; Jaid, Ghydaa M; Alwared, Abeer I; Ebrahim, Mothana

    2014-06-01

    The application of advanced oxidation process (AOP) in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil was investigated in this study. The AOP investigated is the homogeneous photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe(+2)) process. The reaction is influenced by the input concentration of hydrogen peroxide H2O2, amount of the iron catalyst Fe(+2), pH, temperature, irradiation time, and concentration of oil in the wastewater. The removal efficiency for the used system at the optimal operational parameters (H2O2 = 400 mg/L, Fe(+2) = 40 mg/L, pH = 3, irradiation time = 150 min, and temperature = 30 °C) for 1,000 mg/L oil load was found to be 72%. The study examined the implementation of artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction and simulation of oil degradation in aqueous solution by photo-Fenton process. The multilayered feed-forward networks were trained by using a backpropagation algorithm; a three-layer network with 22 neurons in the hidden layer gave optimal results. The results show that the ANN model can predict the experimental results with high correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.9949). The sensitivity analysis showed that all studied variables (H2O2, Fe(+2), pH, irradiation time, temperature, and oil concentration) have strong effect on the oil degradation. The pH was found to be the most influential parameter with relative importance of 20.6%. PMID:24595749

  8. [Sensitivity analysis of AnnAGNPS model's hydrology and water quality parameters based on the perturbation analysis method].

    PubMed

    Xi, Qing; Li, Zhao-Fu; Luo, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis of hydrology and water quality parameters has a great significance for integrated model's construction and application. Based on AnnAGNPS model's mechanism, terrain, hydrology and meteorology, field management, soil and other four major categories of 31 parameters were selected for the sensitivity analysis in Zhongtian river watershed which is a typical small watershed of hilly region in the Taihu Lake, and then used the perturbation method to evaluate the sensitivity of the parameters to the model's simulation results. The results showed that: in the 11 terrain parameters, LS was sensitive to all the model results, RMN, RS and RVC were generally sensitive and less sensitive to the output of sediment but insensitive to the remaining results. For hydrometeorological parameters, CN was more sensitive to runoff and sediment and relatively sensitive for the rest results. In field management, fertilizer and vegetation parameters, CCC, CRM and RR were less sensitive to sediment and particulate pollutants, the six fertilizer parameters (FR, FD, FID, FOD, FIP, FOP) were particularly sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients. For soil parameters, K is quite sensitive to all the results except the runoff, the four parameters of the soil's nitrogen and phosphorus ratio (SONR, SINR, SOPR, SIPR) were less sensitive to the corresponding results. The simulation and verification results of runoff in Zhongtian watershed show a good accuracy with the deviation less than 10% during 2005- 2010. Research results have a direct reference value on AnnAGNPS model's parameter selection and calibration adjustment. The runoff simulation results of the study area also proved that the sensitivity analysis was practicable to the parameter's adjustment and showed the adaptability to the hydrology simulation in the Taihu Lake basin's hilly region and provide reference for the model's promotion in China. PMID:25055665

  9. 1977-78 Evaluation of the Title VII Bilingual Program Project Exito at the Ann Street Bilingual School of Hartford, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    Evaluation results for Hartford, Connecticut's 1977-78 Title VII Bilingual Education Program at Ann Street School are presented. Student and staff accomplishments, a section on selected curricular activities, a restatement of the 1977-78 results in terms of the Title VII proposal objectives, and conclusions and recommendations for consideration of…

  10. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed in Navarre (Spain)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Model) is a system of computer models developed to predict non-point source pollutant loadings within agricultural watersheds. It contains a daily time step distributed parameter continuous simulation surface runoff model designed to assis...

  11. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of adsorption of methylene blue by NaOH-modified rice husk in a fixed-bed column system.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2013-02-01

    In this study, rice husk was modified with NaOH and used as adsorbent for dynamic adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Continuous removal of MB from aqueous solutions was studied in a laboratory scale fixed-bed column packed with NaOH-modified rice husk (NMRH). Effect of different flow rates and bed heights on the column breakthrough performance was investigated. In order to determine the most suitable model for describing the adsorption kinetics of MB in the fixed-bed column system, the bed depth service time (BDST) model as well as the Thomas model was fitted to the experimental data. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based model was also developed for describing the dynamic dye adsorption process. An extensive error analysis was carried out between experimental data and data predicted by the models by using the following error functions: correlation coefficient (R(2)), average relative error, sum of the absolute error and Chi-square statistic test (χ(2)). Results show that with increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate, the breakthrough time was delayed. All the error functions yielded minimum values for the ANN model than the traditional models (BDST and Thomas), suggesting that the ANN model is the most suitable model to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of MB by NMRH. It is also more rational and reliable to interpret dynamic dye adsorption data through a process of ANN architecture.

  12. Let Them Aspire! A Plea and Proposal for Equality of Opportunity for Males and Females in the Ann Arbor Public Schools. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federbush, Marcia

    The report compiled by the Committee to Eliminate Sex Discrimination in the Public Schools, Ann Arbor, Michigan, for their Board of Education, points out the areas of school life in which females are not given the chance or the encouragement to aspire to competence. Four areas of particular disadvantage are stereotyping in books, athletic…

  13. Proceedings of Workshop on Priority Great Lakes Environmental Research Initiatives (Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 10-11, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsak, Arthur P., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings of a workshop held in Ann Arbor, Michigan to identify the priority Great Lakes environmental research initiatives. The five major objectives of the workshop include the determination of research initiatives, opportunities for university research communities to discuss and recommend future research…

  14. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Youssef; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel; Giménez, Rafael; Campo, Miguel A.; Del Valle de Lersundi, Jokin

    2010-05-01

    Four experimental watersheds with contrasting land uses located in Navarre (Spain), and maintained by the local government have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). As a result, a detailed description and a general characterization of the hydrological and erosion behaviour of these watersheds were published recently by the same authors of this current research. This information is of great utility for evaluation of modelling tools; however, we have been done few efforts until now in this research line. The Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model (AnnAGNPS) is a well known and widely used model developed by the USDA-ARS and the USDA- NRCS, to assess the hydrologic and water quality responses of watersheds. More precisely, it is a distributed parameter, physically based, continuous simulation, and daily time step model. The purpose of this study is then to evaluate the AnnAGNPS model capability to simulate runoff and sediment yield with data sets from one of our agricultural watershed: Latxaga. Latxaga watershed covers an area of 207 ha and is located in the central eastern part of Navarre. Its climate is humid Sub-Mediterranean, with an average annual precipitation of 835 mm, and an average annual temperature of 12.8 °C. Geologically, the area is underlined by clay marls and sandstones. Prevailing soils are alkaline with a fine texture top-layer. Regarding land use, 80-90% of the total area is cultivated with winter grain crops. The model was calibrated using two years (2003 and 2004) of continuous 10-min/daily data, whereas another whole year (2005) was used for model validation. The calibration process was carried out by modifying Curve Number (CN) values obtained by standard procedure. CN represents a key factor in obtaining accurate prediction of runoff and sediment yield; besides it is the most important input parameter to which the runoff is sensitive. The target

  15. BP-ANN for Fitting the Temperature-Germination Model and Its Application in Predicting Sowing Time and Region for Bermudagrass

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Erxu; Mantri, Nitin; Ngai, Sai Ming; Lu, Hongfei; Du, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant environmental factors that affects germination of grass seeds. Reliable prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination is crucial for determining the suitable regions and favorable sowing timing for turf grass cultivation. In this study, a back-propagation-artificial-neural-network-aided dual quintic equation (BP-ANN-QE) model was developed to improve the prediction of the optimal temperature for seed germination. This BP-ANN-QE model was used to determine optimal sowing times and suitable regions for three Cynodon dactylon cultivars (C. dactylon, ‘Savannah’ and ‘Princess VII’). Prediction of the optimal temperature for these seeds was based on comprehensive germination tests using 36 day/night (high/low) temperature regimes (both ranging from 5/5 to 40/40°C with 5°C increments). Seed germination data from these temperature regimes were used to construct temperature-germination correlation models for estimating germination percentage with confidence intervals. Our tests revealed that the optimal high/low temperature regimes required for all the three bermudagrass cultivars are 30/5, 30/10, 35/5, 35/10, 35/15, 35/20, 40/15 and 40/20°C; constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C inhibited the germination of all three cultivars. While comparing different simulating methods, including DQEM, Bisquare ANN-QE, and BP-ANN-QE in establishing temperature based germination percentage rules, we found that the R2 values of germination prediction function could be significantly improved from about 0.6940–0.8177 (DQEM approach) to 0.9439–0.9813 (BP-ANN-QE). These results indicated that our BP-ANN-QE model has better performance than the rests of the compared models. Furthermore, data of the national temperature grids generated from monthly-average temperature for 25 years were fit into these functions and we were able to map the germination percentage of these C. dactylon cultivars in the national scale of

