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Sample records for allan standard deviation

  1. An improved offset generator developed for Allan deviation measurement of ultra stable frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.; Sydnor, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Measuring the performance of ultra stable frequency standards such as the Superconducting Cavity Maser Oscillator (SCMO) necessitates improvement of some test instrumentation. The frequency stability test equipment used at JPL includes a 1 Hz Offset Generator to generate a beat frequency between a pair of 100 MHz signals that are being compared. The noise floor of the measurement system using the current Offset Generator is adequate to characterize stability of hydrogen masers, but it is not adequate for the SCMO. A new Offset Generator with improved stability was designed and tested at JPL. With this Offset Generator and a new Zero Crossing Detector, recently developed at JPL, the measurement flow was reduced by a factor of 5.5 at 1 second tau, 3.0 at 1000 seconds, and 9.4 at 10,000 seconds, compared against the previous design. In addition to the new circuit designs of the Offset Generator and Zero Crossing Detector, tighter control of the measurement equipment environment was required to achieve this improvement. The design of this new Offset Generator are described, along with details of the environment control methods used.

  2. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  3. Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

  4. Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.

  5. Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.

  6. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  7. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  8. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  9. Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

  10. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  11. Estimation of amplitude and standard deviation of noisy sinusoidal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the amplitude and standard deviation of sinusoidal signals corrupted with additive Gaussian noise is proposed. For this, a two-parameter model is developed by sorting the samples of the signal. This reduced parametric model allows robust parameter estimation, even if the phase function of the sinusoid is nonlinear, discontinuous, and unknown. The functionality and performance of the proposed method are analyzed by several computer simulations; the used GNU Octave program is provided. The proposed method can be useful for unbiased envelope estimation in fringe pattern normalization among other potential applications.

  12. Vectorial statistics for the standard deviation of wind direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, Pierre S.; Micallef, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation of wind direction is an important parameter in atmospheric pollution management. It can be used to calculate the rate of horizontal diffusion and from this the transport and dispersion of air contaminants can be determined. The standard deviation of wind direction cannot be calculated directly from customary linear statistics, mainly because of its periodic nature which makes the zero position arbitrary. Various algorithms have been proposed to estimate its value. The methodologies adopted in meteorology implicitly assume that the wind angle can be treated independently of the wind speed. Such an assumption might not be appropriate in some instances, as will be shown in this work by means of an example. To overcome this limitation, a new algorithm that takes into account both the periodic and the vectorial nature of the wind direction will be proposed. This is done by weighing each sample value with the corresponding wind speed. The results obtained from the new method were compared to those determined from algorithms available in literature using measured data. The comparison indicates that while the behavior is similar, differences do exist. Further investigation indicated that while the differences can be small, they might be physically important.

  13. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-12-31

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt`s Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. The quantum Allan variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabuda, Krzysztof; Leroux, Ian D.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał

    2016-08-01

    The instability of an atomic clock is characterized by the Allan variance, a measure widely used to describe the noise of frequency standards. We provide an explicit method to find the ultimate bound on the Allan variance of an atomic clock in the most general scenario where N atoms are prepared in an arbitrarily entangled state and arbitrary measurement and feedback are allowed, including those exploiting coherences between succeeding interrogation steps. While the method is rigorous and general, it becomes numerically challenging for large N and long averaging times.

  15. Spectral relative standard deviation: a practical benchmark in metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Helen M; Ekman, Drew R; Collette, Timothy W; Viant, Mark R

    2009-03-01

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to assess the reproducibility of metabolomics datasets that are derived from all the detected metabolites. Here we calculate spectrum-wide relative standard deviations (RSDs; also termed coefficient of variation, CV) for ten metabolomics datasets, spanning a variety of sample types from mammals, fish, invertebrates and a cell line, and display them succinctly as boxplots. We demonstrate multiple applications of spectral RSDs for characterising technical as well as inter-individual biological variation: for optimising metabolite extractions, comparing analytical techniques, investigating matrix effects, and comparing biofluids and tissue extracts from single and multiple species for optimising experimental design. Technical variation within metabolomics datasets, recorded using one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry, ranges from 1.6 to 20.6% (reported as the median spectral RSD). Inter-individual biological variation is typically larger, ranging from as low as 7.2% for tissue extracts from laboratory-housed rats to 58.4% for fish plasma. In addition, for some of the datasets we confirm that the spectral RSD values are largely invariant across different spectral processing methods, such as baseline correction, normalisation and binning resolution. In conclusion, we propose spectral RSDs and their median values contained herein as practical benchmarks for metabolomics studies.

  16. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  17. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  18. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  19. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  20. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  1. Standard deviation of the mean and other time series properties of voltages measured with a digital lock-in amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Thomas J.; Fletcher, N. E.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate some statistical properties of ac voltages from a white noise source measured with a digital lock-in amplifier equipped with finite impulse response output filters which introduce correlations between successive voltage values. The main goal of this work is to propose simple solutions to account for correlations when calculating the standard deviation of the mean (SDM) for a sequence of measurement data acquired using such an instrument. The problem is treated by time series analysis based on a moving average model of the filtering process. Theoretical expressions are derived for the power spectral density (PSD), the autocorrelation function, the equivalent noise bandwidth and the Allan variance; all are related to the SDM. At most three parameters suffice to specify any of the above quantities: the filter time constant, the time between successive measurements (both set by the lock-in operator) and the PSD of the white noise input, h0. Our white noise source is a resistor so that the PSD is easily calculated; there are no free parameters. Theoretical expressions are checked against their respective sample estimates and, with the exception of two of the bandwidth estimates, agreement to within 11% or better is found.

  2. A Wavelet Perspective on the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Percival, Donald B

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the Allan variance trace back 50 years ago to two seminal papers, one by Allan (1966) and the other by Barnes (1966). Since then, the Allan variance has played a leading role in the characterization of high-performance time and frequency standards. Wavelets first arose in the early 1980s in the geophysical literature, and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) became prominent in the late 1980s in the signal processing literature. Flandrin (1992) briefly documented a connection between the Allan variance and a wavelet transform based upon the Haar wavelet. Percival and Guttorp (1994) noted that one popular estimator of the Allan variance-the maximal overlap estimator-can be interpreted in terms of a version of the DWT now widely referred to as the maximal overlap DWT (MODWT). In particular, when the MODWT is based on the Haar wavelet, the variance of the resulting wavelet coefficients-the wavelet variance-is identical to the Allan variance when the latter is multiplied by one-half. The theory behind the wavelet variance can thus deepen our understanding of the Allan variance. In this paper, we review basic wavelet variance theory with an emphasis on the Haar-based wavelet variance and its connection to the Allan variance. We then note that estimation theory for the wavelet variance offers a means of constructing asymptotically correct confidence intervals (CIs) for the Allan variance without reverting to the common practice of specifying a power-law noise type a priori. We also review recent work on specialized estimators of the wavelet variance that are of interest when some observations are missing (gappy data) or in the presence of contamination (rogue observations or outliers). It is a simple matter to adapt these estimators to become estimators of the Allan variance. Finally we note that wavelet variances based upon wavelets other than the Haar offer interesting generalizations of the Allan variance.

  3. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-2008-N-0119] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for.... standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to... the standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon that was submitted by Yardarm Knot Fisheries,...

  4. 75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    .... standard of identity for bottled water. The purpose of the temporary permit is to allow the applicant to... Rare Iceberg Water'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for bottled water (Sec. 165.110... 101.9. The bottled water must be manufactured in accordance with the quality standards in Sec....

  5. Repeatability and Reproducibility Standard Deviations in the Measurement of Trace Moisture Generated Using Permeation Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peter H.; Kacker, Raghu

    2003-01-01

    Permeation-tube moisture generators are used in industry as calibrated sources of water vapor and carrier gas mixtures. Measurements were made using three permeation-tube moisture generators of the type used in the semiconductor industry. This paper describes repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations in measurement of moisture concentration from such generators. Repeatability refers to measurements within a system and reproducibility refers to measurements between systems. Two independent methods were used to measure the realized concentration of water vapor. The first measurement, the calculated value, was determined using calibrated permeation rate of permeation-tube and flow rate of dry carrier gas. This is the industrial method of evaluating moisture concentration. The second measurement, the measured value, was determined using the low frost-point generator at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and a quartz-crystal-micro-balance. Four pairs of independent measurements for each generator and for six nominal levels in the range from10 nL/L to 100 nL/L were made. The characteristic used to quantify repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations in industrial measurements is the calculated value minus the measured value. Repeatability standard deviation ranges from 1 nL/L to 2 nL/L, approximately. Reproducibility standard deviation ranges from 2 nL/L to 8 nL/L, approximately. The documentary ASTM standard E691-99 was used for both data validation and quantification of the repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations. PMID:27413608

  6. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  8. Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  9. A Simple Algorithm for Approximating Confidence on the Modified Allan Variance and the Time Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Marc A.; Greenhall, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    An approximating algorithm for computing equvalent degrees of freedom of the Modified Allan Variance and its square root, the Modified Allan Deviation (MVAR and MDEV), and the Time Variance and Time Deviation (TVAR and TDEV) is presented, along with an algorithm for approximating the inverse chi-square distribution.

  10. A passive autofocus system by using standard deviation of the image on a liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Pejman; Kesküla, Arko; Haus, Henry; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Aabloo, Alvo; Kiefer, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Today most of applications have a small camera such as cell phones, tablets and medical devices. A micro lens is required in order to reduce the size of the devices. In this paper an auto focus system is used in order to find the best position of a liquid lens without any active components such as ultrasonic or infrared. In fact a passive auto focus system by using standard deviation of the images on a liquid lens which consist of a Dielectric Elastomer Actuator (DEA) membrane between oil and water is proposed.

  11. Standard Deviation and Intra Prediction Mode Based Adaptive Spatial Error Concealment (SEC) in H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Transmission of compressed video over error prone channels may result in packet losses or errors, which can significantly degrade the image quality. Therefore an error concealment scheme is applied at the video receiver side to mask the damaged video. Considering there are 3 types of MBs (Macro Blocks) in natural video frame, i. e., Textural MB, Edged MB, and Smooth MB, this paper proposes an adaptive spatial error concealment which can choose 3 different methods for these 3 different MBs. For criteria of choosing appropriate method, 2 factors are taken into consideration. Firstly, standard deviation of our proposed edge statistical model is exploited. Secondly, some new features of latest video compression standard H.264/AVC, i. e., intra prediction mode is also considered for criterion formulation. Compared with previous works, which are only based on deterministic measurement, proposed method achieves the best image recovery. Subjective and objective image quality evaluations in experiments confirmed this.

  12. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  13. Allan Variance Computed in Space Domain: Definition and Application to InSAR Data to Characterize Noise and Geophysical Signal.

    PubMed

    Cavalié, Olivier; Vernotte, François

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance was introduced 50 years ago for analyzing the stability of frequency standards. In addition to its metrological interest, it may be also considered as an estimator of the large trends of the power spectral density (PSD) of frequency deviation. For instance, the Allan variance is able to discriminate different types of noise characterized by different power laws in the PSD. The Allan variance was also used in other fields than time and frequency metrology: for more than 20 years, it has been used in accelerometry, geophysics, geodesy, astrophysics, and even finances. However, it seems that up to now, it has been exclusively applied for time series analysis. We propose here to use the Allan variance on spatial data. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is used in geophysics to image ground displacements in space [over the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image spatial coverage] and in time thanks to the regular SAR image acquisitions by dedicated satellites. The main limitation of the technique is the atmospheric disturbances that affect the radar signal while traveling from the sensor to the ground and back. In this paper, we propose to use the Allan variance for analyzing spatial data from InSAR measurements. The Allan variance was computed in XY mode as well as in radial mode for detecting different types of behavior for different space-scales, in the same way as the different types of noise versus the integration time in the classical time and frequency application. We found that radial Allan variance is the more appropriate way to have an estimator insensitive to the spatial axis and we applied it on SAR data acquired over eastern Turkey for the period 2003-2011. Spatial Allan variance allowed us to well characterize noise features, classically found in InSAR such as phase decorrelation producing white noise or atmospheric delays, behaving like a random walk signal. We finally applied the spatial Allan variance to an InSAR time

  14. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  15. Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, P.-S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

  16. Estimating wind velocity standard deviation values in the inertial sublayer from observations in the roughness sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabino, Simona; Trini Castelli, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    In air quality practice, observed data are often input to air pollution models to simulate the pollutants dispersion and to estimate their concentration. When the area of interest includes urban sites, observed data collected at urban or suburban stations can be available, and it can happen to use them for estimating surface layer parameters given in input to the models. In such case, roughness sublayer quantities may enter the parameterizations of the turbulence variables as if they were representative of the inertial sublayer, possibly leading to a not appropriate application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. We investigate whether it is possible to derive suitable values of the wind velocity standard deviations for the inertial sublayer using the friction velocity and stability parameter observed in the roughness sublayer, inside a similarity-like analytical function. For this purpose, an analysis of sonic anemometer data sets collected in suburban and urban sites is proposed. The values derived through this approach are compared to actual observations in the inertial sublayer. The transferability of the empirical coefficients estimated for the similarity functions between different sites, characterized by similar or different morphologies, is also addressed. The derived functions proved to be a reasonable approximation of the actual data. This method was found to be feasible and generally reliable, and can be a reference to keep using, in air pollution models, the similarity theory parameterizations when measurements are available only in the roughness sublayer.

  17. A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional with the embedding rate. It is shown that it can accurately estimate the length of the hidden message and outperform the other methods of the targeted 2LSB steganalysis in the literature. The proposed method is also more consistent with the steganalysis methods in the literature by giving the amount of difference to the expected clean image. According to the experimental results, based on analysing 3000 nevercompressed images, the proposed method is more accurate than the current targeted 2LSB steganalysis methods for low embedding rates.

  18. Delay and Standard Deviation Beamforming to Enhance Specular Reflections in Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; Sornes, Anders Rasmus; Hermans, Jeroen; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Although interventional devices, such as needles, guide wires, and catheters, are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast, and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor, which is a major obstacle toward ultrasound-guided interventions. The objective of this paper was therefore to enhance the appearance of interventional devices in ultrasound images. Thereto, a modified ultrasound beamforming process using conventional-focused transmit beams is proposed that exploits the properties of received signals containing specular reflections (as arising from these devices). This new beamforming approach referred to as delay and standard deviation beamforming (DASD) was quantitatively tested using simulated as well as experimental data using a linear array transducer. Furthermore, the influence of different imaging settings (i.e., transmit focus, imaging depth, and scan angle) on the obtained image contrast was evaluated. The study showed that the image contrast of specular regions improved by 5-30 dB using DASD beamforming compared with traditional delay and sum (DAS) beamforming. The highest gain in contrast was observed when the interventional device was tilted away from being orthogonal to the transmit beam, which is a major limitation in standard DAS imaging. As such, the proposed beamforming methodology can offer an improved visualization of interventional devices in the ultrasound image with potential implications for ultrasound-guided interventions.

  19. Delay and Standard Deviation beamforming to enhance specular reflections in Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Raja Sekhar; Sornes, Anders; Hermans, Jeroen; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-09-27

    Although interventional devices such as needles, guide wires and catheters are best visualized by X-ray, real-time volumetric echography could offer an attractive alternative as it avoids ionizing radiation; it provides good soft tissue contrast and it is mobile and relatively cheap. Unfortunately, as echography is traditionally used to image soft tissue and blood flow, the appearance of interventional devices in conventional ultrasound images remains relatively poor which is a major obstacle towards ultrasound-guided interventions. The objective of the current study was therefore to enhance the appearance of interventional devices in ultrasound images. Thereto a modified ultrasound beamforming process using conventional focused transmit beams is proposed that exploits the properties of received signals containing specular reflections (as arising from these devices). This new beamforming approach referred to as Delay and Standard Deviation beamforming (DASD) was quantitatively tested using simulated as well as experimental data using a linear array transducer. Furthermore, the influence of different imaging settings (i.e. transmit focus, imaging depth and scan angle) on the obtained image contrast was evaluated. The study showed that the image contrast of specular regions improved by 5 to 30dB using DASD beamforming compared to traditional delay and sum (DAS) beamforming. The highest gain in contrast was observed when the interventional device was tilted away from being orthogonal to the transmit beam, which is a major limitation in standard DAS imaging. As such, the proposed beamforming methodology can offer an improved visualization of interventional devices in the ultrasound image with potential implications for ultrasound-guided interventions.

  20. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  1. Transverse flowmetry of carbon particles based on photoacoustic Doppler standard deviation using an auto-correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Sun, Li-jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to measure the flow velocity of carbon particle suspension perpendicular to the receiving axis of ultrasound transducer, the standard deviation of photoacoustic Doppler frequency spectrum is used to estimate the bandwidth broadening, and the spectrum standard deviation is calculated by an auto-correlation method. A 532 nm pulsed laser with the repetition rate of 20 Hz is used as a pumping source to generate photoacoustic signal. The photoacoustic signals are detected using a focused PZT ultrasound transducer with the central frequency of 10 MHz. The suspension of carbon particles is driven by a syringe pump. The complex photoacoustic signal is calculated by Hilbert transformation from time domain signal before auto-correlation. The standard deviation of the Doppler bandwidth broadening is calculated by averaging the auto-correlation results of several individual A scans. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the spectrum standard deviation of the transversal carbon particle flow from 5.0 mm/s to 8.4 mm/s. The experimental results show that the auto-correlation result is approximately linearly distributed within the measuring range.

  2. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  3. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  4. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  5. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  6. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  7. 7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... raptor protection in the design of overhead line structures is required by RUS; a Federal, State or local... conductor on overhead distribution lines. (1) It is permissible to lower the neutral attachment on standard... trucks designed for such work....

  8. Methodological Issues in Meta-Analyzing Standard Deviations: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2008-01-01

    In this comment on C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo, the authors raise methodological concerns about the approach used to analyze the data. The authors suggest further refinement of the procedures used, and they compare the approach taken by Bond and DePaulo with standard methods for meta-analysis. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  9. Allan Cox 1926”1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Rob; Dalrymple, Brent

    More than 1000 friends, students, and colleagues from all over the country filled Stanford Memorial Chapel (Stanford, Calif.) on February 3, 1987, to join in “A Celebration of the Life of Allan Cox.” Allan died early on the morning of January 27 while bicycling, the sport he had come to love the most. Between pieces of his favorite music by Bach and Mozart, Stanford administrators and colleagues spoke in tribute of Allan's unique qualities as friend, scientist, teacher, and dean of the School of Earth Sciences. James Rosse, Vice President and Provost of Stanford University, struck a particularly resonant chord with his personal remarks: "Allan reached out to each person he knew with the warmth and attention that can only come from deep respect and affection for others. I never heard him speak ill of others, and I do not believe he was capable of doing anything that would harm another being. He cared too much to intrude where he was not wanted, but his curiosity about people and the loving care with which he approached them broke down reserve to create remarkable friendships. His enthusiasm and good humor made him a welcome guest in the hearts of the hundreds of students and colleagues who shared the opportunity of knowing Allan Cox as a person."

  10. Using the Standard Deviation of a Region of Interest in an Image to Estimate Camera to Emitter Distance

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Angel E.; Lazaro, José Luis; Infante, Arturo; Fernández, Pedro; Pompa-Chacón, Yamilet; Espinoza, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a camera to infrared diode (IRED) distance estimation problem was analyzed. The main objective was to define an alternative to measures depth only using the information extracted from pixel grey levels of the IRED image to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED. In this paper, the standard deviation of the pixel grey level in the region of interest containing the IRED image is proposed as an empirical parameter to define a model for estimating camera to emitter distance. This model includes the camera exposure time, IRED radiant intensity and the distance between the camera and the IRED. An expression for the standard deviation model related to these magnitudes was also derived and calibrated using different images taken under different conditions. From this analysis, we determined the optimum parameters to ensure the best accuracy provided by this alternative. Once the model calibration had been carried out, a differential method to estimate the distance between the camera and the IRED was defined and applied, considering that the camera was aligned with the IRED. The results indicate that this method represents a useful alternative for determining the depth information. PMID:22778608

  11. Reducing the Standard Deviation in Multiple-Assay Experiments Where the Variation Matters but the Absolute Value Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A.

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems’ averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

  12. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  13. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  14. Allan Bloom's Quarrel with History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James

    1988-01-01

    Responds to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." Concludes that despite cranky comments about bourgeois culture, the focus of Bloom's attack is on historicism, which undercuts his nostalgic vision of a prosperous and just America. Condemns Bloom's exclusion of Blacks, Hispanics, and women from America's cultural heritage.…

  15. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  16. Relationship between Standard Deviation and Maximum Fluctuation Width of Ensemble Average Insolation Observed at Multi-points in Large Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the detailed impact assessment of the total power output fluctuation of high penetration photovoltaic power generation system in terms of the load-frequency control, this study evaluated the relationship between the standard deviation (STD) including only shorter cycles than 32 minute and the maximum fluctuation width (MFW) calculated with various window width by using the two data-sets of multi-points observed insolation data. The main results are as follows. The R2 of regression line of STD - MFW correlation diagram is larger than 0.85 for various seasons, while the slope of regression line slightly varies with seasons. The slope of regression line is almost the same for various area sizes during the same season, although the variation ranges of both STD and MFW reduce with larger window width due to a so-called smoothing effect. The results suggest that if the STD of geographical average insolation can be calculated by using stochastic method, the MFW can be calculated with a linear function of STD because of the good correlation between STD and MFW independently of seasons and area sizes.

  17. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states.

  18. Geographical Extent Feasible for Standard Deviation Calculation using 1/√N Rule regarding Ensemble Average Insolation Fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Inoue, Takato; Honda, Nobuyuki; Koaizawa, Kazumasa; Nishino, Shinichi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    In this study, we evaluated the practical usability of so-called 1/√N rule, focusing on three factors, i.e. the geographical extent, the location of representative point, and the topological difference. First, by using the insolation data observed at 37 points mainly located in the Nobi Plain, we calculated the correlation diagram between two different standard deviations (STDs) of geographical average insolation fluctuation, i.e. STD of ensemble average insolation of N points (σe) and STD calculated with the representative point data by using 1/√N rule (σN). As the results of evaluating the slope and R2 values of regression line of correlation diagram and the P-value of χ2-test regarding frequency distribution of σe and σN, the 1/√N rule would be applicable for the area of around 20km radius. The representative point for calculating σN should be carefully selected even within the area of 15km radius. Because the difference in weather condition is much larger in the Matsumoto Basin area than in the Nobi Plain area even if the area size is the same, the 1/√N rule should be applied to smaller area than the area of 20km radius available for the Nobi Plain area.

  19. On the application of Allan variance method for Ring Laser Gyro performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L.C.

    1993-10-15

    This report describes the method of Allan variance and its application to the characterization of a Ring Laser Gyro`s (RLG) performance. Allan variance, a time domain analysis technique, is an accepted IEEE standard for gyro specifications. The method was initially developed by David Allan of the National Bureau of Standards to quantify the error statistics of a Cesium beam frequency standard employed as the US Frequency Standards in 1960`s. The method can, in general, be applied to analyze the error characteristics of any precision measurement instrument. The key attribute of the method is that it allows for a finer, easier characterization and identification of error sources and their contribution to the overall noise statistics. This report presents an overview of the method, explains the relationship between Allan variance and power spectral density distribution of underlying noise sources, describes the batch and recursive implementation approaches, validates the Allan variance computation with a simulation model, and illustrates the Allan variance method using data collected from several Honeywell LIMU units.

  20. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  1. Edgar Allan Poe's Physical Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    1994-06-01

    In this paper I describe the scientific content of Eureka, the prose poem written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1848. In that work, starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe claims that the Universe is finite in an infinite Space, and that it was originated from a primordial Particle, whose fragmentation under the action of a repulsive force caused a diffusion of atoms in space. I will show that his subsequently collapsing universe represents a scientifically acceptable Newtonian model. In the framework of his evolving universe, Poe makes use of contemporary astronomical knowledge, deriving modern concepts such as a primordial atomic state of the universe and a common epoch of galaxy formation. Harrison found in Eureka the first, qualitative solution of the Olbers' paradox; I show that Poe also applies in a modern way the anthropic principle, trying to explain why the Universe is so large.

  2. Allan variance of time series models for measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nien Fan

    2008-10-01

    The uncertainty of the mean of autocorrelated measurements from a stationary process has been discussed in the literature. However, when the measurements are from a non-stationary process, how to assess their uncertainty remains unresolved. Allan variance or two-sample variance has been used in time and frequency metrology for more than three decades as a substitute for the classical variance to characterize the stability of clocks or frequency standards when the underlying process is a 1/f noise process. However, its applications are related only to the noise models characterized by the power law of the spectral density. In this paper, from the viewpoint of the time domain, we provide a statistical underpinning of the Allan variance for discrete stationary processes, random walk and long-memory processes such as the fractional difference processes including the noise models usually considered in time and frequency metrology. Results show that the Allan variance is a better measure of the process variation than the classical variance of the random walk and the non-stationary fractional difference processes including the 1/f noise.

  3. Internal quality control system for non-stationary, non-ergodic analytical processes based upon exponentially weighted estimation of process means and process standard deviation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rob T P; Laeven, Mark; Kardol, Wim

    2002-06-01

    The analytical processes in clinical laboratories should be considered to be non-stationary, non-ergodic and probably non-stochastic processes. Both the process mean and the process standard deviation vary. The variation can be different at different levels of concentration. This behavior is shown in five examples of different analytical systems: alkaline phosphatase on the Hitachi 911 analyzer (Roche), vitamin B12 on the Access analyzer (Beckman), prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time on the STA Compact analyzer (Roche) and PO2 on the ABL 520 analyzer (Radiometer). A model is proposed to assess the status of a process. An exponentially weighted moving average and standard deviation was used to estimate process mean and standard deviation. Process means were estimated overall and for each control level. The process standard deviation was estimated in terms of within-run standard deviation. Limits were defined in accordance with state of the art- or biological variance-derived cut-offs. The examples given are real, not simulated, data. Individual control sample results were normalized to a target value and target standard deviation. The normalized values were used in the exponentially weighted algorithm. The weighting factor was based on a process time constant, which was estimated from the period between two calibration or maintenance procedures. The proposed system was compared with Westgard rules. The Westgard rules perform well, despite the underlying presumption of ergodicity. This is mainly caused by the introduction of the starting rule of 12s, which proves essential to prevent a large number of rule violations. The probability of reporting a test result with an analytical error that exceeds the total allowable error was calculated for the proposed system as well as for the Westgard rules. The proposed method performed better. The proposed algorithm was implemented in a computer program running on computers to which the analyzers were

  4. Phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography: simultaneous imaging of in situ tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and Stokes vectors in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongwu; Ding, Zhihua; Zhao, Yonghua; Miao, Jianjun; Nelson, J. Stuart; Chen, Zhongping

    2002-10-01

    We describe a phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that can simultaneously yield in situ images of tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and the Stokes vectors in human skin. Multifunctional images were obtained by processing of analytical interference fringe signals derived from two perpendicular polarization-detection channels. The blood flow velocity and standard deviation images were obtained by comparison of the phases from pairs of analytical signals in neighboring A-lines in the same polarization state. The analytical signals from two polarization-diversity detection channels were used to determine the four Stokes vectors for four reference polarization states. From the four Stokes vectors, the birefringence image, which is not sensitive to the orientation of the optical axis in the sample, was obtained. Multifunctional in situ images of a port wine stain birthmark in human skin are presented.

  5. John A. Scigliano Interviews Allan B. Ellis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.

    2000-01-01

    This interview with Allan Ellis focuses on a history of computer applications in education. Highlights include work at the Harvard Graduate School of Education; the New England Education Data System; and efforts to create a computer-based distance learning and development program called ISVD (Information System for Vocational Decisions). (LRW)

  6. Application of the Allan Variance to Time Series Analysis in Astrometry and Geodesy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance (AVAR) was introduced 50 years ago as a statistical tool for assessing the frequency standards deviations. For the past decades, AVAR has increasingly been used in geodesy and astrometry to assess the noise characteristics in geodetic and astrometric time series. A specific feature of astrometric and geodetic measurements, as compared with clock measurements, is that they are generally associated with uncertainties; thus, an appropriate weighting should be applied during data analysis. In addition, some physically connected scalar time series naturally form series of multidimensional vectors. For example, three station coordinates time series X, Y, and Z can be combined to analyze 3-D station position variations. The classical AVAR is not intended for processing unevenly weighted and/or multidimensional data. Therefore, AVAR modifications, namely weighted AVAR (WAVAR), multidimensional AVAR (MAVAR), and weighted multidimensional AVAR (WMAVAR), were introduced to overcome these deficiencies. In this paper, a brief review is given of the experience of using AVAR and its modifications in processing astrogeodetic time series.

  7. Double sideband suppressed carrier modulation for stable fiber delivery of radio frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikas, Thomas; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the properties of a double sideband suppressed carrier modulation transmission scheme for long distance microwave frequency standard dissemination. The proposed method effectively doubles the transmitted frequency obtaining enhanced phase noise and stability performance. Suppressing the optical carrier also eliminates the dispersion induced signal fading. Important transmission parameters like optical modulation depth and linearity are also improved. Allan deviation and phase noise measurements prove the superior performance of the proposed modulation format.

  8. [The medical history of Edgar Allan Poe].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2007-09-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the best American storytellers and poets, suffered an episodic behaviour disorder partially triggered by alcohol and opiate use. Much confusion still exists about the last days of his turbulent life and the cause of his death at an early age. Different etiologies have been proposed to explain his main medical problem, however, complex partial seizures triggered by alcohol, poorly recognized at the time when Poe lived, seems to be one of the most acceptable hypothesis, among others discussed.

  9. The Cosmology of Edgar Allan Poe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Eureka is a ``prose poem'' published in 1848, where Edgar Allan Poe presents his original cosmology. While starting from metaphysical assumptions, Poe develops an evolving Newtonian model of the Universe which has many and non casual analogies with modern cosmology. Poe was well informed about astronomical and physical discoveries, and he was influenced by both contemporary science and ancient ideas. For these reasons, Eureka is a unique synthesis of metaphysics, art and science.

  10. Obituary: Allan R. Sandage (1926-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2011-12-01

    Allan Rex Sandage died of pancreatic cancer at his home in San Gabriel, California, in the shadow of Mount Wilson, on November 13, 2010. Born in Iowa City, Iowa, on June 18, 1926, he was 84 years old at his death, leaving his wife, former astronomer Mary Connelly Sandage, and two sons, David and John. He also left a legacy to the world of astronomical knowledge that has long been universally admired and appreciated, making his name synonymous with late 20th-Century observational cosmology. The only child of Charles Harold Sandage, a professor of advertising who helped establish that academic specialty after obtaining a PhD in business administration, and Dorothy Briggs Sandage, whose father was president of Graceland College in Iowa, Allan Sandage grew up in a thoroughly intellectual, university oriented atmosphere but also a peripatetic one taking him to Philadelphia and later to Illinois as his father rose in his career. During his 2 years in Philadelphia, at about age eleven, Allan developed a curiosity about astronomy stimulated by a friend's interest. His father bought him a telescope and he used it to systematically record sunspots, and later attempted to make a larger 6-inch reflector, a project left uncompleted. As a teenager Allan read widely, especially astronomy books of all kinds, recalling in particular The Glass Giant of Palomar as well as popular works by Eddington and Hubble (The Realm of the Nebulae) in the early 1940s. Although his family was Mormon, of the Reorganized Church, he was not practicing, though he later sporadically attended a Methodist church in Oxford, Iowa during his college years. Sandage knew by his high school years that he would engage in some form of intellectual life related to astronomy. He particularly recalls an influential science teacher at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio named Ray Edwards, who inspired him to think critically and "not settle for any hand-waving of any kind." [Interview of Allan Rex Sandage by Spencer

  11. Properties of pattern standard deviation in open-angle glaucoma patients with hemi-optic neuropathy and bi-optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Dong Won; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Sung Bok; Kim, Chang-sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the properties of pattern standard deviation (PSD) according to localization of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods We enrolled 242 eyes of 242 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, with a best-corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/25, and no media opacity. Patients were examined via dilated fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and Humphrey visual field examination, and divided into those with hemi-optic neuropathy (superior or inferior) and bi-optic neuropathy (both superior and inferior). We assessed the relationship between mean deviation (MD) and PSD. Using broken stick regression analysis, the tipping point was identified, i.e., the point at which MD became significantly associated with a paradoxical reversal of PSD. Results In 91 patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, PSD showed a strong correlation with MD (r = −0.973, β = −0.965, p < 0.001). The difference between MD and PSD (“−MD−PSD”) was constant (mean, −0.32 dB; 95% confidence interval, −2.48~1.84 dB) regardless of visual field defect severity. However, in 151 patients with bi-optic neuropathy, a negative correlation was evident between “−MD−PSD” and MD (r2 = 0.907, p < 0.001). Overall, the MD tipping point was −14.0 dB, which was close to approximately 50% damage of the entire visual field (p < 0.001). Conclusions Although a false decrease of PSD usually begins at approximately 50% visual field damage, in patients with hemi-optic neuropathy, the PSD shows no paradoxical decrease and shows a linear correlation with MD. PMID:28249022

  12. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  13. Radio-Echo Sounding in the Allan Hills, Antarctica, in Support of the Meteorite Field Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ice. The results also revealed internal layering within the snow on Ross Island and in the snow filling an ice depres- sion west of Allan Nunatak ...Radio-echo sounding also gave the depth to bedrock near the west side of Allan Nunatak . The greatest ice depth measured was 310 m. • . 9Q3...Institute of Polar Research had installed across the blue ice surface extending westward from the Allan Nunatak . Allan Nunatak is located in the Allan

  14. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  15. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  16. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  17. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  18. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  19. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  20. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  1. Estimating the Allan variance in the presence of long periods of missing data and outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesia, Ilaria; Tavella, Patrizia

    2008-12-01

    The ability of the Allan variance (AVAR) to identify and estimate the typical clock noise is widely accepted, and its use is recommended by international standards. Recently, a time-varying version called Dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) was suggested and exploited. Currently, the AVAR is commonly used in applications to space and satellite systems, in particular in monitoring the clocks of the Global Positioning System, and also in the framework of the European project Galileo. In these applications stability estimation, either AVAR or DAVAR (or other similar variances), presents some peculiar aspects which are not commonly encountered when the clock data are measured in a laboratory. In particular, data from space clocks may typically present outliers and missing values. Hence, special attention has to be paid when dealing with such experimental measurements. In this work we propose an estimation algorithm and its implementation in a robust software code (in MATLAB® language) able to estimate the AVAR in the case of missing data, unequally spaced data, outliers, and with long periods of missing observation, so that the Allan variance estimates turn out unbiased and with the maximum use of all the available data.

  2. 32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SCIENTISTS ALLAN COX (SEATED), RICHARD DOELL, AND BRENT DALRYMPLE AT CONTROL PANEL, ABOUT 1965. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  3. Performance of the PARCS Testbed Cesium Fountain Frequency Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    A cesium fountain frequency standard has been developed as a ground testbed for the PARCS (Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space) experiment, an experiment intended to fly on the International Space Station. We report on the performance of the fountain and describe some of the implementations motivated in large part by flight considerations, but of relevance for ground fountains. In particular, we report on a new technique for delivering cooling and trapping laser beams to the atom collection region, in which a given beam is recirculated three times effectively providing much more optical power than traditional configurations. Allan deviations down to 10 have been achieved with this method.

  4. Dick Effect in a Microwave Frequency Standard Based on Laser-Cooled 113Cd+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Wei; Miao, Kai; Wang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Dick effect is one of the main limits to the frequency stability of a passive frequency standard, especially for the fountain clock and ion clock operated in pulsed mode which require unavoidable dead time during interrogation. Here we measure the phase noise of the interrogation oscillator applied in the microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled 113Cd+ ions, and analyze the Allan deviation limited by the Dick effect. The results indicate that the Dick effect is one of the key issues for the cadmium ion clock to reach expected frequency stability. This problem can be resolved by interrogating the local oscillator continuously with two ion traps.

  5. Modal comparison of Yamato and Allan Hills polymict eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Takeda, H.

    1983-01-01

    Seven Yamato and six Allan Hills polymict eucrite specimens were compared by modal analysis. The analyses reveal differences of plagioclase and pyroxene content between the two groups. The Yamato suite has more 'pigeonitic' pyroxene and less plagioclase and low-calcium pyroxene than the Allan Hills suite. Variations within each suite are small and three sections of Allan Hills A78040 are more variable than the Allen Hills suite considered as a group. Modal data provides a basis for pairing polymict eucrite specimens when used together with mineralogical and petrographic criteria. Modal data furthermore confirms the presence of several rock types previously identified using pyroxene crystallography and hints at the presence of an augite-rich component.

  6. The Allan Hills icefield and its relationship to meteorite concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annexstad, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Allan Hills icefield is described by as a limited icefield that has large concentrations of meteorites. The meteorites appear to be concentrated on the lower limb of an ice monocline with other finds scattered throughout the field. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of meteorite concentration, a triangulation chain was established across the icefield. This chain is composed of 20 stations, two of which are on bedrock, and extends westward from the Allan Hills a distance of 15 kilometers. The triangulation chain and its relationship to the meteorite concentrations is shown.

  7. Allan Hills 77005 - A new meteorite type found in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A unique 482.5 g meteorite found in Antarctica appears to be related by igneous differentiation to shergottite achondrites, which have close similarities with terrestrial basaltic rocks. Zoned maskelynite with similar compositional ranges and plagioclase of such intermediate compositions as are unknown in other achondrites occur in both shergottites and the Allan Hills meteorite. The degree of silica saturation, however, strongly distinguishes the two meteorite types. It is suggested that the Allan Hills meteorite may represent a cumulate rock formed earlier than the shergottites from the same or a similar parent magma.

  8. Allan Variance Calculation for Nonuniformly Spaced Input Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Allan Variance ( AV ) characterizes the...temporal randomness in sensor output data streams at various times scales. The conventional formula for calculating the AV assumes that the data...presents a modified approach to AV calculation, which accommodates nonuniformly spaced time samples. The basic concept of the modified approach is

  9. Allan Sandage : L'architecte de l'expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1998-07-01

    Il fut de cette poignee de pionniers qui ouvrirent le monde extragalactique. Depuis pres de 50 ans, Allan Sandage poursuit la quete amorcee par le "maitre" Edwin Hubble : mesurer le taux d'expansion de l'Univers. Rencontre avec une legende vivante de la cosmologie...

  10. Numbers Of Degrees Of Freedom Of Allan-Variance Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses formulas for estimation of Allan variances. Presents algorithms for closed-form approximations of numbers of degrees of freedom characterizing results obtained when various estimators applied to five power-law components of classical mathematical model of clock noise.

  11. Biotechnology Symposium - In Memoriam, the Late Dr. Allan Zipf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one-day biotechnology symposium was held at Alabama A&M University (AAMU), Normal, AL on June 4, 2004 in memory of the late Dr. Allan Zipf (Sept 1953-Jan 2004). Dr. Zipf was a Research Associate Professor at the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, AAMU, who collaborated extensively with ARS/MS...

  12. Caudal septal deviation.

    PubMed

    Haack, Jason; Papel, Ira D

    2009-06-01

    The nasal septum is a structure poorly understood and appreciated by the lay public and the nonotolaryngologist--head and neck surgeon alike. Deviation of the caudal portion of the nasal septum may result in nasal obstruction, a crooked nose, and columellar irregularities. The correction of a severely deviated caudal septum is one of the most difficult challenges of the otolaryngologist and facial plastic surgeon. A variety of options are available for correction of mild, to the most severe, deflections. This condition, as with all challenges in medicine, should not be a one size fits all or one surgery fits all situation. The skilled surgeon should understand the multiple options available for surgical correction and tailor fit the procedure to the deformity.

  13. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  14. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-01-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods (“Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions” [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the ‘ranking’ and ‘which-won-where’ plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields. PMID:27222865

  15. Dataset on the mean, standard deviation, broad-sense heritability and stability of wheat quality bred in three different ways and grown under organic and low-input conventional systems.

    PubMed

    Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter

    2016-06-01

    An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.

  16. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    PubMed

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  17. Exposure and terrestrial ages of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray exposure histories. The cosmic-ray exposures are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.

  18. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  19. The Third-Difference Approach to Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    This study gives strategies for estimating the modified Allan variance (mvar) and formulas for computing the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf) of the estimators. A third-difference formulation of mvar leads to a tractable formula for edf in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. First-degree rational-function approximations for edf are derived.

  20. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  1. Relationship between Allan variances and Kalman Filter parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Mcgraw, J. B.; Brown, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A relationship was constructed between the Allan variance parameters (H sub z, H sub 1, H sub 0, H sub -1 and H sub -2) and a Kalman Filter model that would be used to estimate and predict clock phase, frequency and frequency drift. To start with the meaning of those Allan Variance parameters and how they are arrived at for a given frequency source is reviewed. Although a subset of these parameters is arrived at by measuring phase as a function of time rather than as a spectral density, they all represent phase noise spectral density coefficients, though not necessarily that of a rational spectral density. The phase noise spectral density is then transformed into a time domain covariance model which can then be used to derive the Kalman Filter model parameters. Simulation results of that covariance model are presented and compared to clock uncertainties predicted by Allan variance parameters. A two state Kalman Filter model is then derived and the significance of each state is explained.

  2. Measurement of Allan variance and phase noise at fractions of a millihertz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.; Le, Duc

    1990-01-01

    Although the measurement of Allan variance of oscillators is well documented, there is a need for a simplified system for finding the degradation of phase noise and Allan variance step-by-step through a system. This article describes an instrumentation system for simultaneous measurement of additive phase noise and degradation in Allan variance through a transmitter system. Also included are measurements of a 20-kW X-band transmitter showing the effect of adding a pass tube regulator.

  3. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  4. Pragmatics: The State of the Art: An Online Interview with Keith Allan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This interview was conducted with Professor Keith Allan with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the state of the art of pragmatics. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Allan begins with a definition of pragmatics as it is practiced today, i.e., the study of the meanings of utterances with attention to…

  5. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies.

  6. Princess Marie Bonaparte, Edgar Allan Poe, and psychobiography.

    PubMed

    Warner, S L

    1991-01-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte was a colorful yet mysterious member of Freud's inner circle of psychoanalysis. In analysis with Freud beginning in 1925 (she was then 45 years old), she became a lay analyst and writer of many papers and books. Her most ambitious task was a 700-page psychobiography of Edgar Allan Poe that was first published in French in 1933. She was fascinated by Poe's gothic stories--with the return to life of dead persons and the eerie, unexpected turns of events. Her fascination with Poe can be traced to the similarity of their early traumatic life experiences. Bonaparte had lost her mother a month after her birth. Poe's father deserted the family when Edgar was two years old, and his mother died of tuberculosis when he was three. Poe's stories helped him to accommodate to these early traumatic losses. Bonaparte vicariously shared in Poe's loss and the fantasies of the return of the deceased parent in his stories. She was sensitive and empathetic to Poe's inner world because her inner world was similar. The result of this psychological fit between Poe and Bonaparte was her psychobiography, The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe. It was a milestone in psychobiography but limited in its psychological scope by its strong emphasis on early childhood trauma. Nevertheless it proved Bonaparte a bona fide creative psychoanalyst and not a dilettante propped up by her friendship with Freud.

  7. Explorations in Statistics: Standard Deviations and Standard Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in "Advances in Physiology Education" provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle…

  8. Twenty-Five Years of Applications of the Modified Allan Variance in Telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Bregni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Modified Allan Variance (MAVAR) was originally defined in 1981 for measuring frequency stability in precision oscillators. Due to its outstanding accuracy in discriminating power-law noise, it attracted significant interest among telecommunications engineers since the early 1990s, when it was approved as a standard measure in international standards, redressed as Time Variance (TVAR), for specifying the time stability of network synchronization signals and of equipment clocks. A dozen years later, the usage of MAVAR was also introduced for Internet traffic analysis to estimate self-similarity and long-range dependence. Further, in this field, it demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity, better than most popular tools already in use. This paper surveys the last 25 years of progress in extending the field of application of the MAVAR in telecommunications. First, the rationale and principles of the MAVAR are briefly summarized. Its adaptation as TVAR for specification of timing stability is presented. The usage of MAVAR/TVAR in telecommunications standards is reviewed. Examples of measurements on real telecommunications equipment clocks are presented, providing an overview on their actual performance in terms of MAVAR. Moreover, applications of MAVAR to network traffic analysis are surveyed. The superior accuracy of MAVAR in estimating long-range dependence is emphasized by highlighting some remarkable practical examples of real network traffic analysis.