  16. Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America: how a woman scorned threatened the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Anna; Kornblet, Sarah; Katz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    The case of Carol Anne Bond v the United States of America stemmed from a domestic dispute when Ms. Bond attempted to retaliate against her best friend by attacking her with chemical agents. What has emerged is a much greater issue--a test of standing on whether a private citizen can challenge the Tenth Amendment. Instead of being prosecuted in state court for assault, Ms. Bond was charged and tried in district court under a federal criminal statute passed as part of implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Ms. Bond's argument rests on the claim that the statute exceeded the federal government's enumerated powers in criminalizing her behavior and violated the Constitution, while the government contends legislation implementing treaty obligations is well within its purview. This question remains unanswered because there is dispute among the lower courts as to whether Ms. Bond, as a citizen, even has the right to challenge an amendment guaranteeing states rights when a state is not a party to the action. The Supreme Court heard the case on February 22, 2011, and, if it decides to grant Ms. Bond standing to challenge her conviction, the case will be returned to the lower courts. Should the court decide Ms. Bond has the standing to challenge her conviction and further questions the constitutionality of the law, it would be a significant blow to implementation of the CWC in the U.S. and the effort of the federal government to ensure we are meeting our international obligations. PMID:21819227

  17. A novel and generalized approach in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, A. Stanley; Srinivas, Y.; Oliver, D. Hudson; Muthuraj, D.

    2014-03-01

    The non-linear apparent resistivity problem in the subsurface study of the earth takes into account the model parameters in terms of resistivity and thickness of individual subsurface layers using the trained synthetic data by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Here we used a single layer feed-forward neural network with fast back propagation learning algorithm. So on proper training of back propagation networks it tends to give the resistivity and thickness of the subsurface layer model of the field resistivity data with reference to the synthetic data trained in the appropriate network. During training, the weights and biases of the network are iteratively adjusted to make network performance function level more efficient. On adequate training, errors are minimized and the best result is obtained using the artificial neural networks. The network is trained with more number of VES data and this trained network is demonstrated by the field data. The accuracy of inversion depends upon the number of data trained. In this novel and specially designed algorithm, the interpretation of the vertical electrical sounding has been done successfully with the more accurate layer model.

  18. Biotreatment of zinc-containing wastewater in a sulfidogenic CSTR: Performance and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2009-05-15

    Sulfidogenic treatment of sulfate (2-10g/L) and zinc (65-677mg/L) containing simulated wastewater was studied in a mesophilic (35 degrees C) CSTR. Ethanol was supplemented (COD/sulfate=0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by increasing Zn, COD and sulfate loadings. Sulfate removal efficiency, which was 70% at 2g/L feed sulfate concentration, steadily decreased with increasing feed sulfate concentration and reached 40% at 10g/L. Over 99% Zn removal was attained due to the formation of zinc-sulfide precipitate. COD removal efficiency at 2g/L feed sulfate concentration was over 94%, whereas, it steadily decreased due to the accumulation of acetate at higher loadings. Alkalinity produced from acetate oxidation increased wastewater pH remarkably when feed sulfate concentration was 5g/L or lower. Electron flow from carbon oxidation to sulfate reduction averaged 83+/-13%. The rest of the electrons were most likely coupled with fermentative reactions as the amount of methane production was insignificant. The developed ANN model was very successful as an excellent to reasonable match was obtained between the measured and the predicted concentrations of sulfate (R=0.998), COD (R=0.993), acetate (R=0.976) and zinc (R=0.827) in the CSTR effluent.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of nanofluid in heat exchanger fitted by modified twisted tape: exergy analysis and ANN prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Heydar; Ghasemi, Nahid; Keyvani, Bahram; Cheraghali, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Present study provides an experimental investigation of the exergetic efficiency due to the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in different geometries and flow regimes of the double pipe heat exchangers. The experiments with different Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) of twists as the new modified twisted tapes and different nanofluid concentration were performed under similar operation condition. Pitch length of the proposed twisted tapes and consequently the twist ratios changed along the twists with respect to the Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser (IGPR > 1). Regarding the experimental data, utilization of RGPR twists together with nanofluids tends to increase exergetic efficiency. Since the Prediction of exergetic efficiency from experimental process is complex and time consuming, artificial neural networks for identification of the relationship, which may exist between the thermal and flow parameters and exergetic efficiency, have been utilized. The network input consists of five parameters (Re,Pr ,φ, Tr, GPR) that crucially dominate the heat transfer process. The results proved that the introduced ANN model is reliable and capable in proposing a proper development plan for a heat exchanger and/or to determine the optimal plan of operation for heat transfer process.

  20. Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

    1996-07-01

    Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

  1. Maps and seismic profiles showing geology of the inner continental shelf, Cape Ann, Massachusetts to New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Wommack, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Early studies in the western Gulf of Maine have outlined the general geology and geologic history of the region. Seismic-reflection data have defined the major stratigraphic units and unconformities (Oldale and Uchupi, 1970; Ballard and Uchupi, 1972; Oldale and others, 1973). Two long cores provided information on the glacial and postglacial sediments in the deep offshore basins (Tucholke and Hollister, 1973). Generalized bottom-sediment type and distribution were determined by Schlee and others (1973) and by Folger and others (1975). Investigations on land, which have provided information on the late Quaternary history of the offshore area, include descriptions of ice retreat and marine submergence (Bloom, 1963; Smith, 1982; Stone and Peper, 1982; Thompson, 1982). Radiocarbon dates from coastal marsh peats have established the middle to late Holocene sea-level-rise history (McIntire and Morgan, 1964; Keene, 1971). Submarine moraincs that recently were recognized off Cape Ann provide additional information on the nature and chronology of ice retreat (Oldale, 1985a). A submerged delta of the Merrimack River and a submerged barrier spit have been used to establish an early IIolocene lowstand of 588 level of about 50 meters (m) below present sea level (Oldale and others, 1983; Oldale, 1985b).

  2. The collaboration of Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier and the first measurements of human oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-12-01

    Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was one of the most eminent scientists of the late 18th century. He is often referred to as the father of chemistry, in part because of his book Elementary Treatise on Chemistry. In addition he was a major figure in respiratory physiology, being the first person to recognize the true nature of oxygen, elucidating the similarities between respiration and combustion, and making the first measurements of human oxygen consumption under various conditions. Less well known are the contributions made by his wife, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. However, she was responsible for drawings of the experiments on oxygen consumption when the French revolution was imminent. These are of great interest because written descriptions are not available. Possible interpretations of the experiments are given here. In addition, her translations from English to French of papers by Priestley and others were critical in Lavoisier's demolition of the erroneous phlogiston theory. She also provided the engravings for her husband's textbook, thus documenting the extensive new equipment that he developed. In addition she undertook editorial work, for example in preparing his posthumous memoirs. The scientific collaboration of this husband-wife team is perhaps unique among the giants of respiratory physiology. PMID:24097559

  3. Early diagnosis of systemic lupus erythmatosus using ANN models of dsDNA binding antibody sequence data.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Mohamad Hasan; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Azemi, Asad; Mirsalehi, Mir Mojtaba; Khademi, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a new method based on artificial neural networks (ANN), is introduced for identifying pathogenic antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). dsDNA binding antibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. In order to identify these dsDNA binding antibodies, the protein sequences of 42 dsDNA binding and 608 non-dsDNA binding antibodies were extracted from Kabat database and encoded using a physicochemical property of their amino acids namely Hydrophilicity. Encoded antibodies were used as the training patterns of a general regression neural network (GRNN). Simulation results show that the accuracy of proposed method in recognizing dsDNA binding antibodies is 83.2%. We have also investigated the roles of the light and heavy chains of anti-dsDNA antibodies in binding to DNA. Simulation results concur with the published experimental findings that in binding to DNA, the heavy chain of anti-dsDNA is more important than their light chain. PMID:21346864

  4. The collaboration of Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier and the first measurements of human oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2013-12-01

    Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was one of the most eminent scientists of the late 18th century. He is often referred to as the father of chemistry, in part because of his book Elementary Treatise on Chemistry. In addition he was a major figure in respiratory physiology, being the first person to recognize the true nature of oxygen, elucidating the similarities between respiration and combustion, and making the first measurements of human oxygen consumption under various conditions. Less well known are the contributions made by his wife, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. However, she was responsible for drawings of the experiments on oxygen consumption when the French revolution was imminent. These are of great interest because written descriptions are not available. Possible interpretations of the experiments are given here. In addition, her translations from English to French of papers by Priestley and others were critical in Lavoisier's demolition of the erroneous phlogiston theory. She also provided the engravings for her husband's textbook, thus documenting the extensive new equipment that he developed. In addition she undertook editorial work, for example in preparing his posthumous memoirs. The scientific collaboration of this husband-wife team is perhaps unique among the giants of respiratory physiology.