  9. Seeds of a Soldier: The True Story of Edgar Allan Poe - The Sergeant Major

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seeds of a Soldier. The true story of Edgar Allan Poe - the...Std Z39-18 Army Space Journal Fall 200360 By Michael L. Howard Seeds of a Soldier The true story of Edgar Allan Poe — the Sergeant Major...the Managing Editor via email to richard.burks@arspace.army.mil dgar Allan Poe wore U.S. Army sergeant major stripes. Using the name Edgar A. Perry

  10. Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, David C.; Laul, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

  11. A new kind of primitive chondrite, Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 85085, a chemically and mineralogically unique chondrite whose components have suffered little metamorphism or alteration, is discussed. It is found that ALH 85085 has 4 wt pct chondrules (mean diameter 16 microns), 36 wt pct Fe, Ni, 56 wt pct lithic and mineral silicate fragments, and 2 wt pct trolite. It is suggested that, with the exception of matrix lumps, the components of ALH 85085 formed and accreted in the solar nebula. It is shown that ALH 85085 does not belong to any of the nine chondrite groups and is very different from Kakangari. Similarities between ALH 85085 and Bencubbin and Weatherford suggest that the latter two primitive meteorites may be chondrites with high metal abundances and very large, partly fragmented chondrules.

  12. Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W

    1999-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the most celebrated of American storytellers, lived through and wrote descriptions of episodic unconsciousness, confusion, and paranoia. These symptoms have been attributed to alcohol or drug abuse but also could represent complex partial seizures, prolonged postictal states, or postictal psychosis. Complex partial seizures were not well described in Poe's time, which could explain a misdiagnosis. Alternatively, he may have suffered from complex partial epilepsy that was complicated or caused by substance abuse. Even today, persons who have epilepsy are mistaken for substance abusers and occasionally are arrested during postictal confusional states. Poe was able to use creative genius and experiences from illness to create memorable tales and poignant poems.

  13. Petrogenetic relationship between Allan Hills 77005 and other achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Muntean, R. A.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Biswas, S.; Ngo, H. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents chemical and petrologic data relating the Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 achondrite from Antarctica and explores their petrogenetic relationship with the shergottites. Petrologic similarities with the latter in terms of mineralogy, oxidation state, inferred source region composition, and shock ages suggest a genetic relationship, also indicated by volatile to involatile element ratios and abundances of other trace elements. ALHA 77005 may be a cumulate crystallized from a liquid parental to materials from which the shergottites crystallized or a sample of peridotite from which shergottite parent liquids were derived. Chemical similarities with terrestrial ultramafic rocks suggest that it provides an additional sample of the only other solar system body with basalt source origins chemically similar to the upper earth mantle.

  14. The History of Allan Hills 84001 Revised: Multiple Shock Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1998-01-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with 13. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3.

  15. Exploring Thermal Signatures in the Experimentally Heated CM Carbonaceous Chondrite Allan Hills 83100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, P.; Andreassen, A. M.; Lee, M. R.; Sparkes, R.; Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We have examined the effect of experimental heating on water/hydroxyl content, carbon structure, O-isotope signature, and sulphide and carbonate microstructure in the highly aqueously altered meteorite Allan Hills 83100.

  16. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with unusual profound sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nataren, Nathalie; Feng, Jinghua; Schreiber, Andreas W; Hahn, Christopher N; Conwell, Louise S; Coman, David; Scott, Hamish S

    2015-08-01

    The Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). It is characterized by profound intellectual disability and abnormal thyroid function. We report on a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) with profound sensorineural hearing loss which is not usually a feature of AHDS and which may have been due to a coexisting nonsense mutation in Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).

  17. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  18. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  19. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  20. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling `prose-poem' Eureka (1848), in particular, has sometimes been scrutinized for anticipations of later scientific developments. By contrast, the present paper argues that it should be understood as a contribution to the raging debates about scientific methodology at the time. This methodological interest, which is echoed in Poe's `tales of ratiocination', gives rise to a proposed new mode of—broadly abductive—inference, which Poe attributes to the hybrid figure of the `poet-mathematician'. Without creative imagination and intuition, Science would necessarily remain incomplete, even by its own standards. This concern with imaginative (abductive) inference ties in nicely with his coherentism, which grants pride of place to the twin virtues of Simplicity and Consistency, which must constrain imagination lest it degenerate into mere fancy.

  1. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  2. Classification of the Allan Hills A77307 meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Ross, M.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements on Allan Hills A77307 (AH), a carbonaceous chondrite found in Antarctica, are compared with those on other chondrite and applied to its classification. Two lithologically different 250-mg samples were ground, freed of magnetic material, and ground again to pass a 100-micron sieve. Aliquots of 4 mg were heated to 500 C, exposed to beta radiation from a Sr-90 source, and heated at a rate of 7.3 C/sec in N2. TL was measured with a photomultiplier tube fitted with thermal and blue filters. Glow curves for AH and for seven other, established CO-type chondrites area presented, all exhibiting two major peaks of TL sensitivity. The peaks for the seven CO-type chondrites are found at 91 + or - 7 C and at 203 + or - 11 C; those for AH at 170 + or - 17 C and at approximately 250 C. This difference is considered significant and not due to random fluctuation or a typical sampling. From this comparison and from consideration of the weathering, preterrestrial-alteration, petrological and compositional evidence on AH, it is concluded that AH is a unique chondrite, possessing both similarities to and differences from the CO class.

  3. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  4. Allan V. Cox: AGU President 1978”1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When Allan V. Cox was presented AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal in 1969, John Verhoogen described Cox's work as “characterized by painstaking care, proper attention to and use of statistics, and great insight.” Those same thoughts were echoed on February 3, 1987, during the memorial service for Cox, who died in a bicycling accident on January 27. The Stanford Memorial Church was crowded with colleagues, students, and friends.The Fleming Medal was presented to Cox in recognition of his studies on the fluctuation of the geomagnetic field. These studies helped to confirm theories of continental drift and seafloor spreading. The medal is awarded annually by AGU for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, and related sciences. In addition to the Fleming Medal, Cox received the Antarctic Service Medal in 1970, the Vetlesen Prize in 1971, and the Arthur L. Day Prize of the National Academy of Sciences in 1984. He was a Fellow of AGU and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

  5. Large deviations in Taylor dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlen, Marcel; Engel, Andreas; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We establish a link between the phenomenon of Taylor dispersion and the theory of empirical distributions. Using this connection, we derive, upon applying the theory of large deviations, an alternative and much more precise description of the long-time regime for Taylor dispersion.

  6. Online estimation of Allan variance coefficients based on a neural-extended Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhiyong; Shen, Feng; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-01-23

    As a noise analysis method for inertial sensors, the traditional Allan variance method requires the storage of a large amount of data and manual analysis for an Allan variance graph. Although the existing online estimation methods avoid the storage of data and the painful procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation, they require complex transformations and even cause errors during the modeling of dynamic Allan variance. To solve these problems, first, a new state-space model that directly models the stochastic errors to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for inertial sensors. Then, a neural-extended Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the Allan variance coefficients. The real noises of an ADIS16405 IMU and fiber optic gyro-sensors were analyzed by the proposed method and traditional methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable to estimate the Allan variance coefficients than the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed method effectively avoids the storage of data and can be easily implemented using an online processor.

  7. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  8. Large Deviations for Random Trees

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures. PMID:20216937

  9. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  10. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  11. Deviations from uniform power-law scaling due to exposure to high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posiewnik, A.

    2002-12-01

    A major challenge in biological physics is the analysis of time series that are typically highly nonstationary. Viswanathan et al. (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1) (1997) 845-899) using techniques based on the Fano factor and the Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis showed that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems in normal conditions are more stable than those of pathological systems-there is underlying loss of uniform power-law scaling in disease. Here we test, using the same techniques as Viswanathan et al. (1997), the hypothesis that deviations from uniform power-law scaling, similar to those seen in heart failure and deep apnea syndrome occur also for healthy subjects under pathological conditions (hypoxaemic stress during exposure to high altitude, over 6000 m).

  12. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  13. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  14. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  15. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  16. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  17. Where Were the Whistleblowers? The Case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lea P.

    Employees who "blow the whistle" on their company because they believe it is engaged in practices that are illegal, immoral, or harmful to the public, often face grave consequences for their actions, including demotion, harassment, forced resignation, or termination. The case of Allan McDonald and Roger Boisjoly, engineers who blew the…

  18. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and…

  19. The Allan variance in the presence of a compound Poisson process modelling clock frequency jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formichella, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Atomic clocks can be affected by frequency jumps occurring at random times and with a random amplitude. The frequency jumps degrade the clock stability and this is captured by the Allan variance. In this work we assume that the random jumps can be modelled by a compound Poisson process, independent of the other stochastic and deterministic processes affecting the clock stability. Then, we derive the analytical expression of the Allan variance of a jumping clock. We find that the analytical Allan variance does not depend on the actual shape of the jumps amplitude distribution, but only on its first and second moments, and its final form is the same as for a clock with a random walk of frequency and a frequency drift. We conclude that the Allan variance cannot distinguish between a compound Poisson process and a Wiener process, hence it may not be sufficient to correctly identify the fundamental noise processes affecting a clock. The result is general and applicable to any oscillator, whose frequency is affected by a jump process with the described statistics.

  20. Horror from the Soul--Gothic Style in Allan Poe's Horror Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe made tremendous contribution to horror fiction. Poe's inheritance of gothic fiction and American literature tradition combined with his living experience forms the background of his horror fictions. He inherited the tradition of the gothic fictions and made innovations on it, so as to penetrate to subconsciousness. Poe's horror…

  1. Observation, Inference, and Imagination: Elements of Edgar Allan Poe's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe's standing as a literary figure, who drew on (and sometimes dabbled in) the scientific debates of his time, makes him an intriguing character for any exploration of the historical interrelationship between science, literature and philosophy. His sprawling "prose-poem" "Eureka" (1848), in particular, has…

  2. The Art of George Morrison and Allan Houser: The Development and Impact of Native Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Anya

    2005-01-01

    The idea for a retrospective on George Morrison and Allan Houser as one of the inaugural exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) came from the NMAI curator of contemporary art, Truman Lowe. An artist and sculptor himself, Lowe knew both artists personally and saw them as mentors and visionaries. Lowe advised an exhibition…

  3. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  4. Allan M. Freedman, LLB: a lawyer’s gift to Canadian chiropractors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the leadership role, contributions, accolades, and impact of Professor Allan Freedman through a 30 year history of service to CMCC and the chiropractic profession in Canada. Professor Freedman has served as an educator, philanthropist and also as legal counsel. His influence on chiropractic organizations and chiropractors during this significant period in the profession is discussed. PMID:18060008

  5. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  8. 14 CFR § 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. § 1260.7 Section § 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  10. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  11. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  12. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  13. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  14. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  15. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  16. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  17. 48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2801.404 Section 2801.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.404 Class deviations....

  18. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 2901.404 Section 2901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a) The...

  19. Coping with Standards, Tests, and Accountability: Voices from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A., Ed.; Fontana, Jean, Ed.

    This book presents the views of teachers, teacher educators, and administrators who write about accountability, testing, and standards programs. The chapters are: (1) "From Policy to Practice: The Research" (Allan A. Glatthorn); (2) "New York's Test-Driven Standards" (Jean Fontana); (3) "Voices from a Native American…

  20. A new LL3 chondrite, Allan Hills A79003, and observations on matrices in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Maggiore, P.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills A79003 is an LL3 chondrite with a petrologic subtype of 3.4 + or - 0.2. Contrary to previous suggestions, it is not paired with other Allan Hills specimens. It contains haxonite, (Fe,Ni)23C6; shock-melted, 'fizzed' metal-troilite intergrowths; and translucent, glassy-looking Huss matrix (fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix), in addition to the normal opaque and recrystallized varieties of Huss matrix. Some chondrules are partly coated with opaque matrix, others with translucent matrix. Translucent matrix is more uniform in composition and contains less S, CaO and FeO and more MgO than the opaque variety. Both kinds of matrix rimmed chondrules before consolidation of the meteorite.

  1. Allan C. Gotlib, DC, CM: A worthy Member of the Order of Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Douglas M

    2016-03-01

    On June 29, 2012, His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, announced 70 new appointments to the Order of Canada. Among them was Dr. Allan Gotlib, who was subsequently installed as a Member of the Order of Canada, in recognition of his contributions to advancing research in the chiropractic profession and its inter-professional integration. This paper attempts an objective view of his career, to substantiate the accomplishments that led to Dr. Gotlib receiving Canada's highest civilian honour.

  2. Cosmic-ray-produced Cl-36 and Mn-53 in Allan Hills-77 meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Murrell, M. T.; Arnold, J. R.; Finkel, R. C.; Elmore, D.; Ferraro, R. D.; Gove, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced Mn-53 has been determined by neutron activation in nine Allan Hills-77 meteorites. Additionally, Cl-36 has been measured in seven of these objects using tandem accelerator mass spectrometry. These results, along with C-14 and Al-26 concentrations determined elsewhere, yield terrestrial ages ranging from 10,000 to 700,000 years. Weathering was not found to result in Mn-53 loss.

  3. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-01-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed…

  4. Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug

    2010-11-01

    First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.

  5. Spectral Relative Standard Deviation: A Practical Benchmark in Metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics datasets, by definition, comprise of measurements of large numbers of metabolites. Both technical (analytical) and biological factors will induce variation within these measurements that is not consistent across all metabolites. Consequently, criteria are required to...

  6. Deviation from Standard Inflationary Cosmology and the Problems in Ekpyrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chien-Yao

    There are two competing models of our universe right now. One is Big Bang with inflation cosmology. The other is the cyclic model with ekpyrotic phase in each cycle. This paper is divided into two main parts according to these two models. In the first part, we quantify the potentially observable effects of a small violation of translational invariance during inflation, as characterized by the presence of a preferred point, line, or plane. We explore the imprint such a violation would leave on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, and provide explicit formulas for the expected amplitudes ( alma*l'm') of the spherical-harmonic coefficients. We then provide a model and study the two-point correlation of a massless scalar (the inflaton) when the stress tensor contains the energy density from an infinitely long straight cosmic string in addition to a cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss if inflation can reconcile with the Liouville's theorem as far as the fine-tuning problem is concerned. In the second part, we find several problems in the cyclic/ekpyrotic cosmology. First of all, quantum to classical transition would not happen during an ekpyrotic phase even for superhorizon modes, and therefore the fluctuations cannot be interpreted as classical. This implies the prediction of scale-free power spectrum in ekpyrotic/cyclic universe model requires more inspection. Secondly, we find that the usual mechanism to solve fine-tuning problems is not compatible with eternal universe which contains infinitely many cycles in both direction of time. Therefore, all fine-tuning problems including the flatness problem still asks for an explanation in any generic cyclic models.

  7. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV).

  8. 10 CFR 609.18 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 609.18 Section 609.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that such requirements are not specified by the Act or...

  9. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  10. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  11. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  12. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  13. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  14. Alternating Skew Deviation from Traumatic Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Moster, Stephen J.; Moster, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old woman developed progressive headache, mental status changes, and diplopia after trauma. She was diagnosed with alternating skew deviation caused by intracranial hypotension. This is the first case of alternating skew deviation reported from intracranial hypotension and perhaps a differential pressure between intracranial and intraspinal spaces plays a role in the development of these findings. PMID:27928294

  15. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  16. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  17. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  18. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  19. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  20. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  1. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  2. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  3. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The following official may authorize a deviation . . . Exceeding $25,000 but not exceeding $550,000 The CCO (or the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA Competition...

  4. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  5. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  6. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  7. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  8. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  9. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  10. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  11. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  12. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  13. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  14. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  15. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  16. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  17. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  18. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  19. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  20. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  1. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  2. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  3. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  4. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 1401.404 Section 1401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class...

  5. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3001.404 Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and...

  6. Myelination Delay and Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation in the SLC16A2 Gene.

    PubMed

    La Piana, Roberta; Vanasse, Michel; Brais, Bernard; Bernard, Genevieve

    2015-09-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 16 member 2 (SLC16A2) gene. As SLC16A2 encodes the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a thyroid hormone transporter, patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome present a specific altered thyroid hormone profile. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome has been associated with myelination delay on the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of affected subjects. We report a patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, and delayed myelination caused by a novel SLC16A2 mutation (p.L291R). The thyroid hormones profile in our patient was atypical for Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. The follow-up examinations showed that the progression of the myelination was not accompanied by a clinical improvement. Our paper suggests that SLC16A2 mutations should be investigated in patients with myelination delay even when the thyroid function is not conclusively altered.

  7. Frequency comparison involving the Romanian primary length standard RO.1 within the framework of the EUROMET Project #498

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Gheorghe

    2001-06-01

    An international frequency comparison was carried out at the Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswessen (BEV), Vienna, within the framework of the EUROMET Project #498 from August 29 to September 5, 1999. The frequency differences obtained when the RO.1 laser from the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Romania, was compared with five lasers from Austria (BEV1), Czech Republic (PLD1), France (BIPM3), Poland (GUM1) and Hungary (OMH1) are reported. Frequency differences were computed by using the matrix determinations for the group d, e, f, g. Considering the frequency differences measured for a group of three lasers compared to each other, we call the closing frequency the difference between measured and expected frequency difference (resulting from the previous two measurements). For the RO1 laser, when the BIPM3 laser was the reference laser, the closing frequencies range from +8.1 kHz to - 3.8 kHz. The relative Allan standard deviation was used to express the frequency stability and resulted 3.8 parts in 1012 for 100 s sampling time and 14000 s duration of the measurements. The averaged offset frequency relative to the BIPM4 stationary laser was 5.6 kHz and the standard deviation was 9.9 kHz.

  8. 38 CFR 49.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 49.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may..., which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by Federal awarding...

  9. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  10. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  11. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2341(2)), or with United Nations or NATO organizations; and (ii) Such governments or organizations will...). (2) Contracting officers outside the United States may deviate from prescribed nonstatutory FAR...

  12. Allan C. Gotlib, DC, CM: A worthy Member of the Order of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    On June 29, 2012, His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, announced 70 new appointments to the Order of Canada. Among them was Dr. Allan Gotlib, who was subsequently installed as a Member of the Order of Canada, in recognition of his contributions to advancing research in the chiropractic profession and its inter-professional integration. This paper attempts an objective view of his career, to substantiate the accomplishments that led to Dr. Gotlib receiving Canada’s highest civilian honour. PMID:27069273

  13. Noble gases in twenty Yamato H-chondrites: Comparison with Allan Hills chondrites and modern falls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeken, TH.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration and isotopic composition of noble gases have been measured in 20 H-chrondrites found on the Yamato Mountains ice fields in Antarctica. The distribution of exposure ages as well as of radiogenic He-4 contents is similar to that of H-chrondrites collected at the Allan Hills site. Furthermore, a comparison of the noble gas record of Antarctic H-chrondrites and finds or falls from non-Antarctic areas gives no support to the suggestion that Antarctic H-chrondrites and modern falls derive from differing interplanetary meteorite populations.

  14. The discovery and initial characterization of Allan Hills 81005 - The first lunar meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1983-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALHA81005, discovered in the Allan Hills region of Victoria Land, is a polymict anorthositic breccia which differs from other meteorites in mineralogical and chemical composition but is strikingly similar to lunar highlands soil breccias. The petrologic character and several independent lines of evidence identify ALHA81005 as a meteorite from the moon. Two small clasts of probable mare basalt occur among the highlands lithologies in Thin Section 81005,22. This lunar specimen, which shows relatively minor shock effects, has generated new ideas on the types of planetary samples found on the earth.

  15. Investigation of Allan variance for determining noise spectral forms with application to microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, William D.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of the Allan variance method as a possible means for characterizing fluctuations in radiometric noise diodes has been performed. The goal is to separate fluctuation components into white noise, flicker noise, and random-walk noise. The primary means is by discrete-time processing, and the study focused primarily on the digital processes involved. Noise satisfying the requirements was generated by direct convolution, fast Fourier transformation (FFT) processing in the time domain, and FFT processing in the frequency domain. Some of the numerous results obtained are presented along with the programs used in the study.

  16. Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations.

  17. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. V - Ordinary chondrites at the Allan Hills ice fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low, while the Farwestern field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less than 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

  18. Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343

  19. [Fibrin glue for operative correction of septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Boenisch, M; Nolst Trenité, G J

    2004-11-01

    The routine procedure after correction of septal deviations is the utilization of endonasal packing in order to avoid septal haematoma. However, the mechanical pressure of this packing damages the mucociliar activity of the mucosa and causes lymphoedema by blocking the lymphatic vessels. Besides it represents a foreign body within the nose causing pain and unpleasant feeling for the patient. In order to avoid these disadvantages, in 57 patients we used fibrin glue instead of nasal packing. After correction of the septal deviation the two mucoperichondrium blades where fixed together with Tissucol Duo Quick. This technique not only leads to haemostasis, but also provides fixation of the newly modeled septum. In only one patient we found a small unilateral septal haematoma, in all other cases the postoperative period showed no complications. Patients had a significant reduction of endonasal crusts and postoperative swelling. Patients comfort increased significant without the (standard) nasal packing.

  20. Onomastic Mirroring: "The Closing of the American Mind" by Allan Bloom and "Lives on the Boundary" by Mike Rose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Karl

    Although Allan Bloom in "The Closing of the American Mind" and Mike Rose in "Lives on the Boundary" reveal an almost endless list of obvious differences of perspective on literacy and higher education in America, both take divergent yet similar routes to create a permanent place for liberal education. Both Bloom and Rose use…

  1. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  3. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  4. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  5. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  6. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  7. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  8. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  9. Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

  10. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  11. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  12. 15 CFR 14.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for.... Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the Assistant Secretary. An exception made on a case-by-case basis will apply to a single award....

  13. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for... awarding small awards, except for those requirements which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the USAID Deputy Assistant Administrator for Management....

  14. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  15. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  16. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officials may authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The... the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA... solicitation when IA makes the following determinations and the appropriate official takes the...

  17. 7 CFR 2502.3 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 2502.3 Section 2502.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CAREER AND EMPLOYMENT (ACE) GRANTS PROGRAM General Information § 2502.3...