  5. Controller development of photo bioreactor for closed-loop regulation of O2 production based on ANN model reference control and computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dawei; Zhang, Houkai; Zhou, Rui; Li, Ming; Sun, Yi

    2013-02-01

    When Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) is used for long-term deep space exploration in the future, it is possible to perform closed-loop control on growth of microalgae to effectively regulate O2 production process in emergencies. However, designing controller of microalgae cultivating device (MCD) by means of traditional methods is very difficult or even impossible due to its highly nonlinearity and large operation scope. In our research, the Artificial Neural Network Model Reference Control (ANN-MRC) method was therefore utilized for model identification and controller design for O2 production process of a specific MCD prototype—photo bioreactor (PBR), based on actual experiment and computer simulation. The results demonstrated that the ANN-MRC servo controller could robustly and self-adaptively control and regulate the light intensity of PBR to make O2 concentrations in vent pipe be in line with step reference concentrations with prescribed dynamic response performance.

  6. Use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the Analysis and Modeling of Factors That Affect Occupational Injuries in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Savareh, Behrouz Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Occupational injuries as a workforce’s health problem are very important in large-scale workplaces. Analysis and modeling the health-threatening factors are good ways to promote the workforce’s health and a fundamental step in developing health programs. The purpose of this study was ANN modeling of the severity of occupational injuries to determine the health-threatening factors and to introduce a model to predict the severity of occupational injuries. Methods This analytical chain study was conducted in 10 large construction industries during a 10-year period (2005–2014). Nine hundred sixty occupational injuries were analyzed and modeled based on feature weighting by the rough set theory and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Two analytical software programs, i.e., RSES and MATLAB 2014 were used in the study. Results The severity of occupational injuries was calculated as 557.47 ± 397.87 days. The findings of both models showed that the injuries’ severity as a health problem resulted in various factors, including individual, organizational, health and safety (H&S) training, and risk management factors, which could be considered as causal and predictive factors of accident severity rate (ASR). Conclusion The results indicated that ANNs were a reliable tool that can be used to analyze and model the severity of occupational injuries as one of the important health problems in large-scale workplaces. Additionally, the combination of rough set and ANNs is a good and proper chain approach to modeling the factors that threaten the health of workforces and other H&S problems. PMID:26767107

  7. Estimation of daily global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected temperature-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of temperature-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected temperature-based empirical models for estimating the daily global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: daily mean clearness index (KT), temperature range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of daily global solar radiation.

  8. Prediction of the likely impact of climate change on monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature in the Chaliyar river basin, India, using ANN-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, N. R.; Thampi, Santosh G.; Surapaneni, Sujith; Nannapaneni, Revanth; Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar; Kumar, J. Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    In this work, an approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been employed to assess the likely impact of climate change on mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ( T max and T min) in the Chaliyar river basin, Kerala, India. ANN is trained to downscale temperature from the General Circulation Model (GCM) from a coarser resolution to the required resolution of the river basin. The work aims to estimate the GCMs' output to the scales compatible with that employed in a hydrologic model of the river basin. In order to satiate this purpose, predictor variables were obtained from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data; this was utilized for training the ANN using a feed-forward network with a back-propagation algorithm. These models were validated further and used to downscale CGCM3 GCM simulations for the scenarios outlined in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Results showed that both T max and T min are increasing consistently in all the scenarios. T max exhibited an average increase of maximum 3 °C during the dry season (December-May) and 1 °C during the wet season (June-November) by the year 2100, while T min showed an average increase of 2.5 °C in the dry season and 0.5 °C in the wet season.

  9. The adventures of Ann: A case study of a kindergarten teacher and her beliefs as she explored integrating science into her literacy curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Gregory Ralph

    Science education is an often neglected portion of the curriculum in elementary school, particularly in the primary grades. While early childhood educators have many choices in their curricula, two constants remain, literacy and math education. Ideally, young children need science along with literacy and mathematics. This study investigated how one kindergarten teacher used science to enhance her literacy program and how this use of science in her classroom affected her teaching beliefs. The case study took place in a publicly funded early childhood education center devoted to teaching kindergarten children in the small town of Summers in rural northern California. "Ann" was a master kindergarten teacher who historically used developmentally appropriate activities to support her literacy instruction. She was posed with the suggestion of infusing science into her literacy program and over the course of one school year, she was observed planning, implementing, and reflecting on six integrated science and literacy units. Ann's general teaching beliefs as well as her beliefs about teaching literacy and science were explored in order to investigate whether her experience with the integrated science and literacy units had altered her teaching beliefs. It was discovered that not only had Ann significantly changed the way she taught science, her beliefs about teaching science had changed and had moved towards mimicking her pro-active and positive beliefs about teaching literacy.

  10. Span-to-depth ratio effect on shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete deep beams using ANN model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Uday; Kute, Sunil

    2013-12-01

    The paper predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams. It studies the effect of clear span-to-overall depth ratio on shear capacity of steel fiber high-strength deep beams using artificial neural network (ANN8). The three-layered model has eight input nodes which represent width, effective depth, volume fraction, fiber aspect ratio and shear span-to-depth ratio, longitudinal steel, compressive strength of concrete, and clear span-to-overall depth ratio. The model predicts the shear strength of high-strength steel fiber deep beams to be reasonably good when compared with the results of proposed equations by researchers as well as the results obtained by neural network (ANN7) which is developed for seven inputs excluding span-to-depth ratio. The developed neural network ANN8 proves the versatility of artificial neural networks to establish the relations between various parameters affecting complex behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete deep beams and costly experimental processes.

  11. Reply to Ann Bradshaw.

    PubMed Central

    Allmark, Peter

    1996-01-01

    My original paper suggested that an ethics of care which failed to specify how, and about what, to care would be devoid of normative and descriptive content. Bradshaw's approach provides such a specification and is, therefore, not devoid of such content. However, as all ethical approaches suggest something about the 'what' and 'how' of care, they are all 'ethics of care' in this broader sense. This reinforces rather than undermines my original conclusion. Furthermore, Bradshaw's 'ethics of care' has philosophical and historical problems which I outline. PMID:11644877

  12. Ann Richards Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents photos and basic information about a Texas middle school whose architecture reflects the hybrid culture of the borderlands and "regionalism" in which it is located. A line drawing of the site plan is included. (GR)

  13. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  14. Edgar Allan Poe: The Army Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, J. Thomas

    This issue of the United States Military Academy Library Bulletin reviews the reported facts of Poe's biography from his enlistment at the age of 15 to the termination of his military sojourn. The 1831 and the 1966 Corps of Cadets' subscriptions for Poe's "Poems" are also discussed, and a long-term inaccuracy regarding the poet's West Point…

  15. For the relief of Allan Bolor Kelley.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Waxman, Henry A. [D-CA-30

    2011-02-17

    12/05/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Prediction of subcooled vapor pressures (log PL) of 399 polychlorinated trans-azoxybenzenes by using the QSPR and ANN approach.

    PubMed

    Piliszek, Sławomir; Wilczyńska-Piliszek, Agata J; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally relevant partitioning properties such as the sub-cooled vapor pressures (log PL) have been predicted for 399 congeners of chloro-trans-azoxybenzene (C-t-AOBs) by two computational methods. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), an approach which is based on geometry optimalization and quantum-chemical structural descriptors in RM1 and DFT methods and artificial neural networks (ANNs), an approach that predicts abilities that give similar results of estimated log P(L) and the accuracy of the methods was also similar. The RM1 method was less time consuming and less costly compared to calculations by the DFT method. Estimated from the RM1 and DFT methods of log P(L) values of 399 Ct-AOBs varied between -1.98 to -0.93 and -1.83 to -0.79 for Mono-, 3.12 to -1.46 and -3.00 to -1.46 for Di-, -4.03 to -1.39 and -3.53 to -1.67 for Tri-, -4.75 to -2.33 and -4.59 to -1.91 for Tetra-, -5.37 to -2.59 and -5.42 to -2.09 for Penta-, -5.82 to -2.88 and -5.66 to -2.58 for Hexa-, -5.88 to -3.24 and -5.60 to -2.93 for Hepta-, -6.28 to -4.33 and -5.60 to -4.29 for Octa-, -6.54 to -5.28 and -5.66 to -4.93 for NonaCt-AOBs, and -6.59 and -5.61 for DecaCt-AOB. According to a common classification of environmental contaminants and by sub-cooled vapor pressure values, MonoCt-AOBs and a few of the Di- and TriCt-AOBs (log P(L)from -2 to 0) fall into the group of compounds that are relatively well mobile in the ambient environment, while most of the Di- to HeptaCt-AOBs (log P(L) < -4 to -2) mobility is relatively weak. Octa- and NonaCt-AOBs and DecaCt-AOB (log P(L) < -4) are also weak mobile contaminants.

  17. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p < 0.05) during calibration and underpredicted by 6.7% with R2 of 0.90 (p < 0.05) during validation. But sediment loading was able to produce a moderate result. The model underpredicted the event-based sediment loading by 15.1% with R2 of 0.63 (p < 0.05) during calibration and 26.7% with R2 of 0.59 (p < 0.05) during validation. For the events of small magnitude, the model generally overpredicted sediment loading, while the opposite was true for larger events. Nitrogen loading prediction was slightly better with R2 = 0.68 (p < 0.05), and phosphorus loading performance was slightly poor with R2 = 0.65 (p < 0.05). In general, the model performs well in simulating runoff compare to sediment loading and nutrient loadings, and as a watershed management tools it can be used for Three Gorges Reservoir area conditions that with mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  18. Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Lizhong; He, Xiubin; Yuan, Yongping; Nan, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs) and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS), have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. The model has been applied worldwide and proven to be a very effective tool in identifying the critical areas which had serious erosion, and in aiding in decision-making processes for adopting BMPs and/or conservation programs so that cost/benefit can be maximized and non-point source pollution control can be achieved in the most efficient way. The main goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of soil erosion, sediment and sediment delivery of a watershed so that effective conservation measures can be implemented. To achieve the overall objective of this study, all necessary data for the 4,184 km2 Daning River watershed in the Three-Gorge region of the Yangtze River of China were assembled. The model was calibrated using observed monthly runoff from 1998 to 1999 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.94 and R2 of 0.94) and validated using the observed monthly runoff from 2003 to 2005 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.93 and R2 of 0.93). Additionally, the model was validated using annual average sediment of 2000–2002 (relative error of −0.34) and 2003–2004 (relative error of 0.18) at Wuxi station. Post validation simulation showed that approximately 48% of the watershed was under the soil loss tolerance released by the Ministry of Water Resources of China (500 t·km−2·y−1). However, 8% of the watershed had soil erosion of exceeding 5,000 t·km−2·y−1. Sloping areas and low coverage areas are the main source of soil loss in the

  19. Le groupe de recherches transfusionnelles d’Afrique francophone: bilan des cinq premières années

    PubMed Central

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les travaux de recherches sur la sécurité transfusionnelle en Afrique sub-saharienne sont peu nombreux, souvent limités à des initiatives locales avec des conclusions difficilement représentatives de cette région. Le Groupe de recherches transfusionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne francophone a été créé en mai 2007 avec pour objectif de développer des stratégies globales d’amélioration de la sécurité transfusionnelle mais adaptables à la situation de chaque pays. Les activités du Groupe à ce jour ont porté essentiellement sur l’obtention de données épidémiologiques et de laboratoire sur la transfusion sanguine et à proposer des stratégies de sécurité transfusionnelle dans le domaine des infections transmissibles par la transfusion. Pour mener à bien ces activités de recherche, le Groupe travaille en étroite collaboration avec les Centres nationaux de transfusion sanguine (CNTS), les Centres régionaux de transfusion sanguine (CRTS), les banques de sang hospitalières (BSH) et les postes de collecte de sang. Pour les 5 premières années, quatre priorités de recherche ont été identifiées: (i) des études descriptives sur les caractéristiques des donneurs de sang et des centres de transfusion; (ii) une estimation du risque résiduel post-transfusionnel des principales infections virales transmissibles par la transfusion; (iii) une analyse des stratégies de sélection médicale des donneurs de sang; et (iv) une description des stratégies de dépistage des ITT et une description du système d’assurance qualité externe existant. Durant cette période, sept projets ont été mis en œuvre au niveau national et publiés et cinq études multicentriques ont été réalisées et publiées. La présente étude rapporte les principales observations et recommandations de ces études. PMID:24360798

  20. Prediction of high spatio-temporal resolution land surface temperature under cloudy conditions using microwave vegetation index and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, H. R.; Kumar, D. Nagesh

    2016-07-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) with high spatio-temporal resolution is in demand for hydrology, climate change, ecology, urban climate and environmental studies, etc. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the most commonly used sensors owing to its high spatial and temporal availability over the globe, but is incapable of providing LST data under cloudy conditions, resulting in gaps in the data. In contrast, microwave measurements have a capability to penetrate under clouds. The current study proposes a methodology by exploring this property to predict high spatio-temporal resolution LST under cloudy conditions during daytime and nighttime without employing in-situ LST measurements. To achieve this, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) based models are employed for different land cover classes, utilizing Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) at finer resolution with ancillary data. MPDI was derived using resampled (from 0.25° to 1 km) brightness temperatures (Tb) at 36.5 GHz channel of dual polarization from Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR)-Earth Observing System and AMSR2 sensors. The proposed methodology is tested over Cauvery basin in India and the performance of the model is quantitatively evaluated through performance measures such as correlation coefficient (r), Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Results revealed that during daytime, AMSR-E(AMSR2) derived LST under clear sky conditions corresponds well with MODIS LST resulting in values of r ranging from 0.76(0.78) to 0.90(0.96), RMSE from 1.76(1.86) K to 4.34(4.00) K and NSE from 0.58(0.61) to 0.81(0.90) for different land cover classes. During nighttime, r values ranged from 0.76(0.56) to 0.87(0.90), RMSE from 1.71(1.70) K to 2.43(2.12) K and NSE from 0.43(0.28) to 0.80(0.81) for different land cover classes. RMSE values found between predicted LST and MODIS LST during daytime under clear sky conditions were within acceptable

  1. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects.

  2. Statistical analysis and ANN modeling for predicting hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios: the example of a small Mediterranean agro-watershed.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Dokou, Zoi; Karatzas, George P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a modeling management tool for the simulation of extreme flow events under current and future climatic conditions. This tool is a combination of different components and can be applied in complex hydrogeological river basins, where frequent flood and drought phenomena occur. The first component is the statistical analysis of the available hydro-meteorological data. Specifically, principal components analysis was performed in order to quantify the importance of the hydro-meteorological parameters that affect the generation of extreme events. The second component is a prediction-forecasting artificial neural network (ANN) model that simulates, accurately and efficiently, river flow on an hourly basis. This model is based on a methodology that attempts to resolve a very difficult problem related to the accurate estimation of extreme flows. For this purpose, the available measurements (5 years of hourly data) were divided in two subsets: one for the dry and one for the wet periods of the hydrological year. This way, two ANNs were created, trained, tested and validated for a complex Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece. As part of the second management component a statistical downscaling tool was used for the creation of meteorological data according to the higher and lower emission climate change scenarios A2 and B1. These data are used as input in the ANN for the forecasting of river flow for the next two decades. The final component is the application of a meteorological index on the measured and forecasted precipitation and flow data, in order to assess the severity and duration of extreme events. PMID:25710600

  3. Development of CAD based on ANN analysis of power spectra for pneumoconiosis in chest radiographs: effect of three new enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ishida, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have been developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pneumoconiosis based on a rule-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of power spectra. In this study, we have developed three enhancement methods for the abnormal patterns to reduce false-positive and false-negative values. The image database consisted of 2 normal and 15 abnormal chest radiographs. The International Labour Organization standard chest radiographs with pneumoconiosis were categorized as subcategory, size, and shape of pneumoconiosis. Regions of interest (ROIs) with a matrix size of 32 × 32 were selected from normal and abnormal lungs. Three new enhanced methods were obtained by window function, top-hat transformation, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis. We calculated the power spectrum (PS) of all ROIs by Fourier transform. For the classification between normal and abnormal ROIs, we applied a combined analysis using the ruled-based plus the ANN method. To evaluate the overall performance of this CAD scheme, we employed ROC analysis for distinguishing between normal and abnormal ROIs. On the chest radiographs of the highest categories (severe pneumoconiosis) and the lowest categories (early pneumoconiosis), this CAD scheme achieved area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.93 ± 0.02 and 0.72 ± 0.03. The combined rule-based plus ANN method with the three new enhanced methods obtained the highest classification performance for distinguishing between abnormal and normal ROIs. Our CAD system based on the three new enhanced methods would be useful in assisting radiologists in the classification of pneumoconiosis.