  18. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  19. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  1. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  2. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  3. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  4. A unique type 3 ordinary chondrite containing graphite-magnetite aggregates - Allan Hills A77011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinley, S. G.; Scott, E. R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1982-01-01

    ALHA 77011, which is the object of study in the present investigation, is a chondrite of the 1977 meteorite collection from Allan Hills, Antarctica. It contains an opaque and recrystallized silicate matrix (Huss matrix) and numerous aggregates consisting of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. It is pointed out that no abundant graphite-magnetite aggregates could be observed in other type 3 ordinary chondrites, except for Sharps. Attention is given to the results of a modal analysis, relations between ALHA 77011 and other type 3 ordinary chondrites, and the association of graphite-magnetite and metallic Fe, Ni. The discovery of graphite-magnetite aggregates in type 3 ordinary chondrites is found to suggest that this material may have been an important component in the formation of ordinary chondrites.

  5. Composition of bulk samples and a possible pristine clast from Allan Hills A81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Abundances of thirty-five elements were determined in two bulk samples and a white clast in the Allan Hills A81005 meteorite. High siderophile element content indicates that the sample is a regolith breccia. An Fe/Mn ratio of 77 in this meteorite eliminates parent bodies of known differentiated meteorites as the source of ALHA 81005. The incompatible elements are very similar to those found in most lunar highlands rocks, and provide very strong evidence that the sample is lunar in origin. The clast sample has the trace element pattern of a lunar anorthosite and is very low in KREEP and siderophile elements. It may be a fragment of a pristine lunar rock.

  6. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years.

  7. Investigations into an unknown organism on the martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001.

    PubMed

    Steele, A; Goddard, D T; Stapleton, D; Toporski, J K; Peters, V; Bassinger, V; Sharples, G; Wynn-Williams, D D; McKay, D S

    2000-03-01

    Examination of fracture surfaces near the fusion crust of the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 have been conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and has revealed structures strongly resembling mycelium. These structures were compared with similar structures found in Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. On morphology alone, we conclude that these features are not only terrestrial in origin but probably belong to a member of the Actinomycetales, which we consider was introduced during the Antarctic residency of this meteorite. If true, this is the first documented account of terrestrial microbial activity within a meteorite from the Antarctic blue ice fields. These structures, however, do not bear any resemblance to those postulated to be martian biota, although they are a probable source of the organic contaminants previously reported in this meteorite.

  8. Investigations into an unknown organism on the martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, A.; Goddard, D. T.; Stapleton, D.; Toporski, J. K.; Peters, V.; Bassinger, V.; Sharples, G.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.; McKay, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Examination of fracture surfaces near the fusion crust of the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 have been conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and has revealed structures strongly resembling mycelium. These structures were compared with similar structures found in Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. On morphology alone, we conclude that these features are not only terrestrial in origin but probably belong to a member of the Actinomycetales, which we consider was introduced during the Antarctic residency of this meteorite. If true, this is the first documented account of terrestrial microbial activity within a meteorite from the Antarctic blue ice fields. These structures, however, do not bear any resemblance to those postulated to be martian biota, although they are a probable source of the organic contaminants previously reported in this meteorite.

  9. The MCT8 thyroid hormone transporter and Allan--Herndon--Dudley syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Charles E.; Stevenson, Roger E.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for the proper development and function of the brain. The active form of thyroid hormone is T3, which binds to nuclear receptors. Recently, a transporter specific for T3, MCT8 (monocarboxylate transporter 8) was identified. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain. The gene is located in Xq13 and mutations in MCT8 are responsible for an X-linked condition, Allan--Herndon--Dudley syndrome (AHDS). This syndrome is characterized by congenital hypotonia that progresses to spasticity with severe psychomotor delays. Affected males also present with muscle hypoplasia, generalized muscle weakness, and limited speech. Importantly, these patients have elevated serum levels of free T3, low to below normal serum levels of free T4, and levels of thyroid stimulating hormone that are within the normal range. This constellation of measurements of thyroid function enables quick screening for AHDS in males presenting with mental retardation, congenital hypotonia, and generalized muscle weakness. PMID:17574010

  10. The MCT8 thyroid hormone transporter and Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Charles E; Stevenson, Roger E

    2007-06-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for the proper development and function of the brain. The active form of thyroid hormone is T(3), which binds to nuclear receptors. Recently, a transporter specific for T(3), MCT8 (monocarboxylate transporter 8) was identified. MCT8 is highly expressed in liver and brain. The gene is located in Xq13 and mutations in MCT8 are responsible for an X-linked condition, Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). This syndrome is characterized by congenital hypotonia that progresses to spasticity with severe psychomotor delays. Affected males also present with muscle hypoplasia, generalized muscle weakness, and limited speech. Importantly, these patients have elevated serum levels of free T(3), low to below normal serum levels of free T(4), and levels of thyroid stimulating hormone that are within the normal range. This constellation of measurements of thyroid function enables quick screening for AHDS in males presenting with cognitive impairment, congenital hypotonia, and generalized muscle weakness.

  11. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  12. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-12-07

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long ( 6 × 10 5 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series.

  13. Allan Hills 76005 Polymict Eucrite Pairing Group: Curatorial and Scientific Update on a Jointly Curated Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.

    2011-01-01

    Allan Hills 76005 (or 765) was collected by the joint US-Japan field search for meteorites in 1976-77. It was described in detail as "pale gray in color and consists of finely divided macrocrystalline pyroxene-rich matrix that contains abundant clastic fragments: (1) Clasts of white, plagioclase-rich rocks. (2) Medium-gray, partly devitrified, cryptocrystalline. (3) Monomineralic fragments and grains of pyroxene, plagioclases, oxide minerals, sulfides, and metal. In overall appearance it is very similar to some lunar breccias." Subsequent studies found a great diversity of basaltic clast textures and compositions, and therefore it is best classified as a polymict eucrite. Samples from the 1976-77, 77-78, and 78-79 field seasons (76, 77, and 78 prefixes) were split between US and Japan (NIPR). The US specimens are currently at NASA-JSC, Smithsonian Institution, or the Field Museum in Chicago. After this initial finding of ALH 76005, the next year s team recovered one additional mass ALH 77302, and then four additional masses were found during the third season ALH 78040 and ALH 78132, 78158 and 78165. The joint US-Japan collection effort ended after three years and the US began collecting in the Trans-Antarctic Mountains with the 1979-80 and subsequent field seasons. ALH 79017 and ALH 80102 were recovered in these first two years, and then in 1981-82 field season, 6 additional masses were recovered from the Allan Hills. Of course it took some time to establish pairing of all of these specimens, but altogether the samples comprise 4292.4 g of material. Here will be summarized the scientific findings as well as some curatorial details of how specimens have been subdivided and allocated for study. A detailed summary is also presented on the NASA-JSC curation webpage for the HED meteorite compendium.

  14. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long (6×105 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series. PMID:27941600

  15. Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome and the Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 (MCT8) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Charles E. ; May, Melanie M. ; Carpenter, Nancy J. ; Rogers, R. Curtis ; Martin, Judith ; Bialer, Martin G. ; Ward, Jewell ; Sanabria, Javier ; Marsa, Silvana ; Lewis, James A. ; Echeverri, Roberto ; Lubs, Herbert A. ; Voeller, Kytja ; Simensen, Richard J. ; Stevenson, Roger E. 

    2005-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was among the first of the X-linked mental retardation syndromes to be described (in 1944) and among the first to be regionally mapped on the X chromosome (in 1990). Six large families with the syndrome have been identified, and linkage studies have placed the gene locus in Xq13.2. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8) have been found in each of the six families. One essential function of the protein encoded by this gene appears to be the transport of triiodothyronine into neurons. Abnormal transporter function is reflected in elevated free triiodothyronine and lowered free thyroxine levels in the blood. Infancy and childhood in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are marked by hypotonia, weakness, reduced muscle mass, and delay of developmental milestones. Facial manifestations are not distinctive, but the face tends to be elongated with bifrontal narrowing, and the ears are often simply formed or cupped. Some patients have myopathic facies. Generalized weakness is manifested by excessive drooling, forward positioning of the head and neck, failure to ambulate independently, or ataxia in those who do ambulate. Speech is dysarthric or absent altogether. Hypotonia gives way in adult life to spasticity. The hands exhibit dystonic and athetoid posturing and fisting. Cognitive development is severely impaired. No major malformations occur, intrauterine growth is not impaired, and head circumference and genital development are usually normal. Behavior tends to be passive, with little evidence of aggressive or disruptive behavior. Although clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction are usually absent in affected males, the disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones suggest the possibility of systematic detection through screening of high-risk populations. PMID:15889350

  16. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Charles E; May, Melanie M; Carpenter, Nancy J; Rogers, R Curtis; Martin, Judith; Bialer, Martin G; Ward, Jewell; Sanabria, Javier; Marsa, Silvana; Lewis, James A; Echeverri, Roberto; Lubs, Herbert A; Voeller, Kytja; Simensen, Richard J; Stevenson, Roger E

    2005-07-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was among the first of the X-linked mental retardation syndromes to be described (in 1944) and among the first to be regionally mapped on the X chromosome (in 1990). Six large families with the syndrome have been identified, and linkage studies have placed the gene locus in Xq13.2. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8) have been found in each of the six families. One essential function of the protein encoded by this gene appears to be the transport of triiodothyronine into neurons. Abnormal transporter function is reflected in elevated free triiodothyronine and lowered free thyroxine levels in the blood. Infancy and childhood in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are marked by hypotonia, weakness, reduced muscle mass, and delay of developmental milestones. Facial manifestations are not distinctive, but the face tends to be elongated with bifrontal narrowing, and the ears are often simply formed or cupped. Some patients have myopathic facies. Generalized weakness is manifested by excessive drooling, forward positioning of the head and neck, failure to ambulate independently, or ataxia in those who do ambulate. Speech is dysarthric or absent altogether. Hypotonia gives way in adult life to spasticity. The hands exhibit dystonic and athetoid posturing and fisting. Cognitive development is severely impaired. No major malformations occur, intrauterine growth is not impaired, and head circumference and genital development are usually normal. Behavior tends to be passive, with little evidence of aggressive or disruptive behavior. Although clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction are usually absent in affected males, the disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones suggest the possibility of systematic detection through screening of high-risk populations.

  17. The Natural Thermoluminescence of Meteorites. Part 5; Ordinary Chondrites at the Allan Hills Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Hazel; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Natural thermoluminescence (TL) data have been obtained for 167 ordinary chondrites from the ice fields in the vicinity of the Allan Hills in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in order to investigate their thermal and radiation history, pairing, terrestrial age, and concentration mechanisms. Using fairly conservative criteria (including natural and induced TL, find location, and petrographic data), the 167 meteorite fragments are thought to represent a maximum of 129 separate meteorites. Natural TL values for meteorites from the Main ice field are fairly low (typically 5-30 krad, indicative of terrestrial ages of approx. 400 ka), while the Far western field shows a spread with many values 30-80 krad, suggestive of less then 150-ka terrestrial ages. There appear to be trends in TL levels within individual ice fields which are suggestive of directions of ice movement at these sites during the period of meteorite concentration. These directions seem to be confirmed by the orientations of elongation preserved in meteorite pairing groups. The proportion of meteorites with very low natural TL levels (less then 5 krad) at each field is comparable to that observed at the Lewis Cliff site and for modern non-Antarctic falls and is also similar to the fraction of small perihelia (less then 0.85 AU) orbits calculated from fireball and fall observations. Induced TL data for meteorites from the Allan Hills confirm trends observed for meteorites collected during the 1977/1978 and 1978/1979 field seasons which show that a select group of H chondrites from the Antarctic experienced a different extraterrestrial thermal history to that of non-Antarctic H chondrites.

  18. On large deviations for ensembles of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khrychev, D A

    2013-11-30

    The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  19. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  20. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  1. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid plants.

    PubMed

    Grandont, L; Jenczewski, E; Lloyd, A

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis is a fundamental process in all sexual organisms that ensures fertility and genome stability and creates genetic diversity. For each of these outcomes, the exclusive formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes is needed. This is more difficult to achieve in polyploid species which have more than 2 sets of chromosomes able to recombine. In this review, we describe how meiosis and meiotic recombination 'deviate' in polyploid plants compared to diploids, and give an overview of current knowledge on how they are regulated. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Stenberg and Saura in this themed issue.

  2. Penile ossification and acquired penile deviation.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W K; Schaefer, H E; Westenfelder, M

    1995-01-01

    We report on 3 patients with penile deviation during erection caused by ossification in the corpora cavernosa. In each case hard plaques could be palpated. These indurations were removed through a dorsal longitudinal incision. Histologically, solid bone was demonstrable. Two patients were able to resume normal sexual intercourse, but one became impotent following postoperative cavernitis. Penile ossification is rare in man, and its etiology is unknown. It bears no relationship to the os penis normally present in many other mammals. Diagnosis is best made by palpation and X-ray examination. The treatment of choice for symptomatic ossification is surgical excision.

  3. Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  4. Spotting deviations from R2 inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Elizalde, Emilio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.

  5. Atmospheric composition 1 million years ago from blue ice in the Allan Hills, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John A; Kurbatov, Andrei V; Spaulding, Nicole E; Brook, Ed; Introne, Douglas S; Chimiak, Laura M; Yan, Yuzhen; Mayewski, Paul A; Bender, Michael L

    2015-06-02

    Here, we present direct measurements of atmospheric composition and Antarctic climate from the mid-Pleistocene (∼1 Ma) from ice cores drilled in the Allan Hills blue ice area, Antarctica. The 1-Ma ice is dated from the deficit in (40)Ar relative to the modern atmosphere and is present as a stratigraphically disturbed 12-m section at the base of a 126-m ice core. The 1-Ma ice appears to represent most of the amplitude of contemporaneous climate cycles and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the ice range from 221 to 277 ppm and 411 to 569 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. These concentrations, together with measured δD of the ice, are at the warm end of the field for glacial-interglacial cycles of the last 800 ky and span only about one-half of the range. The highest CO2 values in the 1-Ma ice fall within the range of interglacial values of the last 400 ka but are up to 7 ppm higher than any interglacial values between 450 and 800 ka. The lowest CO2 values are 30 ppm higher than during any glacial period between 450 and 800 ka. This study shows that the coupling of Antarctic temperature and atmospheric CO2 extended into the mid-Pleistocene and demonstrates the feasibility of discontinuously extending the current ice core record beyond 800 ka by shallow coring in Antarctic blue ice areas.

  6. Metal with anomalously low Ni and Ge concentrations in the Allan Hills A77081 winonaite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kracher, Alfred

    1988-01-01

    The Ge content of metal in the Allan Hills A77081 winonaite was determined by high-sensitivity electron microprobe analysis. By optimizing analytical conditions for Ge determination, a detection limit of about 75 ppm could be achieved. In A77081 some small kamacite grains contain less Ni and Ge and more Co than coarse-grained metal. These small grains are always associated with sulfide, raising the possibility that anomalous metal is related to eutectic melting. However, when published partition coefficients for Ni and Ge in the Fe-Ni-S system are used to model fractionation of these elements during eutectic melting, one finds that secondary metal should be enriched in Ni and depleted in Ge. Thus, the positive Ni-Ge correlation found in this study is the opposite of the expected trend. No explanation for this discrepancy has yet been found. Nonetheless, the existence of anomalous metal is an indication that A77081, and probably other winonaites as well, have undergone some fractionation. This supports the notion that the high-temperature history of winonaites is related to the formation of IAB iron meteorites, whose silicate inclusions are very similar to winonaites.

  7. Atmospheric composition 1 million years ago from blue ice in the Allan Hills, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, John A.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Spaulding, Nicole E.; Brook, Ed; Introne, Douglas S.; Chimiak, Laura M.; Yan, Yuzhen; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bender, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present direct measurements of atmospheric composition and Antarctic climate from the mid-Pleistocene (∼1 Ma) from ice cores drilled in the Allan Hills blue ice area, Antarctica. The 1-Ma ice is dated from the deficit in 40Ar relative to the modern atmosphere and is present as a stratigraphically disturbed 12-m section at the base of a 126-m ice core. The 1-Ma ice appears to represent most of the amplitude of contemporaneous climate cycles and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the ice range from 221 to 277 ppm and 411 to 569 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. These concentrations, together with measured δD of the ice, are at the warm end of the field for glacial–interglacial cycles of the last 800 ky and span only about one-half of the range. The highest CO2 values in the 1-Ma ice fall within the range of interglacial values of the last 400 ka but are up to 7 ppm higher than any interglacial values between 450 and 800 ka. The lowest CO2 values are 30 ppm higher than during any glacial period between 450 and 800 ka. This study shows that the coupling of Antarctic temperature and atmospheric CO2 extended into the mid-Pleistocene and demonstrates the feasibility of discontinuously extending the current ice core record beyond 800 ka by shallow coring in Antarctic blue ice areas. PMID:25964367

  8. THE DEAD-LIVING-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S SHORT STORIES.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro

    2016-06-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.

  9. Novel SLC16A2 mutations in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Keiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Imai, Ayako; Inoue, Ken; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Summary Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is an X-linked disorder caused by impaired thyroid hormone transporter. Patients with AHDS usually exhibit severe motor developmental delay, delayed myelination of the brain white matter, and elevated T3 levels in thyroid tests. Neurological examination of two patients with neurodevelopmental delay revealed generalized hypotonia, and not paresis, as the main neurological finding. Nystagmus and dyskinesia were not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated delayed myelination in early childhood in both patients. Nevertheless, matured myelination was observed at 6 years of age in one patient. Although the key finding for AHDS is elevated free T3, one of the patients showed a normal T3 level in childhood, misleading the diagnosis of AHDS. Genetic analysis revealed two novel SLC16A2 mutations, p.(Gly122Val) and p.(Gly221Ser), confirming the AHDS diagnosis. These results indicate that AHDS diagnosis is sometimes challenging owing to clinical variability among patients. PMID:27672545

  10. A legacy in 20th-century medicine: Robert Allan Phillips and the taming of cholera.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Stephen J

    2002-09-15

    The legacy of Captain Robert Allan Phillips (1906-1976) was to establish effective, evidence-based rehydration methods for the treatment of cholera. As a Navy Lieutenant at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (New York, New York) during World War II, Phillips developed a field method for the rapid assessment of fluid loss in wounded servicemen. After the war, he championed the establishment of United States Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU)-3 (Cairo; 1946) and NAMRU-2 (Taipei; 1955), serving at the helm of both units. Phillips embarked on cholera studies during the 1947 Egyptian cholera epidemic and brought them to maturity at NAMRU-2 (1958-1965), elucidating the pathophysiologic derangements induced by cholera and developing highly efficacious methods of intravenous rehydration. His conception of a simpler cholera treatment was realized in the late 1960s with the development of glucose-based oral rehydration therapy, a monumental breakthrough to which many other investigators made vital contributions. Today, these simple advances have been integrated into everyday medical practice across the globe, saving millions of lives annually.

  11. Proposed Ice Flow, Given 200m and 400m Additional Ice in the Allan Hills Region, Antarctica: Implications for Meteorite Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub-Metlay, S.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1992-07-01

    The Allan Hills-David Glacier region contains some of the most highly populated meteorite stranding surfaces in Antarctica. Nearly 2000 meteorites have to date been collected from the icefields associated with the Allan Hills, and nearly 1500 from areas around Elephant Moraine. While much attention has been focused on the current geological and glaciological conditions of these stranding surfaces, less work has been done concerning what they may have looked like in the past, when ice thicknesses may have been greater. In this study, conjectural maps of the current Allan Hills area with 200 meters and 400 meters of additional ice cover each are analyzed for probable regional and local ice flow patterns. A dramatic decrease in ice thickness over a relatively brief period of time could result either from climatic change or a geologically rapid regional uplift. Delisle and Sievers (1991) noted that the valley between the Allan Hills Main Icefield and the Allan Hills resembles a half-graben resulting from east-west extensional tectonics, and that the mesa-like bedrock features associated with the Near Western and Mid Western Icefields resemble fault blocks. They concluded that the Allan Hills area icefields may have become active stranding surfaces as a result of a regional uplift within the past 1-2 million years, assuming a current rate of uplift in the Allan Hills region of ~100 meters/million years. Whether the cause was climatic or tectonic, generalized maps of current ice contours plus 400 and 200 meters ice may provide views of what the Allan Hills region looked like just before activation of the modern meteorite stranding surfaces (Figs. 1 and 2). At an ice thickness greater by 400 meters, ice could flow smoothly over the Allan Hills and would drain down to the Mawson Glacier via the Odell Glacier, east of the Allan Hills; down the Manhaul Bay depression between the east and west arms of Allan Hills; and down the half-graben discovered by Delisle and Sievers

  12. Large deviations for nonlocal stochastic neural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Christian; Riedler, Martin G

    2014-04-17

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers' law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20.

  13. Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.P. )

    1993-11-22

    A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

  14. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid animals.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, P; Saura, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the different modes of meiosis and its deviations encountered in polyploid animals. Bisexual reproduction involving normal meiosis occurs in some allopolyploid frogs with variable degrees of polyploidy. Aberrant modes of bisexual reproduction include gynogenesis, where a sperm stimulates the egg to develop. The sperm may enter the egg but there is no fertilization and syngamy. In hybridogenesis, a genome is eliminated to produce haploid or diploid eggs or sperm. Ploidy can be elevated by fertilization with a haploid sperm in meiotic hybridogenesis, which elevates the ploidy of hybrid offspring such that they produce diploid gametes. Polyploids are then produced in the next generation. In kleptogenesis, females acquire full or partial genomes from their partners. In pre-equalizing hybrid meiosis, one genome is transmitted in the Mendelian fashion, while the other is transmitted clonally. Parthenogenetic animals have a very wide range of mechanisms for restoring or maintaining the mother's ploidy level, including gamete duplication, terminal fusion, central fusion, fusion of the first polar nucleus with the product of the first division, and premeiotic duplication followed by a normal meiosis. In apomictic parthenogenesis, meiosis is replaced by what is effectively mitotic cell division. The above modes have different evolutionary consequences, which are discussed. See also the sister article by Grandont et al. in this themed issue.

  15. Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

  16. Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus…

  17. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Requirements § 63.1965 What is a deviation? A deviation is defined in § 63.1990. For the purposes of...

  18. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph...