  4. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects. PMID:21350755

  5. Statistical analysis and ANN modeling for predicting hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios: the example of a small Mediterranean agro-watershed.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Dokou, Zoi; Karatzas, George P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a modeling management tool for the simulation of extreme flow events under current and future climatic conditions. This tool is a combination of different components and can be applied in complex hydrogeological river basins, where frequent flood and drought phenomena occur. The first component is the statistical analysis of the available hydro-meteorological data. Specifically, principal components analysis was performed in order to quantify the importance of the hydro-meteorological parameters that affect the generation of extreme events. The second component is a prediction-forecasting artificial neural network (ANN) model that simulates, accurately and efficiently, river flow on an hourly basis. This model is based on a methodology that attempts to resolve a very difficult problem related to the accurate estimation of extreme flows. For this purpose, the available measurements (5 years of hourly data) were divided in two subsets: one for the dry and one for the wet periods of the hydrological year. This way, two ANNs were created, trained, tested and validated for a complex Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece. As part of the second management component a statistical downscaling tool was used for the creation of meteorological data according to the higher and lower emission climate change scenarios A2 and B1. These data are used as input in the ANN for the forecasting of river flow for the next two decades. The final component is the application of a meteorological index on the measured and forecasted precipitation and flow data, in order to assess the severity and duration of extreme events.

  6. Mapping Seabed Habitats and Dynamic Bedforms using Hydroacoustic Discrimination (Sidescan Sonar and RoxAnn) in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (German Wadden Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2012-04-01

    Seabed habitat mapping is important to understand hydrodynamic processes as well as marine ecosystems. The study site (4 km2) is located in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (German Wadden Sea). It includes deep channels that harbor strong tidal currents and shallower sublittoral areas. The investigations were performed with two different hydroacoustic devices: (1) IMAGENEX YellowFin (Model 872) sidescan sonar to take imagery of the seafloor and (2) SONAVISION RoxAnn (Model GD-X) acoustic ground-discrimination system to classify the seafloor according to its hardness and roughness properties. The devices worked with frequencies of 200 kHz (RoxAnn) and 770 kHz (sidescan sonar). For ground truthing purposes 124 sediment-surface samples were collected using a HELCOM grab sampler. The results reveal varying environments and bedforms within this small survey site. The seafloor surface sediments range from fine to coarse sand. Bedforms include subaquatic dunes of different size, partly superimposed by smaller ripple structures. Coarser sediments characterize the deeper tidal channels (water depth ~ 20 m) where also the measured roughness and hardness values strongly increase. The shallower areas reveal finer sediments and lower backscatter. The hydrodynamic processes that govern the distribution of surficial sediments are also responsible for the formation of the characteristic bedforms. Sidescan sonography makes it possible to investigate alignment and the migration direction of the bedforms which allows to reconstruct the general hydrodynamic properties of the study area and beyond. In combination with RoxAnn data, it is possible to assign seabed habitat classes especially with regard to their hardness and roughness properties. Apparently, areas showing similar grain-size spectra can show totally different roughness and hardness values. Hence, they cannot be classified as the same habitat. Further comparison between sidescan sonography and RoxAnn results reveals that roughness and

  7. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach for modeling of Pb(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia Vera L.) shells.

    PubMed

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Demirel, Sevgi

    2008-05-30

    A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the efficiency of Pb(II) ions removal from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia Vera L.) shells based on 66 experimental sets obtained in a laboratory batch study. The effect of operational parameters such as adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of Pb(II) ions, initial pH, operating temperature, and contact time were studied to optimise the conditions for maximum removal of Pb(II) ions. On the basis of batch test results, optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.5, an adsorbent dosage of 1.0 g, an initial Pb(II) concentration of 30 ppm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C. Experimental results showed that a contact time of 45 min was generally sufficient to achieve equilibrium. After backpropagation (BP) training combined with principal component analysis (PCA), the ANN model was able to predict adsorption efficiency with a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 11 neurons and a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) was found as the best of 11 BP algorithms with a minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.000227875. The linear regression between the network outputs and the corresponding targets were proven to be satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of about 0.936 for five model variables used in this study.

  8. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-09-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  9. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS Model for Predicting Runoff and Nutrient Export in a Typical Small Watershed in the Hilly Region of Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Li, Zhaofu; Li, Hengpeng; Chen, Xiaomin

    2015-09-01

    The application of hydrological and water quality models is an efficient approach to better understand the processes of environmental deterioration. This study evaluated the ability of the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model to predict runoff, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading in a typical small watershed of a hilly region near Taihu Lake, China. Runoff was calibrated and validated at both an annual and monthly scale, and parameter sensitivity analysis was performed for TN and TP before the two water quality components were calibrated. The results showed that the model satisfactorily simulated runoff at annual and monthly scales, both during calibration and validation processes. Additionally, results of parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer organic, Canopy cover and Fertilizer inorganic were more sensitive to TN output. In terms of TP, the parameters Residue mass ratio, Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer inorganic and Canopy cover were the most sensitive. Based on these sensitive parameters, calibration was performed. TN loading produced satisfactory results for both the calibration and validation processes, whereas the performance of TP loading was slightly poor. The simulation results showed that AnnAGNPS has the potential to be used as a valuable tool for the planning and management of watersheds. PMID:26364642

  10. Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS Model for Predicting Runoff and Nutrient Export in a Typical Small Watershed in the Hilly Region of Taihu Lake

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chuan; Li, Zhaofu; Li, Hengpeng; Chen, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The application of hydrological and water quality models is an efficient approach to better understand the processes of environmental deterioration. This study evaluated the ability of the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model to predict runoff, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loading in a typical small watershed of a hilly region near Taihu Lake, China. Runoff was calibrated and validated at both an annual and monthly scale, and parameter sensitivity analysis was performed for TN and TP before the two water quality components were calibrated. The results showed that the model satisfactorily simulated runoff at annual and monthly scales, both during calibration and validation processes. Additionally, results of parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer organic, Canopy cover and Fertilizer inorganic were more sensitive to TN output. In terms of TP, the parameters Residue mass ratio, Fertilizer rate, Fertilizer inorganic and Canopy cover were the most sensitive. Based on these sensitive parameters, calibration was performed. TN loading produced satisfactory results for both the calibration and validation processes, whereas the performance of TP loading was slightly poor. The simulation results showed that AnnAGNPS has the potential to be used as a valuable tool for the planning and management of watersheds. PMID:26364642

  11. Modeling multiple land use changes using ANN, CART and MARS: Comparing tradeoffs in goodness of fit and explanatory power of data mining tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2014-05-01

    Over half of the earth's terrestrial surface has been modified by humans. This modification is called land use change and its pattern is known to occur in a non-linear way. The land use change modeling community can advance its models using data mining tools. Here, we present three data mining land use change models, one based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), another on Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and another Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). We reconfigured the three data mining models to concurrently simulate multiple land use classes (e.g. agriculture, forest and urban) in South-Eastern Wisconsin (SEWI), USA (time interval 1990-2000) and in Muskegon River Watershed (MRW), Michigan, USA (time interval 1978-1998). We compared the results of the three data mining tools using relative operating characteristic (ROC) and percent correct match (PCM). We found that ANN provided the best accuracy in both areas for three land use classes (e.g. urban, agriculture and forest). In addition, in both regions, CART and MARS both showed that forest gain occurred in areas close to current forests, agriculture patches and away from roads. Urban increased in areas of high urban density, close to roads and in areas with few forests and wetlands. We also found that agriculture gain is more likely for the areas closer to the agriculture and forest patches. Elevation strongly influenced urbanization and forest gain in MRW while it has no effect in SEWI.

  12. Support vector machine regression (LS-SVM)--an alternative to artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the analysis of quantum chemistry data?