  19. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  20. Carbonates in fractures of Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: petrologic evidence for impact origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R.; Krot, A. N.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Carbonates in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 occur as grains on pyroxene grain boundaries, in crushed zones, and as disks, veins, and irregularly shaped grains in healed pyroxene fractures. Some carbonate disks have tapered Mg-rich edges and are accompanied by smaller, thinner and relatively homogeneous, magnesite microdisks. Except for the microdisks, all types of carbonate grains show the same unique chemical zoning pattern on MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3 plots. This chemical characteristic and the close spatial association of diverse carbonate types show that all carbonates formed by a similar process. The heterogeneous distribution of carbonates in fractures, tapered shapes of some disks, and the localized occurrence of Mg-rich microdisks appear to be incompatible with growth from an externally derived CO2-rich fluid that changed in composition over time. These features suggest instead that the fractures were closed as carbonates grew from an internally derived fluid and that the microdisks formed from a residual Mg-rich fluid that was squeezed along fractures. Carbonate in pyroxene fractures is most abundant near grains of plagioclase glass that are located on pyroxene grain boundaries and commonly contain major or minor amounts of carbonate. We infer that carbonates in fractures formed from grain boundary carbonates associated with plagiociase that were melted by impact and dispersed into the surrounding fractured pyroxene. Carbonates in fractures, which include those studied by McKay et al. (1996), could not have formed at low temperatures and preserved mineralogical evidence for Martian organisms.

  1. Mutations in MCT8 in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley-syndrome affecting its cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Simone; Kremers, Gert-Jan; Friesema, Edith C H; Visser, W Edward; Klootwijk, Wim; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone (TH)-specific transporter. Mutations in the MCT8 gene are associated with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), consisting of severe psychomotor retardation and disturbed TH parameters. To study the functional consequences of different MCT8 mutations in detail, we combined functional analysis in different cell types with live-cell imaging of the cellular distribution of seven mutations that we identified in patients with AHDS. We used two cell models to study the mutations in vitro: 1) transiently transfected COS1 and JEG3 cells, and 2) stably transfected Flp-in 293 cells expressing a MCT8-cyan fluorescent protein construct. All seven mutants were expressed at the protein level and showed a defect in T3 and T4 transport in uptake and metabolism studies. Three mutants (G282C, P537L, and G558D) had residual uptake activity in Flp-in 293 and COS1 cells, but not in JEG3 cells. Four mutants (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) were expressed at the plasma membrane. The mobility in the plasma membrane of P537L was similar to WT, but the mobility of P321L was altered. The other mutants studied (insV236, G282C, G558D) were predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In essence, loss of function by MCT8 mutations can be divided in two groups: mutations that result in partial or complete loss of transport activity (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) and mutations that mainly disturb protein expression and trafficking (insV236, G282C, G558D). The cell type-dependent results suggest that MCT8 mutations in AHDS patients may have tissue-specific effects on TH transport probably caused by tissue-specific expression of yet unknown MCT8-interacting proteins.

  2. On-chip multi spectral frequency standard replication by stabilizing a microring resonator to a molecular line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zektzer, Roy; Stern, Liron; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel

    2016-07-01

    Stabilized laser lines are highly desired for myriad of applications ranging from precise measurements to optical communications. While stabilization can be obtained by using molecular or atomic absorption references, these are limited to specific frequencies. On the other hand, resonators can be used as wide band frequency references. Unfortunately, such resonators are unstable and inaccurate. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a chip-scale multispectral frequency standard replication operating in the spectral range of the near IR. This is obtained by frequency locking a microring resonator (MRR) to an acetylene absorption line. The MRR consists of a Si3N4 waveguides with microheater on top of it. The thermo-optic effect is utilized to lock one of the MRR resonances to an acetylene line. This locked MRR is then used to stabilize other laser sources at 980 nm and 1550 nm wavelength. By beating the stabilized laser to another stabilized laser, we obtained frequency instability floor of 4 ×10-9 at around 100 s in terms of Allan deviation. Such stable and accurate chip scale sources are expected to serve as important building block in diverse fields such as communication and metrology.

  3. The periodogram and Allan variance reveal fractal exponents greater than unity in auditory-nerve spike trains.

    PubMed

    Lowen, S B; Teich, M C

    1996-06-01

    Auditory-nerve spike trains exhibit fractal behavior, and therefore traditional renewal-point-process models fail to describe them adequately. Previous measures of the fractal exponent of these spike trains are based on the Fano factor and consequently cannot exceed unity. Two estimates of the fractal exponent are considered which do not suffer from this limit: one derived from the Allan variance, which was developed by the authors, and one based on the periodogram. These measures indicate that fractal exponents do indeed exceed unity for some nerve-spike recordings from stimulated primary afferent cat auditory-nerve fibers.

  4. Bulk and Stable Isotopic Compositions of Carbonate Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: No Proof of High Formation Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the origin of carbonate minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is crucial to evaluating the hypothesis that they contain traces of ancient Martian life. Using arguments based on chemical equilibria among carbonates and fluids, an origin at greater than 650 C (inimical to life) has been proposed. However, the bulk and stable isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals are open to multiple interpretations and so lend no particular support to a high-temperature origin. Other methods (possibly less direct) will have to be used to determine the formation temperature of the carbonates in ALH 84001.

  5. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  6. Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.

  7. Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

  8. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  9. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  10. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  11. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  12. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  13. 49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.943 When can an operator deviate from these...

  14. MUSiC - An Automated Scan for Deviations between Data and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Arnd

    2010-02-10

    A model independent analysis approach is presented, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the standard model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of event generators. The approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of.

  15. Deviation of the fully protracted tongue: is it a reliable indicator for language cerebral dominance?

    PubMed

    Abu Ghaida, Jamaledin; Hani, Saleh Bani; Mustafa, Ayman; Eldwairi, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    Since its introduction in 1960, The Wada test has been considered the gold standard for language lateralization prior to ablative brain surgery. Due to the invasive nature of The Wada test several non-invasive techniques have been alternatively adopted. Recently, it has been suggested that the tongue deviates toward the language dominant cerebral hemisphere on full protraction. This suggestion is based on the important role the tongue plays in articulation and on the close anatomical relationship between the cortical tongue motor area and the motor speech area. It was proposed that this phenomenon could serve as a reliable and simple method for language brain lateralization. However, this hypothesis is still open for verification. In an attempt to correlate tongue deviation and language cerebral dominance we present and discuss in this paper the results of a study conducted on 339 free adult Jordanian volunteers. Tongue deviation and handedness were determined and statistically correlated. Our results showed that 62% of test subjects did not show any tongue deviation on full protrusion. Additionally, 9% of test subjects showed left-sided tongue deviation on full protraction in spite of 90% right handedness with presumed left language dominant cerebral hemisphere. We conclude that, at least in Jordanians, tongue deviation cannot be considered as a reliable indicator for language lateralization.

  16. Utilizing "The William Allan Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model" as a Means to Cultivate a Legacy of Transformational Leaders in Schools: A National Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre

    2007-01-01

    The Kritsonis Teeter-Totter Model, developed by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, is utilized to cultivate a legacy of transformational leaders in schools throughout the United States. In a time when change in schools is inevitable, the model aides school leaders in better defining their individual role in schools and that of their stakeholders in…

  17. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  18. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  19. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  20. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  1. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... number(s) of the DOE-PMR; (2) The reason why the deviation is considered necessary or would be in the...) Requests for deviations from applicable portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR (except aviation related portions... related portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR concerning aviation operations shall be forwarded by the OPMO...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  7. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  8. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  9. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  10. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  15. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section... Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There shall be written procedures for... in this subpart. These written procedures, including any changes, shall be drafted, reviewed,...

  16. Syntactic Deviations in the Novel "The Sound and the Fury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alirezazadeh, Pooria; Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at William Faulkner's work "The Sound and the Fury." The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for…

  17. 7 CFR 3015.3 - Conflicting policies and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicting policies and deviations. 3015.3 Section... Conflicting policies and deviations. (a) Statutory provisions. Federal statutes that apply to some USDA grant..., when permissible under existing laws. In those instances where a program receives an exception to...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance... landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a) through (c.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  19. 10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... create a potential or real vulnerability); or (3) An exception (i.e., an approved deviation from...

  20. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  1. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  2. Vibrational investigation on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, IR intensity, Raman activity, peak resemblance, ideal estimation, standard deviation of computed frequencies analyses and electronic structure on 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene using HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, S.; Jayaprakash, A.; Mohan, S.; Karabacak, M.

    2011-11-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm -1) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the calculations have been used to simulate IR and Raman spectra for the molecule that showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The potential energy distribution (PED) corresponding to each of the observed frequencies are calculated which confirms the reliability and precision of the assignment and analysis of the vibrational fundamentals modes. The oscillation of vibrational frequencies of butadiene due to the couple of methyl group is also discussed. A study on the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures reveal the correlations between standard heat capacities ( C) standard entropies ( S), and standard enthalpy changes ( H).

  3. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  4. Regolith breccia Allan Hills A81005 - Evidence of lunar origin, and petrography of pristine and nonpristine clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the ratios of MnO/FeO in pyroxene, texture (abundant brown and swirly glass, which are typical of lunar regolith breccias) and overall composition (approximately 75 percent plagioclase) indicate a lunar origin for the regolith breccia Allan Hills A81005, presumably from an unsampled region of the moon. The rock is found to differ in detail from other regolith samples; for example, it has exceptionally low contents of Na and KREEP. In addition, a pristine clast is found to contain exceptionally coarse augite in comparison with similar Apollo samples. It is found that ALHA81005 is not perceptibly more shocked than typical Apollo regolith breccias. It is concluded that the discovery of this rock on earth strengthens the suggestion that SNC achondrites were derived by impact ejection from Mars.

  5. A 7-month-old male with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the power of T3.

    PubMed

    Langley, Katherine G; Trau, Steven; Bean, Lora J H; Narravula, Alekhya; Schrier Vergano, Samantha A

    2015-05-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS, MIM 300523) is an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder characterized by intellectual disability, severe hypotonia, diminished muscle mass, and progressive spastic paraplegia. All affected males have pathognomonic thyroid profiles with an elevated T3 , low-normal free T4 , and normal TSH. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene, SLC16A2, have been found to be causative. Here, we describe a proband whose extensive evaluation and ultimate diagnosis of AHDS unmasked three previously undiagnosed generations of affected individuals in one family. This case illustrates the need for clinicians to consider obtaining full thyroid studies on individuals with the non-specific findings of severe hypotonia, failure to thrive, and gross motor delay.

  6. The final days of Edgar Allan Poe: clues to an old mystery using 21st century medical science.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roger A

    This study examines all documented information regarding the final days and death of Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), in an attempt to determine the most likely cause of death of the American poet, short story writer, and literary critic. Information was gathered from letters, newspaper accounts, and magazine articles written during the period after Poe's death, and also from biographies and medical journal articles written up until the present. A chronology of Poe's final days was constructed, and this was used to form a differential diagnosis of possible causes of death. Death theories over the last 160 years were analyzed using this information. This analysis, along with a review of Poe's past medical history, would seem to support an alcohol-related cause of death.

  7. Vertical deviations of the midplane of the Galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.

    Besides the integral sign warp in the outer Galaxy, the gas in the Milky Way shows small, but systematic deviations from a flat z = 0 plane both in the inner and the outer Galaxy. In the inner Galaxy, the tangent points have no distance ambiguity, so their distances, and hence midplane deviations, can be measured. From the tangent point analysis the authors find that the molecular and atomic gas layers deviate from the z = 0 plane with an amplitude of ≅50 pc. Whether these deviations are due to a small, smooth inner warp or are similar to the m = 10 mode corrugations found in the outer Galaxy (Kulkarni, Blitz & Heiles, 1982) can be checked by looking at the two-dimensional (in Galactic radius and azimuthal angle) structure of the z deviations. For the inner Galaxy, distance ambiguity at points other than the tangent points makes the interpretation difficult, but these hypotheses can be checked in a limited way. Magnetic instabilities can cause vertical deviations of the gas, but if stars share the same deviations the origin has to be gravitational.

  8. Reflected beam's direction deviation induced by the corner cube retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Xian, Hao; Jang, WenHan

    2008-12-01

    The direction deviation of the reflected beam induced by the corner cube retroreflector (CCR) is respectively discussed by geometrical optics approach and the principle of physical optics in this paper. A mathematical model was built to calculate the beam's aberration due to the fabrication errors of the CCR. It can be concluded that the centroid direction error of far field spot is much more appropriate to describe the reflection beam's direction deviation for a broad incident beam, and the beam with even intensity distribution should be used to reduce its direction deviation.

  9. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.

    2005-05-01

    For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.

  10. Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2001-12-01

    Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations

  11. Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itto, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.

  12. Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under time-reversal, of the potential. This generalizes the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem to a larger class of chaotic systems.

  13. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140

  14. Computerized inspection of real surfaces and minimization of their deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, Chihping; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface deviations between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates. Theoretical calculations are made for the grid points. A least-square method is used to minimize the deviations between real and theoretical surfaces by altering the manufacturing machine-tool settings. An example is given for a hypoid gear.

  15. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  16. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.

    2006-09-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

  17. Cosolvency and deviations from log-linear solubilization.

    PubMed

    Rubino, J T; Yalkowsky, S H

    1987-06-01

    The solubilities of three nonpolar drugs, phenytoin, diazepam, and benzocaine, have been measured in 14 cosolvent-water binary mixtures. The observed solubilities were examined for deviations from solubilities calculated by the equation log Sm = f log Sc + (1 - f) log Sw, where Sm is the solubility of the drug in the cosolvent-water mixture, Sc is the solubility of the drug in neat cosolvent, f is the volume fraction of cosolvent, and Sw is the solubility of the drug in water. When presented graphically, the patterns of the deviations were similar for all three drugs in mixtures of amphiprotic cosolvents (glycols, polyols, and alcohols) and water as well as nonpolar, aprotic cosolvents (dioxane, triglyme, dimethyl isosorbide) and water. The deviations were positive for phenytoin and benzocaine but negative for diazepam in mixtures of dipolar, aprotic cosolvents (dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and dimethylacetamide) and water. The source of the deviations could not consistently be attributed to physical properties of the cosolvent-water mixtures or to alterations in the solute crystal. Similarities between the results of this study and those of previous investigations suggest that changes in the structure of the solvent play a role in the deviations from the expected solubilities.

  18. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  19. Analytical Ferrography Standardization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    normalized density readings versus slide position * Lease Squares Line: Y = ax + b * Mean Value of Density: YBAR * Standard Deviation of Density Distribution...11 =ZU U) y U)U 0 z w) LU Rip > -(0> > < cn z -U cc L c 0D CD Cl)>> >< > = 0 0 facilities, as illustrated in Figure 5. Upon receipt of the sample set...the standard deviation of the y population for a given x. The definition is: n-2 where Yi = actual values of y yic = values of y computed from the

  20. Large deviation theory for coin tossing and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Saha, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K

    2009-11-01

    Large deviations play a significant role in many branches of nonequilibrium statistical physics. They are difficult to handle because their effects, though small, are not amenable to perturbation theory. Even the Gaussian model, which is the usual initial step for most perturbation theories, fails to be a starting point while discussing intermittency in fluid turbulence, where large deviations dominate. Our contention is: in the large deviation theory, the central role is played by the distribution associated with the tossing of a coin and the simple coin toss is the "Gaussian model" of problems where rare events play significant role. We illustrate this by applying it to calculate the multifractal exponents of the order structure factors in fully developed turbulence.

  1. Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-11-01

    Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.

  2. On the cubic velocity deviations in lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Házi, Gábor; Kávrán, Péter

    2006-03-01

    The macroscopic equations derived from the lattice Boltzmann equation are not exactly the Navier-Stokes equations. Here the cubic deviation terms and the methods proposed to eliminate them are studied. The most popular two- and three-dimensional models (D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19, D3Q27) are considered in the paper. It is demonstrated that the compensation methods provide only partial elimination of the deviations for these models. It is also shown that the compensation of Qian and Zhou (1998 Europhys. Lett. 42 359) using the compensation parameter K = 1 in a D2Q9 or D3Q27 model can eliminate all the cross terms perfectly, but the deviation terms ∂xρu3x, ∂yρu3y and ∂zρu3z still survive the compensation.

  3. Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    1998-01-01

    By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.

  4. Further Insights into the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome: Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Novel MCT8 Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Grace; Visser, Theo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations in the thyroid hormone (TH) transporter MCT8 have been identified as the cause for Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and altered TH serum levels. Here we report a novel MCT8 mutation identified in 4 generations of one family, and its functional characterization. Methods Proband and family members were screened for 60 genes involved in X-linked cognitive impairment and the MCT8 mutation was confirmed. Functional consequences of MCT8 mutations were studied by analysis of [125I]TH transport in fibroblasts and transiently transfected JEG3 and COS1 cells, and by subcellular localization of the transporter. Results The proband and a male cousin demonstrated clinical findings characteristic of AHDS. Serum analysis showed high T3, low rT3, and normal T4 and TSH levels in the proband. A MCT8 mutation (c.869C>T; p.S290F) was identified in the proband, his cousin, and several female carriers. Functional analysis of the S290F mutant showed decreased TH transport, metabolism and protein expression in the three cell types, whereas the S290A mutation had no effect. Interestingly, both uptake and efflux of T3 and T4 was impaired in fibroblasts of the proband, compared to his healthy brother. However, no effect of the S290F mutation was observed on TH efflux from COS1 and JEG3 cells. Immunocytochemistry showed plasma membrane localization of wild-type MCT8 and the S290A and S290F mutants in JEG3 cells. Conclusions We describe a novel MCT8 mutation (S290F) in 4 generations of a family with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. Functional analysis demonstrates loss-of-function of the MCT8 transporter. Furthermore, our results indicate that the function of the S290F mutant is dependent on cell context. Comparison of the S290F and S290A mutants indicates that it is not the loss of Ser but its substitution with Phe, which leads to S290F dysfunction. PMID:26426690

  5. Phase transitions in large deviations of reset processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rosemary J.; Touchette, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    We study the large deviations of additive quantities, such as energy or current, in stochastic processes with intermittent reset. Via a mapping from a discrete-time reset process to the Poland–Scheraga model for DNA denaturation, we derive conditions for observing first-order or continuous dynamical phase transitions in the fluctuations of such quantities and confirm these conditions on simple random walk examples. These results apply to reset Markov processes, but also show more generally that subleading terms in generating functions can lead to non-analyticities in large deviation functions of ‘compound processes’ or ‘random evolutions’ switching stochastically between two or more subprocesses.

  6. MUSiC - A Generic Search for Deviations from Monte Carlo Predictions in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    We present a model independent analysis approach, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Standard Model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. We outline the importance of systematic uncertainties, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons have been used as an input to the search algorithm.

  7. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...

  8. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  9. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  10. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  11. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  13. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  15. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  18. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  20. Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-01-01

    Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

  1. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  2. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  3. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  4. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  5. Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.

  6. 46 CFR 385.9 - Exceptions, deviations, or waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions, deviations, or waivers. 385.9 Section 385.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT... Management and Budget when required by law or other applicable Federal requirement. Definition of Terms...

  7. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  8. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  10. Deviation-Amplifying Processes and Individual Human Growth and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, Doreen Ray; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to inquire into the relation of intellectual and/or psycho-linguistic development and apparent improvement in other behavior factors such as affective and social behavior and development. Thus consideration is given to the second cybernetics (i.e. the concept of positive feedback or deviation-amplifying relationships…

  11. Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2006-04-01

    We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.

  12. Moderate- and Large- Deviation Probabilities in Actuarial Risk Theory,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Introduction to the Theory of Large Deviations, Springer-Verlag, New York. Thorin, 0. (1982), Probabilities of ruin, Scand. Actuar . Jour. 65-102. 25 *% 0 I S 0 S 3 9 I bJ\\~ S S I’ C..., S L2JI1C S ~

  13. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  14. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description of the corrective actions... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use...

  15. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description of the corrective actions... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or, (ii) Use...

  16. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano

    2017-01-19

    This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform's peak variability is computed, which determines the system's capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.

  17. SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U.; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform’s peak variability is computed, which determines the system’s capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions. PMID:28106825

  18. A Vertical Wind Angle Standard Deviation Calculation Method for the Unstable Surface Boundary Layer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    UT C ILTOFT RUG 63 UNCLASSIFIED DPG-TR -3 41 F6 4/ 2L .41 L5.04 1111LA. 1 1112.0- 11111 .5 ~ ?"IIIII 111111. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL ...equation (16). R-Fg = F1 + Fh (16) Swinbank (1964) tabulated R and F data taken at an open field near Kerang, Australia under a variety of weater ...Addressee Copies Di rector 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Boulder, CO 80302 Cooperative

  19. Rating Slam Dunks to Visualize the Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nick W.; Castle Bell, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Among the many difficulties beleaguering the communication research methods instructor is the problem of contextualizing abstract ideas. Comprehension of variable operationalization, the utility of the measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, and the visual distribution of data sets are difficult, since students have not handled data.…

  20. Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-09-15

    We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  1. 78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Loretta A. Carey, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug..., and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 341). ] The permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products... panels on the labels of the test products must bear nutrition labeling in accordance with 21 CFR...

  2. Fine-Grained Rims in the Allan Hills 81002 and Lewis Cliff 90500 CM2 Meteorites: Their Origin and Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, X.; Wang, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Antarctic CM meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) 8 1002 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 contain abundant fine-grained rims (FGRs) that surround a variety of coarse-grained objects. FGRs from both meteorites have similar compositions and petrographic features, independent of their enclosed objects. The FGRs are chemically homogeneous at the 10 m scale for major and minor elements and at the 25 m scale for trace elements. They display accretionary features and contain large amounts of volatiles, presumably water. They are depleted in Ca, Mn, and S but enriched in P. All FGRs show a slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern, with enrichments of Gd and Yb and depletion of Er. Gd is twice as abundant as Er. Our results indicate that those FGRs are not genetically related to their enclosed cores. They were sampled from a reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust, prior to accretion to their parent body. The rim materials subsequently experienced aqueous alteration under identical conditions. Based on their mineral, textural, and especially chemical similarities, we conclude that ALH 8 1002 and LEW 90500 likely have a similar or identical source.

  3. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    PubMed

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  4. Application of Mean of Absolute Deviation Method for the Selection of Best Nonlinear Component Based on Video Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anees, Amir; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation (MAD) method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, MAD is applied to advanced encryption standard (AES), affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J., Residue Prime, S8 AES, SKIPJACK, and Xyi substitution boxes.

  5. Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2005-08-01

    We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.

  6. Monitoring of barite sag important in deviated drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Marken, C.; Sterri, N. ); Jakobsen, J. )

    1991-08-26

    Very low shear rate and oscillation rheometry techniques provide insight into the properties of drilling fluids that are associated with barite sag observed during drilling operations. This paper provides detailed study of the rheological behavior of four field muds completed with a controlled-stress rheometer. The techniques verified that detailed rheological studies of muds are needed to explain barite sag. Barite sag can be the source of severe drilling and well control problems during the drilling of deviated wells. In a deviated well this phenomenon results from the gravitationally induced settling of the barite to form either a density gradient or a barite sedimentation bed. Barite sag results if the rheological properties of the drilling fluid are inadequate to keep the weighting agent suspended. Improved rheological characterization of drilling fluids leads to a better understanding of barite sag and to the improvement of fluid properties that prevent sag.

  7. Deviations from liquidlike behavior in molten polymer films at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young-Soo; Koga, T; Sokolov, J; Rafailovich, M H; Tolan, M; Sinha, S

    2005-04-22

    We have performed x-ray specular and diffuse scattering on liquid polymer films and analyzed the spectra as a function of film thickness and molecular weight. The results show that films whose molecular weight is close to the entanglement length behave as simple liquids except that the shortest wavelength is determined by the radius of gyration (R(g)) rather than the monomer-monomer distance. When the molecular weight is higher than the entanglement length, the strong deviations from liquidlike behavior are observed. We find that the long wavelength cutoff vector, q(l,c), scales with film thickness, d as d(-1.1+/-0.1) rather than the usual d(-2) expected for simple liquids. If we assume that these deviations are due to surface pinning of the polymer chains, then our results are consistent with the formalism developed by Fredrickson et al. to explain the capillary wave spectrum that can propagate in a polymer brush.

  8. Contiguous Uniform Deviation for Multiple Linear Regression in Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriana, A. S.; Prihatmanto, D.; Hidaya, E. M. I.; Supriana, I.; Machbub, C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding images by recognizing its objects is still a challenging task. Face elements detection has been developed by researchers but not yet shows enough information (low resolution in information) needed for recognizing objects. Available face recognition methods still have error in classification and need a huge amount of examples which may still be incomplete. Another approach which is still rare in understanding images uses pattern structures or syntactic grammars describing shape detail features. Image pixel values are also processed as signal patterns which are approximated by mathematical function curve fitting. This paper attempts to add contiguous uniform deviation method to curve fitting algorithm to increase applicability in image recognition system related to object movement. The combination of multiple linear regression and contiguous uniform deviation method are applied to the function of image pixel values, and show results in higher resolution (more information) of visual object detail description in object movement.

  9. Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, John T., Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-12-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  10. Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.

  11. Powered endoscopic septoplasty for septal deviation and isolated spurs.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Eileen M

    2005-01-01

    Septoplasty is commonly performed for nasal airway obstruction or rhinologic headache due to contact irritation, often in conjunction with other nasal procedures, including cosmetic rhinoplasty and endoscopic sinus surgery.Traditionally, it is performed before these procedures via a "headlight" technique. This article describes the use of the microdebrider in 29 cases of endoscopic septoplasty. Many of the procedures were performed in conjunction with functional endoscopic sinus surgery; however, several were performed as an isolated procedure or with inferior turbinoplasty. The technique is described in detail. All 29 patients had significant improvement in their symptoms, and no patient developed a perforation or postoperative hematoma. Conversion to a traditional septoplasty was required in 1 case because of the severity of the deviation. Power-assisted endoscopic septoplasty is a useful adjunct in cases involving isolated septal spurs or moderate septal deviations. Patients with severe nasal obstruction due to caudal deflection of the septum off the nasal spine are better served with traditional headlight septoplasty.

  12. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  13. Large Deviation Functional of the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.

    2004-02-01

    We obtain the large deviation functional of a density profile for the asymmetric exclusion process of L sites with open boundary conditions when the asymmetry scales like 1/L. We recover as limiting cases the expressions derived recently for the symmetric (SSEP) and the asymmetric (ASEP) cases. In the ASEP limit, the non linear differential equation one needs to solve can be analysed by a method which resembles the WKB method.

  14. Deviated nasal septum hinders intranasal sprays: A computer simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Cannon, Daniel; Pawar, Sachin S.; Rhee, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates how deviated nasal septum affects the quantity and distribution of spray particles, and examines the effects of inspiratory airflow and head position on particle transport. Methods Deposition of spray particles was analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model created from a computed tomography scan of a human nose with leftward septal deviation and a right inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Five simulations were conducted using Fluent™ software, with particle sizes ranging from 20-110μm, a spray speed of 3m/s, plume angle of 68°, and with steady state inspiratory airflow either present (15.7L/min) or absent at varying head positions. Results With inspiratory airflow present, posterior deposition on the obstructed side was approximately four times less than the contralateral side, regardless of head position, and was statistically significant (p<0.05). When airflow was absent, predicted deposition beyond the nasal valve on the left and right sides were between 16% and 69% lower and positively influenced by a dependent head position. Conclusions Simulations predicted that septal deviation significantly diminished drug delivery on the obstructed side. Furthermore, increased particle penetration was associated with presence of nasal airflow. Head position is an important factor in particle deposition patterns when inspiratory airflow is absent. PMID:22888490

  15. Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi

    2015-09-01

    Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.

  16. Detecting deviations from pure EOF during CE separations.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, John F; Noonan, Kathryn Y; McDonnell, Patrick; Mancuso, Aaron J; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2007-07-01

    CE separations are known for their high separation efficiencies. In systems with EOF, the high efficiencies benefit from the flat, plug profile that is characteristic of EOF. When a velocity gradient is present, such as in separations which have nonuniform buffer ionic strength, surface adsorption or differences in the height of the ends of the capillary, a parabolic flow component is introduced. This deviation from purely EOF yields increased peak dispersion and a subsequent decrease in separation performance. This work details a rapid method for detecting deviations from ideal plug flow during the course of a separation using the radially averaged flow profile of a photobleached fluorophore added to the BGE. By comparing the ratio of two different data analysis procedures, deviations from ideal plug flow can be detected. This method allows rapid measurement of flow character and does not interfere with the concurrent separation. We demonstrate easy detection of the onset of hydrodynamic flow induced by both gravity siphoning and an ionic strength buffer discontinuity. A brief analysis of the radially averaged peak shapes is also presented.

  17. The nasal septum deviation index (NSDI) based on CBCT data

    PubMed Central

    Codari, Marina; Zago, Matteo; Guidugli, Giulia A; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ottaviani, Francesco; Righini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether three-dimensional morphometric parameters could be useful in nasal septal deviation (NSD) diagnosis and, secondarily, whether CBCT could be considered an adequate imaging technique for the proposed task. Methods: We analysed images of 46 subjects who underwent CBCT for reasons not related to this study. Two experienced operators divided all the images into healthy and NSD subjects. Subsequently, the images were segmented using ITK Snap in order to obtain the three-dimensional model of the nasal airways and compute four morphological parameters: septal deviation angle (SDA), percentage of volume difference between right and left side of the nasal airways, nasal airway total volume and a new synthetic septal deviation index (SDI). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to unveil relationships between each variable and the global nasal airway variability. Results: Differences between the groups were found in SDA (p < 0.001), in volume percentage difference (p < 0.05) and in SDI (p < 0.001). PCA showed high correlation between the SDI and the first principal component (0.97, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Among the analysed parameters, SDI seemed to be the most suitable for the quantitative assessment of NSD, and CBCT allowed accurate assessment of airway morphology. PMID:26783044

  18. Latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS.

    PubMed

    España-Gregori, E; Montés-Micó, R; Bueno-Gimeno, I; Díaz-Llopi, M; Menezo-Rozalén, J L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine horizontal latent ocular deviations in patients with advanced AIDS (CD4+ count <0.050 x 10(9)/l) and to compare with normal values by means of the von Graefe technique. Twenty patients aged between 17 and 44 years with AIDS and aged-matched control groups were submitted to study. The AC/A ratio was also measured in both groups using the Gradient test. The AIDS patients showed a horizontal latent deviation value of 0.28+/-1.07delta exo at near (40 cm.) and 2.12+/-1.37delta eso at distance (6 m). The AC/A ratio obtained was 2.03+/-0.65. Statistically significant differences were obtained in relation to aged-matched control group at near and at distance (p<0.01). The horizontal latent ocular deviation at near and at distance in advanced AIDS patients showed lower values than the expected. The AC/A relationship also was lower. The results obtained in this study indicate that AIDS patients suffer a divergence insufficiency, which could add to other visual complaints such as blurred vision, photophobia, nyctalopia and reading difficulty.

  19. Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814

  20. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  1. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; van Ieperen, Wim; Dieleman, Janneke A; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2013-11-01

    Meristem temperature (Tmeristem ) drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature (Tair ) is usually used as its approximation. Meristems are enclosed within apical buds. Bud structure and function may differ across species. Therefore, Tmeristem may deviate from Tair in a species-specific way. Environmental variables (air temperature, vapour pressure deficit, radiation, and wind speed) were systematically varied to quantify the response of Tmeristem . This response was related to observations of bud structure and transpiration. Tomato and cucumber plants were used as model plants as they are morphologically distinct and usually growing in similar environments. Tmeristem substantially deviated from Tair in a species-specific manner under moderate environments. This deviation ranged between -2.6 and 3.8 °C in tomato and between -4.1 and 3.0 °C in cucumber. The lower Tmeristem observed in cucumber was linked with the higher transpiration of the bud foliage sheltering the meristem when compared with tomato plants. We here indicate that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair , as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

  2. Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijland, Frédéric; Rácz, Zoltán

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this order. From the former, we find that the boundary drive generates long-range correlations only for the short-range dynamics while the latter provides support to an additivity principle recently proposed by Bodineau and Derrida.

  3. Large deviation approach to the generalized random energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorlas, T. C.; Dukes, W. M. B.

    2002-05-01

    The generalized random energy model is a generalization of the random energy model introduced by Derrida to mimic the ultrametric structure of the Parisi solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of a spin glass. It was solved exactly in two special cases by Derrida and Gardner. A complete solution for the thermodynamics in the general case was given by Capocaccia et al. Here we use large deviation theory to analyse the model in a very straightforward way. We also show that the variational expression for the free energy can be evaluated easily using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.

  4. Large Deviations and Applications: The Finite Dimensional Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    convex set . Then prove that H(.IjL) is a strictly convex function in AMl(C, ). 2.1.4 Find a closed set r for which both of the limits in (2.1.18) do not... sets . 2.1.12 Prove that the rate function I~,() is a convex function . 2.1.13 Prove that the large deviations principle of Theorem 2.1.3 holds for , = 0...Ai’() is a convex rate function , A’(yr) - A’(x) and as Br,5 is an open set , eventually By,,sr C G for some 6, > 0. Finally, apply

  5. Tunability versus deviation sensitivity in a nonlinear vortex oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. Y.; Thirion, C.; Hoarau, C.; Baraduc, C.; Diény, B.

    2013-07-01

    Frequency modulation experiments were performed on a spin torque vortex oscillator for a wide range of modulation frequencies, up to 10% of the oscillator frequency. A thorough analysis of the intermodulation products shows that the key parameter that describes these experiments is the deviation sensitivity, which is the dynamical frequency-current dependence. It differs significantly from the oscillator tunability discussed so far in the context of spin-transfer oscillators. The essential difference between these two concepts is related to the response time of the vortex oscillator, driven either in quasisteady state or in a transient regime.

  6. Light deviation based optical techniques applied to solid propellant combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauty, F.; Eradès, C.; Desse, J.-M.

    2011-10-01

    The Investigation in Combustion of Energetic Materials (InCoME) program is aimed at validating the numerical simulation of composite propellant combustion using nonintrusive optical techniques. The Focusing Schlieren Technique (FST) was selected; it allows catching light deviation from a thin vertical planar section centered above the propellant combustion surface. The optical system is described in the paper. Significant results are presented showing the capabilities of this technique when applied to solid propellant combustion in terms of studying flame structure, flame propagation, and particle tracking.

  7. Quenched Large Deviations for Interacting Diffusions in Random Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luçon, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical measure of mean-field interacting diffusions in a random environment. The point is to derive such a result once the environment has been frozen (quenched model). The main theorem states that a LDP holds for every sequence of environment satisfying appropriate convergence condition, with a rate function that does not depend on the disorder and is different from the rate function in the averaged model. Similar results concerning the empirical flow and local empirical measures are provided.

  8. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs.

  9. DEVIATIONS IN INFLUENZA SEASONALITY: ODD COINCIDENCE OR OBSCURE CONSEQUENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Mahesh; Castronovo, Denise; Abraham, Asha; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Gradus, Steve; Gorski, Jack; Naumov, Yuri N.; Fefferman, Nina H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2012-01-01

    In temperate regions, influenza typically arrives with the onset of colder weather. Seasonal waves travel over large spaces covering many climatic zones in a relatively short period of time. The precise mechanism for this striking seasonal pattern is still not well understood and the interplay of factors that influence the spread of infection and the emergence of new strains is largely unknown. The study of influenza seasonality has been fraught with problems. One of these is the ever shifting description of illness due to influenza and the use of both the historical definitions and new definitions based on actual isolation of the virus. The compilation of records describing influenza oscillations on a local and global scale is massive, but the value of these data is a function of the definitions used. In this review we argue that both observations of seasonality and deviation from the expected pattern stem from the nature of this disease. Heterogeneity in seasonal patterns may arrive from differences in behavior of specific strains, emergence of a novel strain or cross-protection from previously observed strains. Most likely the seasonal patterns emerge from interactions of individual factors behaving as coupled resonators. We emphasize that both seasonality and deviations from it may merely be a reflection of our inability to disentangle signal from noise, be it due to ambiguity in measurement and/or terminology. We conclude the review with suggestions for new promising and realistic directions with tangible consequences to model complex influenza dynamics in order to effectively control infection. PMID:22958213

  10. Altitude deviations: Breakdowns of an error-tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Everett A.; Hutchins, Edwin L.; Ritter, Richard D.; Vancleemput, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Pilot reports of aviation incidents to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) provide a window on the problems occurring in today's airline cockpits. The narratives of 10 pilot reports of errors made in the automation-assisted altitude-change task are used to illustrate some of the issues of pilots interacting with automatic systems. These narratives are then used to construct a description of the cockpit as an information processing system. The analysis concentrates on the error-tolerant properties of the system and on how breakdowns can occasionally occur. An error-tolerant system can detect and correct its internal processing errors. The cockpit system consists of two or three pilots supported by autoflight, flight-management, and alerting systems. These humans and machines have distributed access to clearance information and perform redundant processing of information. Errors can be detected as deviations from either expected behavior or as deviations from expected information. Breakdowns in this system can occur when the checking and cross-checking tasks that give the system its error-tolerant properties are not performed because of distractions or other task demands. Recommendations based on the analysis for improving the error tolerance of the cockpit system are given.

  11. Large-deviation achromatic Risley prisms pointing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoursiere, Jean; Doucet, Michel; Curatu, Eugene O.; Savard, Maxime; Verreault, Sonia; Thibault, Simon; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benoit

    2002-06-01

    As part of the Infrared Eye project, this article describes the design of large-deviation, achromatic Risley prisms scanning systems operating in the 0.5 - 0.92 and 8 - 9.5 μm spectral regions. Designing these systems is challenging due to the large deviation required (zero - 25 degrees), the large spectral bandwidth and the mechanical constraints imposed by the need to rotate the prisms to any position in 1/30 second. A design approach making extensive use of the versatility of optical design softwares is described. Designs consisting of different pairs of optical materials are shown in order to illustrate the trade-off between chromatic aberration, mass and vignetting. Control of chromatic aberration and reasonable prism shape is obtained over 8 - 9.5 μm with zinc sulfide and germanium. The design is more difficult for the 0.5 - 0.92 μm band. Trade-offs consist in using sapphire with Cleartran« over a reduced bandwidth (0.75 - 0.9 μm ) or acrylic singlets with the Infrared Eye in active mode (0.85 - 0.86 μm). Non-sequential ray-tracing is used to study the effects of fresnelizing one element of the achromat to reduce its mass, and to evaluate detector narcissus in the 8 - 9.5 μm region.

  12. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history.

  13. 7 CFR 1728.20 - Establishment of standards and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Institute (ANSI), American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA), the various national engineering societies... equipment, or in the more effective use of engineering services. (b) Deviations from Standards. No member...

  14. Extreme metamorphism in a firn core from the Allan Hills, Antarctica, as an analogue for glacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadic, Ruzica; Schneebeli, Martin; Bertler, Nancy; Schwikowski, Margit; Matzl, Margret

    2015-04-01

    Understanding processes in near-zero accumulation areas can help to better understand the ranges of isotopic composition in ice cores, particularly during ice ages, when accumulation rates were lower than today. Snow metamorphism is a primary driver of the transition from snow to ice and can be accompanied by altered isotopic compositions and chemical species concentration. High degree snow metamorphism, which results in major structural changes, is little-studied but has been identified in certain places in Antarctica. Here we report on a 5-m firn core collected adjacent to a blue-ice field in the Allan Hills, Antarctica. We determined the physical properties of the snow using computer tomography (microCT) and measured the isotopic composition of δD and δ18O, as well as 210Pb activity. The core shows a high degree of snow metamorphism and an exponential decrease in specific surface area (SSA), but no clear densification, with depth. The micro-CT measurements show a homogenous and stable structure throughout the entire core, with obvious erosion features in the near-surface, where high-resolution data is available. The observed firn structure is likely caused by a combination of unique depositional and post-depositional processes. The defining depositional process is the impact deposition under high winds and with a high initial density. The defining post-depositional processes are a) increased moisture transport due to forced ventilation and high winds and b) decades of temperature-gradient driven metamorphic growth in the near surface due to prolonged exposure to seasonal temperature cycling. Both post-processes are enhanced in low accumulation regions where snow stays close to surface for a long time. We observe an irregular signal in δD and δ18O that does not follow the stratigraphic sequence. The isotopic signal is likely caused by the same post-depositional processes that are responsible for the firn structure, and that are driven by local climate

  15. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.

  16. Large deviations of heat flow in harmonic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Anupam; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Dhar, Abhishek

    2011-03-01

    We consider heat transport across a harmonic chain connected at its two ends to white-noise Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. In the steady state of this system the heat Q flowing from one reservoir into the system in a finite time τ has a distribution P(Q, τ). We study the large time form of the corresponding moment generating function lange - λQrang ~ g(λ)eτμ(λ). Exact formal expressions, in terms of phonon Green's functions, are obtained for both μ(λ) and also the lowest order correction g(λ). We point out that, in general, a knowledge of both μ(λ) and g(λ) is required for finding the large deviation function associated with P(Q, τ). The function μ(λ) is known to be the largest eigenvector of an appropriate Fokker-Planck type operator and our method also gives the corresponding eigenvector exactly.

  17. The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310Ω/□ and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately. PMID:25364316

  18. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J.

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.

  19. Craniofacial Deviations in the Children With Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ant, Ayca; Kemaloglu, Yusuf Kemal; Yilmaz, Metin; Dilci, Alper

    2017-01-20

    Nasal obstruction mainly caused by adenoid hypertrophy in children affects the craniofacial growth and development process, and the craniofacial deviations and/or differences reported in the children are very similar to those in the adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The authors aimed to look for relationships of the linear craniofacial dimensions in the children suffering from nasal obstruction with age, degree of clinical nasal obstruction score (CNOS), and relative size of the adenoid mass within the nasopharynx in their study.Fifty-five children suffering from nasal obstruction were retrospectively enrolled, and clinical data was used to calculate CNOS. On the lateral cephalometric radiographies, 9 linear variables were measured and adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR) was calculated.The data presented that, not CNOS, but ANR shown decrease by age, while many skeletal variables with exception of the nasopharyngeal and adenoidal postero-anterior dimensions were increased by age. Further, it was found that while CNOS were negatively correlated with the anterior cranial base length, anterior-superior facial height, and maxillary depth, ANR disclosed significant correlation only with the anteriorsuperior facial height. The authors' results support that nasal obstruction in the children was related not only to the adenoidal hypertrophy. Although relative size of the adenoidal mass in relation to the nasopharynx decreased by age, nasal obstruction was still present. Further, these results support that craniofacial deviations and/or differences in the children with nasal obstruction is similar to the adult OSAS patients. Smaller dimensions related to the naso-maxillary complex in the children with more severe nasal obstruction appear to be continuous by age. Hence, it could be said that narrow naso-maxillary complex could contribute to proceed nasal obstruction by age, which may contribute to OSAS in the adults.

  20. Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593

  1. Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114

  2. Deviation of Earth threatening asteroids using tether and ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David B.

    The effects of the collision of a Near-Earth-Object (NEO) with the Earth could be catastrophic on a local, regional or global scale depending on the size of the NEO. Therefore, there is considerable interest in determining ways to mitigate the threat posed by these objects. This dissertation presents a method utilizing a tethered ballast mass for altering the trajectory of a NEO with an Earth-intersecting orbit so that it avoids hitting the Earth. The method is simulated using four different methods. The first method assumes a rigid massless tether. Using this method, a parametric study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the technique over a wide parametric space. Specifically, this study provided results in terms of deviation rates over the parametric space. After this, the massless inelastic method was used to study actual miss distances assuming the asteroid was on a collision course with the Earth. After this, a study was conducted, using the massless, inelastic model, in which the mass of the ballast was made constant, in order to determine the minimum tether length required to divert asteroids simulated based on actual asteroids from NASA's potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) database, again assuming a massless inelastic tether. Finally, it was desired to determine how relaxing the constraints of the massless inelastic model would affect system performance. Therefore, three more models were introduced: massive inelastic, massless elastic, and massive elastic. Using these models, a study was performed to explore the effects of the changed model on system performance and to compare the results in terms of deviation, with those of the massless inelastic model. This was desired because the numerical cost of the new models was much higher than that of the massless inelastic model, so rather than conduct the study over a much larger parametric space, a smaller space was chosen, so that the results could be compared.