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-06-28

    A multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) with a single, hidden layer that contains a finite number of neurons can be regarded as a universal non-linear approximator. Today, the ANN method and linear regression (MLR) model are widely used for quantum chemistry (QC) data analysis (e.g., thermochemistry) to improve their accuracy (e.g., Gaussian G2-G4, B3LYP/B3-LYP, X1, or W1 theoretical methods). In this study, an alternative approach based on support vector machines (SVMs) is used, the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression. It has been applied to ab initio (first principle) and density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemistry data. So, QC + SVM methodology is an alternative to QC + ANN one. The task of the study was to estimate the Møller-Plesset (MPn) or DFT (B3LYP, BLYP, BMK) energies calculated with large basis sets (e.g., 6-311G(3df,3pd)) using smaller ones (6-311G, 6-311G*, 6-311G**) plus molecular descriptors. A molecular set (BRM-208) containing a total of 208 organic molecules was constructed and used for the LS-SVM training, cross-validation, and testing. MP2, MP3, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), and MP4/MP4(SDTQ) ab initio methods were tested. Hartree-Fock (HF/SCF) results were also reported for comparison. Furthermore, constitutional (CD: total number of atoms and mole fractions of different atoms) and quantum-chemical (QD: HOMO-LUMO gap, dipole moment, average polarizability, and quadrupole moment) molecular descriptors were used for the building of the LS-SVM calibration model. Prediction accuracies (MADs) of 1.62 ± 0.51 and 0.85 ± 0.24 kcal mol(-1) (1 kcal mol(-1) = 4.184 kJ mol(-1)) were reached for SVM-based approximations of ab initio and DFT energies, respectively. The LS-SVM model was more accurate than the MLR model. A comparison with the artificial neural network approach shows that the accuracy of the LS-SVM method is similar to the accuracy of ANN. The extrapolation and interpolation results show that LS-SVM is

  13. Support vector machine regression (LS-SVM)--an alternative to artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the analysis of quantum chemistry data?

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-06-28

    A multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) with a single, hidden layer that contains a finite number of neurons can be regarded as a universal non-linear approximator. Today, the ANN method and linear regression (MLR) model are widely used for quantum chemistry (QC) data analysis (e.g., thermochemistry) to improve their accuracy (e.g., Gaussian G2-G4, B3LYP/B3-LYP, X1, or W1 theoretical methods). In this study, an alternative approach based on support vector machines (SVMs) is used, the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression. It has been applied to ab initio (first principle) and density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemistry data. So, QC + SVM methodology is an alternative to QC + ANN one. The task of the study was to estimate the Møller-Plesset (MPn) or DFT (B3LYP, BLYP, BMK) energies calculated with large basis sets (e.g., 6-311G(3df,3pd)) using smaller ones (6-311G, 6-311G*, 6-311G**) plus molecular descriptors. A molecular set (BRM-208) containing a total of 208 organic molecules was constructed and used for the LS-SVM training, cross-validation, and testing. MP2, MP3, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), and MP4/MP4(SDTQ) ab initio methods were tested. Hartree-Fock (HF/SCF) results were also reported for comparison. Furthermore, constitutional (CD: total number of atoms and mole fractions of different atoms) and quantum-chemical (QD: HOMO-LUMO gap, dipole moment, average polarizability, and quadrupole moment) molecular descriptors were used for the building of the LS-SVM calibration model. Prediction accuracies (MADs) of 1.62 ± 0.51 and 0.85 ± 0.24 kcal mol(-1) (1 kcal mol(-1) = 4.184 kJ mol(-1)) were reached for SVM-based approximations of ab initio and DFT energies, respectively. The LS-SVM model was more accurate than the MLR model. A comparison with the artificial neural network approach shows that the accuracy of the LS-SVM method is similar to the accuracy of ANN. The extrapolation and interpolation results show that LS-SVM is

  14. 3D fluid-structure modelling and vibration analysis for fault diagnosis of Francis turbine using multiple ANN and multiple ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, R. A.; Galybin, A. N.; Popov, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in Francis turbine based on integration of numerical modelling with several different artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. In this study, a numerical approach for fluid-structure (turbine runner) analysis is presented. The results of numerical analysis provide frequency response functions (FRFs) data sets along x-, y- and z-directions under different operating load and different position and size of faults in the structure. To extract features and reduce the dimensionality of the obtained FRF data, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied. Subsequently, the extracted features are formulated and fed into multiple artificial neural networks (ANN) and multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) in order to identify the size and position of the damage in the runner and estimate the turbine operating conditions. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach and provide satisfactory accuracy even when the input data are corrupted with certain level of noise.

  15. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Zinali, A.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Habibi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the efficacy of Artificial neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) based Land Use Models in Urban Land-Use Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, R.

    2013-05-01

    This research provides an opportunity of collaboration between urban planners and modellers by providing a clear theoretical foundations on the two most widely used urban land use models, and assessing the effectiveness of applying the models in urban planning context. Understanding urban land cover change is an essential element for sustainable urban development as it affects ecological functioning in urban ecosystem. Rapid urbanization due to growing inclination of people to settle in urban areas has increased the complexities in predicting that at what shape and size cities will grow. The dynamic changes in the spatial pattern of urban landscapes has exposed the policy makers and environmental scientists to great challenge. But geographic science has grown in symmetry to the advancements in computer science. Models and tools are developed to support urban planning by analyzing the causes and consequences of land use changes and project the future. Of all the different types of land use models available in recent days, it has been found by researchers that the most frequently used models are Cellular Automaton (CA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models. But studies have demonstrated that the existing land use models have not been able to meet the needs of planners and policy makers. There are two primary causes identified behind this prologue. First, there is inadequate understanding of the fundamental theories and application of the models in urban planning context i.e., there is a gap in communication between modellers and urban planners. Second, the existing models exclude many key drivers in the process of simplification of the complex urban system that guide urban spatial pattern. Thus the models end up being effective in assessing the impacts of certain land use policies, but cannot contribute in new policy formulation. This paper is an attempt to increase the knowledge base of planners on the most frequently used land use model and also assess the

  17. Facteurs prédictifs de succès des étudiants en première année de médecine à l'université de Parakou

    PubMed Central

    Adoukonou, Thierry; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, Francis; Mensah, Emile; Allodé, Alexandre; Adovoekpe, Jean-Marie; Gandaho, Prosper; Akpona, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Plusieurs facteurs dont les notes obtenues au BAC peuvent influencer les performances académiques des étudiants en première année de médecine. L'objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer la relation entre les résultats des étudiants au BAC et le succès en première année de médecine. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude analytique ayant inclus l'ensemble des étudiants régulièrement inscrits en première année à la Faculté de Médecine de l'université de Parakou durant l'année académique 2010-2011. Les données concernant les notes par discipline et mention obtenue au BAC ont été collectées. Une analyse multivariée utilisant la régression logistique et la régression linéaire multiple a permis d’établir les meilleurs prédicteurs du succès et de la moyenne de l’étudiant en fin d'année. Le logiciel SPSS version 17.0 a été utilisé pour l'analyse des données et un p<0,05 a été considéré comme statistiquement significatif. Résultats Parmi les 414 étudiants régulièrement inscrits les données de 407 ont pu être exploitées. Ils étaient âgés de 15 à 31 ans; 262 (64,4%) étaient de sexe masculin. 98 étaient admis avec un taux de succès de 23,7%. Le sexe masculin, la note obtenue en mathématiques, en sciences physiques, la moyenne au BAC et la mention étaient associés au succès en fin d'année mais en analyse multivariée seule une note en sciences physiques > 15/20 était associée au succès (OR: 2,8 [1,32- 6,00]). Pour la moyenne générale obtenue en fin d'année seule une mention bien obtenue au BAC était associée (coefficient de l'erreur standard: 0,130 Bêta =0,370 et p=0,00001). Conclusion Les meilleurs prédicateurs du succès en première année étaient une bonne moyenne en sciences physiques au BAC et une mention bien. La prise en compte de ces éléments dans le recrutement des étudiants en première année pourrait améliorer les résultats académiques. PMID:27313819

  18. Mixture of expert 3D massive-training ANNs for reduction of multiple types of false positives in CAD for detection of polyps in CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Näppi, Janne; Armato, Samuel G; Dachman, Abraham H