  3. Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law

  4. Force responses of strongly intrinsically curved DNA helices deviate from worm-like chain predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompitak, M.; Schiessel, H.; Barkema, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    DNA sequences with nontrivial intrinsic curvature are of interest for a range of biological and artificial DNA systems. We design both intrinsically strongly curved and intrinsically straight sequences. We find that such sequences with opposing curvatures can be designed even under constraints that would naively lead one to assume that those sequences would be highly similar in their mechanical properties. We then characterize the force response of those sequences and find that their force-extension curves deviate significantly in the low-force regime, and that the standard worm-like chain description is inadequate to describe the low-force response of the strongly bent sequences. We propose a modified description that takes the intrinsic curvature into account, making the DNA act, in the low-force regime, like a nanoscale helical spring. We find strongly improved agreement between the model and the simulated force-extension curves.

  5. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  6. Sandage, Allan Rex (1926-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Iowa City, IA. Worked with WALTER BAADE and EDWIN HUBBLE, and became professor at Mount Wilson and Palomar observatories. His research has focused on the biggest problems in cosmology. He determined the ages of the stars in globular clusters (the oldest objects known, apart from the chemical elements). In 1960, with JESSE GREENSTEIN, he identified the radio source 3C48 as a bl...

  7. Penzias, Arno Allan (1933-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radioscientist, born in Munich in Germany, Nobel prizewinner (1978) `for the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation', a refugee from Germany at the age of 6, found his way to America and experience in microwave physics. Joined Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey, searched for and investigated line emission from the interstellar OH molecule. Was able to gain the use of a large radio...

  8. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  9. Characterizing pathological deviations from normality using constrained manifold-learning.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, Nicolas; De Craene, Mathieu; Piella, Gemma; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-01-01

    We propose a technique to represent a pathological pattern as a deviation from normality along a manifold structure. Each subject is represented by a map of local motion abnormalities, obtained from a statistical atlas of motion built from a healthy population. The algorithm learns a manifold from a set of patients with varying degrees of the same pathology. The approach extends recent manifold-learning techniques by constraining the manifold to pass by a physiologically meaningful origin representing a normal motion pattern. Individuals are compared to the manifold population through a distance that combines a mapping to the manifold and the path along the manifold to reach its origin. The method is applied in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), focusing on a specific motion pattern of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony called septal flash (SF). We estimate the manifold from 50 CRT candidates with SF and test it on 38 CRT candidates and 21 healthy volunteers. Experiments highlight the need of nonlinear techniques to learn the studied data, and the relevance of the computed distance for comparing individuals to a specific pathological pattern.

  10. Path integrals and large deviations in stochastic hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a path-integral representation of solutions to a stochastic hybrid system, consisting of one or more continuous variables evolving according to a piecewise-deterministic dynamics. The differential equations for the continuous variables are coupled to a set of discrete variables that satisfy a continuous-time Markov process, which means that the differential equations are only valid between jumps in the discrete variables. Examples of stochastic hybrid systems arise in biophysical models of stochastic ion channels, motor-driven intracellular transport, gene networks, and stochastic neural networks. We use the path-integral representation to derive a large deviation action principle for a stochastic hybrid system. Minimizing the associated action functional with respect to the set of all trajectories emanating from a metastable state (assuming that such a minimization scheme exists) then determines the most probable paths of escape. Moreover, evaluating the action functional along a most probable path generates the so-called quasipotential used in the calculation of mean first passage times. We illustrate the theory by considering the optimal paths of escape from a metastable state in a bistable neural network.

  11. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A . While the mean perimeter and the mean area have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P (A ) and P (L ) . In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P (A ) and P (L ) are as small as 10-300. We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T , a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A /T and L /√{T } , respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  12. Convex hulls of random walks: Large-deviation properties.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Gunnar; Hartmann, Alexander K; Majumdar, Satya N

    2015-05-01

    We study the convex hull of the set of points visited by a two-dimensional random walker of T discrete time steps. Two natural observables that characterize the convex hull in two dimensions are its perimeter L and area A. While the mean perimeter 〈L〉 and the mean area 〈A〉 have been studied before, analytically and numerically, and exact results are known for large T (Brownian motion limit), little is known about the full distributions P(A) and P(L). In this paper we provide numerical results for these distributions. We use a sophisticated large-deviation approach that allows us to study the distributions over a larger range of the support, where the probabilities P(A) and P(L) are as small as 10(-300). We analyze (open) random walks as well as (closed) Brownian bridges on the two-dimensional discrete grid as well as in the two-dimensional plane. The resulting distributions exhibit, for large T, a universal scaling behavior (independent of the details of the jump distributions) as a function of A/T and L/√[T], respectively. We are also able to obtain the rate function, describing rare events at the tails of these distributions, via a numerical extrapolation scheme and find a linear and square dependence as a function of the rescaled perimeter and the rescaled area, respectively.

  13. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766

  14. Gait deviations in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords "gait" and "autism," and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  15. T-wave axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy interaction in diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Rago, Livia; Badilini, Fabio; Vinetti, Giovanni; Gianfagna, Francesco; Salvetti, Massimo; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and T-wave axis (TA) deviation are independent predictors of fatal and non fatal events. We assessed the prevalence of ECG-LVH, TA abnormalities and their combination according to the presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension in a large sample of the adult general Italian population. Data from 10,184 women (54 ± 11 years) and 8775 men (54 ± 11 years) were analyzed from the Moli-sani cohort, a database of randomly recruited adults (age >35) from the general population of Molise, a central region of Italy that includes collection of standard 12-lead resting ECG. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular disease or left bundle brunch block or missing values for TA or ECG-LVH have been excluded. TA was measured from the standard 12-lead ECG and it was defined as the rotation of the T wave in the frontal plane as computed by a proprietary algorithm (CalECG/Bravo, AMPS-LLC, NY). ECG-LVH was defined as Sokolow Lyon voltage (SLv) >35 mm or Cornell voltage duration Product (CP) >= 2440 mm*ms. Among subjects with ECG-LVH, prevalence of hypertension was 59.0% and 49.7%, respectively for men and women, whereas that of diabetes was 10.7% and 5.7%. In hypertensives, TA was normal in 72.3% of subjects, borderline in 24.8% and abnormal in 2.9%. In diabetics, TA was normal in 70.4% of subjects, borderline in 26.5% and abnormal in 3.1%. In both hypertensive and diabetic subjects, the prevalence of ECG-LVH, was significantly greater in subjects with borderline or abnormal TA. Hypertension was an independent predictor of abnormal TA (odd ratio: 1.38, P = .025). These results suggest that hypertension might play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of TA deviation.

  16. Analysis of measurement deviations for the patient-specific quality assurance using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang; Hsi, Wen C.

    2017-04-01

    To analyze measurement deviations of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams, a commercial radiation dosimeter using 24 pinpoint ionization chambers was utilized. Before the clinical trial, validations of the radiation dosimeter and treatment planning system were conducted. During the clinical trial 165 measurements were performed on 36 enrolled patients. Two or three fields of particle beam were used for each patient. Measurements were typically performed with the dosimeter placed at special regions of dose distribution along depth and lateral profiles. In order to investigate the dosimeter accuracy, repeated measurements with uniform dose irradiations were also carried out. A two-step approach was proposed to analyze 24 sampling points over a 3D treatment volume. The mean value and the standard deviation of each measurement did not exceed 5% for all measurements performed on patients with various diseases. According to the defined intervention thresholds of mean deviation and the distance-to-agreement concept with a Gamma index analysis using criteria of 3.0% and 2 mm, a decision could be made regarding whether the dose distribution was acceptable for the patient. Based measurement results, deviation analysis was carried out. In this study, the dosimeter was used for dose verification and provided a safety guard to assure precise dose delivery of highly modulated particle therapy. Patient-specific QA will be investigated in future clinical operations.

  17. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  18. Piezoelectric sensing: Evaluation for clinical investigation of deviated nasal septum

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Roopa G.; Mahapatra, Roy D.; Dorasala, Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive objective evaluation of nasal airflow is one of the important clinical aspects. The developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor enables measurement of airflow through each side of the nose using its piezoelectric property. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of the PVDF sensor in assessing the deviated nasal septum (DNS). PVDF nasal sensor uses its piezoelectric property to measure the peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal airflow in both of the nostrils: right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN), separately and simultaneously. We have compared the results of PVDF nasal sensor, visual analog scale (VAS), and clinician scale for 34 DNS patients and 28 healthy controls. Additionally, the results were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and correlation between PVDF nasal sensor and VAS in detecting DNS. We found a significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude values of the test group and the control group. The correlation between the PVDF nasal sensor measurements and VAS (RN and LN combined) for test group was statistically significant (−0.807; p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor measurements in the detection of DNS (RN and LN combined) was 85.3 and 74.4%, respectively, with optimum cutoff value ≤0.34 Vp-p. The developed PVDF nasal sensor is noninvasive and requires less patient efforts. The sensitivity and specificity of the PVDF nasal sensor are reliable. According to our findings, we propose that the said PVDF nasal sensor can be used as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the DNS in routine clinical practice. PMID:24498519

  19. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Reλ=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  20. Cranial base deviation in hemifacial microsomia by craniometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Paliga, James Thomas; Tahiri, Youssef; Wink, Jason; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2015-01-01

    Although facial asymmetry in hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is well documented in the literature, no studies have concentrated on the morphology of the cranial base. This study aimed to evaluate the endocranial morphology in patients with HFM. Consecutive patients with unilateral HFM treated at a craniofacial center from 2000 to 2012 were included. The patients were grouped according to severity on the basis of the Kaban-Pruzansky classification: mild (0-1), moderate (2a), and severe (2b-3). Skull base angulation and transverse craniometric measures were recorded and then compared with those of age-matched controls. A total of 30 patients (14 males, 16 females) averaging 7.5 years of age (range, 1.1-15.7 y) were included. Four patients were classified as mild; 12, as moderate; and 14, as severe. The mean cranial base angle was found to be between 179 and 181 degrees with no significant difference between the severity groups (P = 0.57). The mean cranial base angle did not differ significantly in the patients compared with the controls(179.6 vs 180.0; P = 0.51) No significant differences between the affected and unaffected sides in the patients were found in distances from the midline to hypoglossal canal, internal acoustic meatus, lateral carotid canal, medial carotid canal, foramen ovale, and rotundum. There were no significant differences in transverse measurements between the severity classes using the same landmarks (P = 0.46, P = 0.30, P = 0.40, P = 0.25, P = 0.57, and P = 0.76, respectively). The cranial base axis is not deviated in the patients with HFM compared with the age-matched controls, and there exists little difference in endocranial morphologic measurements with increasing severity of HFM. These data are interesting, given the role of the cranial base in facial growth and the varying hypotheses regarding the mechanism of disease in HFM.

  1. Long Term Gait Deviations in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Females

    PubMed Central

    Noehren, Brian; Wilson, Hilary; Miller, Casey; Lattermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known of the potential long term gait alterations that occur after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In particular, variables such as impact loading which have been previously associated with joint deterioration have not been studied in walking and running after an ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to define the alterations in impact forces, loading rates, and the accompanying sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic mechanics at the time of impact between the ACL reconstructed group and a healthy control group. Methods 40 females (20 ACL reconstruction, 20 controls) participated in the study. An instrumented gait analysis was performed on all subjects. Between group and limb comparisons were made for initial vertical impact force, loading rate, sagittal plane knee and hip angles as well as moments. Results During walking and running the ACL cohort had significantly greater initial vertical impact force (p=0.002 and p= 0.001), and loading rates (p=0.03 and p= 0.01), as well as a smaller knee extensor moment and hip angle during walking (p=0.000 and p=0.01). There was a trend towards a smaller knee moment and hip angle during running (p=0.08 and p=0.06) as well as a larger hip extensor moment during walking (p=0.06) in the ACL group. No differences were found for hip extensor moment during running, knee angles between groups during walking or running. Lastly, no between limb differences were found for any variable. Conclusion Gait deviations such as elevated impact loading and loading rates do not resolve long term after the individual has resumed previous activity levels and may contribute to the greater risk of early joint degeneration in this population. PMID:23568090

  2. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  3. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  4. 48 CFR 2901.405 - Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DOLAR 2901.405 Deviations pertaining to treaties and executive agreements. (a) The Director, DAMS is... deviations not authorized by FAR 1.405(b) or (c), the Director, DAMS, will process the request for...

  5. 32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers...

  6. 32 CFR 21.340 - What are the procedures for requesting and documenting deviations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deviations and written requests for class deviations to: Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering, ATTN: Basic Research, 3080 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-3080. (b) Grants officers...

  7. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  8. Rubidium and cesium frequency standards status and performance on the GPS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethke, H.; Ringer, D.; Vanmelle, M.

    1984-01-01

    The on-oribt operational performance of the frequency standards on the Global Positioning System (GPS) 1 to 10 NAVSTAR satellites are discussed. The history of the Rb frequency standards showing the improvements incorporated at various stages of the program and the corresponding results are presented. Also presented is the operational history of the NAVSTAR cesium frequency standards. The frequency standards configuration data presented covers the chronology of events from the concept validation satellites, NAVSTAR 1 to 10, starting in 1978 to the present, including the configurations of clocks to be used on the GPS Production Program. Data are presented showing the results of long-term laboratory testing of a production Rb frequency standard with the necessary data taken to calculate Delta F, drift, time error, and Allan variance.

  9. Relation Between ITPA Average Deviation and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    1976-01-01

    The relation between average deviation, as determined using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores was examined using a preschool sample. Results revealed a curvilinear relation between total average deviation and Stanford-Binet intelligence scores. Use of average deviation as an index of…

  10. The JPL trapped mercury ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to provide frequency standards for the Deep Space Network (DSN) which are more stable than present-day hydrogen masers, a research task was established under the Advanced Systems Program of the TDA to develop a Hg-199(+) trapped ion frequency standard. The first closed-loop operation of this kind is described. Mercury-199 ions are confined in an RF trap and are state-selected through the use of optical pumping with 194 nm UV light from a Hg-202 discharge lamp. Absorption of microwave radiation at the hyperfine frequency (40.5 GHz) is signaled by atomic fluorescence of the UV light. The frequency of a 40.5 GHz oscillator is locked to a 1.6 Hz wide atomic absorption line of the trapped ions. The measured Allan variance of this locked oscillator is currently gamma sub y (pi) = 4.4 x 10 to the minus 12th/square root of pi for 20 is less than pi is less than 320 seconds, which is better stability than the best commercial cesium standards by almost a factor of 2. This initial result was achieved without magnetic shielding and without regulation of ion number.

  11. Dispersion measurements with minimum and maximum deviated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghussein, F.; Wrobel, J. M.; Kruger, M. B.

    2006-10-01

    The prism spectrometer has been the standard apparatus for index of refraction measurements and a typical instrument in undergraduate laboratories for dispersion experiments. Because much care must be employed when aligning a prism spectrometer, a more robust method for measuring index of refraction is needed. By using a laser, prism, rotating platform, and tape measure, we can measure the index of refraction to five significant figures. Due to its ease of use, undergraduates can make more accurate measurements with this method than by using a poorly aligned prism spectrometer. Although a tunable laser is preferable for easily changing wavelengths, two laser pointers, one red and one green, may be used, allowing for an inexpensive method of accurately obtaining the constants in the two-term Cauchy equation relating the index of refraction to the wavelength.

  12. Fractional dissipative standard map.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Edelman, M

    2010-06-01

    Using kicked differential equations of motion with derivatives of noninteger orders, we obtain generalizations of the dissipative standard map. The main property of these generalized maps, which are called fractional maps, is long-term memory. The memory effect in the fractional maps means that their present state of evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. Already a small deviation of the order of derivative from the integer value corresponding to the regular dissipative standard map (small memory effects) leads to the qualitatively new behavior of the corresponding attractors. The fractional dissipative standard maps are used to demonstrate a new type of fractional attractors in the wide range of the fractional orders of derivatives.

  13. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs. PMID:26504645

  14. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  15. Minimization of deviations of gear real tooth surfaces determined by coordinate measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Kuan, C.; Wang, J.-C.; Handschuh, R. F.; Masseth, J.; Maruyama, N.

    1992-01-01

    The deviations of a gear's real tooth surface from the theoretical surface are determined by coordinate measurements at the grid of the surface. A method was developed to transform the deviations from Cartesian coordinates to those along the normal at the measurement locations. Equations are derived that relate the first order deviations with the adjustment to the manufacturing machine-tool settings. The deviations of the entire surface are minimized. The minimization is achieved by application of the least-square method for an overdetermined system of linear equations. The proposed method is illustrated with a numerical example for hypoid gear and pinion.

  16. Control of deviations and prediction of surface roughness from micro machining of THz waveguides using acoustic emission signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James M.; Diaz, Fernanda; Geerling, Edgar; Clasing, Matias; Ponce, Vicente; Taylor, Chris; Turner, Sam; Michael, Ernest A.; Patricio Mena, F.; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2017-02-01

    By using acoustic emission (AE) it is possible to control deviations and surface quality during micro milling operations. The method of micro milling is used to manufacture a submillimetre waveguide where micro machining is employed to achieve the required superior finish and geometrical tolerances. Submillimetre waveguide technology is used in deep space signal retrieval where highest detection efficiencies are needed and therefore every possible signal loss in the receiver has to be avoided and stringent tolerances achieved. With a sub-standard surface finish the signals travelling along the waveguides dissipate away faster than with perfect surfaces where the residual roughness becomes comparable with the electromagnetic skin depth. Therefore, the higher the radio frequency the more critical this becomes. The method of time-frequency analysis (STFT) is used to transfer raw AE into more meaningful salient signal features (SF). This information was then correlated against the measured geometrical deviations and, the onset of catastrophic tool wear. Such deviations can be offset from different AE signals (different deviations from subsequent tests) and feedback for a final spring cut ensuring the geometrical accuracies are met. Geometrical differences can impact on the required transfer of AE signals (change in cut off frequencies and diminished SNR at the interface) and therefore errors have to be minimised to within 1 μm. Rules based on both Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Neural Networks (NN) were used to implement a simulation displaying how such a control regime could be used as a real time controller, be it corrective measures (via spring cuts) over several initial machining passes or, with a micron cut introducing a level plain measure for allowing setup corrective measures (similar to a spirit level).

  17. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  18. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  19. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  20. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  1. 21 CFR 352.70 - Standard sunscreen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... procedures for determining the SPF value of a sunscreen drug product to ensure the uniform evaluation of sunscreen drug products. The standard sunscreen shall be an 8-percent homosalate preparation with a mean SPF value of 4.47 (standard deviation =1.279). In order for the SPF determination of a test product to...

  2. Back in the saddle: large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, C.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; Reimberg, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few per cent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellent agreement with N-body simulations for a wide range of densities. This formalism should prove valuable for accurately probing the quasi-linear scales of low-redshift surveys for arbitrary primordial power spectra.

  3. Cosmological constraints on deviations from Lorentz invariance in gravity and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Audren, B.; Lesgourgues, J.; Sibiryakov, S.; Ivanov, M.M. E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2015-03-01

    We consider a scenario where local Lorentz invariance is violated by the existence of a preferred time direction at every space-time point. This scenario can arise in the context of quantum gravity and its description at low energies contains a unit time-like vector field which parameterizes the preferred direction. The particle physics tests of Lorentz invariance preclude a direct coupling of this vector to the fields of the Standard Model, but do not bear implications for dark matter. We discuss how the presence of this vector and its possible coupling to dark matter affect the evolution of the Universe. At the level of homogeneous cosmology the only effect of Lorentz invariance violation is a rescaling of the expansion rate. The physics is richer at the level of perturbations. We identify three effects crucial for observations: the rescaling of the matter contribution to the Poisson equation, the appearance of an extra contribution to the anisotropic stress and the scale-dependent enhancement of dark matter clustering. These effects result in distinctive features in the power spectra of the CMB and density fluctuations. Making use of the data from Planck and WiggleZ we obtain the most stringent cosmological constraints to date on departures from Lorentz symmetry. Our analysis provides the first direct bounds on deviations from Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector.

  4. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  5. Carbonates in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 formed at 18 ± 4 °C in a near-surface aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Itay; Fischer, Woodward W.; Eiler, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite evidence for liquid water at the surface of Mars during the Noachian epoch, the temperature of early aqueous environments has been impossible to establish, raising questions of whether the surface of Mars was ever warmer than today. We address this problem by determining the precipitation temperature of secondary carbonate minerals preserved in the oldest known sample of Mars’ crust—the approximately 4.1 billion-year-old meteorite Allan Hills 84001 (ALH84001). The formation environment of these carbonates, which are constrained to be slightly younger than the crystallization age of the rock (i.e., 3.9 to 4.0 billion years), has been poorly understood, hindering insight into the hydrologic and carbon cycles of earliest Mars. Using “clumped” isotope thermometry we find that the carbonates in ALH84001 precipitated at a temperature of approximately 18 °C, with water and carbon dioxide derived from the ancient Martian atmosphere. Furthermore, covarying carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios are constrained to have formed at constant, low temperatures, pointing to deposition from a gradually evaporating, subsurface water body—likely a shallow aquifer (meters to tens of meters below the surface). Despite the mild temperatures, the apparently ephemeral nature of water in this environment leaves open the question of its habitability. PMID:21969543

  6. Influences of Dietary and Other Factors on Xenobiotic Metabolism and Carcinogenesis-A Review Article in Memory of Dr. Allan H. Conney (1930-2013).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews our current understanding on how xenobiotic metabolism and carcinogenesis are influenced by dietary and other factors. A major contributor to this research area was Dr. Allan Conney, and his contributions are highlighted. His studies on the induction of microsomal xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes led to the characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of drugs, endogenous substrates, carcinogens and many other xenobiotics. These processes are influenced by drugs, diet, and other environmental factors. These studies provided the molecular basis for drug-drug, diet-drug, and herb-drug interactions. The elucidation of the metabolic activation of chemicals to their ultimate carcinogenic forms enables us to understand the molecular basis of chemical carcinogenesis. These studies led to many subsequent investigations on dietary approaches for cancer chemoprevention, including blocking of carcinogen activation, enhancing carcinogen detoxification, and influencing oncogenic pathways, which were carried out by Dr. Conney and others. The strengths and potential for practical application of these approaches are assessed herein.