    2008-02-01

    One of the major challenges in computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is the reduction of false-positive detections (FPs) without a concomitant reduction in sensitivity. A large number of FPs is likely to confound the radiologist's task of image interpretation, lower the radiologist's efficiency, and cause radiologists to lose their confidence in CAD as a useful tool. Major sources of FPs generated by CAD schemes include haustral folds, residual stool, rectal tubes, the ileocecal valve, and extra-colonic structures such as the small bowel and stomach. Our purpose in this study was to develop a method for the removal of various types of FPs in CAD of polyps while maintaining a high sensitivity. To achieve this, we developed a "mixture of expert" three-dimensional (3D) massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs) consisting of four 3D MTANNs that were designed to differentiate between polyps and four categories of FPs: (1) rectal tubes, (2) stool with bubbles, (3) colonic walls with haustral folds, and (4) solid stool. Each expert 3D MTANN was trained with examples from a specific non-polyp category along with typical polyps. The four expert 3D MTANNs were combined with a mixing artificial neural network (ANN) such that different types of FPs could be removed. Our database consisted of 146 CTC datasets obtained from 73 patients whose colons were prepared by standard pre-colonoscopy cleansing. Each patient was scanned in both supine and prone positions. Radiologists established the locations of polyps through the use of optical-colonoscopy reports. Fifteen patients had 28 polyps, 15 of which were 5-9 mm and 13 were 10-25 mm in size. The CTC cases were subjected to our previously reported CAD method consisting of centerline-based extraction of the colon, shape-based detection of polyp candidates, and a Bayesian-ANN-based classification of polyps. The original CAD method yielded 96.4% (27/28) by-polyp sensitivity with an average of 3

  19. Spectral feature extraction of EEG signals and pattern recognition during mental tasks of 2-D cursor movements for BCI using SVM and ANN.

    PubMed

    Bascil, M Serdar; Tesneli, Ahmet Y; Temurtas, Feyzullah

    2016-09-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) is a new communication way between man and machine. It identifies mental task patterns stored in electroencephalogram (EEG). So, it extracts brain electrical activities recorded by EEG and transforms them machine control commands. The main goal of BCI is to make available assistive environmental devices for paralyzed people such as computers and makes their life easier. This study deals with feature extraction and mental task pattern recognition on 2-D cursor control from EEG as offline analysis approach. The hemispherical power density changes are computed and compared on alpha-beta frequency bands with only mental imagination of cursor movements. First of all, power spectral density (PSD) features of EEG signals are extracted and high dimensional data reduced by principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) which are statistical algorithms. In the last stage, all features are classified with two types of support vector machine (SVM) which are linear and least squares (LS-SVM) and three different artificial neural network (ANN) structures which are learning vector quantization (LVQ), multilayer neural network (MLNN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) and mental task patterns are successfully identified via k-fold cross validation technique. PMID:27376723

  20. Hydrology and sediment budget of Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, MX: Modelling channel, gully, and rill erosion with 3D photo-reconstruction, CONCEPTS, and AnnAGNPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Gudiño, Napoleon; Biggs, Trent; Castillo, Carlos; Langendoen, Eddy; Bingner, Ron; Taguas, Encarnación; Liden, Douglas; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    Several watersheds cross the US-Mexico boundary, resulting in trans-boundary environmental problems. Erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, increases the rate of sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States, altering the structure and function of the ecosystem. The well-being of residents in Tijuana is compromised by damage to infrastructure and homes built adjacent to stream channels, gully formation in dirt roads, and deposition of trash. We aim to understand the dominant source of sediment contributing to the sediment budget of the watershed (channel, gully, or rill erosion), where the hotspots of erosion are located, and what the impact of future planned and unplanned land use changes and Best Management Practices (BMPs) will be on sediment and storm flow. We will be using a mix of field methods, including 3D photo-reconstruction of stream channels, with two models, CONCEPTS and AnnAGNPS to constrain estimates of the sediment budget and impacts of land use change. Our research provides an example of how 3D photo-reconstruction and Structure from Motion (SfM) can be used to model channel evolution.

  1. Spectral feature extraction of EEG signals and pattern recognition during mental tasks of 2-D cursor movements for BCI using SVM and ANN.

    PubMed

    Bascil, M Serdar; Tesneli, Ahmet Y; Temurtas, Feyzullah

    2016-09-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) is a new communication way between man and machine. It identifies mental task patterns stored in electroencephalogram (EEG). So, it extracts brain electrical activities recorded by EEG and transforms them machine control commands. The main goal of BCI is to make available assistive environmental devices for paralyzed people such as computers and makes their life easier. This study deals with feature extraction and mental task pattern recognition on 2-D cursor control from EEG as offline analysis approach. The hemispherical power density changes are computed and compared on alpha-beta frequency bands with only mental imagination of cursor movements. First of all, power spectral density (PSD) features of EEG signals are extracted and high dimensional data reduced by principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) which are statistical algorithms. In the last stage, all features are classified with two types of support vector machine (SVM) which are linear and least squares (LS-SVM) and three different artificial neural network (ANN) structures which are learning vector quantization (LVQ), multilayer neural network (MLNN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) and mental task patterns are successfully identified via k-fold cross validation technique.

  2. PC-ANN assisted to the determination of Vanadium (IV) ion using an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R on a triacetylcellulose film.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Mohammad Mahdi; Khajehsharifi, Habibollah; Solhjoo, Aida

    2015-01-01

    More detailed analytical studies of an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R (ECR) on a triacetylcellulose film have been described to determine Vanadium (IV) ions in some real samples. The sensor based on complex formation between Vanadium (IV) ions and ECR in acidic media caused the color of the film to change from violet to blue along with the appearance of a strong peak appears at 595 nm. At the optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed a linear range of 9.90×10(-7)-8.25×10(-5)mol L(-1). Vanadium (IV) ions can be detected with a detection limit of 1.03×10(-7)mol L(-1) within 15 min depending on its concentration. Also, the working range was improved by using PC-ANN algorithm. The sensor could regenerate with dilute acetic acid solution and could be completely reversible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determining V (IV) ions in environmental water and tea leaves.

  3. Safety, immunogencity, and efficacy of a cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) vaccine in mice and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Grace L.; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Jin Hong; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-03-01

    We studied the attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy of the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (AA ca) (H2N2) virus in mice and ferrets to evaluate its use in the event of an H2 influenza pandemic. The AA ca virus was restricted in replication in the respiratory tract of mice and ferrets. In mice, 2 doses of vaccine elicited a > 4-fold rise in hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titer and resulted in complete inhibition of viral replication following lethal homologous wild-type virus challenge. In ferrets, a single dose of the vaccine elicited a > 4-fold rise in HAI titer and conferred complete protection against homologous wild-type virus challenge in the upper respiratory tract. In both mice and ferrets, the AA ca virus provided significant protection from challenge with heterologous H2 virus challenge in the respiratory tract. The AA ca vaccine is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious against homologous and heterologous challenge in mice and ferrets, supporting the evaluation of this vaccine in clinical trials.

  4. First principles study of structural, electronic, mechanical and magnetic properties of actinide nitrides AnN (An = U, Np and Pu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, A.; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Santhosh, M.; Iyakutti, K.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic, structural, mechanical and magnetic properties of Actinide nitrides AnN (An = U, Np and Pu) are investigated in three cubic phases, namely, NaCl (B1), CsCl (B2) and zinc blende (B3). At normal pressure, UN is stable in antiferromagnetic state while the other two nitrides are stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl (B1) structure. A pressure induced structural phase transition from B1 to B3 phase is predicted in these nitrides. The electronic structure reveals that these nitrides are metallic in nature. The magnetic phase transition from antiferromagnetic to non-magnetic state is observed in UN at a pressure of 127 GPa while ferromagnetic to non-magnetic state is observed in NpN and PuN at the pressures of 67 GPa and 102.3 GPa respectively. The computed structural parameters, bulk modulus density of states and charge density distributions are compared with experimental and other theoretical calculations.

  5. PC-ANN assisted to the determination of Vanadium (IV) ion using an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R on a triacetylcellulose film.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Mohammad Mahdi; Khajehsharifi, Habibollah; Solhjoo, Aida

    2015-12-01

    More detailed analytical studies of an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R (ECR) on a triacetylcellulose film have been described to determine Vanadium (IV) ions in some real samples. The sensor based on complex formation between Vanadium (IV) ions and ECR in acidic media caused the color of the film to change from violet to blue along with the appearance of a strong peak appears at 595 nm. At the optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed a linear range of 9.90×10(-7)-8.25×10(-5)mol L(-1). Vanadium (IV) ions can be detected with a detection limit of 1.03×10(-7)mol L(-1) within 15 min depending on its concentration. Also, the working range was improved by using PC-ANN algorithm. The sensor could regenerate with dilute acetic acid solution and could be completely reversible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determining V (IV) ions in environmental water and tea leaves. PMID:26142655

  6. Erratum to “Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers” [Ann. Phys. 342 (3) (2014) 158-170

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2014-09-01

    A typographical error is corrected in three equations in the article [Ann. Phys. 342 (3) (2014) 158-170, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aop.2013.12.009]. They are Eqs. (12)-(14), where the factor (1+Sp,q) should have been printed as (1+sp(ka)). The numerical computations and plots used the correct factor (1+sp(ka)) in the related equations.