  7. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of SLC16A2 (MCT8) Mutations in Three Families with the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Novara, Francesca; Groeneweg, Stefan; Freri, Elena; Estienne, Margherita; Reho, Paolo; Matricardi, Sara; Castellotti, Barbara; Visser, W Edward; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Visser, Theo J

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter SLC16A2 (MCT8) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and peripheral thyrotoxicosis. Here, we report three newly identified AHDS patients. Previously documented mutations were identified in probands 1 (p.R271H) and 2 (p.G564R), resulting in a severe clinical phenotype. A novel mutation (p.G564E) was identified in proband 3, affecting the same Gly564 residue, but resulting in a relatively mild clinical phenotype. Functional analysis in transiently transfected COS-1 and JEG-3 cells showed a near-complete inactivation of TH transport for p.G564R, whereas considerable cell-type-dependent residual transport activity was observed for p.G564E. Both mutants showed a strong decrease in protein expression levels, but differentially affected Vmax and Km values of T3 transport. Our findings illustrate that different mutations affecting the same residue may have a differential impact on SLC16A2 transporter function, which translates into differences in severity of the clinical phenotype.

  8. Decreased cellular uptake and metabolism in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) due to a novel mutation in the MCT8 thyroid hormone transporter.

    PubMed

    Maranduba, C M C; Friesema, E C H; Kok, F; Kester, M H A; Jansen, J; Sertié, A L; Passos-Bueno, M R; Visser, T J

    2006-05-01

    We report a novel 1 bp deletion (c.1834delC) in the MCT8 gene in a large Brazilian family with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X linked condition characterised by severe mental retardation and neurological dysfunction. The c.1834delC segregates with the disease in this family and it was not present in 100 control chromosomes, further confirming its pathogenicity. This mutation causes a frameshift and the inclusion of 64 additional amino acids in the C-terminal region of the protein. Pathogenic mutations in the MCT8 gene, which encodes a thyroid hormone transporter, results in elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels, which were confirmed in four affected males of this family, while normal levels were found among obligate carriers. Through in vitro functional assays, we showed that this mutation decreases cellular T3 uptake and intracellular T3 metabolism. Therefore, the severe neurological defects present in the patients are due not only to deficiency of intracellular T3, but also to altered metabolism of T3 in central neurones. In addition, the severe muscle hypoplasia observed in most AHDS patients may be a consequence of high serum T3 levels.

  9. Determination of real machine-tool settings and minimization of real surface deviation by computerized inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  10. 33 CFR 164.53 - Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations from rules and... Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment. (a) If during a voyage any equipment required by this part stops operating properly, the person directing the movement of the vessel may...

  11. 33 CFR 164.53 - Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations from rules and... Deviations from rules and reporting: Non-operating equipment. (a) If during a voyage any equipment required by this part stops operating properly, the person directing the movement of the vessel may...

  12. 17 CFR 230.508 - Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of Regulation D. 230.508 Section 230.508 Commodity and Securities... Securities Act of 1933 § 230.508 Insignificant deviations from a term, condition or requirement of...

  13. Seismic velocity deviation log: An effective method for evaluating spatial distribution of reservoir pore types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmohamadi, Mohamad; Kadkhodaie, Ali; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Faraji, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    Velocity deviation log (VDL) is a synthetic log used to determine pore types in reservoir rocks based on a combination of the sonic log with neutron-density logs. The current study proposes a two step approach to create a map of porosity and pore types by integrating the results of petrographic studies, well logs and seismic data. In the first step, velocity deviation log was created from the combination of the sonic log with the neutron-density log. The results allowed identifying negative, zero and positive deviations based on the created synthetic velocity log. Negative velocity deviations (below - 500 m/s) indicate connected or interconnected pores and fractures, while positive deviations (above + 500 m/s) are related to isolated pores. Zero deviations in the range of [- 500 m/s, + 500 m/s] are in good agreement with intercrystalline and microporosities. The results of petrographic studies were used to validate the main pore type derived from velocity deviation log. In the next step, velocity deviation log was estimated from seismic data by using a probabilistic neural network model. For this purpose, the inverted acoustic impedance along with the amplitude based seismic attributes were formulated to VDL. The methodology is illustrated by performing a case study from the Hendijan oilfield, northwestern Persian Gulf. The results of this study show that integration of petrographic, well logs and seismic attributes is an instrumental way for understanding the spatial distribution of main reservoir pore types.

  14. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  15. Heritability of strabismus: genetic influence is specific to eso-deviation and independent of refractive error.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A

    2012-10-01

    Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and

  16. Center extraction deviation correction of SMD-LEDs in the target-based vision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yueyang; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Bu, Penghui

    2017-04-01

    Surface mounted device-type light emitting diodes (SMD-LEDs) are commonly utilized as feature points in target-based vision measurement systems (T-VMSs) due to their high luminance. The non-uniform characteristics of said luminance introduce deviation errors in image center extraction, however, which degrades the positioning precision of the T-VMS. In this study, we first analyzed two factors responsible for deviation errors: The deflection angle between the LED’s normal direction and the observation direction, and the distance between the LED and the observer. We then established a correction method based on a lookup table to compensate for deviation errors according to these two factors. We also analyzed the correction direction of the deviation error. We applied the proposed method in an actual T-VMS to confirm its feasibility and effectiveness, and found that it does indeed correct deviation errors effectively.

  17. Detection and compensation of basis deviation in satellite-to-ground quantum communications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jincai; Yang, Shiji; Wan, Xiong; He, Zhiping; Jia, Jianjun; Citrin, D S; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-04-21

    Basis deviation is the reference-frame deviation between a sender and receiver caused by satellite motion in satellite-to-ground quantum communications. It increases the quantum-bit error ratio of the system and must be compensated for to guarantee reliable quantum communications. We present a new scheme for compensating for basis deviation that employs a BB84 decoding module to detect basis deviation and half-wave plate to provide compensation. Based on this detection scheme, we design a basis-deviation compensation approach and test its feasibility in a voyage experiment. Unlike other polarization-correction schemes, this compensation scheme is simple, convenient, and can be easily implemented in satellite-to-ground quantum communications without increased burden to the satellite.

  18. The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-02-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  19. Deviated Septum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written ... Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, VA 22314 tel (703) ...

  20. Improving regions of deviation gait symmetry analysis with pointwise T tests.

    PubMed

    DiBerardino, Louis A; Ragetly, Chantal A; Hong, Sungjin; Griffon, Dominique J; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-05-01

    The regions of deviation method has been proposed as a technique for identifying regions of the gait cycle where joint motion deviates from normal (Shorter et al., 2008). The original statistical analysis distinguished only peak values during stance and swing. In the current article, we extend the approach by examining deviations from normal throughout the entire gait cycle using pointwise t tests. These methods were demonstrated on hind-limb joint angles of 21 Labrador Retrievers without and with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Results were compared with peak difference analysis previously performed on these subjects. All points in the gait cycle where symmetry deviations were significantly affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (via pointwise t tests) were defined as regions of deviation from symmetry. Discriminant function analysis was used to consider single subjects and validate that these regions were truly areas of difference between groups. Regions of deviation encompassed previously determined significant peak differences, while extending analysis to additional areas of asymmetry. Discriminant function analysis suggested that the region of deviation method is a viable approach for distinguishing motion pattern differences. This enhanced method may help researchers better understand the mechanisms behind lameness and compensation.

  1. Welding deviation detection algorithm based on extremum of molten pool image contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yong; Jiang, Lipei; Li, Yunhua; Xue, Long; Huang, Junfen; Huang, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The welding deviation detection is the basis of robotic tracking welding, but the on-line real-time measurement of welding deviation is still not well solved by the existing methods. There is plenty of information in the gas metal arc welding(GMAW) molten pool images that is very important for the control of welding seam tracking. The physical meaning for the curvature extremum of molten pool contour is revealed by researching the molten pool images, that is, the deviation information points of welding wire center and the molten tip center are the maxima and the local maxima of the contour curvature, and the horizontal welding deviation is the position difference of these two extremum points. A new method of weld deviation detection is presented, including the process of preprocessing molten pool images, extracting and segmenting the contours, obtaining the contour extremum points, and calculating the welding deviation, etc. Extracting the contours is the premise, segmenting the contour lines is the foundation, and obtaining the contour extremum points is the key. The contour images can be extracted with the method of discrete dyadic wavelet transform, which is divided into two sub contours including welding wire and molten tip separately. The curvature value of each point of the two sub contour lines is calculated based on the approximate curvature formula of multi-points for plane curve, and the two points of the curvature extremum are the characteristics needed for the welding deviation calculation. The results of the tests and analyses show that the maximum error of the obtained on-line welding deviation is 2 pixels(0.16 mm), and the algorithm is stable enough to meet the requirements of the pipeline in real-time control at a speed of less than 500 mm/min. The method can be applied to the on-line automatic welding deviation detection.

  2. Deviations of the glass transition temperature in amorphous conjugated polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Osuna Orozco, Rodrigo; Wang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    The deviations of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in thin films of an amorphous conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) are reported. Monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations are observed in TFB thin films supported on Si-SiOx and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), respectively. A three-layer model is developed to fit both monotonic and nonmonotonic Tg deviations in these films. A 5-nm PEDOT:PSS capping layer was not found to be effective to remove the free-surface effect in Si-SiOx supported TFB films.

  3. Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example, non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.

  4. Simulation of heat waves in climate models using large deviation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragone, Francesco; Bouchet, Freddy; Wouters, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    One of the goals of climate science is to characterize the statistics of extreme, potentially dangerous events (e.g. exceptionally intense precipitations, wind gusts, heat waves) in the present and future climate. The study of extremes is however hindered by both a lack of past observational data for events with a return time larger than decades or centuries, and by the large computational cost required to perform a proper sampling of extreme statistics with state of the art climate models. The study of the dynamics leading to extreme events is especially difficult as it requires hundreds or thousands of realizations of the dynamical paths leading to similar extremes. We will discuss here a new numerical algorithm, based on large deviation theory, that allows to efficiently sample very rare events in complex climate models. A large ensemble of realizations are run in parallel, and selection and cloning procedures are applied in order to oversample the trajectories leading to the extremes of interest. The statistics and characteristic dynamics of the extremes can then be computed on a much larger sample of events. This kind of importance sampling method belongs to a class of genetic algorithms that have been successfully applied in other scientific fields (statistical mechanics, complex biomolecular dynamics), allowing to decrease by orders of magnitude the numerical cost required to sample extremes with respect to standard direct numerical sampling. We study the applicability of this method to the computation of the statistics of European surface temperatures with the Planet Simulator (Plasim), an intermediate complexity general circulation model of the atmosphere. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method by comparing its performances against standard approaches. Dynamical paths leading to heat waves are studied, enlightening the relation of Plasim heat waves with blocking events, and the dynamics leading to these events. We then discuss the feasibility of this

  5. Large deviation statistics of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a sheared model-fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolai, Pritha; Simha, Aditi

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the statistics of the shear stress in a one dimensional model fluid, that exhibits a rich phase behaviour akin to real complex fluids under shear. We show that the energy flux satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen FT across all phases in the system. The theorem allows us to define an effective temperature which deviates considerably from the equilibrium temperature as the noise in the system increases. This deviation is negligible when the system size is small. The dependence of the effective temperature on the strain rate is phase-dependent. It doesn’t vary much at the phase boundaries. The effective temperature can also be determined from the large deviation function of the energy flux. The local strain rate statistics obeys the large deviation principle and satisfies a fluctuation relation. It does not exhibit a distinct kink near zero strain rate because of inertia of the rotors in our system.

  6. Effect of stress on energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in GR/EP composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves suffer energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy because of the large anisotropy. The angle of deviation is a function of the elastic coefficients. For nonlinear solids, these coefficients and thus the angle of deviation is a function of stress. Acoustoelastic theory was used to model the effect of stress on flux deviation for unidirectional T300/5208 using previously measured elastic coefficients. Computations were made for uniaxial stress along the x3 axis (fiber axis) and the x1 for waves propagating in the x1x3 plane. These results predict a shift as large as three degrees for the quasi-transverse wave. The shift in energy flux offers a new nondestructive technique of evaluating stress in composites.

  7. Deviations of interstellar extinctions from the mean R-dependent extinction law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the deviations from the mean extinction law A(lambda)/A(V) over UV wavelengths emphasizing sightlines through bright nebulosities vs dark clouds. The stellar sample is subdivided into sight lines with defined properties, and different behavior is noted for the deviations in the dark-cloud and bright-nebula sight lines. The deviations are correlated within the same wavenumber interval, but unique shapes for the FUV rise in the deviations are observed. Distributions of silicate grains are considered to account for the extinctions at certain wavenumbers that would explain the observations. The FUV rise in the extinctions is theorized to be related to the UV extinction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. 78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.10 - May we request approval to deviate from these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,” revised May 22, 1992. You should consult with GSA's Aircraft Management Policy Division (MTA) before you request a deviation. Also, you should fax a copy of your letter of request to MTA at 202-501-6742 at...

  10. An abiotic origin for hydrocarbons in the Allan Hills 84001 martian meteorite through cooling of magmatic and impact-generated gases.

    PubMed

    Zolotov MYu; Shock, E L

    2000-05-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of metastable equilibria were used to evaluate the potential for abiotic synthesis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001. The calculations show that PAHs and normal alkanes could form metastably from CO, CO2, and H2 below approximately 250-300 degrees C during rapid cooling of trapped magmatic or impact-generated gases. Depending on temperature, bulk composition, and oxidation-reduction conditions, PAHs and normal alkanes can form simultaneously or separately. Moreover, PAHs can form at lower H/C ratios, higher CO/CO2 ratios, and higher temperatures than normal alkanes. Dry conditions with H/C ratios less than approximately 0.01-0.001 together with high CO/CO2 ratios also favor the formation of unalkylated PAHs. The observed abundance of PAHs, their low alkylation, and a variable but high aromatic to aliphatic ratio in ALH 84001 all correspond to low H/C and high CO/CO2 ratios in magmatic and impact gases and can be used to deduce spatial variations of these ratios. Some hydrocarbons could have been formed from trapped magmatic gases, especially if the cooling was fast enough to prevent reequilibration. We propose that subsequent impact heating(s) in ALH 84001 could have led to dissociation of ferrous carbonates to yield fine-grain magnetite, formation of a CO-rich local gas phase, reduction of water vapor to H2, reequilibration of the trapped magmatic gases, aromatization of hydrocarbons formed previously, and overprinting of the synthesis from magmatic gases, if any. Rapid cooling and high-temperature quenching of CO-, H2-rich impact gases could have led to magnetite-catalyzed hydrocarbon synthesis.

  11. An abiotic origin for hydrocarbons in the Allan Hills 84001 martian meteorite through cooling of magmatic and impact-generated gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2000-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations of metastable equilibria were used to evaluate the potential for abiotic synthesis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001. The calculations show that PAHs and normal alkanes could form metastably from CO, CO2, and H2 below approximately 250-300 degrees C during rapid cooling of trapped magmatic or impact-generated gases. Depending on temperature, bulk composition, and oxidation-reduction conditions, PAHs and normal alkanes can form simultaneously or separately. Moreover, PAHs can form at lower H/C ratios, higher CO/CO2 ratios, and higher temperatures than normal alkanes. Dry conditions with H/C ratios less than approximately 0.01-0.001 together with high CO/CO2 ratios also favor the formation of unalkylated PAHs. The observed abundance of PAHs, their low alkylation, and a variable but high aromatic to aliphatic ratio in ALH 84001 all correspond to low H/C and high CO/CO2 ratios in magmatic and impact gases and can be used to deduce spatial variations of these ratios. Some hydrocarbons could have been formed from trapped magmatic gases, especially if the cooling was fast enough to prevent reequilibration. We propose that subsequent impact heating(s) in ALH 84001 could have led to dissociation of ferrous carbonates to yield fine-grain magnetite, formation of a CO-rich local gas phase, reduction of water vapor to H2, reequilibration of the trapped magmatic gases, aromatization of hydrocarbons formed previously, and overprinting of the synthesis from magmatic gases, if any. Rapid cooling and high-temperature quenching of CO-, H2-rich impact gases could have led to magnetite-catalyzed hydrocarbon synthesis.

  12. MCT8 mutation analysis and identification of the first female with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome due to loss of MCT8 expression.

    PubMed

    Frints, Suzanna Gerarda Maria; Lenzner, Steffen; Bauters, Mareike; Jensen, Lars Riff; Van Esch, Hilde; des Portes, Vincent; Moog, Ute; Macville, Merryn Victor Erik; van Roozendaal, Kees; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance Theresia Rimbertha Maria; Tzschach, Andreas; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Ben; van Bokhoven, Hans; Chelly, Jamel; Beldjord, Chérif; Turner, Gillian; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Raynaud, Martine; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Froyen, Guy; Kuss, Andreas Walter

    2008-09-01

    Mutations in the thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8/SLC16A2) have been reported to result in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in patients with clinical features of the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). We performed MCT8 mutation analysis including 13 XLMR families with LOD scores >2.0, 401 male MR sibships and 47 sporadic male patients with AHDS-like clinical features. One nonsense mutation (c.629insA) and two missense changes (c.1A>T and c.1673G>A) were identified. Consistent with previous reports on MCT8 missense changes, the patient with c.1673G>A showed elevated serum T3 level. The c.1A>T change in another patient affects a putative translation start codon, but the same change was present in his healthy brother. In addition normal serum T3 levels were present, suggesting that the c.1A>T (NM_006517) variation is not responsible for the MR phenotype but indicates that MCT8 translation likely starts with a methionine at position p.75. Moreover, we characterized a de novo translocation t(X;9)(q13.2;p24) in a female patient with full blown AHDS clinical features including elevated serum T3 levels. The MCT8 gene was disrupted at the X-breakpoint. A complete loss of MCT8 expression was observed in a fibroblast cell-line derived from this patient because of unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation. Taken together, these data indicate that MCT8 mutations are not common in non-AHDS MR patients yet they support that elevated serum T3 levels can be indicative for AHDS and that AHDS clinical features can be present in female MCT8 mutation carriers whenever there is unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation.

  13. Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the

  14. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  15. Effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman white light cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Shahriar, M. Selim

    2010-03-15

    We analyze the effects of noise and parameter deviations in a bichromatic Raman type white light cavity, with potential applications in precision measurements. The results show that the dispersion variation induced by parameter deviation can be controlled with an accuracy of 10{sup -4}. The laser phase noise decreases the dispersion magnitude while the amplitude noise increases it. Although we can always adjust the parameters to satisfy the white light condition, both types of noise make the cavity transmission curve uneven.

  16. Study on image processing of panoramic X-ray using deviation improvement software.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Gon; Lee, Yang-Sun; Kim, Young-Pyo; Park, Yong-Pil; Cheon, Min-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of panoramic X-ray device is getting wider. Panoramic X-ray has low resolution than general X-ray device and it occurs to distortion by deviation of image synthesis. Due to structural problems, it has been used restrictively to identify of tooth structure, not for whole head. Therefore, it designed and produced panoramic X-ray device which is possible to diagnostic coverage can be extended and had to be adjusted interval control between X-ray generator and image processing for whole of Maxillofacia's diagnosis. Produced panoramic X-ray device is composed basically of short image synthesis. In addition, it was confirmed the results by used the device which was applied deviation of the brightness of the image, filter to improve the location of the deviation and interpolation method. In this study, it was used 13 images including the front. It occurs to brightness deviation, position deviation, and geometric correction when synthesis of image, but it had been solved by deviation improvement software and a change of CCD camera's scan line which is used for image acquisition. Therefore, it confirmed expansion possibility of utilization range to commonly used panoramic X-ray device.

  17. Gait deviations and compensations in pediatric patients with increased femoral torsion.

    PubMed

    Bruderer-Hofstetter, Marina; Fenner, Verena; Payne, Erika; Zdenek, Katja; Klima, Harry; Wegener, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Coxa antetorta describes an abnormal torsion of the femur. It is commonly considered a cosmetic problem and is treated surgically only in severe cases and the presence of physical complaints. The purpose of this study was to identify deviations in gait kinematics and kinetics in pediatric patients caused by coxa antetorta and to categorize these deviations into primary and secondary deviations. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis study to detect gait deviations in adolescents (n = 18; age range 10.5-17.5 years) with coxa antetorta compared to age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 17). Principal component (PC) analysis was used for data reduction. Linear mixed models applied to PC-scores were used to estimate the main effects within retained PCs followed by a post-hoc subgroup analysis. Patients walked with smaller external foot progression angle, greater knee adduction, more internally rotated and flexed hips and greater anterior pelvic tilt. Subgroup analysis revealed that-depending on knee alignment-patients had higher knee and hip adduction moments. These deviations in joint kinematics and kinetics may be associated with physical complaints and accelerated development of osteoarthritis. Assessment of gait deviations related to coxa antetorta using 3D gait analysis may be an additional tool in individual clinical decision-making.

  18. EVALUATION OF APICAL DEVIATION IN ROOT CANALS INSTRUMENTED WITH K3 AND ProTaper SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Mariana Diniz Bisi; Marceliano, Marília Fagury; Souza, Patrícia Rodrigues de Almeida Silva E

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. Material and methods: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth) was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth) with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. Results: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. Conclusions: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies. PMID:19089248

  19. Motion deviation rectifying method of dynamically measuring rail wear based on multi-line structured-light vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yuntao; Liu, Qianzhe; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-09-01

    Rail wear dynamic measurement techniques are important to ensure the security of railway system and the efficiency of maintaining. Nowadays, a widely used approach is based on structured-light vision sensor, which includes a camera and a laser projector generating a light plane on the inner side of the rail. Considering the sensor installation error and vibration of running train, it is difficult to ensure the perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail, which leads to large measurement error. In order to overcome the problem, a motion deviation rectifying method is proposed. Rail section profiles are obtained by a multi-line structured-light vision sensor with multiple parallel light planes. Each profile can be segmented into two curves. One representing the rail waist is used to fit the rail longitudinal axis (parallel to train running direction) and establish an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the direction. Deviation rectifying process is to project the rail section profiles onto the auxiliary plane to recover perpendicularity between the light plane and the rail. Then another curve representing the rail head is used to calculate the rail wear based on the standard profile. The experimental results indicate that the method reduces the rail wear measurement error, meeting the requirements for real-time dynamic measurement of rail wear.

  20. Three Approximations of Standard Error of Measurement: An Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Alfred D.

    Three successively simpler formulas for approximating the standard error of measurement were derived by applying successively more simplifying assumptions to the standard formula based on the standard deviation and the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 estimate of reliability. The accuracy of each of these three formulas, with respect to the standard…