  7. Relative immunogenicity of the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (A/AA/6/60-ca), recombinants of A/AA/6/60-ca, and parental strains with similar surface antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tannock, G A; Paul, J A; Barry, R D

    1984-01-01

    The immunogenicity of several cold-adapted (ca) viruses was compared in CSL mice with that of wild-type parental viruses with similar surface antigens, according to the vaccinating dose required to clear a challenge consisting of 10(4.5) 50% tissue culture infective doses of the wild-type virus. All ca viruses were less immunogenic than their wild-type parental strains by a factor of 10(1.3) to 10(3.4), probably due to the restricted capacity of ca viruses to replicate in the respiratory tracts of mice. However, their immunogenicity was considerably enhanced when two quite small doses were administered 3 weeks apart. The immunogenicity of ca viruses when administered in two doses and wild-type viruses when administered as a single dose varied according to their surface antigens. It was highest for viruses with the H2N2 A/Ann Arbor/6/60 and H3N2 A/Queensland/6/72 surface antigens and lowest for those with H1N1 A/HK/123/77 surface antigens. When two doses consisting of 10(5.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Ann Arbor/6/60-ca were administered at an interval of 3 weeks, solid immunity was induced against the wild-type A/Ann Arbor/6/60 parental virus, two heterologous H3N2 strains, and an H1N1 strain. PMID:6693167

  8. Geology of the Round Bay quadrangle, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, with a section on Dinoflagellate-acritarch palynology, and a section on Cretaceous pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minard, James Pierson; May, Fred E.; Christopher, Raymond A.

    1980-01-01

    Six Coastal Plain formations and one group crop out in the Round Bay quadrangle near the inner edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The quadrangle lies astride the Severn River, in Anne Arundel County, near Annapolis, Md. The seven stratigraphic units aggregate as much as 128 m in outcrop. In ascending order, the units are: the upper part of the Potomac Group and the Magothy, Matawan, and Severn Formations, all of Cretaceous age; the Brightseat and Aquia Formations of Paleocene age and the Calvert Formation of Miocene age. Quaternary deposits are thin and cover only small areas; they are all mapped under one unit. Several small, thin deposits of Tertiary alluvium are mapped separately. The largely unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary formations consist chiefly of quartz, glauconite, clays, muscovite, chlorite, lignite, feldspar, and pyrite. Quaternary sediments are mostly locally derived sands, silts, and clays with some gravel and, in the finer sediments, considerable amounts of organic matter. The Cretaceous and Tertiary units strike generally northeast; the younger the formation, the more easterly it strikes. Dips are gentle, 3.6 to 15 m per kilometer toward the southeast, and decrease upward through the section. The Round Bay quadrangle is near the southern limit of several formations that thin progressively toward the southwest from New Jersey. Some pinch out between Betterton, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, and Round Bay, on the western shore, whereas others are present only as thin remnants 1-2 m thick. Resources of the quadrangle include abundant ground water, sand, and high land values near water.

  9. Biological Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffett, James W.

    1963-01-01

    This laboratory located about 40 miles west of Detroit, near the intersection of highways I-94 and US-23, can be reached by bus, railroad, or via commercial airlines to Detroit Willow Run or Metropolitan airports. Field biological stations are located in Wisconsin at Ashland; in Ohio at Sandusky; and in Michigan at Ludington, Marquette, Millersburg, and Northville.

  10. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  11. Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN).

    PubMed

    Sarve, Antaram; Sonawane, Shriram S; Varma, Mahesh N

    2015-09-01

    The present study estimates the prediction capability of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models for biodiesel synthesis from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil under ultrasonication (20 kHz and 1.2 kW) using barium hydroxide as a basic heterogeneous catalyst. RSM based on a five level, four factor central composite design, was employed to obtain the best possible combination of catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and reaction time for maximum FAME content. Experimental data were evaluated by applying RSM integrating with desirability function approach. The importance of each independent variable on the response was investigated by using sensitivity analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be catalyst concentration (1.79 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (6.69:1), temperature (31.92°C), and reaction time (40.30 min). For these conditions, experimental FAME content of 98.6% was obtained, which was in reasonable agreement with predicted one. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that catalyst concentration was the main factors affecting the FAME content with the relative importance of 36.93%. The lower values of correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.781), root mean square error (RMSE=4.81), standard error of prediction (SEP=6.03) and relative percent deviation (RPD=4.92) for ANN compared to those R(2) (0.596), RMSE (6.79), SEP (8.54) and RPD (6.48) for RSM proved better prediction capability of ANN in predicting the FAME content. PMID:25630700

  12. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. PMID:25510831

  13. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. PMID:25497990

  14. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity.

  15. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals.

  16. The Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayuk, Barry S.; Bayuk, Milla

    1978-01-01

    The major social issue involved is reverse discrimination and whether or not it is a legally permissible form of discrimination in light of history. Implications for higher education will remain. This article discusses the background of the DeFunis and Bakke cases. (Author)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herndon-Dudley syndrome is a rare disorder of brain development that causes moderate to severe intellectual disability and ... in certain parts of the brain disrupts normal brain development, resulting in intellectual disability and problems with movement. ...

  18. Mineral Biomarkers in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Golden, D. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Romanek, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of fine-grained magnetite in the Fe-rich rims surrounding carbonate globules in the martian meteorite ALH84001, originally described in , have been proposed as fossil remains of primitive martian organisms. Here we report observations on size and shape distributions of magnetites from ALH84001 and compare them to biogenic and inorganic magnetite crystals of terrestrial origin. While some magnetite morphology is not unequivocally diagnostic for its biogenicity, such as cubodial forms of magnetite, which are common in inorganically formed magnetites, other morphologies of magnetite (parallel-epiped or elongated prismatic and arrowhead forms) are more likely signatures of biogenic activity. Some ALH 84001 magnetite particles described below have unique morphology and length-to-width ratios that are indistinguishable from a variety of terrestrial biogenic magnetite and distinct from all known inorganic forms of magnetite.

  19. Rubidium-Strontium Formation Age of Allan Hills 84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Reese, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our preferred age for the formation of carbonates in the martian meteorite ALH 84001 is 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) equals 0.01402 Ga (exp -1), or 3.85 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) = 0.0142 Ga(exponent -1). This age is determined by a three-point Rb-Sr isochron defined by leachates of high-graded carbonate-rich material. Major cation and especially phosphorous analyses of the leachates permit contributions from igneous whitlockite to be recognized for low-acidity leachates, and the corresponding data are omitted from the isochron. Data for the two highest acidity leachates plot close to the preferred isochron, but are omitted because we believe they contain contributions leached from the pyroxene substrate on which most of the carbonates are found. Nevertheless, the isochron age for all five highest-acidity leachates is 3.94 plus or minus 0.04 Ga, and is within error of the age obtained for the more restricted data set. All leachates used to define the isochron have major cation compositions that are singular to those obtained by microprobe analyses of the carbonate rosettes and are consistent with progressive digestion of the carbonates according to their composition. The age thus obtained for the carbonates is about 600 m.y. younger than the crystalization age of ALH 84001 determined by Sm-Nd analyses but is within error limits of the age of impact metamorphism inferred from the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar systematics of silicates. which yield ages of 3.85 plus or minus 0.05 Ga and 4.05- 3.80 Ga to 4.3-3.8 Ga, respectively. Similarities between the carbonate crystallization age and the age of impact metamorphism as determined by Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr suggest that the carbonate formation is impact-related. Nevertheless, both high and low- temperature scenarios for the origin of the carbonates are possible.

  20. Legal Rights in Education: Pendulum Swings. Papers [of the] Education Law Association (ELA) Annual Conference (44th, Charleston, South Carolina, November 19-21, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Association, Dayton, OH.

    This document is a collection of 32 1998 Education Law Association conference papers. The collection includes the following papers: "The More We Change: Meeting the Requirements of Unitary Status" (Angela M. Sewall and Ann E. Witcher); "Everything You Need To Know about Discipline of Students with Disabilities" (David T. Duff, Allan Osborne, Jr.,…